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Compounds Training

Technical Services Team Cargill Asia

Carlos A. Veoso November / 2011

CONFIDENTIAL. This document contains trade secret information. Disclosure, use or reproduction outside Cargill and inside Cargill, to or by those employees who do not have a need to know is prohibited except as authorized by Cargill In writing. (Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2006. All rights reserved.)

Compounds Training

Agenda
Introduction Raw Materials Chocolate and Compounds Composition Manufacturing Process Applications Defects

Compounds Training

Agenda
Introduction Raw Materials Chocolate and Compounds Composition Manufacturing Process Applications Defects

Compounds Training

Whats the difference between Chocolate and Compound?


Depends on the local legislation Chocolate must contain a minimum of cocoa solids (cocoa butter, cocoa liquor, cocoa powder) Fat used, when permitted, is CBE restricted to some countries Specific regulations for milk chocolate / white chocolate In Compounds cocoa fat is substituted by other vegetable fats In general there are no restricted regulations for compounds

Compounds Training

Where Chocolate has been used?

Chocolate confectionery

Desserts

Ice cream

Bakery
Compounds Training

Coated bars

Candies

Where Compound has been used?

Chocolate confectionery

Desserts

Ice cream

Bakery
Compounds Training

Coated bars

Candies

Agenda
Introduction Raw Materials Chocolate and Compounds Composition Manufacturing Process Applications Defects

Compounds Training

Raw Materials

Sugar Cocoa derivatives Milk derivatives Oils and Fats Emulsifiers Flavors Others

Compounds Training

Sugar
Crystal sugar - Sucrose -

Compounds Training

Cocoa Derivatives
Three ingredients come from the cocoa:

Cocoa Butter (100% fat) Cocoa liquor (52 - 54% fat)

Cocoa powder (10 - 12% fat)

Compounds Training

Cocoa liquor (Cocoa Mass)


Obtained by milling of the cocoa nibs after roasted It gives the characteristic bitter taste of the chocolate Dark brown color Contains 52 54% of fat

Natural liquor (pH 5,8) Processed with alkali

Compounds Training

Cocoa Butter

Hard at room temperature Narrow melting range, between 32 and 34oC Excellent melting in the mouth No wax residues Good taste Resistant to oxidation

Natural or Deodorized

Compounds Training

Cocoa Powder

Obtained by the milling of the cocoa cake Its the defatted fraction of the cocoa (10-12% fat)

Natural powder (pH 5,8 6,0) Alkalized powder (pH 7,0 7,2) Red powder (pH > 7,4)

Compounds Training

Color and taste Development


Color

Darker and Reddish Brown

Clearer and Yellowish Brown


5 5,5 6 6,5 7 7,5 8 8,5

Compounds Training

Color and taste Development


Taste

Good

Balanced and Strong

Smooth and Alkalized

Astringent and Bitter

Poor
5 5,5 6 6,5 7 7,5 8 8,5

Compounds Training

Cocoa Butter Alternatives

CBS (Cocoa Butter Substitutes) CBR (Cocoa Butter Replacers) CBE (Cocoa Butter Equivalents)

Compounds Training

CBS

Lauric fats (palm kernel, coconut, babassu) Hydrogenated, Fractionated, Interesterified They are incompatible with Cocoa Butter

Compounds Training

CBR

Non lauric fats (palm, soya, cotton seed, rapeseed) Hydrogenated, Fractionated, Interesterified

They are partially compatible with Cocoa Butter

Compounds Training

CBE

Chemically similar to the Cocoa Butter From exotic fats (illipe, kokum, shea) and palm Fractionated; some are enzymatic interesterified Totally compatible with Cocoa Butter Used to reduce cost in chocolates

Compounds Training

Alternative fats - resume


Characteristic Source Raw Material Conversion process Compatibility (*) Require tempering Contraction Gloss Cost Cocoa Butter Non lauric Cocoa Yes Excellent ++ ++++ CBS Lauric Palm kernel Babassu; Coconut Hidrogenation CBR Non lauric CBE Non lauric

Palm; Soya; Palm; Shea; Cotton seed ... Illipe; Kokum ... Hidrogenation Fraccionation Interesterification Interesterification Intersterification Fraccionation Fraccionation max. 5% No Excellent +++ ++ 15 - 20% No Regular - Good + or ++ + to +++ 100% Yes Excellent ++ +++ to ++++

(*) Compatibity with cocoa butter (% on total fat)

Compounds Training

Milk Derivatives

Add nutritional value Excellent sensory properties Milk fat gives creamier texture

Milk Chocolate

Best seller worldwide

Compounds Training

Milk Derivatives

Whole milk powder (26% fat) Skimmed milk powder (1% fat) De-mineralized milk whey (<1% fat) Butter oil Anhydrous milk fat (100% fat)

Compounds Training

Emulsifiers

Lecithin Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate (PGPR)

Effect on the Viscosity and on the Yield Value

Compounds Training

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Compounds Training

Other Raw Materials

Nuts (48-65% fat) Good taste profile Give softer texture

Malt extract Flavors (Vanillin, ethyl vanillin, etc.) Seasonings, coffee Salt Taste modifiers

Compounds Training

Agenda
Introduction Raw Materials Chocolate and Compounds Composition Manufacturing Process Applications Defects

Compounds Training

Chocolate Composition
Cocoa Liquor

Milk Chocolate

Cocoa Butter

Sugar

Milk

Dark Chocolate

Cocoa Liquor

Cocoa Butter

Sugar

White Chocolate

Cocoa Butter

Sugar

Milk

Compounds Training

Compound Composition
Milk Compound
Licor de Cocoa Cacao Powder

Vegetable Fat + Cocoa Butter

Sugar

Milk

Dark Compound

Licor de Cocoa Cacao Powder

Vegetable Fat Cocoa Butter

Sugar

White Compound

Vegetable Fat + Cocoa Butter

Sugar

Milk

Compounds Training

Chocolate: Basic Composition


Ingredient
Sugar Cocoa Liquor Cocoa Butter Vegetable Fat Milk Non fat Milk solids

Solid Phase 65-72%


Sugar Non fat Cocoa solids

Liquid Phase 28-35%

Cocoa Fat Cocoa Fat Vegetable Fat Milk Fat

Compounds Training

Compound: Basic Composition


Ingrediente Ingredient
Sugar Acar

Solid Phase 65-72% 50-70%


Sugar Acar

Liquid Phase 28-35% 30-50%

Liquor Cocoa Powder


Cocoa Butter Gordura Vegetable Fat equivalente Leite Milk

Non fat Cocoa solids

Cocoa Fat Cocoa Fat Vegetable Fat Alternative Fat

Slidos deseng. Non fat Milk solids do leite


Compounds Training

Gordura de Milk Fat Leite

Esquematic Phases Representation

Continuos phase: FAT

Sugar Non fat Cocoa solids Non fat Milk solids


Compounds Training

Interface: EMULSIFIER

Chocolate: Basic Recipes


Ingredient Sugar Cocoa Liquor Cocoa Butter Milk Solids (include fat) Milk Fat Equivalent Fat Soya Lecithin PGPR Milk Chocolate
40% - 50% 9% - 14% 13% - 22% 10% - 20% 1,5% - 6% 0% - 10% 0,25% - 0,50% 0,00% - 0,25%

White Chocolate Dark Chocolate


40% - 55% 0% 20% - 29% 16% - 28% 3,5% - 6% 0% - 10% 0,25% - 0,50% 0,00% - 0,25% 40% - 50% 20% - 40% 0% - 18% 0% - 3% 0% - 3% 0% - 10% 0,25% - 0,50% 0,00% - 0,25%

Compounds Training

Compound: Basic Recipes


Ingredient Sugar Cocoa solids Milk solids Cocoa fat Vegetable fat Milk fat Cocoa fat + milk fat Soya lecithin PGPR Flavors Compound (Milk and Dark) with CBS
45% - 65% 5% - 15% 0% - 20% 0,5% - 1,5% 28% - 32% 0,0% - 1,0% mx. 1,5% 0,25% - 0,45% 0,00% - 0,20% 0,02% - 0,20%

White Compound with CBS


45% - 60% 0% 10% - 28% 0% 28% - 33% 0,0% - 1,5% mx. 1,5% 0,25% - 0,45% 0,00% - 0,20% 0,02% - 0,20%

with CBR
45% - 65% 5% - 20% 0% - 20% 0,5% - 6,0% 24% - 32% 0,0% - 4,5% mx. 6,0% 0,25% - 0,45% 0,00% - 0,20% 0,02% - 0,20%

with CBR
45% - 60% 0% 10% - 28% 0,0 - 6,0% 24% - 33% 0,0% - 6,0% mx. 6,0% 0,25% - 0,45% 0,00% - 0,20% 0,02% - 0,20%

Compounds Training

Desired characteristics
Sensory Taste Flavor Color Gloss Melting Texture (snap) Physical-Chemical Physical Microbiological

Viscosity and Yield Value

According to standards

Fineness Moisture

Pathogens absence

Compounds Training

Agenda
Introduction Raw Materials Chocolate and Compounds Composition Manufacturing Process Applications Defects

Compounds Training

Chocolate Manufacturing Process


Ingredients scaling and mixing Refining

Conching
Tempering and Crystallization

Molding or Enrobing
Packaging

Compounds Training

Chocolate Manufacturing Process


Ingredients scaling and mixing Refining

Conching
Tempering and Crystallization

Chocolate mass manufacturing

Molding or Enrobing
Packaging

Shaping and Finishing

Compounds Training

Refining

Particle size reduction Final fineness between 18m and 40m


Conventional process: 5-rolls refiner Ball mill

Universal conches (type McIntyre)

Compounds Training

5-rolls refiner
Conventional process
Feeding 2 1

Compounds Training

Ball mill

Particle reduction

Continuous or batch
Vertical or horizontal

Compounds Training

Conching

Mixing Physical and Chemical transformations Aroma development Shearing Drying

Sensory development Flow characteristics improvement In general is not used for Compounds
Compounds Training

Conching
Temperature
60 65oC in Milk Chocolate 70 85oC in Chocolates without milk

Time

6 - 12 hours

Compounds Training

Conching dry phase

Compounds Training

Conching plastic phase

Compounds Training

Conching liquid phase

Compounds Training

Flow characteristics of Chocolate and Compounds - Rheology

Viscosity:

Resistance to movement when the chocolate flows Yield Value:

Minimum force to flow (to start the movement)

Compounds Training

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Chocolate rheology
Variable Higher fat content Higher particle size Lecithin addition up to 0.6% PGPR addition Moisture Conching time Shear or vibration Effect on Viscosity
Reduce Reduce Reduce much No interference Increase much Reduce a little No interference

Effect on Yield Value


Reduce Reduce much Reduce Reduce much Increase much Reduce Reduce

Compounds Training

Chocolate tempering

Pre-crystallization

Direct cocoa butter crystallization to favor stable crystals formation

Compounds dont need tempering

Compounds Training

Cocoa butter polymorfism


Crystal Melting point

Stability

Size

16oC - 18oC 21oC - 24oC 27oC - 29oC 30oC - 34oC

increase

Compounds Training

reduce

Chocolate tempering curve

TEMPERATURE (C)

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 0 2 4 6 8 RETENTION TIME (min)

Compounds Training

Chocolate Tempering
At begining the fat must be completely melted no crystals (45C)

Cooling with agitation

Micro crystals formation Instable crystals melting

4% de cristais obtained

Compounds Training

Chocolate Tempering

Thermal resistance Gloss Right texture (snap)

Right contraction (demolding)


Shorter cooling time

Compounds Training

Chocolate and Compounds Crystallization

Fat crystallization

Cooling with air circulation


Temperature between 7 and 14C

Chocolate contraction

Demold

Compounds Training

Chocolate and Compound molding - bars


Mold temperature: 1 to 2C below product temperature Product temperature:

Chocolates: 29-31C Compounds: 40-45C


Cooling temperature:

Chocolates: 10-14C Compounds: 7-10C


Cooling time: 40 - 70 minutes (depending on the product size and shape)

Compounds Training

Chocolate and Compound molding - bars

1. Empty mold 3. Partial contraction

2. No contraction 4. Total contraction

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Compounds Training

Hygrometric chart
20

15

Dew point (C)

13

10

0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Dry bulb temperature (C)

Compounds Training

Compounds Crystallization

No need tempering Crystallize in the form Higher depositing temperature (higher than 40C) Fast cooling (7-10C) Several small crystals

CBS and CBR

CBE

Must be treated as chocolate

Compounds Training

Chocolate and Compound Storage

Solid form:

Chocolates: ideal 18 - 23C

Tolerable up to 26C
Compounds: ideal 21 - 26C

Tolerable up to 34C

Compounds Training

Chocolate and Compound storage


Liquid form:

Tanks with slow agitation Jacketed at 45oC

Some compounds require different temperatures (higher or lower) depending on the melting point of the fat

Compounds Training

Agenda
Introduction Raw Materials Chocolate and Compounds Composition Manufacturing Process Applications Defects

Compounds Training

Chocolate and Compounds Application Processes

Molding: chocolate/compound deposit into molds


Coating (enrobing): filling coated with chocolate/compound Rasps: chocolate/compound bar rasped to decoration Panning: centers recovered with chocolate/compound

Compounds Training

Molded products

Depositor

Compounds Training

Enrobed products

Enrober

Compounds Training

Panned products

Belt pan

Automatic pan
Compounds Training

Panning process
Sealing (usually with Arabic gum and sugar)

Protects against moisture and oils migration

Reduces stickiness and bunches


Facilitates thickening process

Thickening (several layers 60-80% of the product)


Melted chocolate (not tempered) or compound Cool and dry air blowing

Polishing

Compounds Training

Chocolate rasps

Compounds Training

Fat type used is determinant for the cost and product applicability

Cocoa Butter
Fractionated vegetable fats Hydrogenated vegetable fats

Fat represents 30% 35% of the product (until 50 55% in ice cream coatings)

Compounds Training

High standard products

COCOA BUTTER

Need Tempeing

Better melting in the mouth

FRACTIONATED FATS

Higher cost

HYDROGENATED FATS

Popular products
Compounds Training

Better thermal resistance

Molding

Better to rasps

Main differences: Chocolate vs Compounds


Parameter COMPOSITION Fat base Conching
Tempering
PROCESS

CHOCOLATE Cocoa Butter important


necessary 45oC 29 - 31oC 10 - 14oC High up to 26oC less critical sensitive to temperature variation Low

COMPOUND Vegetable Fat not important


no need 45 - 50oC 40 - 45oC 7 - 10oC Low up to 34oC more critical sensitive to fat incompatibility High

Temperature storage Temperature use Cooling temperature

COST

Process and ingredients Temperature Aging

STORAGE

Blooming
APPLICATIONS Flexibility
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Agenda
Introduction Raw Materials Chocolate and Compounds Composition Manufacturing Process Applications Defects

Compounds Training

Chocolate and Compounds enemies

Moisture, water, steam Heat Odors

Compounds Training

Fat Bloom
White spots caused by cocoa butter or fat crystallization on the surface Main causes:

Product suffered heat Wrong tempering (chocolates) Wrong crystallization Fat incompatibility

Compounds Training

Sugar Bloom
White spots caused by sugar crystallization on the surface Main causes:

Water condensation in the cooling tunnel output Water condensation by exposition in wet environment

Compounds Training

Odors sorption
Taste and odor modification by odor sorption from the environment
Main causes:

Storage or transport in wrong environment Interaction with package material

Compounds Training

Fat rancidity
Oxidation

Unsaturated fat acids oxidation


Hydrolisis

Free fat acid formation by hydrolysis

Compounds Training

Oxidation

Needs oxygen and is accelerated by


Temperature Light Metallic ions

Related to double bond attack

Saturated and hydrogenated are more stables

Compounds Training

Fat hydrolysis

Need moisture and lipase

Short chain fat acids are more critical Milk Fat: rancid taste

Lauric fats: soap taste

Compounds Training

Darkening

Occurs sharply in the white chocolate and compound and is accelerated by the light incidence

Packaging with light barrier

Compounds Training

Fats incompatibility and Eutectic Effect


Melting point reduction of the mixture

Mix of different fats

Melting point reduction Inappropriate crystallization Phases separation Fat Bloom

Compounds Training

Eutectic diagram: Cocoa butter - coconut oil


90 80 70
SFC (%)

60 50
40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 % coconut oil

a 10,0C
a 21,1C a 26,7C a 33,3C

Compounds Training

Fats incompatibility and Eutectic Effect

Interaction Biscuit Coating


In warm conditions: Fat from Biscuit migrates to Coating resulting Fat Bloom

Interaction Filling Coating In warm conditions: Fat from Filling migrates to Coating resulting Fat Bloom

- Incompatibility of fats: lauric fat cocoa butter - Liquid fraction (oil or fat) migrating to the surface

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Compounds Training

Fats incompatibility and Eutectic Effect

Chocolates and Compounds are in general incompatibles


Lauric fats x Chocolate: very critical Compounds x Cocoa butter: very critical Lauric compounds x non lauric: less critical Ice cream coatings: no critical

Compounds Training

Thank you very much

carlos_vecoso@cargill.com

Compounds Training