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P.O. Box 245 Syracuse, NY 13211 www.roth-america.

com 888-266-7684

Flow Center and Loop Application/Installation Guide


P/N: 2300100909

Table of Contents: Section 1: Model Nomenclature


Nomenclature description.................................... 2

Section 7: HDPE Pipe

General Installation. ............................................... 2 Optional Adapter Sets. .......................................... 3 Mounting Flow Center........................................... 3 Interior Piping.......................................................... 4 Electrical Requirements. ........................................ 4 Multiple Units........................................................... 5

Section 2: Installation - Pressurized Flow Centers

Pipe Specifications. ............................................. 20 Fusion Methods. .................................................... 20

Section 8: Flow Center Selection

Pressure Drop Calculations................................. 21 Pump Curves........................................................ 21 Pressure Drop Tables............................................ 22

Section 3: Flushing & Charging

Overview................................................................. 5 Flush Cart Design. ................................................... 6 Step by Step Flushing & Charging. ....................... 6

Guide Revision Table:


August, 2010 KT All First Published

Section 4: Installation Non-Pressurized Flow Centers

General Installation. ............................................... 9 Interior Piping/Flushing. .......................................... 9

Section 5: Closed Loop Design

Basics..................................................................... 11 Parallel vs. Series. .................................................. 11 Header Design. ..................................................... 12 Closed Loop Heat Exchanger Design Rules..... 13 Soil Moisture Properties........................................ 16

Section 6: Antifreeze Selection

Overview............................................................... 17 Antifreeze Charging............................................ 18

Section 1: Model Nomenclature

MODEL NUMBER NOMENCLATURE:


Model Number Digit:

Model Number: A G FC 1 A
Part Type
A = Unit Accessory

3 4

Flow Center Type


Pressurized Flow Centers: A = Composite/Brass valve, double O-Ring fittings, UP26-116 Pumps D = Composite/Brass valve, double O-Ring fittings, UP26-99 Pumps B = Brass valve, 1 FPT, UP26-99 Pumps C = Brass valve, 1 FPT, UP26-116 Pumps E = Brass valve, 1 FPT, UP26-99 Pumps F = Double O-ring XL fittings, UPS60-150 Pumps Non-Pressurized Flow Centers: A = UP26-99 Pumps, 1 FPT swivel B = UP26-116 Pumps, 1 FPT swivel

Operation

G = Pressurized B = Non-Pressurized

Accessory Type
FC = Flow Center FM = Flow Module

Number of Pumps

[Consult the price book for more detailed Nomenclature Flow Center Hose Kit Adapter combinations.]

Section 2: Flow Center Installation -Pressurized Safety Considerations WARNING: Before performing service or maintenance operations on the flow center pumps, turn off all power sources. Electrical shock could cause personal injury or death. Before applying power, make sure that all covers and screws are in place. Failure to do so could cause risk of electrical shock. Flow Center Initial Inspection

Note: The flow centers are injected with foam for condensation prevention during low temperature operation and for noise attenuation. Pump heads can be field replaced. Typical Pressurized Flow Center Installation The flow centers are insulated and contain all flushing and circulation connections for residential and light commercial earth loops that require a flow rate of no more than 20 gpm. 1-1/4 fusion x 1 double o-ring fittings (AGA6PES) are furnished with the double o-ring flow centers for HDPE loop constructions. Various fittings are available for the double o-ring flow centers for different connections. See table 1 for connection options. A typical installation will require the use of a hose kit. Matching hose kits come with double o-ring adapters to transition to 1 hose connection.

Please read the complete instructions before starting installation. Carefully follow instructions to ensure optimum and safe operation. Leave the instructions with the owner after installation. The flow center and Grundfos UP series circulating pumps should be installed according to all applicable codes. Unpack the flow center and any other component kits required and inspect them for shipping damage before Note: Threaded flow centers all have 1 FPT installation. Shipping damage claims must be filed promptly by the purchaser with the connections. Matching hose kits come with the AGBA55 adapter needed to transition freight company. from 1 FPT to 1 hose. Roth 2 Flow Center & Loop Application Manual August, 2010

Section 2: Flow Center Installation -Pressurized Figure 1: Typical Flow Center Installation
Access Ports

Figure 2a: Pump Mounting

S: op piping is HDPE 3408, 160 psi pipe joints are made heat fusion (socket) stem is a pressurized sed loop, 0-60 psi cess to loop for shing/purging and essure testing is at w center Source Water IN Source Water OUT

GSHP

Flow Center

Figure 2b: Control box location

Hose Kit To/From Loop Field P/T Ports

Flow Center Mounting The flow center must be located between the heat pump and the earth loop and should be located as close to the unit as possible to limit the length of rubber hose and associated pressure drop (hose kits come with 10 of rubber hose - limit one unit per hose kit connection). Other factors for flow center location is the ease of future service. The flow center must be mounted with the pump shaft(s) in the horizontal position. The only adjustment is that the circulator pump electrical boxes be on the horizontal side of the power head in the mounted position to help prevent moisture from being held inside the junction box (See figures 2a and 2b). Table 1: Adapter Sets
Part No. AGA5INS AGA6INS AGA5MPT AGA6PES AGAFP AGBA55 AGBA56 GFMA65 AGA5FPT AGS5INS AGS5MPT Description Double O-ring x 1 Brass Barb (Pair) Double O-ring x 1.25 Brass Barb (Pair) Double O-ring x 1 Brass MPT (Pair) Double O-ring x 1.25 PE Socket (Pair) Double O-ring x Cam Lever elbow (male)(pair) 1 Brass MPT x 1 Brass Barb (ea) 1 Brass MPT x 1.25 Brass Barb (ea) 1 Brass MPT x 1.25 PE Socket (ea) Double O-ring x 1 Brass FPT (pair) Double O-ring x 1 Brass Barb w/PT tap (pair) Double O-ring x 1 Brass MPT w/PT tap (pair) Connection Use Unit Side Loop or Unit Side Loop or Unit Side Loop or Unit Side Flush Port Unit Side Loop or Unit Side Loop or Unit Side Loop or Unit Side Unit Side Units Side FC Type O-Ring O-Ring O-Ring O-Ring O-Ring FPT FPT FPT O-Ring O-Ring O-Ring

The flow center can be mounted to the wall or the side of the unit opposite the air coil. If you are mounting the flow center to the stud wall make sure you have isolated the flow center from the studs and/or lag bolts to prevent noise and/or vibration. If you are mounting the flow center to the side of the heat pump, be careful not to puncture any internal parts of the unit when inserting the screws into the cabinet. Keep in mind that heat pump access will be limited in this mounting position. Be sure when mounting the flow center that there is adequate access to both the flush ports and 3-way valves for any service required.

Note: Hose clamps included with hose kits.

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Section 2: Flow Center Installation -Pressurized Interior Piping All interior piping must be sized for proper flow rates and pressure loss. Insulation should be used on all inside piping when minimum loop temperatures are expected to be less than 50F. Use the table below for insulation sizes with different pipe sizes. All pipe insulation should be a closed cell and have a minimum wall thickness of 3/8. All piping insulation should be glued and sealed to prevent condensation and dripping. Interior piping may consist of the following materials: HDPE, copper, brass, or rubber hose (hose kit only). PVC is not allowed on pressurized systems. Table 2: Pipe Insulation
Piping Material 1" IPS Hose 1" IPS PE 1-1/4" IPS PE 2" IPS PD Insul Description 1-3/8" ID - 3/8" Wall 1-1/4" ID - 3/8" Wall 1-5/8" ID - 3/8" Wall 2-1/8" ID - 3/8" Wall
Electric Heater Connections C, W1, W2, W3

Figure 3: External Pump Wiring


ECM Board (Optional -- ECM only)

Accessory Connections ODD, HW, A, YT,YU, HUM, R

T-Stat Connections C, R, Y1, Y2, O, G, W, L

Lockout Board (all units)

Combo Board (Optional -- Combo units only)


NO NC NO NC

Blower Relay (Optional -PSC only)

COM

Pump Circuit Breaker (added late 2008)

Hot Water Pump Relay (Optional -- Combo only) or Fan Interlock (Optional -- PSC only)

Pump Connection

COM

Wire external loop pump(s) to the pump terminal block in the control box.

Transformer Contactor

Flow Center Electrical Wiring

Grounding block

Power wiring to the flow center must conform to all applicable codes. Figure 4: Pump Sharing Module Figure 1: Figure Board Layout 3 illustrates the wiring required at the unit control box. Flow centers are only 240VAC 240VAC to Pump(s) available in 230V single phase voltage. Power Source Pumps are fused through a pair of circuit 240V IN 240V OUT breakers in the unit control box. Multiple Units on One Flow Center When two units are connected to one loop pumping system, pump control is achieved 24VAC connection by using APSMA loop pump sharing to unit #1 (compressor contactor coil) module. Using this module allows either unit to energize the flow center. Connect the units and flow center as shown in Figure 2: Board Schematic Figures 4 and 5. The APSMA module must be located in a NEMA enclosure or inside DC Bridge the unit control box. Figure 6 shows unit + 24VAC input connections to a common loop with one from unit #1 flow center per unit. Roth 4
24VAC input from unit #2 Relay Relay

24VAC 24VAC

24VAC connection to unit #2


(compressor contactor coil)

LED Diode
RY1 RY1 RY2 RY2 240VAC input

+
Diode
240VAC to pump(s)

Flow Center & Loop Application Manual August, 2010

Section 2: Flow Center Installation -Pressurized


Two Units with to One FlowFlow Center Figure 5: Two Units Connected One Center
To Ground Loop

pmuPPump taeH Heat

Flow wolF rCenter ellortnoC

pmuPPump taeH Heat

Field-supplied full-port ball valve for balancing T WL EWT T WE LWT T WL EWT T WE LWT Each heat pump Multiple Units on Common Loop Field must include P/T Parallel Pumping ports to verify flow ratesArrangement

Figure 6: Common Loop with One Flow Center per Unit


To Ground Loop

Flow Center

Heat Pump

Flow Center

Heat Pump

Flow Center

Heat Pump

EWT T WL LWT T WE

EWT LWT

EWT LWT

Each heat pump must include P/T ports to verify flow rates

Field-supplied check valve to prevent short-cycling

Field-supplied full-port ball valve for balancing

Section 3: Flushing & Charging

Overview Once piping is completed between the unit, flow center, and the earth loop, final The 3-way valves on the flow center include Two Units Flow Center purging and charging of the system is with One direction indicators on the valves which needed. A flush cart (at least a minimum of determine the flow path (see figure 8). A 1.5 hp pump motor or larger) is needed to 3/8 socket drive is required to operate To Ground Loop achieve adequate flow velocity (2 fps in all the 3-way valves. The valves will turn in piping) in the loop to purge air and debris either direction, 360 degrees. Make sure Flow wolF from the loop piping (unless the headerrCenter e l l o r t n o C duringHeat process that the valves are in the pmuPPump taeH pthis muPPump ta eH Heat manifold is located inside and has isolation same position so that air does not become valves). All air and debris must be removed trapped in the system. from the system before operation or pump Flow Center full-port & Loop Application Manual ball valve for balancing August, 2010 T WL EWT
Field-supplied

failure could result. The flush ports located on the flow center are access to the piping system for the flush cart. See figure 7 for connection details.

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T WL EWT

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Section 3: Flushing & Charging Figure 7: Flush Cart Connections Figure 8: Flow Center 3-Way Valves
Loop Flush Port Flush Port Loop

Unit Loop Flush Port Flush Port

Unit Loop

Unit

Unit

Flush Cart Design The Roth flush cart has been designed to effectively and efficiently flush the earth loop and to facilitate injecting and mixing of the antifreeze. The single most important element in flow center reliability is the ability to remove all the air and debris from the loop and to provide the proper working pressure.
Cylinder: HDPE, SDR15.5, 10 dia. (10 Gallons) Pump: Myers High Head QP15, 1.5hp, 115V Hose connections: Cam Lock quick connects - 1-1/2 hoses Hand Truck: 600lb rating with pneumatic tires Wiring: Liquid Tight metal on/off switch Tubing: SDR11 HDPE Connections: 2 - 3/4 connections for antifreeze and discharge Drain: one on the pump and the tank

Features of the flush cart:

Step 1: Flushing the Earth Loop 1. Connect flush cart hoses to flow center flush ports using proper adapters #AGAFP. Roth 6

2. Connect water supply to hose connection on return line of flush cart. 3. Turn both 3-way valves on flow center to flush ports and loop position. 4. Turn on water supply (make sure water is of proper quality). 5. As the reservoir fills up, turn the pump on and off, sucking the water level down. Do not allow the water level to drop below intake fitting to the pump. 6. Once the water level remains above the water outlet in the reservoir leave the pump running continuously. 7. Once the water level stays above the T in the reservoir, turn off the water supply (this also allows observation of air bubbles). 8. Run the pump for a minimum of 2 hours for proper flushing and purging (depending on system size it may take longer). 9. Dead head the pump every so often and watch the water level in the reservoir. Once all the air is removed there should not be more than a 1 to 2 drop in water level in the reservoir. If there is more than a 2 drop, air is still trapped in the system. This is the only way to tell if air is still trapped in the system. Flow Center & Loop Application Manual August, 2010

Section 3: Flushing & Charging Figure 9: Roth Flush Cart Figure 10: Flush Cart Pump Curve
120 110 100 Total Head in Feet 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 CAPACITY - U.S. GPM SUCTION LIFT 70 80 90 25 20 15 Meyers QP-15 1-1/2 HP Self-Priming Centrifugal Pump

on to keep the water level in the reservoir above the return tee. 4. This should only take 5 to 10 minutes to purge the unit. 5. Once this is done, the entire system is now full of water, and the flush cart pump may be turned off. Step 3: Adding Antifreeze by Displacement 10. To dead head the pump, shut off the return side ball valve on the flush cart. This will provide a surge in pressure to the system piping, helping to get the air bubbles moving. Do not reverse flow during flushing. Water Quality: Even on a closed loop system water quality is an issue. The system needs to be filled with clean water. If the water on site has high iron content, high hardness, or the PH is out of balance, premature pump failure may result. Depending upon water quality, it may need to be brought in from off site. Step 2: Flushing the Unit 1. Turn off the pump on the flush cart. 2. Turn both 3-way valves to the unit and flush port position. 3. Turn the pump back on. It may be necessary to turn the water supply back Flow Center & Loop Application Manual August, 2010 7 1. If the antifreeze was not added when the loop was being filled, it will be necessary to follow the next few steps. 2. Turn both 3-way Ts back to the original position for flushing the loop only. 3. Close the return side ball valve on the flush cart. 4. Connect hose to the return side discharge line and run it to a drain. Open the ball valve on discharge line on flush cart. 5. Turn pump on until water level is sucked down just above the water outlet in the reservoir, and turn pump off. Be sure not to suck air back into the system. 6. Fill the reservoir back up with the antifreeze. 7. Repeat steps 5 and 6 until all the antifreeze is in the system and reservoir. 8. Turn the discharge line ball valve off at the flush cart. Turn the return line ball valve back to the on position.

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Section 3: Flushing & Charging 8. Connect the water supply back to the discharge line hose connection, and open the ball valve. Turn on the water supply and leave it on for 20 to 30 minutes. This will stretch the pipe properly to insure that the system will not have a flat loop during cooling operation. 9. Once the loop is pressured (recommended pressure on initial start up is 50 to 70 psi), turn the water supply off. Turn off the discharge line ball valve, and disconnect the water supply. Maximum pressure should never exceed Step 4: Final Pressurization of System 100 psi under any circumstance! 10. Turn the 3-way valves on the flow center 1. Once all of the air and debris has been back to the normal operation mode, removed, and the antifreeze has been which closes the flush port connections. added and mixed, the system is ready for 11. Open the ball valves on the flush cart to final pressurization. relieve pressure on the hoses. Disconnect 2. Turn one of the 3-way valves so that it is the hoses from the flow center. open to all 3 ports, the unit, loop, and Note: Pressurized flow centers and Grundfos flush port. Turn the other valve so it is UP series pumps need a minimum of 3psi on only open to the loop and flush port (pressure is also applied to the hose kit in the suction side of the pump to operate. Maximum operating pressure is 100 psi. this arrangement). 3. Turn the flush cart pump on and allow the system to start circulating. Loop static pressure will fluctuate with the seasons. Pressures will be higher in the 4. With the pump running, turn the return line ball valve to the off position on the winter months than during the summer months. In the cooling mode the heat flush cart, dead heading the pump. 5. There should be a maximum of 1 to 2 pump is rejecting heat, which relaxes inches of drop in the water level in the the pipe. This fluctuation is normal and reservoir. This only takes about needs to be considered when charging and pressuring the system initially. Typical 3-5 seconds. 6. Next, turn the supply line ball valve to the operating pressures of an earth loop are 15 off position on the flush cart (isolates the to 50 psi. flow center from the flush cart). 7. Now that the system is isolated from the reservoir the pump can be turned off. Do not open the main flush cart ball valves yet. 9. It may be necessary to add some water into the reservoir to keep the water level above the return tee so that the solution does not foam. 10. The system must be run for 3 to 4 hours to mix the antifreeze and water in the reservoir. The fluid will not mix inside the loop. 11. Check the antifreeze level every so often to insure that the proper amount was added to the system (see antifreeze charging section).

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Flow Center & Loop Application Manual August, 2010

Section 4: Flow Center Installation - Non-Pressurized Note - Burping pump(s): On flow center initial start up, the pumps must be bled of air. Start the system and remove the bleed screw from the back side of the pump(s). This allows any trapped air to bleed out. It also floods the pump shaft, and keeps the pump(s) cool. Failure to do this could result in premature pump failure. General installation guidelines Standing column flow centers are designed to operate with no static pressure on the earth loop. The design is such that the column of water in the flow center is enough pressure to prime the pumps for proper system operation and pump reliability. The flow center does have a cap/seal, so it is still a closed system, where the fluid will not evaporate. If the earth loop header is external, the loop system will still need to be flushed with a purge cart as described above (Step 1 and 3). The nonpressurized flow center needs to be isolated from the flush cart during flushing because the flow center is not designed to handle pressure. Since this is a non-pressurized system, the interior piping can incorporate all the above-mentioned pipe material Figure 11: Typical Non-Pressurized Installation options (see interior piping), including PVC. The flow center can be mounted to the wall with the included bracket or mounted on the floor as long as it is properly supported. Flushing the Interior Piping (Non-Pressurized) Do not use the flush cart to purge the interior piping and flow center in a nonpressurized system. Once the loop has been flushed the ball valves may be opened above the flush ports. Take a garden hose from the flush port connected to the water out to the loop pipe, and run the other end of the hose into the top of the canister (see figure 12). Fill the canister with water and turn the pumps on. Continue to fill the canister until the water level stays above the dip tube. Once filling is complete, remove the hose and close the flush port. Turn the system on. Any air that may still be in the system will burp itself out of the top of the canister. Leave the top open for the first 1/2 hour of run time to ensure that all of the air is bled out. Tighten the cap on the flow center to complete the flushing and filling procedure (hand tighten only -- do not use a wrench). See figures 12 and 13 for interior and exterior flushing.

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Section 4: Flow Center Installation Non-Pressurized Figure 12: Flushing Inside Piping

Connect to Heat Pump To/From Loop Field


Figure 13: Flushing Outside Piping

Connect to Heat Pump To/From Loop Field

Flush Cart and Pump

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Flow Center & Loop Application Manual August, 2010

Section 5: Geothermal Closed Loop Design Closed Loop Basics Closed loop earth coupled systems are commonly installed in one of three different configurations: horizontal, vertical, and pond/lake loop. Each configuration provides the benefit of using the earths moderate temperatures as a heat source/ sink. All closed loop systems must be designed to maintain entering water temperatures above 25F in heating, and below 110F in cooling. Temperatures outside this range will cause the heat pump to function improperly and lockout. Select the installation configuration which provides the most cost effective method of installation after considering all application constraints. Determining the style of loop primarily depends on lot size and soil conditions. Loop design takes into account two basic factors. The first is accurately engineering a system to function properly with low pumping requirements and adequate heat transfer to handle the load of the structure/system. The second is to design a loop with the lowest installed cost while still maintaining a high level of quality. In the end, the consumer will have paid approximately the same amount of money for heating, cooling, and hot water no matter which loop configuration was installed. This leaves the installed cost of the loop as the main factor for determining the system payback. Therefore, proper design includes the most economical system possible given the installation requirements. Parallel vs. Series Configurations Initially, loops were designed using series style flow paths due to the lack of fusion fittings and procedures to insure there there were no leaks. This resulted in large pipe diameters being used (1-1/4 to 2) to reduce pumping requirements due to the increase of pressure drop because of Flow Center & Loop Application Manual August, 2010 the pipe lengths. Since the fusion process has become available, parallel flow using smaller pipe diameters for loops 2 tons and larger have become standard for a number of reasons: Cost of the pipe: The larger diameter the pipe, the higher the cost. The benefit of larger pipe only increases performance by 10-20%. Pumping power: Parallel systems generally have much lower pressure drop, which results in smaller pumping stations for reduced pump energy. Installation ease: Larger diameter pipes are harder to work with, especially during cold weather conditions. Antifreeze: Because parallel systems utilize smaller size pipe, the volume of the systems are smaller, requiring less antifreeze Unlimited capacity: Series systems are limited due to pressure drop reasons, whereas parallel systems are unlimited in capacity. Parallel System Requirements Design: Special care in the design is required to ensure that all of the air and debris can be removed from the system. Reducing reverse-return header: Required for all parallel systems. Pressure drop: Loop lengths must remain within +/- 5% of one another for equal pressure drop and balanced flow. Fusion: Special training and equipment is required to provide fusion fittings. Purging: Large pump flush cart is needed to get all of the air and debris out of the system.

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Section 5: Geothermal Closed Loop Design Loop Circuiting Loops should be designed with a compromise between pressure drop and good turbulence in the heat exchange pipe for heat transfer. Therefore the following rules should be observed when designing a loop: 1. Use 3 gpm per 3/4 loop flow rate to reach turbulent flow. 2. Use 3 gpm per ton of nominal equipment installed. 3. Maintain one loop/circuit per ton of nominal capacity with 3/4 pipe and onehalf loop/circuit per ton with 1-1/4 pipe. This rule can be deviated by one circuit or so for different loop configurations. 4. Maximum loop length for 3/4 PE is 800 ft. due to pressure drop. Header Design Headers for parallel loops should be designed with two factors in mind. The first is pressure drop, and the second is the ability to flush the loop. Figure 15 shows the typical layout for a close header (no more than 5 between tees) for up to 12 tons and 2 header main line. Notice the reduction in pipe size as circuits drop off. This design is used to keep the pressure drop down, yet maintain 2 fps for flushing. The other critical design in the header is the reverse return connections. This ensures that there is equal pressure drop through each 3/4 circuit, which eliminates the need for balancing valves. This system will be autobalancing (if all circuits are within +/- 5% in length from one another). Figure 16 shows the reverse return layout of the supply/ return header manifold.

Figure 15: Typical Reducing Header up to 12 Tons


2 x 2 x 3/4 T 2 x 1-1/4 x 3/4 T 1-1/4 x 3/4 x 3/4 T

3/4 x 3/4 x 3/4 T

3/4 x 3/4 x 3/4 T

Circuit 1

Circuits 9 - 12

Circuit 4 Circuit 8 Circuits 5 - 7

Circuit 3

Circuit 2
Return Line

(1-1/4 x 1-1/4 x 3/4 Ts)

Figure 16: Reverse-Return Header


Supply Line

2 foot wide trench

1-1/4 x 3/4 x 3/4 T

3/4 x 3/4 x 3/4 T

3/4 elbow

3/4 elbow

3/4 x 3/4 x 3/4 T

1-1/4 x 3/4 x 3/4 T

1-1/4 elbow

1-1/4 elbow

Circuit 3

Circuit 2

Circuit 1

Circuit 3

Circuit 2

Circuit 1

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Flow Center & Loop Application Manual August, 2010

Section 5: Geothermal Closed Loop Design Closed Loop Heat Exchanger Design Rules Loop design is based upon various conditions specific to each job site. Design software based on IGSHPA standards such as GeoAnalyst is the best way to size loops. Factors include building load heat gain/loss calculations, equipment capacity, equipment efficiency, soil conditions, required loop temperature operating design, pipe size, antifreeze selection, weather conditions and lifestyle. Know your soil type. Check the site before you decide. Many sources can be found locally for information regarding the site location conditions. Example: builders, water well drillers, soil conservation district offices, geological maps on the internet. One flow path (circuit) per ton (12,000 BTUS) of equipment (round up or down 1 circuit for ton sized unitse.g. 3.5 ton unit uses either 3 or 4 circuits). GPM flow rates should be 2.25 GPM minimum to 3 GPM per circuit for good turbulence and heat exchange to the earth. Parallel vs. series configurations? Jobs 2 ton or larger should use parallel water flow circuits to keep GPM flow rates high and pumping HP requirements low. Series loops are limited to small tonnage unit sizes (2 total tons or less). Divide total trench or bore length as shown in GeoAnalyst software by total tons of equipment being applied to the loop. Example: 4 ton packaged unit trench length = 616 feet or 4 trenches, 154 feet long each. Trench/bore hole area should be located 15 feet minimum from the building. If the trench is longer than 300 feet, be sure to calculate the total piping pressure drop for proper pump/ pipe sizing. Flow Center & Loop Application Manual August, 2010 Trench/bore spacing should be kept to a 10 foot minimum distance between each trench/bore hole area. Horizontal trenches need not be deeper than 4-5 feet for most locations, but should be approximately 1-2 feet deeper than the lowest expected frost line conditions. This will place the pipe in a stable temperature zone. Horizontal loop circuits installed in trenches should have enough space at the end of the trench to safely turn around and return towards the beginning of the trench without kinks in the tubing or using elbows to reduce the number of fusion joints in the circuit. Good designers try to purchase coil pipe that can go down and back without the use of fittings in the trench, except for the final connections to the manifold header. Horizontal trenches/vertical bore holes should be tapered together at one end of loop field or the center of a bore field to utilize a small header pit for parallel circuits. Supply/return manifolds should utilize reverse return design for equal water flow rates on each flow path or circuit. Try to achieve 10 foot trench spacing as soon as practical as you leave the header pit area and begin the circuit trenches or bore holes. Good manifold header design should keep header tee spacing close together, less than 2 feet between each tee outlet, for easy air removal from piping system. Typical header pit excavated area is approximately 4.5 feet long x 4 feet wide x 4.5 5 feet deep.

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Section 5: Geothermal Closed Loop Design Never place supply and return piping Supply/return piping will typically be 1.25 next to the building foundation; always diameter PE from the header manifold maintain 15 feet minimum spacing away (outdoors) to the flow center (loop pump) from any foundation to prevent frost located in the building near the unit. All damage to the building. piping penetrating the building foundation should be protected in conduit. Supply/return line trenching from header pit to building should taper uphill toward building, but maintain approximately 4 feet below finish grade at wall penetration. Typical trench width is 1824 wide. Lay supply and return piping in each corner at bottom of trench. This will reduce the chance of ground water following piping into the building. All piping inside the building should be properly insulated with pipe insulation to prevent condensation damage to the building.

All piping should be fluid pressure tested hydrostatically with approximately 100 psi for 10 minutes to assure leak free fusion joints and connections before back-filling the trench. All vertical bore holes should be pressure grouted with an approved bentonite grout material utilizing 20% solids minimum for proper sealing and heat transfer. This must be done from the bottom up, not just a cap at the top. Do not use sand or gravel to backfill loop pipe trenches/bores, as it will dry out and impede good heat transfer between the fluid in the pipe and the earth. Normally the same soil should be placed back into the trench. Common sense should be used regarding large rocks or sharp stones that could crush or cut the piping. Do not place rocks near the piping. Cover the loop piping with 2-3 feet of good soil first. Its a good idea to include a foil tracer tape or copper wire in supply/return trenching, placing tracer approximately 2 feet above piping between header pit and building wall penetration area for easy locating of the supply/return and manifold area.

Loop fluid should be antifreeze protected to 15F with an approved fluid type, typically Methanol, Ethanol or Propylene Glycol. Test with the proper hydrometer. All piping and connections should be composed of an approved geothermal polyethylene PE3408 type pipe, utilizing socket fusion or butt fusion and installed by a qualified fusion technician. Notes: Safety First! We strongly suggest that contractors attend either a factory training school or IGSHPA training school for Loop Design and Installation before attempting loop design and installations. Always check BEFORE YOU DIG! Contact your local underground utility locator service and verify any utility that might be located nearby. Stay away from electrical power, septic systems and well water lines. Check with your local building/health department regarding permits, codes and laws that may apply to your location or state/province regarding geothermal loop systems.

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Flow Center & Loop Application Manual August, 2010

Section 5: Geothermal Closed Loop Design Contact your distributor for additional information on training locations and dates. Good loop design and proper installation are necessary for any system to operate properly. We offer and support several design schools and tools to take the guesswork out of residential loop system design. Ask your local distributor about our GeoAnalyst software tool that will provide you with the science behind the design and the confidence you need to actively design, install and service geothermal equipment and loop systems. Like anything else Its not that hard when you have the proper training and the tools.

Flow Center & Loop Application Manual August, 2010

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Section 5: Geothermal Closed Loop Design Soil Moisture Properties An important factor affecting heat transfer between the earth and the loop is moisture migration. When heat is extracted from the earth, soil moisture migrates toward the earth loop, improving heat transfer between the loop and the surrounding soil. In the cooling mode, heat rejection to the soil can drive away moisture, degrading heat transfer. In heating dominated climates, this later negative effect has not been observed in practice. However, in cooling dominated climates, this special condition must be considered in regard to loop lengths due to longer run times in the cooling mode. Another important factor affecting heat transfer between the earth and the loop is soil moisture freezing. Freezing allows the extraction of energy from the soil without the normal drop in soil temperature in the vicinity of the pipe. The net effect is that the antifreeze solution returning to the heat pump from the earth loop returns at a higher temperature than if freezing had not occurred. Earth loops are sized after the house design heating and cooling loads have been calculated, and the heat pump size has been selected. All heat pumps are designed with high and low limits on the energy source liquid which are acceptable. SAND
Visible to Eye Microscopic View

CLAY
Cross View (DRY) Microscopic View

Cross View (WET) H2O H2O H2 O H 2O H2O

Consistency: Hershey Bar

SILT

Microscopic View

Moisture Content for All Soils: DRY = No Water MOIST = Damp Feel Definition of Sizes: SAND = Visible to Eye - 1/4 COBBLE = 3 - 12 Roth GRAVEL = 1/4 - 3 WET = Visible Water

BOULDER = 12 and up 16 Flow Center & Loop Application Manual August, 2010

Section 6: Antifreeze Selection & Charging Antifreeze Overview In areas where minimum entering loop temperatures drop below 40F, or where piping will be routed through areas subject to freezing, antifreeze is required. Alcohols and glycols are commonly used as antifreeze. However, local and state/ provincial codes supercede any instructions in this document. The system needs antifreeze to protect the coaxial heat exchanger from freezing and rupturing. Freeze protection should be maintained to 15F below the lowest expected entering loop temperature. For example, if 30F is the minimum expected entering loop temperature, the leaving loop temperature could be 22 to 25F. Freeze protection should be set at 15F (30-15 = 15F). To determine antifreeze requirements, calculate how much volume the system holds. Then, calculate how much antifreeze will be needed by determining the percentage of antifreeze required for proper freeze protection. See tables 3 and 4 for volumes and percentages. The freeze protection should be checked during installation using the proper hydrometer to measure the specific gravity and freeze protection level of the solution. Antifreeze Characteristics Selection of the antifreeze solution for closed loop systems require the consideration of many important factors, which have long-term implications on the performance and life of the equipment. Each area of concern leads to a different best choice of antifreeze. There is no perfect antifreeze. Some of the factors to consider are as follows (Brine = antifreeze solution including water): Safety: The toxicity and flammability of the brine (especially in a pure form). Cost: Prices vary widely. Flow Center & Loop Application Manual August, 2010 Thermal Performance: The heat transfer and viscosity effect of the brine. Corrosiveness: The brine must be compatible with the system materials. Stability: Will the brine require periodic change out or maintenance? Convenience: Is the antifreeze available and easy to transport and install? Codes: Will the brine meet local and state/ provincial codes? The following are some general observations about the types of brines presently being used: Methanol: Wood grain alcohol that is considered toxic in pure form. It has good heat transfer, low viscosity, is non-corrosive, and is mid to low price. The biggest down side is that it is flammable in concentrations greater than 25%. Ethanol: Grain alcohol, which by the ATF (Alcohol, Tobaco, Firearms) department of the U.S. government, is required to be denatured and rendered unfit to drink. It has good heat transfer, mid to high price, is non-corrosive, non-toxic even in its pure form, and has medium viscosity. It also is flammable with concentrations greater than 25%. Note that the brand of ethanol is very important. Make sure it has been formulated for the geothermal industry. Some of the denaturants are not compatible with HDPE pipe (for example, solutions denatured with gasoline). Propylene Glycol: Non-toxic, non-corrosive, mid to high price, poor heat transfer, high viscosity when cold, and can introduce micro air bubbles when adding to the system. It has also been known to form a slime-type coating inside the pipe. Food grade glycol is recommended because some of the other types have certain inhibitors that react poorly with geothermal 17 Roth

Section 6: Antifreeze Selection & Charging systems. A 25% brine solution is a minimum required by glycol manufacturers, so that bacteria does not start to form. Ethylene Glycol: Considered toxic and is not recommended for use in earth loop applications. GS4 (Potassium acetate): Considered highly corrosive (especially if air is present in the system) and has a very low surface tension, which causes leaks through most mechanical fittings. This brine is not recommended for use in earth loop applications. Caution: Use extreme care when opening, pouring, and mixing flammable antifreeze solutions. Remote flames or electrical sparks can ignite undiluted antifreezes and vapors. Use only in a well ventilated area. Do not smoke when handling flammable solutions. Failure to observe safety precautions may result in fire, injury, or death. Never work with 100% alcohol solutions. Antifreeze Charging

Calculate the total amount of pipe in the system and use table 3 to calculate the amount of volume for each specific section of the system. Add the entire Notes: volume together, and multiply that volume 1. Consult with your representative or by the proper antifreeze percentage distributor if you have any questions needed (table 4) for the freeze protection regarding antifreeze selection or use. 2. All antifreeze suppliers and manufacturers required in your area. Then, double check calculations during installation with the recommend the use of either de-ionized proper hydrometer and specific gravity or distilled water with their products. chart (figure 14) to determine if the correct amount of antifreeze was added.

Table 3: Antifreeze Percentages by Volume


Minimum Temperature for Freeze Protection Type of Antifreeze 10F (-12.2C) 15F (-9.4C) 20F (-6.7C) 25F (-3.9C) Procool (Ethanol) 25% 22% 17% 12% Methanol 25% 21% 16% 10% Propylene Glycol 38% 30% 22% 15% All antifreeze solutions are shown in pure form not premixed.

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Section 6: Antifreeze Selection & Charging Table 4: Pipe Fluid Volume


Volume/100 ft. U.S. Gal. Type Size Copper 1" CTS 4.1 Copper 1.25" CTS 6.4 Copper 1.5" CTS 9.2 HDPE .75 SDR11 3.0 HDPE 1" SDR11 4.7 HDPE 1.25" SDR11 7.5 HDPE 1.5" SDR11 9.8 HDPE 2" SDR11 15.4 Additional component volumes: Unit coaxial heat exchanger = 1 Gallon Flush Cart = 8-10 Gallons 10 of 1 Rubber Hose = 0.4 Gallons

NOTE: Most manufacturers of antifreeze solutions recommend the use of de-ionized water. Tap water may include chemicals that could react with the antifreeze solution.

Figure 14: Antifreeze Specific Gravity


1.0500

1.0400

1.0300

1.0200 Specific Gravity

1.0100

1.0000

0.9900

0.9800

0.9700

0.9600 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 32 Freeze Protection (deg F)


Procool Methanol Propylene Glycol

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Section 7: HDPE Pipe High Density Polyethylene Pipe (HDPE) All earth loop piping materials should be limited to only polyethylene pipe underground. Copper, brass, galvanized, or steel pipe or fittings should not be used. For fusion applications, the HDPE pipe must meet IGSHPA (International Ground Source Heat Pump Association) cell classification requirements (see below). The water well industry uses similar black HDPE 160 psi rated pipe. However, this pipe does not allow for fusion joints. Below are the specifications for the proper geothermal HDPE pipe: 1. All pipe and heat fused materials shall be made from high density, extra-high molecular weight PE 3408 resin. 2. The cell classification shall be 345444C as specified in ASTM D-3350. 3. Extruded pipe shall conform to the requirements of ASTM D-3035. 4. Socket fittings shall conform to the requirements of ASTM D-2683 and rated for pressure equivalent to SDR-11 pipe. 5. Wall thickness of pipe shall be in tolerance of the specifications of 160 psi and SDR-11 for heat fused pipe & fittings. Pipe Fusion Methods The three basic types of pipe joining methods that are used for earth coupled applications are socket, butt, and side saddle fusion. In all processes the pipe is melted together with the fitting to form a joint that is even stronger than the original pipe. Although when any of the procedures are performed properly the joint is stronger than the pipe wall, the preferred method for 2 and smaller diameter pipe is socket fusion because of the following: 1. Allowable tolerance of mating the pipe is much greater. According to general fusion guidelines, a 3/4 SDR11 butt fusion joint alignment can be off by no more than 10% of the wall thickness (0.01 in.). A hundredth of an inch accuracy while fusing in a difficult position can be almost impossible to attain in the field. 2. The socket fusion joint is 3 to 4 times the cross sectional area of a butt fusion joint in sizes under 2, and therefore tends to be more forgiving of operator skill level. 3. Joints are frequently required in difficult trench conditions. The smaller the socket fusion iron is, the more mobile the operator will be, which will provide less incentive to cut corners during the fusion procedure. Once the pipe diameter gets over 2, socket fusion loses its advantages, and butt fusion is typically the method of choice. Butt fusion requires a different fusion machine, which is larger and less maneuverable. All technicians doing fusion joints should be certified by the pipe manufacturer as well as IGSHPA. Please see the pipe manufacturers and IGSHPA tables and specifications for all fusion procedures. Note: Earth loop systems require a hydrostatic test of 40-50 psi before backfilling to test for leaks. Do not use an air test for leaks on an earth loop system.

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Section 8: Flow Center Selection Pressure drop calculations When designing the earth loop and selecting the proper flow center, a pressure drop calculation must be done to calculate how much pumping power is needed for proper flow through the heat pump and loops. In general, if basic loop design rules are followed, systems of 3 tons or less would require a one pump flow center, and system from 3.5 to 6 tons would require a two pump flow center. As a precautionary measure a loop pressure drop calculation should be performed for accurate flow estimation. The pressure drop must include the following components: 1. Heat pump at design flow rate 2. Hose kit (maximum 10) 3. Supply and Return header piping 4. Circuit piping (only one if piped in parallel) 5. Antifreeze Once the pressure drop of the system has been calculated at design flow rate, review the flow center pump curve to select a flow center that matches design criteria. There are many options with flow centers from one pump, two pump, three pump, four pump, and size pumps from UP26-99F to UP26-116F. The following pages include pressure drop tables for the pipe and the flow center pump curves. Note: Roth has software available to assist in calculating the pressure drop of an earth coupled system along with flushing requirements.

Figure 17: Grundfos Pump Curves


100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Flow Rate (U.S. GPM) Legend
3 - UP26-99 2 - UP26-116 2 - UP26-99 1 - UP26-116 1 - UP26-99

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Section 8: Flow Center Selection Table 5: Procool (Ethanol)


Antifreeze (30F EWT): 22% by Volume Solution of Procool - freeze Flow Rate 3/4" SDR11 1" SDR11 US GPM PD (ft) Vel (ft/s) RE PD (ft) Vel (ft/s) 1 0.37 0.55 1029 0.13 0.35 2 1.25 1.10 2058 0.43 0.70 3 2.54 1.66 3105 0.87 1.06 4 4.20 2.21 4134 1.44 1.41 5 6.21 2.76 5163 2.13 1.76 6 8.55 3.31 6191 2.94 2.11 7 11.19 3.87 7239 3.84 2.47 8 14.13 4.42 8268 4.85 2.82 9 17.37 4.97 9296 5.97 3.17 10 20.89 5.52 10325 7.17 3.52 11 24.67 6.08 11373 8.48 3.87 12 28.74 6.63 12401 9.87 4.23 13 11.35 4.58 14 12.93 4.93 15 14.59 5.28 16 16.32 5.64 17 18.15 5.99 18 20.07 6.34 19 22.06 6.69 20 24.13 7.04 21 26.28 7.40 22 28.51 7.75 23 30.81 8.10 24 25 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 protected to 15F RE 820 1640 2483 3303 4123 4943 5786 6606 7426 8245 9065 9909 10728 11548 12368 13211 14031 14851 15671 16491 17334 18154 18974 PD (ft) 0.04 0.13 0.27 0.44 0.66 0.90 1.18 1.49 1.84 2.21 2.61 3.04 3.50 3.98 4.49 5.03 5.59 6.18 6.79 7.43 8.10 8.78 9.49 10.22 10.98 11.76 13.39 15.11 16.92 18.81 20.79 22.85 25.00 27.23 29.54 1-1/4" SCH40 Vel (ft/s) 0.21 0.43 0.64 0.86 1.07 1.29 1.50 1.72 1.93 2.15 2.36 2.57 2.79 3.00 3.22 3.43 3.65 3.86 4.08 4.29 4.50 4.72 4.93 5.15 5.36 5.58 6.01 6.44 6.86 7.29 7.72 8.15 8.58 9.01 9.44 RE 630 1291 1921 2581 3212 3872 4502 5163 5793 6453 7084 7714 8374 9004 9665 10295 10955 11586 12246 12876 13507 14167 14797 15458 16088 16748 18039 19330 20590 21881 23171 24462 25753 27043 28334 PD (ft) 0.02 0.06 0.13 0.21 0.32 0.43 0.57 0.72 0.88 1.06 1.26 1.46 1.68 1.91 2.16 2.42 2.69 2.97 3.27 3.57 3.89 4.22 4.57 4.92 5.28 5.66 6.44 7.27 8.14 9.04 10.00 10.99 12.02 13.09 14.20 15.35 16.54 17.76 1-1/2" SCH40 Vel (ft/s) 0.16 0.32 0.47 0.63 0.79 0.95 1.10 1.26 1.42 1.58 1.73 1.89 2.05 2.21 2.36 2.52 2.68 2.84 2.99 3.15 3.31 3.47 3.62 3.78 3.94 4.10 4.41 4.73 5.04 5.36 5.67 5.99 6.30 6.62 6.93 7.25 7.57 7.88 RE 560 1121 1646 2206 2766 3327 3852 4412 4972 5533 6058 6618 7179 7739 8264 8824 9385 9945 10470 11030 11591 12151 12676 13237 13797 14357 15443 16563 17649 18769 19855 20975 22061 23181 24267 25388 26508 27594 PD (ft) 0.01 0.02 0.04 0.07 0.10 0.13 0.17 0.22 0.27 0.32 0.38 0.45 0.51 0.58 0.66 0.74 0.82 0.91 1.00 1.09 1.19 1.29 1.39 1.50 1.61 1.73 1.96 2.22 2.48 2.76 3.05 3.35 3.67 3.99 4.33 4.68 5.05 5.42 2" SCH40 Vel (ft/s) 0.10 0.19 0.29 0.38 0.48 0.57 0.67 0.76 0.86 0.96 1.05 1.15 1.24 1.34 1.43 1.53 1.63 1.72 1.82 1.91 2.01 2.10 2.20 2.29 2.39 2.49 2.68 2.87 3.06 3.25 3.44 3.63 3.82 4.02 4.21 4.40 4.59 4.78 RE 450 854 1304 1708 2158 2563 3012 3417 3866 4316 4720 5170 5575 6024 6429 6878 7328 7733 8182 8587 9036 9441 9891 10295 10745 11194 12048 12903 13757 14611 15465 16319 17174 18073 18927 19781 20635 21489

Table 6: Methanol
Antifreeze (30F EWT): 21% by Volume Solution of Methanol - freeze protected to 15F 3/4" SDR11 1" SDR11 1-1/4" SCH40 Flow Rate US GPM PD (ft) Vel (ft/s) RE PD (ft) Vel (ft/s) RE PD (ft) Vel (ft/s) 1 0.36 0.55 1121 0.13 0.35 893 0.04 0.21 2 1.22 1.10 2242 0.42 0.70 1786 0.13 0.43 3 2.49 1.66 3383 0.85 1.06 2705 0.26 0.64 4 4.11 2.21 4503 1.41 1.41 3598 0.43 0.86 5 6.08 2.76 5624 2.09 1.76 4491 0.64 1.07 6 8.37 3.31 6745 2.87 2.11 5385 0.88 1.29 7 10.95 3.87 7886 3.76 2.47 6303 1.16 1.50 8 13.83 4.42 9007 4.75 2.82 7197 1.46 1.72 9 17.00 4.97 10128 5.84 3.17 8090 1.80 1.93 10 20.45 5.52 11248 7.02 3.52 8983 2.16 2.15 11 24.15 6.08 12390 8.30 3.87 9876 2.56 2.36 12 28.13 6.63 13510 9.66 4.23 10795 2.98 2.57 13 11.11 4.58 11688 3.42 2.79 14 12.65 4.93 12581 3.90 3.00 15 14.28 5.28 13474 4.40 3.22 16 15.98 5.64 14393 4.92 3.43 17 17.77 5.99 15286 5.47 3.65 18 19.64 6.34 16179 6.05 3.86 19 21.59 6.69 17073 6.65 4.08 20 23.62 7.04 17966 7.27 4.29 21 25.72 7.40 18884 7.93 4.50 22 27.90 7.75 19778 8.60 4.72 23 30.16 8.10 20671 9.29 4.93 24 10.01 5.15 25 10.75 5.36 26 11.51 5.58 28 13.11 6.01 30 14.79 6.44 32 16.56 6.86 34 18.41 7.29 36 20.35 7.72 38 22.37 8.15 40 24.47 8.58 42 26.65 9.01 44 28.91 9.44 46 48 50 RE 687 1406 2093 2812 3499 4218 4905 5624 6311 7030 7717 8404 9123 9810 10529 11216 11935 12622 13341 14028 14715 15434 16121 16840 17527 18246 19652 21058 22432 23838 25244 26650 28056 29462 30868 PD (ft) 0.02 0.06 0.13 0.21 0.31 0.42 0.56 0.70 0.86 1.04 1.23 1.43 1.65 1.87 2.12 2.37 2.63 2.91 3.20 3.50 3.81 4.13 4.47 4.81 5.17 5.54 6.30 7.11 7.96 8.85 9.79 10.76 11.77 12.81 13.90 15.03 16.19 17.39 1-1/2" SCH40 Vel (ft/s) 0.16 0.32 0.47 0.63 0.79 0.95 1.10 1.26 1.42 1.58 1.73 1.89 2.05 2.21 2.36 2.52 2.68 2.84 2.99 3.15 3.31 3.47 3.62 3.78 3.94 4.10 4.41 4.73 5.04 5.36 5.67 5.99 6.30 6.62 6.93 7.25 7.57 7.88 RE 610 1221 1793 2403 3014 3624 4196 4807 5417 6028 6600 7210 7821 8431 9003 9614 10224 10834 11407 12017 12627 13238 13810 14420 15031 15641 16824 18044 19227 20448 21630 22851 24034 25255 26437 27658 28879 30061 PD (ft) 0.01 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.09 0.13 0.17 0.22 0.26 0.32 0.38 0.44 0.50 0.57 0.65 0.72 0.80 0.89 0.98 1.07 1.16 1.26 1.36 1.47 1.58 1.69 1.92 2.17 2.43 2.70 2.99 3.28 3.59 3.91 4.24 4.59 4.94 5.31 2" SCH40 Vel (ft/s) 0.10 0.19 0.29 0.38 0.48 0.57 0.67 0.76 0.86 0.96 1.05 1.15 1.24 1.34 1.43 1.53 1.63 1.72 1.82 1.91 2.01 2.10 2.20 2.29 2.39 2.49 2.68 2.87 3.06 3.25 3.44 3.63 3.82 4.02 4.21 4.40 4.59 4.78 RE 490 931 1420 1861 2351 2792 3281 3722 4212 4702 5143 5632 6073 6563 7004 7494 7983 8424 8914 9355 9844 10285 10775 11216 11706 12195 13126 14057 14987 15918 16848 17779 18709 19689 20620 21550 22481 23411

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Section 8: Flow Center Selection Table 7: Propylene Glycol


Antifreeze (30F EWT): 30% by Volume Solution of Propylene Glycol Flow Rate 3/4" SDR11 1" SDR11 US GPM PD (ft) Vel (ft/s) RE PD (ft) Vel (ft/s) 1 0.43 0.55 584 0.15 0.35 2 1.44 1.10 1169 0.49 0.70 3 2.92 1.66 1764 1.00 1.06 4 4.84 2.21 2348 1.66 1.41 5 7.15 2.76 2933 2.46 1.76 6 9.84 3.31 3517 3.38 2.11 7 12.89 3.87 4112 4.42 2.47 8 16.28 4.42 4697 5.59 2.82 9 20.01 4.97 5281 6.87 3.17 10 24.06 5.52 5866 8.26 3.52 11 28.42 6.08 6461 9.76 3.87 12 11.37 4.23 13 13.08 4.58 14 14.89 4.93 15 16.80 5.28 16 18.80 5.64 17 20.91 5.99 18 23.11 6.34 19 25.41 6.69 20 27.80 7.04 21 30.27 7.40 22 23 24 25 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 - freeze protected to 15F 1-1/4" SCH40 RE PD (ft) Vel (ft/s) 466 0.05 0.21 932 0.15 0.43 1411 0.31 0.64 1876 0.51 0.86 2342 0.76 1.07 2808 1.04 1.29 3287 1.36 1.50 3753 1.72 1.72 4218 2.12 1.93 4684 2.54 2.15 5150 3.01 2.36 5629 3.50 2.57 6095 4.03 2.79 6560 4.59 3.00 7026 5.17 3.22 7505 5.79 3.43 7971 6.44 3.65 8437 7.12 3.86 8903 7.82 4.08 9368 8.56 4.29 9847 9.33 4.50 10.11 4.72 10.94 4.93 11.78 5.15 12.65 5.36 13.55 5.58 15.42 6.01 17.40 6.44 19.49 6.86 21.67 7.29 23.95 7.72 26.32 8.15 28.80 8.58 RE 358 733 1091 1466 1824 2200 2558 2933 3291 3666 4024 4382 4757 5115 5490 5848 6224 6582 6957 7315 7673 8048 8406 8781 9139 9514 10248 10981 11697 12430 13163 13897 14630 PD (ft) 0.02 0.07 0.15 0.25 0.36 0.50 0.66 0.83 1.02 1.22 1.45 1.68 1.94 2.20 2.49 2.79 3.10 3.42 3.76 4.12 4.48 4.86 5.26 5.66 6.08 6.51 7.42 8.37 9.37 10.42 11.52 12.66 13.85 15.08 16.36 17.68 19.05 20.46 1-1/2" SCH40 Vel (ft/s) 0.16 0.32 0.47 0.63 0.79 0.95 1.10 1.26 1.42 1.58 1.73 1.89 2.05 2.21 2.36 2.52 2.68 2.84 2.99 3.15 3.31 3.47 3.62 3.78 3.94 4.10 4.41 4.73 5.04 5.36 5.67 5.99 6.30 6.62 6.93 7.25 7.57 7.88 RE 318 637 935 1253 1572 1890 2188 2506 2825 3143 3441 3760 4078 4396 4695 5013 5331 5650 5948 6266 6585 6903 7201 7519 7838 8156 8773 9409 10026 10663 11279 11916 12532 13169 13786 14422 15059 15676 PD (ft) 0.01 0.02 0.05 0.08 0.11 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.31 0.37 0.44 0.51 0.59 0.67 0.76 0.85 0.94 1.04 1.15 1.26 1.37 1.48 1.60 1.73 1.86 1.99 2.26 2.55 2.86 3.18 3.51 3.86 4.23 4.60 4.99 5.40 5.81 6.24 2" SCH40 Vel (ft/s) 0.10 0.19 0.29 0.38 0.48 0.57 0.67 0.76 0.86 0.96 1.05 1.15 1.24 1.34 1.43 1.53 1.63 1.72 1.82 1.91 2.01 2.10 2.20 2.29 2.39 2.49 2.68 2.87 3.06 3.25 3.44 3.63 3.82 4.02 4.21 4.40 4.59 4.78 RE 255 485 741 970 1226 1456 1711 1941 2196 2452 2682 2937 3167 3422 3652 3908 4163 4393 4648 4878 5133 5363 5619 5849 6104 6359 6845 7330 7815 8300 8786 9271 9756 10267 10752 11237 11723 12208

Table 8: Water
Water -- No Flow Rate US GPM 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 Antifreeze (50F EWT) 3/4" SDR11 PD (ft) Vel (ft/s) 0.23 0.55 0.78 1.10 1.59 1.66 2.62 2.21 3.88 2.76 5.34 3.31 6.99 3.87 8.83 4.42 10.85 4.97 13.05 5.52 15.41 6.08 17.95 6.63 RE 6760 13520 20402 27162 33922 40682 47565 54325 61085 67844 74727 81487 PD (ft) 0.08 0.27 0.54 0.90 1.33 1.83 2.40 3.03 3.73 4.48 5.30 6.16 7.09 8.07 9.11 10.20 11.34 12.53 13.78 15.07 16.41 17.80 19.25 1" SDR11 Vel (ft/s) 0.35 0.70 1.06 1.41 1.76 2.11 2.47 2.82 3.17 3.52 3.87 4.23 4.58 4.93 5.28 5.64 5.99 6.34 6.69 7.04 7.40 7.75 8.10 RE 5387 10774 16315 21703 27090 32477 38018 43405 48792 54179 59567 65108 70495 75882 81269 86810 92197 97585 102972 108359 113900 119287 124674 PD (ft) 0.02 0.08 0.17 0.28 0.41 0.56 0.74 0.93 1.15 1.38 1.63 1.90 2.18 2.49 2.81 3.14 3.49 3.86 4.24 4.64 5.06 5.48 5.93 6.39 6.86 7.35 8.36 9.44 10.57 11.75 12.99 14.27 15.61 17.01 18.45 19.94 1-1/4" SCH40 Vel (ft/s) RE 0.21 4142 0.43 8481 0.64 12622 0.86 16961 1.07 21103 1.29 25442 1.50 29583 1.72 33922 1.93 38064 2.15 42403 2.36 46544 2.57 50686 2.79 55025 3.00 59167 3.22 63505 3.43 67647 3.65 71986 3.86 76128 4.08 80467 4.29 84608 4.50 88750 4.72 93089 4.93 97230 5.15 101569 5.36 105711 5.58 110050 6.01 118530 6.44 127011 6.86 135294 7.29 143775 7.72 152255 8.15 160736 8.58 169216 9.01 177697 9.44 186178 9.87 194658 PD (ft) 0.01 0.04 0.08 0.13 0.20 0.27 0.36 0.45 0.55 0.66 0.78 0.91 1.05 1.20 1.35 1.51 1.68 1.86 2.04 2.23 2.43 2.64 2.85 3.07 3.30 3.53 4.02 4.54 5.08 5.65 6.24 6.86 7.51 8.18 8.87 9.59 10.33 11.09 1-1/2" SCH40 Vel (ft/s) RE 0.16 3681 0.32 7363 0.47 10814 0.63 14496 0.79 18177 0.95 21859 1.10 25310 1.26 28992 1.42 32673 1.58 36355 1.73 39806 1.89 43487 2.05 47169 2.21 50850 2.36 54302 2.52 57983 2.68 61665 2.84 65346 2.99 68798 3.15 72479 3.31 76161 3.47 79842 3.62 83293 3.78 86975 3.94 90656 4.10 94338 4.41 101471 4.73 108834 5.04 115967 5.36 123330 5.67 130462 5.99 137825 6.30 144958 6.62 152321 6.93 159454 7.25 166817 7.57 174180 7.88 181313 PD (ft) 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.11 0.14 0.17 0.20 0.24 0.28 0.32 0.36 0.41 0.46 0.51 0.57 0.62 0.68 0.74 0.81 0.87 0.94 1.01 1.08 1.23 1.38 1.55 1.72 1.91 2.10 2.29 2.49 2.71 2.93 3.15 3.39 2" SCH40 Vel (ft/s) 0.10 0.19 0.29 0.38 0.48 0.57 0.67 0.76 0.86 0.96 1.05 1.15 1.24 1.34 1.43 1.53 1.63 1.72 1.82 1.91 2.01 2.10 2.20 2.29 2.39 2.49 2.68 2.87 3.06 3.25 3.44 3.63 3.82 4.02 4.21 4.40 4.59 4.78 RE 2954 5613 8567 11225 14179 16838 19792 22451 25405 28359 31017 33971 36630 39584 42243 45197 48151 50810 53764 56422 59376 62035 64989 67648 70602 73556 79168 84781 90394 96006 101619 107232 112844 118753 124365 129978 135591 141203

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Section 8: Flow Center Selection Table 9: Hose Kit Pressure Drop


1" Rubber Hose Pressure Drop per 100ft of Pipe Table Procool (Ethanol)* Methanol* Propylene Glycol* Flow Rate US GPM PD (ft) Vel (ft/s) RE PD (ft) Vel (ft/s) RE PD (ft) Vel (ft/s) RE 1 0.13 0.35 820 0.13 0.35 893 0.15 0.35 466 2 0.43 0.70 1640 0.42 0.70 1786 0.49 0.70 932 3 0.87 1.06 2483 0.85 1.06 2705 1.00 1.06 1411 4 1.44 1.41 3303 1.41 1.41 3598 1.66 1.41 1876 5 2.13 1.76 4123 2.09 1.76 4491 2.46 1.76 2342 6 2.94 2.11 4943 2.87 2.11 5385 3.38 2.11 2808 7 3.84 2.47 5786 3.76 2.47 6303 4.42 2.47 3287 8 4.85 2.82 6606 4.75 2.82 7197 5.59 2.82 3753 9 5.97 3.17 7426 5.84 3.17 8090 6.87 3.17 4218 10 7.17 3.52 8245 7.02 3.52 8983 8.26 3.52 4684 11 8.48 3.87 9065 8.30 3.87 9876 9.76 3.87 5150 12 9.87 4.23 9909 9.66 4.23 10795 11.37 4.23 5629 13 11.35 4.58 10728 11.11 4.58 11688 13.08 4.58 6095 14 12.93 4.93 11548 12.65 4.93 12581 14.89 4.93 6560 15 14.59 5.28 12368 14.28 5.28 13474 16.80 5.28 7026 16 16.32 5.64 13211 15.98 5.64 14393 18.80 5.64 7505 17 18.15 5.99 14031 17.77 5.99 15286 20.91 5.99 7971 18 20.07 6.34 14851 19.64 6.34 16179 23.11 6.34 8437 19 22.06 6.69 15671 21.59 6.69 17073 25.41 6.69 8903 20 24.13 7.04 16491 23.62 7.04 17966 27.80 7.04 9368 *NOTES: 1. Procool is at 22% by volume; Methanol is at 21% by volume; Propylene Glycol is at 30% by volume. 2. Percentage by volume, shown above is 15F freeze protection. 3. All fluids with antifreeze are shown at 30F; water is at 50F. Water* Vel (ft/s) 0.35 0.70 1.06 1.41 1.76 2.11 2.47 2.82 3.17 3.52 3.87 4.23 4.58 4.93 5.28 5.64 5.99 6.34 6.69 7.04

PD (ft) 0.12 0.42 0.85 1.40 2.07 2.85 3.73 4.71 5.79 6.96 8.23 9.58 11.02 12.55 14.16 15.85 17.62 19.48 21.41 23.42

RE 923 1847 2796 3720 4643 5567 6516 7440 8363 9286 10210 11160 12083 13006 13930 14879 15803 16726 17650 18573

Roth

24

Flow Center & Loop Application Manual August, 2010

P.O. Box 245 Syracuse, NY 13211 888-266-7684 US 800-969-7684 CAN 866-462-2914 FAX www.roth-america.com info@roth-usa.com

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* AHRI certification is shown as the Roth brand under the Enertech Manufacturing certification reference number **Roth Industries geothermal heat pumps are shown as a multiple listing of Enertech Manufacturings ETL certification *** Roth geothermal heat pumps are listed as a brand under Enertech Manufacturings Energy Star ratings