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B.

BEAMS
Common shapes:

Three basic considerations in design: i) Bending strength strength consideration ii) Shear strength iii) Deflection serviceability consideration Bending Strength: Moment Capacity Bending strength of a beam depends upon laterally unsupported length of the compression flange. Thus, whenever you design a beam, find first the condition of lateral support to compression flange, Because of the compressive force in the compressive flange, the beam tendency to buckle lateral ("lateral-torsional buckling"), if there is no adequate lateral support.

Think compression flange as a compression member Compression flange may buckle laterally (sidesway)

Tension flange (no problem)

Bending Strength of a Laterally Stable Beam (laterally Supports)

f<F y

f=F y

f=F y
Plastic

f=F y

Elastic

Entirely Plastic

Plastic

M<M y

M=M y

M y <M<M p

M=M p

Stress disterbution at different stages of loading

B. 2 Elastic formula for beam in bending is M Ymax M c M M Y M ; f b. max = = = = fb = I I I c S I I S = elastic section of modulus = c I = moment of inertia about axis of bending M Thus f b. max = within elastic limit S The yield moment (moment at yield stress is reached, i.e. f max = Fy ) is given as:

M y = S Fy

S = elastic section modulus

As more loads are applied be beyond the yield level, the beam enters the plastic zone. When the entire section becomes fully plastic, the plastic (ultimate) moment capacity is: M p = Z Fy Z = plastic modulus The ratio Thus, =

Mp My

= is as the shape factor

Z > 1.0 (usually 1.09 to 1.20 ) S Shape factor gives an indication of how much reserve strength we have beyond the yield moment. Example Calculate M y , M p and for W14x43 (A-36). Strong axis bending.
Ix = 62.7in 3 62.7 36 d 2 = 188.1k ' M y = yield moment = 12 3 Z x = 69.6in 69.6 36 M p = plastic moment = = 208.8k ' 12 69.6 = shape factor = = 1.11 62.7 A Note on Plastic Section Modulus Plastic moment capacity = Z Fy Sx =

Z = plastic section modulus about the axis of bending


How to calculate Z 1. Find the plastic centroid or the equal area axis (axis about which the area is equal) 2. Take moment of the areas about the "equal area axis" 3. The total moment of the areas = Z

B. 3
1/2x8

fy
6"

Example Calculate Z for the following sections


3/8x10
3 ( ) 3 ] Z = 2[1 2 8 6 0.25 + 8 5 2.5 = 55.4in M p = Z Fy

11" equal area axis

3 3 1 ( ) 8 1 2 + 8 Y = 2 6 8 10 Y Y = 3.76"

fy
1/2x8

( ) 3 Z = 8 1 2 3.67 + 0.25 + 8 3.67 1.833 3 +8 6.33 3.81 + 3 (6.33 + 0.25)


= 15.68 + 2.25 + 7.55 + 19.74 = 45.49in M p = Z Fy
3

fy
Y

3/8x10 11"

equal area axis

1/2x6 fy Compact and Noncompact Section Depending on the width-thickness ratio of elements, sections are classified as "compact and "noncompact" (table B5.1, P.16.1 1-14). Compact sections must have axis of symmetry. Compact elements have lower b t ratio p than noncompact elements, r . If laterally supported, a compact section

can attain full plastic moment, M p Design Requirement of AISC In this class, we shall consider only I and C as beam sections Beams are loaded in the plane of parallel to a principal axis through the shear center (no torsion) Depending on the -values and the lateral supported to compression flange, failure can be: i) Full yielding ii) Lateral-torsional buckling iii) Local flange and web buckling The item (iii) depends on (width to thickness ratio). Flexural strength (moment capacity) = b M n = 0.9 M n

M n = nominal moment capacity must be calculated according to different cases

B. 4
Case A: Beams having full lateral support A.1 Compact sections ( b t ratio p ) Failure by full yielding (beam can reach M p ) Full supports are usually provided by slabs

M n = M p = Z Fy 1.5M y (Eq. F1-1) M n = Z Fy 1.5M y a Limit set by AISC


The slab prevents lateral buckling, if flange is inside the slab or connected to it (composite design)

A.1 Noncompact sections ( P r ) Major axis bending p M n = M p (M p M r ) (Eq. A-F1-3) (P.16.1-96) r p (Eq. F1-7) M n = FL S x = (Fy Fr )S x

Fr = comp. residual stress in flange = 10ksi for rolled sections; 16.5ksi for welded sections

Case B: Beams not having full lateral support Length designation: l b = distance between lateral supports (bracing points) to the compression flange. (known) ( l b = 0 ,if full lateral support) l r = limiting laterally unbraced length for lateral-torsional buckling. (given by equation) l p = limiting laterally unbraced length for full plastic moment capacity M p . (given by equation) For C and I sections, 300ry E (eq.F1-4) ; Fyf = yield stress of the flange = Fy l p = 1.76ry = Ftf Fyf (eq.F1-6)

lr =

1 + 1 + x 2 FL2 FL FL = (Fy Fr )

ry x1

(eq.F1-8) (eq.F1-9)

Fr = comp. residual stress in flange = 10ksi for rolled sections; 16.5ksi for welded sections G = shear modulus = 11,200ksi EGJA = x 1 E = modulus of elasticity Sx 2 J = torsional constant; in 4 2 x = 4C w S x A = cross sectional area 2 I GJ C w = warping constant; in 6 y

B. 5
B.1 Compact sections ( p ) and lb l p

M n = M p = Z Fy 1.5M y same as A.1 case


B.2 Compact sections (I & C) with l p < lb l r (eq.F1-2) (eq.F1-7) Value of C b (eq.F1-3)
12.5M max 2.5M max + 3M A + 4 M B + 3M C AISC allows taking C b = 1.0 a (safe) Cb =

(major axis bending)

lb l p M p M n = C b M p (M p M r ) l l r p M n = (Fy Fr )S x

C b can be taken from table 4-1 (P.5-35) for same cases. If not sure take C b = 1.0 a (conservative)
Note that M n now will lie between M p and M r (i.e. between full plastic and effective elastic moment capacity) B.3 Noncompact sections (I & C) with l p < lb l r (major axis bending)

p < r (B 5.1)
M n = smaller of (eq.F1-2) above b p (eq.A-F1-3) Or, = C b M p (M p M r ) p r B.4 I & C (compact or noncompact ) with l p > l r
(eq.F1-12) (eq.F1-13)

(major axis bending)

M n = M cr M p
M cr = C b

lb

E EI y GJ + l I y Cw b

C b S x x1 2 x12 x 2 (using x1 and x 2 values) 1+ = 2 l b ry 2(lb ry )


( M cr value independent of Fy ) Note: M n will now generally be less than M r

B. 6
Moment Capacity of Beams (flow chart) Two items must be known or determined first a) Lateral support to compression flange. The value of lb b) Compact or noncompact section in bending. p and r values in table B5.1 Full lateral support l b = 0

Mn

lb 0

compact Mn = M p (Eq. F1-1)

noncompact p M n = M p (M p M r ) r p (Eq.A-F1-3)

compact

A-F1-3

noncompact

lb l p

lb l p

l p < lb l r
l p > lr

l p < lb l r
l p > lr

(eq.F1-1)

(eq.F1-2) smaller of F1-2 or A.F1-3 (eq.F1-12) M n = M cr M p

Moment Capacity Diagram

eq. F1-1 eq. F1-2


M u = M n

= 0.9
eq. F1-12 Mn
(for a compact section) (for noncompact section, Diagram similar)

lr lp
unbraced length,lb

B. 7
Procedure for Calculation of M n 1. Chick the section is compact or noncompact 2. Find the laterally unsupported (unbraced) length, lb . 3. Chick which formula applicable (item A.1, A.2 and B.1 to B. in notes) 4. Use formula to find M n Finally, M u = M n ( = 0.9 ) Note that i) A vast majority of rolled W-shape are compact ii) Property table gives the value of b 2t f and h t w (widththickness ratio) to check compactness. (P.5-42+) (Table 5-3) Use of Beam Tables All essential properties of beam sections (W-shapes) are calculated and tabulated for rapid design. Following values are available: l r , l p , b M r and BF

BF =

b ( M p M r )
lr l p

Example #1 Calculate the following and compare with those given in table (5-3) for W16x40 ( Fy = 50ksi ).

M p , l r , l p , b M r and BF

Check For flange compactness: b 65 65 E (table B 5.1) = 9.2 0.38 = 2t f F Fy Fy y For web h 640 640 E = 91 3.76 = tw F Fy Fy y For W16x40- b 2t f = 6.9 & h t w = 46.6 elements compact

Table indicates if section is compact

72.9 50 = 304k ' 12 M p = 0.9 304 = 274k '


M p = Z x Fy = ry x1 lr =

1 + 1 + x 2 FL2 FL FL = Fy Fr = 50 10 = 40ksi

lr =

1.57 1890 1 + 1 + 127000 10 6 40 2 = 176.4" = 14.7' 40 300ry 300 1.57 = = 66.7" = 5.55' 5.6' lp = Fy 50
M r = (Fy Fr )S x = (50 10) 64.7 12 = 21.6k '

B. 8

= lr l p 14.7 5.55 Table values are the same BF =


Example #2 Find the design capacity of W16x40 ( Fy = 50ksi ) if lateral support are at i) 5 ft interval ii) 10 ft interval iii) 24 ft interval. C b = 1.0 i)

M r = 0.9 216 = 194k ' b ( M p M r ) 274 194

lb = 5' Since lb < l p and compact section M n = M p ; M u = M p = 274k '

ii) lb = 10' lb > l p = 5.6' but < l r = 14.7'

Mn

M n

lb l p = C b M p (M p M r ) l l r p BF (lb l p ) = Cb M p = C b M p BF (lb l p )

= 1.0[274 8.74 (10 5.6 )] = 236k '

iii) lb = 24' lb > l r = 14.7'

M n = M cr

= =

C b S x x1 2 x12 x 2 1+ 2 l b ry 2(lb ry )

1.0 64.7 1890 2 1890 2 127000 10 6 1+ 2 24 12 1.57 2(24 12 1.57 )

M n

= 1225k " = 102k ' = 0.9 102 = 91.8k '

Example #3 Select the lightest beam (W) to carry uniformly distributed load of 0.2k / ft and live load 0.8k / ft for a simple span of 20' . Full lateral support. ( Fy = 50ksi ) Add small self weight say 50lb / ft = 0.05k / ft wu = 1.2 wDL + 1.6 wLL = 1.2 0.25 + 1.6 0.8 = 1.58k / ft

wu l 2 1.58 20 2 = = 79k ' 8 8 Assume compact section M n = M p (full lateral support, l b = 0 ) Mu =

M p = Z x Fy = 79k '

B. 9 79 12 = 21.0" 0.9 50 Go to table 5-3, select a beam with bold section (explain). [bold sections are the best] W10x19 ( Z x = 21.6" ) W12x19 (better)? ( Z x = 24.7" ) Beam should be checked for SHEAR (to be covered later)
Required Z x = Selection of Beams with Given lb Pages 5-71 to 5-101 give the design moment capacity of beams for given unbraced length lb . Fy = 50ksi and 36ksi and C b = 1.0 only. How to use charts 1. Find the value of M u from analysis, lb and C b . 2. If C b > 1.0 , find the required moment capacity required Calculated .M u M n = ( assuming Cb lateral-torsional buckling controls) 3. Enter chart with lb and M u .locate the point. 4. Any point on the top RHS quadrant of the vertical and horizontal lines lp through the point is OK. But the best beam (lightest) is the nearest one with solid line.
0.9M n=M u

all beams OK here. select the nearest one with solid line

Example #1 Select a W-shape to carry factored moment of 640k ' with unbraced length of 20' . Fy = 50ksi . Assume C b = 1.0 . Enter page 5-89 with M u = M n = 640k ' ( C b = 1.0 ) and lb = 20' . Nearest line beam is W30x90 ( M n = 692k ' ) Example #2 Select a W-shape to carry factored moment of 640k ' with unbraced length of 20' . Fy = 50ksi . Assume C b = 1.5 .

640 = 427.0k ' 1.5 Enter page 5-154 with M n = 427.0k ' ( C b = 1.0 ) and lb = 20' . Nearest line beam is W18x76 (solid line) ( M n 490k ' )

M n =

B. 10
Shear Strength (P. 16.1-35, section F.2) Web area Aw = d t w ( d = over all depth, t w = web thickness) Design shear strength = vVn = 0.9Vn
417 h E 2.45 tw Fyw Fyw

For

Fyw = yield stress of web = Fy for rolled section

Vn = 0.6 Fyw Aw (F2.1)


For
418 Fyw h 523 tw Fyw

Vn = 0.6 Fyw Aw 418 Fyw / (h t w ) (F2.2)


vVn values are given in P.5-49 Example Find shear strength of the beam W18x76. ( Fy = 50ksi ).
For almost all rolled shapes, Eq. F2.1 is not applicable. h Note that ratio is given in the properties tables tw

h = 37.8 ; vVn = 0.9 0.6 Fy Aw tw = 0.9 0.6 50 18.2 0.425 = 902k


Design note: As steel beams have high shear strength, choose a beam first based on M u and check for Vu .(Unless M u is small and Vu is very high for special cases) Example #1 Design the beam shown to carry the service loads as indicated .lateral supports to the beam at A, B and C. ( Fy = 50ksi ) Factored load: self wt say DL=0.6k/ft 10k wDL = 1.2 (0.6 + 0.06 ) = 0.79k / ft LL=1.0k/ft wLL = 1.6 1.0 = 1.6k / ft Also, 1.6 10 = 16k Total U DL = wu = 1.6 0.79 = 2.39k / ft 15' 15'

B. 11

Vmax = 8.0 + 2.39 15 = 44k wl PL M max = u + 8 4 2.39 30 2 16 30 = + = 389k ' 8 4 Design values: M u = 398k ' Vu = 44k
2

16k

2.39k/ft 15'

15'
V1

V1

Assume C b = 1.0 (actual C b > 1.0 ) Required M n 389k ' ; lb = 15' ; Fy = 50ksi Section is W21x62 ( M n = 406k ' ) Check shear: Design shear strength = vVn vVn = 0.9 0.6 Fy Aw
M max

= 0.9 0.6 50 20.99 0.4 = 227 k > 44k (we can get this value from P. 5-49) Use W21x62

Example #2 Design the beam below ( Fy = 50ksi ), considering two cases: a) Full lateral support b) Lateral support at A, B, C and D. Factored load = 1.6 16 = 25.6k Assume self wt, say = 80lb / ft Factored wu = 1.2 0.8 0.1k / ft From analysis, 0.1 40 2 M u = 25.6 15 + 8 = 384 + 20 = 404k ' (at mid span) Vu = 25.6 + 2.0 = 27.6k Moment at B 0.1 40 2 M u = 348 + 2 15 8 = 384 + 30 11 = 403k '
16k A 15' B 10' 40' 16k C 15' D

25.6k

25.6k 0.1k/ft

a) Full lateral support Assuming compact section, b M n = b M b 404k ' From beam selection table, section is W21x50 ( b M px = 413 ,

vVu = 213k -OK

B. 12

b) Lateral support at A, B, C and D for safe design, assume C b = 1.0 i) Segment A-B & C-D : M u = 403k ' , lb = 15' ii) Segment A-B & C-D : M u = 403k ' , lb = 10' Thus, part A-B/C-D is critical. From chart, with C b = 1.0 , section is W21x62 Shear check: vVn = 227k OK Selection of Beam Having C b > 1.0 Notice that C b values affects the strength only for the case where lb > l p . Moment capacity M n is directly proportional to C b . Thus, whenever lb > l p , find the equivalent design moment by dividing the actual required M u by exact C b , i.e. equivalent design moment (with C b = 1.0 ) M u =
actual.M u Cb

Example For the previous example use exact value of C b for (b) segment A-B/C-D: M u = 403k ' , lb = 10' ; C b = 1.76 (table 5-1, P5-35) Equivalent design moment M u with C b = 1.0 is
actual.M u 403 = = 241k ' Cb 1.67 Segment B-C; M u = 403k ' , lb = 15' ; C b = 1.0 Assuming B-C controls, section is W21x55 With lb = 15' , capacity (with C b = 1.0 ) = 308k ' > 241k ' Mu =

Also, l p for W21x55 = 6.11' ; lb > l p Shear OK. Thus, W21x55 is OK.

B. 13
Beam Deflection To insure serviceability. Deflection due to LL should be checked, especially for larger span beams. Engineers (or codes) specify the allowable limits on deflection, depending on the type of structure. l Allowable LL deflection of beams supporting a plastered ceiling = 360 Note: LL deflection to be checked under service load only (no load factor) Example Compute the deflection of the beam shown max at midspan from AISC beam diagram and formulas

6k

max

5wl Pl = + 384 EI x 48EI x

DL=3k/ft

12' 12' 6conversion 4 74 8 1 5 3 24 12 12 12 6 24 12 12 12 W21x62 + max = 384 48 EI x 12 12 12 14688 = = 0.658" 29000 1330 l 24 12 as allowable limit, the limit is: = 0.8" If we use 360 360 AISC beam formulas (P.5-162+) gives values for many cases!

B. 14
Cover Plated Beams (best design) Material can be saved by adding cover plates to flange of W-shape. However, there added cost of welding In many situations where a suitable rolled section not available or beam needed to be reinforced for extra strength, cover plates are used. Example
tp Area Ap

X Moment capacity Capacity provided by cover plate Moment capacity of beam

Area Ap

Mmax

For a cover plated beam as shown, d tp Z x = Z x + 2 Ap 2+ 2 = Z x + A p (d + t p ) { beam or Z x Z x + A p d ; if t p is small Thus, A p =

length of cover plate

Z x Z x required .Z x Z x of .beam = d d Thus, we have an idea of A p . Because of approximation, A p will

be slightly more. Thus, A p A p calculated above. Select size of plate, b p t p = A p , keep width less than b f (flange width), unless unavailable. Keep thickness low, but be sure that t f is OK for welding! (this will be covered in welding compatibility) . calculate the exact properties, once plate size is known.
Example For simple beam shown, design the beam utilizing W18x46 which is available in stock. Fy = 36ksi . Assume full lateral support.

Factored wu = 1.2 DL + 1.6 LL = 1.2 1.2 + 1.6 2.8 = 5.92k / ft

DL=1.2k/ft LL=2.8k/ft

M max = Vmax

5.29 20 2 = 296k ' 8 = 5.92 20 2 = 59.2k

20'

B. 15
Thus, required M u = 296k ' , Vu = 59.2k . Section is compact; Z x =

Mu 296 12 = = 109.6in 3 b Fy 0.9 36

Z x of W18x46 = 90.7in 3 < 109.6in 3 Thus, cover plate is needed. Z needed Z x .beam 109.6 90.7 = = 1.05in 2 Approx. A p = x d 18.06 Try A p 1.2in 2
5 4 = 1.25in 2 Select A p = 16

18.06 0.3125 = 113.7in 3 > 109.6in 3 OK Actual Z x = 90 + .7 + 2 1 .05 { { 23 12 23 1 z x beam Ap 2 2 d t p 2 Shear strength of W18x46, vVn = 176k > 59.2k
5 4 Use W18x46 + cover plate of 16 Now we need to find the length of the cover plate Length of cover plate

moment capacity of beam alone 0.9 90.7 36 b M p = = 245k ' 12 (or from tables) Up to 'x', the beam capacity is OK; but after 'x', actual moment > beam capacity. Therefore, we need a cover plate 59.2 x 2 Moment at x = M x = 59.2 x = 245 2 x1 = 5.85' & x 2 = 14.15'

need plate 296k' 245k'

5.92k/ft

20' 59.2k

Theoretical length of cover plate = x 2 x1 = 8.30' Development Length Needed extra length to develop the strength of the plate. This extra length at each end is called "development length". This should be added to the theoretical length to get the actual length. Minimum extra length of each end = 2 width of the plate
} 2 4 2 In this example, we need total length = 8.3 + = 9.05' 12 Use 9'4" length
twice. width

5 '- 4 "

9 '- 4 "

5 '- 4 " W 18x46

20' 5 /1 6 x 4 p la t e

B. 16
Concentrated Force on Beams (Ch.K, P.16.1-71, 3 &4)
Rn

Rn = maximum concentrated force that can be applied to the beam N = length of bearing (concentrated force is applied through a small bearing plate)

Two modes of failure, if beam is held against end reaction Sidesway flange moment at point application of load: Rn a) Local web yielding Rn smaller of b) Web crippling two values a) Local web yielding Web yielding strength = Rn = Rn ( = 1.0 ) i) Load applied at > d from end:
Rn >d k N tw k

Rn = (5k + N )Fyw t w (K1-2)


ii) Load applied at d from end: Rn = (2.5k + N )Fyw t w (K1-3)

Fyw tw
k
N

= yield stress of web


= web thickness
= distance from outer flange to toe = length of bearing

b) Web crippling Web crippling strength = r Rn = 0.75 Rn ( r = 0.75 ) i) Load applied at d / 2 from end: 1.5 t w E Fyw t f N 2 Rn = 0.8t w 1 + 3 (K1-4) tf tw d 1.5 F t tw N 2 yw f = 136t w 1 + 3 tw d t f ii) Load applied at < d / 2 from end: a. For N d 0.2

N t Rn = 0.4t 1 + 3 w d tf
2 w

1.5

E F t yw f (K1-5a) tw

B. 17
b. For N d > 0.2
1.5 t w E Fyw t f N 4 Rn = 0.4t 1 + (K1-5b) 0.2 t t d w f If the beam fails in local web yielding or web crippling, web is stiffened by adding a pair of stiffener at the load point. 2 w

Not that equations K1-3, K1-5a and K1-5b are applicable for end reaction only (load distance < d )
Example Compute the required width of bearing plate for a concentrated force of 120kips (factored), when it acts on a beam W21x62 as a) Interior force, and W21x62 b) End reaction. Fy = 36ksi a) Interior force: (load distance > d ) k = 1.12" i) Local web yielding d = 21.0" Rn = (5k + N )Fyw t w = (5 1.12 + N ) 36 0.4 = 80.64 + 14.4 N t w = 0.40" 120 = 80.64 + 14.4 N N = 2.37" t w = 0.615" ii) Web crippling 1.5 E F t N t w yw f 2 1 + 3 Rn = 120 = 0.8t w tw d t f } = 0.75 (1.626 + 12.2 N ) No need for N for crippling Use N = 2 3 4 " needed for local web yielding b) End reaction: (load distance < d ) i) Local web yielding Rn = (5k + N )Fyw t w = 42.32 + 14.4 N = 120 N = 5.53" ii) Web crippling Try N d > 0.2
1.5 t w E Fyw t f N 4 Rn = 0.4t 1 + 0.2 tw d tf Rn = 0.75 (72.6 + 8.1N ) N = 11" , N d > 0.2 ; assumption OK Use N = 11" , controlled by web crippling 2 w

Stiffener

B. 18
Bending About Minor (Weak) Axis For I-shapes and C2, there is no lateral-torsional buckling, when bending occurs about the minor axis, the section can attain full plastic moment M n = Z y Fy ; M u = b M n = 0.9Z y Fy

Bi-axial Bending of I Sections or Doubly Symmetric Sections The following interaction equation can be used. M uy M ux + 1.0 b = 0.9 b M nx b M ny

M nx = capacity of beam in bending about x-axis M ny = capacity of beam in bending about y-axis M uy , M uy = design values of moment about x and y axes
For a selected beam, calculate M ux and M uy in usual way then use interaction equation.
Example Check the adequacy of a laterally unsupported simple span (span = 16' ) beam of W14x48 ( Fy = 50ksi ). If calculated M ux = 200k '

and M uy = 25k ' From chart, with lb = 16' , C b = 1.0 Moment capacity of W14x48 is b M nx = 323k ' 19.6 Z y = 19.6in 3 ; b M n = b Z y Fy = 0.9 50 = 73.5k ' 12 M uy M ux 200 25 + = + = 1.2 > 1.0 b M nx b M ny 232 73.5 Beam is unsafe