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DECRYPTION:

Decryption is the process of decoding encrypted information so that is can be accessed again by authorized users. Decryption is generally the reverse process of encryption. It is the process of decoding the data which has been encrypted into a secret format. An authorized user can only decrypt data because decryption requires a secret key or password. To make the data confidential, data(plain text) is encrypted using a particular algorithm and a secret key. After encryption process, plain text gets converted into cipher text. To decrypt the cipher text, similar algorithm is used and at the end the original data is obtained again.

If symmetric key encryption is used then to decrypt the message, you have to know more than the key; you must also know the encryption scheme, encryption mode, initialization vector, etc. None of this is supposed to be secret; the key and the plaintext message are the only two secrets in most symmetric-key cryptography (and as was stated in the comments, due to protocol requirements and other formatting inherent in most data, the plaintext is not entirely secret). Public-key cryptography, also known as asymmetric cryptography, refers to a cryptographic algorithm which requires two separate keys, one of which is secret (or private) and one of which is public. Although different, the two parts of this key pair are mathematically linked. The public key is used to encrypt plaintext or to verify a digital signature; whereas the private key is used to decrypt ciphertext or to create a digital signature. The term "asymmetric" stems from the use of different keys to perform these opposite functions, each the inverse of the other as contrasted with conventional ("symmetric") cryptography which relies on the same key to perform both. Public-key algorithms are based on mathematical problems which currently admit no efficient solution that are inherent in certain integer factorization, discrete logarithm, and elliptic curve relationships. It is computationally easy for a user to generate their own public and private key-pair and to use them for encryption and decryption. The strength lies in the fact that it is "impossible" (computationally unfeasible) for a properly generated private key to be determined from its corresponding public key. Thus the public key may be published without compromising security, whereas the private key must not be revealed to anyone not authorized to read messages or perform digital signatures. Public key algorithms, unlike symmetric key algorithms, do not require a secure initial exchange of one (or more) secret keys between the parties.

In an asymmetric key encryption scheme, anyone can encrypt messages using the public key, but only the holder of the paired private key can decrypt. Security depends on the secrecy of the private key.

In the DiffieHellman key exchangescheme, each party generates a public/private key pair and distributes the public key. After obtaining an authentic copy of each other's public keys, Alice and Bob can compute a shared secret offline. The shared secret can be used, for instance, as the key for a symmetric cipher. Similar to encryption ,decryption algorithms are, 1)RSA algorithm 2)DES algorithm 3) AES algorithm 1)RSA algorithm: RSA is a cryptosystem, which is known as one of the first practicable public-key cryptosystems and is widely used for secure data transmission. In such a cryptosystem, the encryption key is public and differs from the decryption key which is kept secret. In RSA, this asymmetry is based on the practical difficulty of factoring the product of two large prime numbers, the factoring problem.

The key generation is the reverse process for the RSA encryption algorithm Decryption Alice can recover m from c by using her private key exponent d via computing

Given m, she can recover the original message M by reversing the padding scheme. (In practice, there are more efficient methods of calculating cd using the precomputed values below.)

2)DES algorithm: The decryption algorithm of a block cipher should be identical to encryption algorithm step by step in reverse order. But for DES cipher, the encryption algorithm is so well designed, that the decryption algorithm is identical to the encryption algorithm step by step in the same order, only with the subkeys applied in the reverse order. 3)AES algorithm: Decryption is the reverse process of AES encryption algorithm.

Performance:
High speed and low RAM requirements were criteria of the AES selection process. Thus AES performs well on a wide variety of hardware, from 8-bit smart cards to high-performance computers. On a Pentium Pro, AES encryption requires 18 clock cycles per byte,[35] equivalent to a throughput of about 11 MB/s for a 200 MHz processor. On a 1.7 GHz Pentium M throughput is about 60 MB/s. On Intel Core i3/i5/i7 CPUs supporting AES-NI instruction set extensions, throughput can be over 700 MB/s per thread. As we have developed our own encryption algorithm,the decryption is the reverse process of it.