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WAJ3102 English Language Proficiency 1

TOPIC 1

PARTS OF SPEECH

This topic intends to help course participants to revise and analyse the features of the Parts of Speech Learning outcomes Spea! fluently" correctly and confidently for a variety of purposes using correct parts of speech #se correct nouns" pronouns and ad$ectives and appropriate language structures in %riting Spea! fluently" correctly and confidently using ver&s and adver&s for a variety of purposes 'ead and discuss the functions of ver&s and adver&s #se correct and appropriate ver&s and adver&s in different types of %riting

(ontent

#O$#S

PARTS OF SPEECH

VER S

A!"ECTIVES PRO#O$#S A!VER S

Parts of Speech in English


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)Parts of speech*Word class+ are the &asic types of %ords that ,a!e up a sentence There ,ost i,portant parts of speech in English include nouns" pronouns" ver&s" adver&s" ad$ectives" prepositions" con$unctions and inter$ections -ere are the eight parts of speech and their ,ost co,,on ,eanings. Part of speech function or %&o'% e(amples )*or+s, e(amples )sentences,

#oun

/alar" cat" %or!" is na,ing a thing" ,usic" city" a person" a Perlis" teacher" place" ani,als" or 0urul" tiger" an idea post,an" thought 1" you" he" she" used in a place of %e" they" so,e" a noun several e2presses an action or state $u,p" ,ove" drin!" 3to4 &e" has" does" li!e slo%ly" silently" %ell" &adly" very" really a*an" the" so,e" good" &ig" %ell" &eautiful" s,all" interesting to" at" under" after" on" &ut" through and" &ut" &ecause" or

That is ,y ne% carRita loves to drive ,y Hon+a car 1 &ought it in Penang

Pronoun

/eera is ,y class,ate She is very tall Pepsi is a drin! 1 li.e to drin! Pepsi %ith ,y friends /y son eats slo*l0 When he is not /er0 hungry" he eats reall0 slo%ly /y sister has s,all eyes 1 don5t li!e her small eyes 6u&aidah5s fa,ily %ent to London on Sunday 1 li!e chic!en rice an+ 1 li!e fish &all soup 1 li!e chic!en rice an+ fish &all soup 1 li!e chic!en rice
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Ver'

A+/er'

descri&es a ver&" ad$ective or adver&

A+&ecti/e

descri&es a noun

Preposition

introduces a noun to another %ord $oins phrases or sentences together

Con&unction

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'ut 1 don7t li!e fried rice e2presses e,otion and surprise" usually follo%ed &y e2cla,ation ,ar!s

Inter&ection

hurray8 oh8" ouch8" hi8 9ops8 Wo%8

1o*2 That5s &eautifulHi2 :lad to ,eet you

Classes of #ouns A Proper 0ouns Proper nouns are special na,es given to persons" things or places E2a,ples. Persons. Jafri" Lee Li, ;e!" /anoharan" Eli<a&eth Things. -onda" /a<da" Acer" 0o!ia Places. 0egeri Se,&ilan" ;uala Lu,pur 1nternational Airport" /useu, 0egara

= (o,,on 0ouns 0a,es given to person or things of the sa,e !ind E2a,ples. Persons. &oys" schools" ,en" fe,ales Things. cars" houses" ta&les" &oo!s

( (oncrete 0ouns (oncrete 0ouns are na,es of things that %e can see or touch E2a,ples. pens" ha,,ers" spoons" %ater

> A&stract 0ouns


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A&stract 0ouns are na,es of things that cannot &e seen or touched They can &e concepts" ideas and e,otions E2a,ples. anger" happiness" love" !indness

E (ollective 0ouns (ollective 0ouns refer to collections or groups of people" ani,als or things E2a,ples. a flight of &irds" a herd of cattle" a &unch of grapes

? (ounta&le 0ouns i4 (ounta&le nouns can &e counted E2a,ples. three &oo!s" si2 elephants" cup" chairs" shirts ii4 #ncounta&le 0ouns #ncounta&le nouns cannot &e counted E2a,ples. sugar" ,il!" oil" %ater" rice Pronouns A pronoun is used in place of a noun (o,,on pronouns. she" he" hi," 1" it" ,e" her" they" us E2a,ples. 1 /uthu is a good foot&aller He is a good foot&aller 3The pronoun he replaces Muthu.4 2 The cats and dogs are fighting each other They are fighting each other 3The pronoun they replaces the cats and dogs.4

Possessive Pronouns A possessive pronoun sho%s us %ho is the o%ner


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E2a,ples. ,ine" yours" his" hers" its" ,ine" ours The yello% car is mine. Yours is par!ed ne2t door

>e,onstrative Pronouns A de,onstrative pronoun refers to a noun E2a,ples. this" that" these" those That is a lovely painting Those are ,y sister5s shoes

1nterrogative Pronouns An interrogative pronoun is used in a @uestion E2a,ples. %ho" %hat" %ho," %hich" %hose i, Who told you thatA ii4 Whose stapler is thisA

1ndefinite Pronouns An indefinite pronoun does not na,e particular person or thing E2a,ples. no&ody" all" any" &oth" each" everyone" fe%" ,any" nothing" several Something is &urning Several people li!e %atching horror ,ovies

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Relati/e Pronouns A relative pronoun introduces a clause that descri&es a noun E2a,ples. this" that" %hich" %ho" %ho," %hose i4 This is the &ag which ,y &rother &ought ii4 Susan" whose uncle is a pilot" is a ,e,&er of this Lions (lu&

Refle(i/e Pronouns A refle2ive pronoun refers &ac! to the noun or noun phrase E2a,ples. herself" hi,self" itself" ,yself" ourselves" the,selves" yourselves 'o$a %ill learn to coo! fried rice &y herself They &uilt their ca,p &y themselves

E2ercise 1 #nderline the nouns (arol is a married woman. She loves Western food a lot, especially
hamburgers. She does not like Indian food because she says it is too spicy . However, she likes mutton curry.

Exercise

#nderline the pronouns


/r S,ith is a &ar&er -e has his o%n shop in Sere,&an to%n /any people li!e to get a haircut fro, hi, &ecause he is too good at it -is charges are also very reasona&le and he !no%s ho% to entertain the,

#ouns an+ Pronouns


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E2ercise 3 In each sentence one noun is missing- 1rite a noun or a pronoun to complete the sentence1 /ala can driveBBBBBherBBBBB father5s car 2 /y cat li!es to chase a BBBBBBratBBBBBBBBBB 3 We can %atch the last episode of the BBBBBBdra,aBBBBBBBBBBtonight C BBBTheBBBBBBBB &a&y dran! si2 &ottles of ,il! yesterday D 1 &elieve BBBBheBBBBB can pass his test to,orro% E A<,an and BBBBBBAliBBBBBBBB do not li!e to eat fried chic!en F BB'ehanBBBBBLeeBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB is /alaysia5s &est &ad,inton player G 1 ,anaged to coo! for ,y ,other" BBBBherBBBBBBB favourite ,eal today H /ay 1 loo! at your BBBBBBsister5sBBBBBBBBBB &agA 10 (an you pass ,e that BBBBBAra&icBBBBBBBBB &oo!A

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E2ercise C

1rite the correct letter in each 'o( 'elo*#ouns3 A Cross*or+ Pu44le

Across II 0onI(ount 0ouns C :iggles 1 D too ,any cars C F ?unds H s%eet for the s%eet D >o%n II (ount 0ouns 1 put food on 2 &ig fish 3 nasty &urp E penalties F %o,en7s opposite G aural organ

E F H G

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Words Laughter Tuna Plate =elch /en Sugar Traffic ?ines

Ver's A ver& is a %ord used pri,arily to indicate a type of action


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E2a,ples. $u,p" read" %al!" sing" dance 5ain Ver's are also calle+ as Le(ical Ver's a4 These ver&s infor, us of so,ething E2a,ples. i4 /y class,ates ad,ired ,y ne% car ii4 /y lecturer cancelled his class $ust no% &4 These ver&s give us an idea of an action E2a,ples. i4 1 gave 0urul ,y story &oo! ii4 The horse hopped @uic!ly over the fence

Au(iliar0 Ver's These /er's ha/e no real meaning E2a,ples. is" are" %as" %ere" have" %ill" ,ay a4 They often occur %ith another ver& to help clarify the ver& E2a,ples. i4 The cat is running ii4 -e will sing &4 They help to ,a!e a state,ent" give co,,and or as! @uestion E2a,ples. i4 Will you co,e to,orro%A ii4 She has done her se%ing
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iii4 Have you &ought hi, the riceA 1rite the correct letter in each 'o( 'elo* Underline the verbs. 1 /y hus&and %atered the plants 2 She goes to %or! every day 3 /r Lee reads ne%spaper every ,orning C We &ought a &ig house last year D /ary laughed very loudly E /y fa,ily visited our sic!ly uncle in 'ussia F Jino sings very s%eetly G They can act %ell H /iss /olly %al!s in the garden every evening 10 The &oys %ashed their teacher5s car E2ercise 2 Underline the verb that best completes each sentence. 1 We shall 3leave" left4 for the sho% &y 10 00p, 2 Kou should 3,eet" ,et4 ,y ,other 3 1 can5t 3dra%" dre%4 li!e ,y art teacher C Please 3%atch" %atched 4 that ,ovie tonight D >o you thin! that girl %ill 3loo!" loo!ed4 at ,eA E /y little &rother 3do" did4 not finish his ho,e%or! &ecause he %as playing F /onica 3ta!e" too!4 her sister to the doctor for treat,ent G The hand&ag 3%as" %ere4 given to ,e &y Jeevan
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H While 1 3%as" %ere4 coo!ing" the phone rang and 1 ,issed it 10 >i%i 3&uy" &ought4 a ne% dress for her daughter E2ercise 3 1rite the correct letter in each 'o( 'elo*-

Across
1

1. to give someone ideas about what to do 2. to spread a layer o a substan!e 3. to !ause someone to be unsure 4. to be amiliar with someone or something 6. to o i!ially list yoursel

Down
3

1. to manage an o i!e or s!hool 3. to ta"e advantage by de!eption 5. to ma"e a !hoi!e


4 5

Words Ad,inister (on 'egister S,ear Advice 9pt ;no% (onfuse

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A!VER A+/er's mo+if0 /er's- The0 +escri'e the /er'sE2a,ple.


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i4 She walked to her roo, uickly. I walked is a ver& ! uickly is the adver& T0pes of A+/er's

A+/er' of manner She drives carefully.

A+/er' of place They sa% the sna!e there

A+/er' of time She called hi, last night.

A+/er' of A+/er' fre6uenc0 of +egree /ohan %ill We are visit again so happy

Interrogati/ e a+/er' When did he co,eA

A+/er' of reason A&u therefore left his $o&

E2ercise 1 All the %ords in the &o2 are adver&s (hoose one %ord to fill each &lan! slo%ly rec!lessly @uic!ly a%ful loudly hurriedly &adly careful terri&ly seriously softly 1 The ta2i driver %as BBBBBBBBBBBBB in$ured 2 9ur professor drove BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB after a fe% drin!s 3 This laksa tastes BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB C =e BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB %ith the gift" its fragile D Sherin left BBBBBBBBBBBBBBB after college $ust no% What happened to herA E -arish tal!ed BBBBBBBBBBBBBBB over the phone F 9ur foot&all tea, played BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB last Saturday G >on5t spea! BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB /y &a&y is sleeping H The ro&&er BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB opened the door 10 Wal! BBBBBBBBBBBBBB 1t5s going to rain
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E2ercise 2 ?ind the %ords in the list hidden in the pu<<le grid &elo% A L ? S 9 / E T 1 / E S = ? T T 0 - W

K E S T E ' > A K ; T = 1

/ A L S T S 0 A T 1 T S T ? 1or+s Ago Al,ost Already Also Al%ays Any%here =ac! Else Every%here ?ar A!"ECTIVE -ence -ither -o%ever 0ear&y 0early 0ever 0ot 0o%here 9ften 9nly

W A K S / = # K 9 A E # T E 0 > - 9 ; L 0 P

9 0 9 W - E ' E 9 0 > / ( A S K T L L # 1 9 ? J 9 ? T E 0 E 9 ' A S E S

> 9 0 W / > S / ' W ' 9 9 A 9 A : A - A ' T 0 0 E 9 0 0 ' / K ; > E 0 A 1 - E 0 0 K T L E L S E W - L - E ' E - E L 9 9 0 = E ' J 0 E J W L E = E 9 A E W K J K W T T ' W ; E T S - A : 9 ' J - 1 E T - E ' ; ' K M E E ' E A > K

K E T ; ' W 0 E A ' L E 0 ( E E T 9 9 A L A ' J

E J E ' K W - E ' E # ;
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Luite 'ather So,eti,es So,e%here Soon Still Then There Thus Today

To,orro% Too #nderneath When Why Kesterday Ket

An ad$ective is a %ord that ,odifies a noun or pronoun


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E2a,ples. i4 Jino is a clever girl ii4 1 &ought two shirts yesterday iii4 Kou have to ta!e great care of your health

Comparison of A+&ecti/es There are three degrees of co,parison IPositive I(o,parative ISuperlative I- Positi/e use+ to +escri'e nouns or pronounsE2a,ples. thin girl" red shirt" good ne%s

II- 1e use comparati/e a+&ecti/es to compare t*o thingsE2a,ple" taller than" cleverer than" thinner than i4 -e is taller than ,e ii4 1 a, cleverer than her

III- Superlati/e a+&ecti/es are use+ to compare three or more nouns E2a,ples. the ,ost intelligent" the prettiest" i4 /unah is the prettiest girl in this roo, ii4 The ,ost intelligent &oy in this school is our Eric

E2ercise 1

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a4 Write an ad$ective on each line to descri&e Aish%arya 'ai

Write a sentence using the ad$ectives a&ove 1 BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB 2 BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB 3 BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB C BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB D BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB E BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB &4 Write an ad$ective on each line to descri&e the car
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Write a sentence using the ad$ectives a&ove 1 BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB 2 BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB 3 BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB C BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB D BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB E BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB

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E2ercise 2 1rite the correct letter in each 'o( 'elo*Across 1 To &e BBB " 1 did not li!e your perfor,ance C >on7t thro% the &ottle a%ay 1t ,ay co,e in BBB E -e7s so BBB -e grasps the concepts so @uic!ly8 F >on7t &e BBB Kou are a,ong friends G -o% BBB he is8 -e !eeps insisting on that 10 We ,ust have a BBB discussion a&out our relationship 11 This is a BBB piece of %riting8 1t7s tidy and carefully done Down 10 11 2 17, BBB 17d li!e a glass of %ater" please 3 Why are you BBB %ith ,eA 1 didn7t do anything %rong D Kou loo! BBB >id you stay up all nightA H 1 li!e BBB ,usic" not loud ,usic
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2 C D

E F

Words -andy" angry" honest" thirsty" shy" clever" sleepy" neat" fran!

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'ead the story carefully List the nouns" pronouns" ver&s" adver&s and ad$ectives found in the te2t The Story of the Six Blind Men 9nce upon a ti,e" in a fara%ay land" there lived si2 &lind ,en Each of the, %as very %ise Each of the, had gone to school and read lots of &oo!s in &raille They !ne% so ,uch a&out so ,any things that people %ould often co,e fro, ,iles around to get their advice They %ere happy to share %hatever they !ne% %ith the people %ho as!ed the, thoughtful @uestions 9ne day these si2 %ise &lind ,en %ent for a %al! in the <oo That day the <ooI!eeper %as %orrying a&out all of her ,any trou&les The night &efore she had had an argu,ent %ith her hus&and" and her children had &een ,is&ehaving all day long She had so ,uch on her ,ind that she forgot to loc! the gate of the elephant cage as she %as leaving it 0o%" elephants are naturally very curious ani,als They @uic!ly tried to push the gate to the cage to see if it ,ight open To their great surprise" the gate s%ung freely on its hinge T%o of the ,ore daring elephants %al!ed over to the gate They loo!ed left and right" and then @uietly tipItoed out of the cage Just at that ,o,ent the si2 &lind ,en %al!ed &y 9ne of the, heard a t%ig snap" and %ent over to see %hat it %as that %as %al!ing &y N-i there 8N said the first &lind ,an to the first elephant N(ould you please tell us the %ay to the <oo restaurant AN The elephant couldn7t thin! of anything intelligent to say" so he sort of shifted his %eight fro, left to right to left to right The first &lind ,an %al!ed over to see if this &ig silent person needed any help Then" %ith a &ig &u,p" he %al!ed right into the side of the elephant -e put out his ar,s to either side" &ut all he could feel %as the &ig &ody of the elephant N=oy"N said the first &lind ,an N1 thin! 1 ,ust have %al!ed into a %all NThe second &lind ,an %as &eco,ing ,ore and ,ore curious a&out %hat %as happening -e %al!ed over to the front of the elephant and gra&&ed hold of the ani,al7s trun! -e @uic!ly let go and shouted" NThis isn7t a %all This is a sna!e8 We should step &ac! in case it7s poisonous N The third ,an @uic!ly decided to find out %hat %as going on" and to tell his friends %hat they had %al!ed into -e %al!ed over to the &ac! of the elephant and touched the ani,al7s tail NThis is no %all" and this is no sna!e Kou are &oth %rong once again 1 !no% for sure that this is a rope N
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The fourth ,an sighed as he !ne% ho% stu&&orn his friends could &e The fourth &lind ,an decided that so,eone should really get to the &otto, of this thing So he crouched do%n on all fours and felt around the elephant7s legs 3Luc!ily for the fourth ,an" this elephant %as very ta,e and %ouldn7t thin! of stepping on a hu,an &eing 4 N/y dear friends"N e2plained the fourth ,an NThis is no %all and this is no sna!e This is no rope either What %e have here" gentle,en" is four tree trun!s That7s it (ase closed N The fifth &lind ,an %as not so @uic! to $u,p to conclusions -e %al!ed up to the front of the elephant and felt the ani,al7s t%o long tus!s N1t see,s to ,e that this o&$ect is ,ade up of t%o s%ords"N said the fifth ,an NWhat 1 a, holding is long and curved and sharp at the end 1 a, not sure %hat this could &e" &ut ,ay&e our si2th friend could help us N The si2th &lind ,an scratched his head and thought and thought -e %as the one %ho really %as the %isest of all of the, -e %as the one %ho really !ne% %hat he !ne%" and !ne% %hat he didn7t !no% Just then the %orried <ooI!eeper %al!ed &y N-i there 8 -o% are you en$oying the <oo today AN she as!ed the, all NThe <oo is very nice"N replied the si2th &lind ,an NPerhaps you could help us figure out the ans%er to a @uestion that7s &een pu<<ling us N NSure thing"N said the <ooI!eeper" as she fir,ly gra&&ed the elephant7s collar N/y friends and 1 can7t see, to figure out %hat this thing in front of us is 9ne of us thin!s it7s a %allO one thin!s it7s a sna!eO one thin!s it7s a rope" and one thin!s it7s four tree trun!s -o% can one thing see, so different to five different peopleAN NWell"N said the <ooI!eeper NKou are all right This elephant see,s li!e so,ething different to each one of you And the only %ay to !no% %hat this thing really is" is to do e2actly %hat you have done 9nly &y sharing %hat each of you !no%s can you possi&ly reach a true understanding N The si2 %ise ,en had to agree %ith the %isdo, of the <ooI!eeper The first five of the, had &een too @uic! to for, an opinion %ithout listening to %hat the others had to say So they all %ent off to the <oo restaurant and had a really hearty lunch
3This story is a %ellI!no%n fa&le fro, 1ndia /oderni<ed and reItold &y Phil Shapiro4 Phil Shapiro
http"##www.his.com#&pshapiro#elephant.story.html

#ouns

Pronouns

Ver'

A+/er'

A+&ecti/e

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$sing liste+ *or+s a'o/e7 *rite 8 sentences for each form of parts of speech0ouns
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19:;8-

Pronouns 19:;8-

Jer&s 19:;8-

Adver&s 19-

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:;8-

Ad$ectives 19:;8-

'eferences
=etty Schra,pfer A<ar" >onald A"A<ar 31HHH4" 'undamentals of (nglish )rammar. 2nd ed . Long,an Sa,y ' ; ;otayan et al 3200F4 Making Sense of (nglish )rammar Selangor.Pener&itan Pelangi Sdn =hd http"##itesl$.org#cw#%#$e!nouns.html http"##itesl$.org#cw#%#$e!verbs.html http"##itesl$.org#cw#%#vm!ad$.html http"##www.his.com#&pshapiro#elephant.story.html

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