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ELECTRIC CIRCUITS (E 250)

LECTURE NOTES (ALEXANDER & SADIKU TEXT)

*************** WEEK 1 ***************

1 BASIC CONCEPTS
Per Alexander 3 parts (more than enough for 2 semester course) Part 1 CH 1 8 Part 2 Ch 9 14 Part 3 15 19 (19 total chapters) I. Introduction (Ch. 1.1 - Alexander) & CT Preliminaries A. CT Preliminaries 1. Hand out syllabus, adds (add log, add NOW), sign-in sheet, photo 2. What are we going to learn in this course? a. Fundamentals of circuit analysis b. Basic circuit theorems c. RL, RC, RLC circuits d. Sinusoids and phasors e. Steady state analysis f. Polyphase circuits g. Diodes, transistors (maybe) 3. Syllabus go over it 4. Hints on how to be a good student a. Be ON TOP OF STUFF! b. Come to class, get & read the book, do ALL of hw (on time, or even early!) c. Be prepared for lecture read about the topic beforehand d. Check your email, Bb, & the website e. STUDY 3 hours of work for each hour of lecture per week (for STEM majors) f. Be ACTIVE in lecture take notes, ask questions, participate in lecture! g. Dont fall behind! 5. Learn to take notes a. Write everything the professor writes b. Sometimes write what the prof SAYS (tough one!) c. Develop your own shorthand (abbreviate) d. A decrease in speed of 10 percent results in approximately a 19 percent decrease in wind drag (in your notes, write as: 10% speed ~19% wind drag) e. Approximately = ~, increase = , decrease = , results in = . 6. Introductions a. Me mechanical engineering (robotics), industry, academia b. You name, why taking class, area of interest B. Electric circuit theory & electromagnetic theory basis for all branches of EE Page 1 of 5

C. Branches of EE: instrumentation.

power,

electric

machines,

control,

electronics,

communications,

D. Electric circuit an interconnection of electrical elements

E. History of Electricity 1. 600 BC amber can be charged by rubbing 2. 1600 AD English scientist William Gilbert describes the electrification of many substances & coins term electricity (Greek: amber) 3. 1700s Benjamin Franklin and his famous kite experiment F. Atomic structure
noble gases lighter
B Al Si Ge As Sn Sb Te

Fe
electrons ( ) charge (1836x less massive) neutrons (0) charge protons (+) charge

Ni Cu Zn

metals

Pb Hg heavier want to gain want to lose electrons electrons Periodic Table of Elements

G. Charge 1. Simple rules

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Like charges repel each other.

Unlike charges attract each other.

2. Net atomic charge count protons & electrons (proton = +1; e- = 1) 3. So atom with equal # of protons & e- has net atomic charge = zero. 4. Ions atoms can gain & lose electrons. a. ( + ) ion atom with lost electron b. ( ) ion atom with gained electron H. Metals & delocalization of electrons 1. Electrons move in orbitals (some closer to nucleus, some farther), ea with specific # of spaces, & energy level (1s2, 2s2, 2p6; 2, 8, 18, 32) 2. Valence electrons outermost electrons, & the most likely to be lost. 3. Atoms prefer full orbitals. 4. Heavier elements (lower on Periodic table) have more of e-. 5. Elements on LEFT tend to have extra e- that they want to get rid of. 6. Meet both criteria they are heavy and have extra e-. 7. Have many loosely held electrons. 8. Seen as lattice of positive ions (cations) in a sea of delocalized electrons.

9. Bottom line many metals are good conductors of electric charge. Copper has 4 major shells (having 2, 8, 18, and 1 electron each). The last e- is loosely held by the nucleus (Cu wants FULL orbitals). At room T, there is plenty of E to ionize Cu atom, so many free electrons. II. System of units (1.2 Alexander) & Technical notation A. SI (metric) 1. Length (meter) 2. mass (kg) 3. Time (s) 4. Current (A) 5. Temperature (K) 6. Luminous intensity (candela = cd) Page 3 of 5

B. Powers of 10 1. 10-1 = 0.1 2. 10-2 = 0.02 3. 1000 m = 1.000 x 103 m = 1,000,000 mm C. SI Prefixes (customary to use powers of 3) 1. 101 = deka (da) 10-1 = deci (d) 2 2. 10 = hecto (h) 10-2 = centi (c) 3 3. 10 = kilo (k) 10-3 = milli (m) 4. 106 = Mega, (M) 10-6 = micro () 5. 109 = Giga (G) 10-9 = nano (n) 12 6. 10 = Tera (T) 10-12 = pico (p) 15 7. 10 = Peta (P) 10-15 = femto (f) 8. 1018 = Exa (E) 10-18 = atto (a) D. So, .00000533 Farads = 5.33 F E. Engineering notation (a x 10b) 1. a between 1 & 1000, and b is a multiple of 3 III. Charge & Current (1.3 Alexander) A. Charge 1. An electrical property of atomic particles, measured in Coulombs
1Coulomb charge of 6.24 1018 electrons

Thus, one electron has charge


1 e 1 1 1.602 10 19 C 6.24 1018

which is the smallest possible quantity of charge 2. Charge conserved (neither created nor destroyed) 3. Electrostatic fields region near a charged body in which force is applied to charged bodies.

B. Battery with wire 1. Battery has an imbalance of charge (excess e on 1 end, excess (+) charge on other). These charges were separated using work. 2. Wire made of atoms with plenty of free e-. 3. Imbalance pushes the free e- in the wire. a. Like charges repel unlike charge attract. Page 4 of 5

b. Coulombs Law force of attraction


F ke q1 q 2 r2 where

ke 9 x109
4. Flow of charge think of musical chairs

N m C2
2

electrons

current

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