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Electrical Technology

Analysis of a Renewable Energy Project Implementation

Analysis of a Renewable Energy Project Analysis

All acclamation and appreciation for almighty Allah the most beneficent and merciful who is the entire source of all kind of wisdom and knowledge. My special praise of the Holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad (peace be upon him) the most perfect and exalted among and of every born on the earth. Who is forever a torch of guidance and knowledge for humanity as a whole? I thanks to Mr. Muhammad Aqeel, Preston University Lahore for his keen interest, useful suggestion, consistent encouragement, incentive teaching, and dynamic supervision throughout the course of his project. Last but not least, I feel my proud privilege to mention the feeling of obligations toward my affectionate parents and family members, who inspired me for higher education and supported financially and morally throughout my study.
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Analysis of a Renewable Energy Project Analysis

TO OUR WORTHY FATHER WHO ALWAYS INSPIRE AND ENCOURAGED ME FOR WHAT I WANT AND GRAFTED IN THE UNTIRING TO GET ON TO HIGHER IDEAL LIFE OUR BELOVED MOTHER & FAMILY MEMBERS WHICH I STRONGLY BELIEVE THAT THEIR PRAYERS ARE WITH ME AND WILL ALWAYS.

Biogas Power Plant

Analysis of a Renewable Energy Project Analysis

Electrical Technology

Group Members
Waseem Abbas Muhammad Rizwan Mudassar Iqbal Safeer Ali Project Submitted To MR Muhammad Aqeel 16E2-112021 16E2-112022 16E2-111501 16E2-111502

Biogas Power Plant

Analysis of a Renewable Energy Project Analysis

CHAPTERS NAME
Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Introduction .. 09 Natural Gas .... 17 Bio Gas .. 25 Design and Analysis .. 35 Project Cost and Cost Analysis 50 Environmental and Social Impact .. . 52 Conclusion 59 Future Enhancement .... 62 References .. 69

Biogas Power Plant

Analysis of a Renewable Energy Project Analysis

Table of Contents
CHAPTER 1
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7

INTRODUCTION

After Reading this Chapter you will be able to: Brief History of Pakistan Roll of Energy in development of Country Energy Requirements in Pakistan Energy Crisis of our Country Starting a Project to overcome Energy Crisis Reason of this project Selecting a place to start a project

CHAPTER 2

NATURAL GAS

After reading this Chapter you will be able to: 2.1 Brief History of Natural Gas 2.2 What is the Natural Gas 2.3 The Formation of Natural Gas 2.4 What is CNG and its uses 2.5 Natural Gas Problems and Hazards 2.6 Comparison of Natural gas and Biogas 2.7 Why we are facing the shortage of Natural Gas

CHAPTER 3
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6

BIOGAS

After reading this Chapter you will be able to: Brief introduction of Biogas Potential of the Biogas Technology Biogas Composition, Properties and Utilization as CNG Government Roll for Biogas projects Biogas Problems and Hazards Performance of Biogas Generator
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CHAPTER 4
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10

DESIGN AND ANALYSIS

After reading this Chapter you will be able to: Concept of the Biogas project The Digestion Process The fermentation slurry Fermentation Slurry As Fertilizer Feed Methods Bio GAS Plant types Design of Biogas Project Analysis of the Biogas Digester Design Uses and implementation Calculation of the Design and Project

CHAPTER 5
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6

PROJECT COST AND COST ANALYSIS

After reading this Chapter you will be able to: Cost of the Bio Digester Cost of the Delivery of material Cost of the Bio Digester Setup Cost of the Labour And Maintenance Total Cost of the Project Cost Comparison With Natural Gas

CHAPTER 6
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5

ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL IMPACT

After reading this Chapter you will be able to: Making a Entire Community on Board Environmental Impact of Project Social Impact of Project Social Implementation of Project Effect on the life of People

Biogas Power Plant

Analysis of a Renewable Energy Project Analysis

CHAPTER 7

CONCLUSION

After reading this Chapter you will be able to: 7.1 Bio gas Project Need 7.2 Operational And Financial Benefits 7.3 How it effect on peoples life 7.4 Biogas and Natural Gas Comparison 7.5 Conclusion

CHAPTER 8

FUTURE ENHANCEMENT

After reading this Chapter you will be able to: 8.1 Energy Production Potential 8.2 Technical Aspects 8.3 Economic Aspects 8.4 Necessary Framework Conditions 8.5 Costly Benefit Of Biogas Plant In Future 8.6 Difficulties 8.7 Observation of the Development

Biogas Power Plant

Analysis of a Renewable Energy Project Analysis

INTRODUCTION
1.1 Brief History of Pakistan
Pakistan officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a sovereign country in South Asia. With a population exceeding 180 million people, it is the sixth most populous country in the world. Located at the crossroads of the strategically important regions of South Asia, Central Asia and Western Asia, Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre (650 mi) coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west and north, Iran to the southwest and China in the far northeast. It is separated from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's narrow Wakhan Corridor in the north. The territory of modern Pakistan was home to several ancient cultures, including the Neolithic Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilization, and has undergone invasions or settlements by Hindu, Persian, Indo-Greek, Islamic, Turco-Mongol, Afghan and Sikh cultures. The area has been ruled by numerous empires and dynasties, including the Indian Mauryan Empire, the Persian Achaemenid Empire, the Arab Umayyad Caliphate, the Mongol Empire, the Mughal Empire, the Durrani Empire, the Sikh Empire and the British Empire. As a result of the Pakistan Movement led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah and India's struggle for independence, Pakistan was created in 1947 as an independent nation for Muslims from the regions in the east and west of India where there was a Muslim majority. Initially a dominion, Pakistan adopted a new constitution in 1956, becoming an Islamic republic. A civil war in 1971 resulted in the secession of East Pakistan as the new country of Bangladesh. Pakistan is a federal parliamentary republic consisting of four provinces and four federal territories.
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It is an ethnically and linguistically diverse country, with a similar variation in its geography and wildlife. A regional and middle power, Pakistan has the seventh largest standing armed forces in the world and is also a nuclear power as well as a declared nuclear weapons state, being the only nation in the Muslim world, and the second in South Asia, to have that status. It has a semiindustrialized economy which is the 27th largest in the world in terms of purchasing power and 47th largest in terms of nominal GDP. Pakistan's post-independence history has been characterized by periods of military rule, political instability and conflicts with neighboring India. The country continues to face challenging problems, including terrorism, poverty, illiteracy and corruption. It is a founding member of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (now the Organization of Islamic Cooperation) and is a member of the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Next Eleven Economies, SAARC, ECO, D8 and the G20 developing nations. Pakistans already strained resources are only going to be stretched further. Almost 42% of the populations are below the poverty line earning less than $1.25US per day. Access to substantial shelter can be limited and clean drinking water is particularly difficult to obtain in rural areas. The compaction of these factors sees the life expectancy in Pakistan at 64 years at birth compared to 81 years at birth in Australia (UNICEF, 2010)

1.2 Roll of Energy in development of Country


Energy is a foundation stone of the modern industrial economy. Energy provides an essential ingredient for almost all human activities: it provides services for cooking and space/water heating, lighting, health, food production and storage, education, mineral extraction, industrial production and transportation. Modern energy services are a powerful engine of economic and social development, and no country has managed to develop much beyond a subsistence economy without ensuring at least minimum access to energy services for a broad section of its population. Throughout the world, the energy resources available to them and their ability to pay largely determine the way in which people live their lives. Nevertheless, it is critical to
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recognize that what people want are the services that energy provides, not fuel or electricity per se. In developing countries, it is widely accepted that poverty will not be reduced without greater use of modern forms of energy. Surpassing the 1 toe/capita per year level of energy use seems to be an important instrument for development and social change. Whilst low energy consumption is not the only cause of poverty and under-development, it does appear to be a close proxy for many of its causes. For example, environmental degradation, poor health care, inadequate water supplies and female and child hardship are often related to low energy consumption.

1.3 Energy Requirements in Pakistan


Changes in the way that energy is delivered to final consumers are taking place around the world. Energy generation, distribution and supply are moving from the public to the private sectors, and governments are now less likely to be directly involved in managing the energy business. Competition between private utilities is becoming more common, with the government role reducing to one of policy, oversight and regulation. There is also a move away from centrally planned generation and supply, with the market determining operational decisions and the allocation of investment funds. These trends are likely to continue, and are affecting developing and industrialized countries alike, with implications for investment in central power generating capacity and grid extensions. The energy shortfall in Pakistan is currently estimated to lie in the 2500-5000 MW range (with 5000 MW being during peak hour timing) and, according to estimates, this energy crisis cost the country $6 billion in 2008 while causing losses upwards of 2% of GDP in 2009-10

1.4 Energy Crisis of our Country


Pakistan has been facing an unprecedented energy crisis since the last few years, which has seriously affected its people. The gap between demand and supply has been constantly widening. People are spending sleepless nights in summer. Acute power outages have seriously paralyzed the commercial and economic activities in the country.
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This acute shortage of power reflects the shortsightedness of our policy makers. Shortage of power supply has assumed the role of a fundamental necessity, becoming a serious policy dilemma. It needs sustained efforts and long-term policies to overcome this crisis. Sincere effort is required to ensure sustained and consistent supply of energy. If we examine the present energy profile of Pakistan, it is meeting its energy requirements from different sources. Pakistan is generating 48 percent of its electricity from gas, 33 percent from hydrel, 17 percent from oil, two percent from nuclear and one percent from coal. If we examine the figures, it is clear that Pakistan is underutilizing its natural resources to generate electricity. One of the dilemmas is the non-exploitation of indigenous resources. We have failed to exploit those resources that nature has bestowed upon us. We have not properly tapped our natural resources, even though we could have met our energy crisis by doing that. Looking into the administrative causes of the energy crisis, lack of proper planning is the most important. Lack of proper conservation methods is another cause of the energy crisis.

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The energy crisis has led to a negative impact on direct foreign investment. Investors require a sustained, secure and cheap power supply in any country. In Pakistan, no such facility is available because of which many investors are not willing to come forth. The long-term solution of the energy crisis is to build mega dams to store water and generate electricity. Government power bodies like WAPDA and KESC should initiate plans to supply energy. In a nutshell, energy is the lifeline of a nation and plays a vital role in national progress and economic development of any country. It needs sincere and dedicated efforts of our policy makers to find solutions to meet the energy requirements of the nation.

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1.5 Starting a Project to overcome Energy Crisis


Most developing countries have good renewable energy resources, including solar energy, wind power, geothermal energy, and biomass. These can help developing countries reduce their dependence on oil and natural gas. Investments in renewable can be less expensive than fossil fuel energy systems. Renewable energy can be particularly suitable for developing countries. In rural and remote areas, transmission and distribution of energy generated from fossil fuels can be difficult and expensive. Producing renewable energy locally can offer a viable alternative. Interest in renewable energies has increased in recent years due to environmental concerns about global warming and air pollution, reduced costs of renewable energy technologies, and improved efficiency and reliability. Pakistan an agrarian economy has a population of 140 million. Looking at the nation's energy demand and living standard of the people, Government of Pakistan is facing an unprecedented energy crisis. Shortage of energy, including both electricity and gas, is considered to be a major road block to Pakistans rapid economic growth and poverty reduction. Biogas technology is one of the reliable and renewable energy sources used for cooking and lighting purposes. In rural areas liquid petroleum gas (LPG) is the only alternative to firewood or coal but LPG prices have already jumped to Rs100 per kilogram that makes LPG unaffordable to the rural communities. Biogas technology has proved to be very successful in the country since it not only produces gas for household purpose but also provides good fertilizer in the form of digested slurry.

1.6 Reason of this project


Pakistan and most of the developing countries are in energy crisis. Pakistan spends almost 7 billion US$ on import of fossil fuels annually to fulfill its energy needs. The renewable and sustainable energy resources are best substitute to the conventional fuels and energy sources. Pakistan takes the opportunity to have almost of its population rural. Having a large amount of animals that give 652 million kg of manure daily from cattle and buffalo only this can be
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used to generate 16.3 million m3 biogas per day and 21 million tons of bio fertilizer per year. So by installing the biogas units we can overcome the energy crisis which we are facing too. They are low-cost and can be run with very small budget. Biogas energy corridor can work as a good substitute for nearly 70% of countrys population residing in rural areas. Energy has a very big importance in the development of any country. Unfortunately, our country is facing a big crisis of Energy since last few years. And we are very keen to find some renewable method to produce energy which would be cheapest, durable and ecological. One of such method is Bio-Gas power plants. There are almost 159 million animals and their manure can be used for generation of biogas in rural areas. Energy production by using animal feces is highly sustainable as it is economically viable, socially acceptable besides being environment friendly. There are almost 35.2million cattle and buffalo assuming that an average animal can produce 10 kg of manure daily would account for almost 352 million kg of dung. If 50% of produced feces is collected and used for biogas production, it will be 176 million kg. According to an estimate about 20 kg wet mass of manure can generate 1cubic meter (m3) biogas therefore producing almost 8.1 million m3 biogas daily. Almost 112 million people in Pakistan are rural residents and biogas can meet their cooking and other energy needs in a good way. Pakistan can also explore biogas potential of citrus pulp, paper industry, slaughter house and street waste as well. Poultry waste is ideal substrate to produce biogas. Thus, Pakistan's biogas support program has been considered one of the most successful programs in the country. This has been the result of standardization of design, an extensive system of quality control and financial incentive provided to the users for the installation of biogas plants The main reasons for starting this project are: 1. To provide clean bio- gaseous fuel mainly for cooking purposes and also for other applications for reducing use of LPG and other conventional fuels. 2. To meet lifeline energy needs for cooking as envisaged in 'Integrated Energy Policy. 3. To provide bio-fertilizer organic manure to reduce use of chemical fertilizers.
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4. To mitigate drudgery of rural women, reduce pressure on forests and accentuate social benefits. 5. To improve sanitation in villages by linking sanitary toilets with biogas plants. 6. To mitigate Climate Change by preventing black carbon and methane emissions.

1.7 Selecting a place to start a project


The town of Kalas Sharif is in South East of Sargodha in the Province of Punjab with a population of 358 people. Of the 86 households spread across the town, at least 71 live below the poverty line. The majority of the population here are agricultural workers and every household owns livestock.

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NATURAL GAS
2.1 Brief History of Natural Gas
From 1947 to the early 1990s, the economy made considerable progress in the transformation from a wood-burning base to modern energy sources. The process remains incomplete. Biogases (the woody residue left over from crushed sugarcane), dung, and firewood furnished about 32 percent of all energy in FY 1988. Some localities had been denuded of firewood, forcing the local population to use commercial energy sources, such as kerosene or charcoal. Domestic sources of commercial energy accounted for 77 percent of all commercial energy in FY 1990. The major domestic energy resources are natural gas, oil, and hydroelectric power. The remainders of energy requirements are met by imports of oil and oil products. Crude oil production increased sharply in the 1980s, from almost 4.0 million barrels in FY 1982 to 22.4 million barrels in FY 1992. This increase was the result of the discovery and development of new oil fields. Despite this expanded production, however, about 28 million barrels of crude oil were imported annually in the early 1990s. The production from domestic oil refineries also rose in the 1980s, reaching 42 million barrels annually in the early 1990s. However, oil products imports accounted for about 30 percent of the value of all oil imports. Pakistan vigorously pursued oil exploration in the 1980s and early 1990s and made a number of new discoveries. In the early 1990s, the most productive oil field was at Dhurnal in Punjab, accounting for 21 percent of total output in FY 1993. The Badin area in southern Sindh was the site of a number of discoveries in the 1980s, and its proportion of total output has continued to increase over the years. In the early 1990s, more favorable terms on pricing and repatriation of profits stimulated the interest of foreign oil companies. About twenty foreign companies are engaged in oil exploration, but poor security for workers and property in remote areas of Baluchistan and Sindh remains a significant constraint on foreign investment.

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The large Sui natural gas field in Baluchistan was discovered after independence. Production at Sui began in 1955 and peaked in 1985. In the early 1990s, it remained the nation's most productive gas field, accounting for 46 percent of production in FY 1993. The second largest gas field, also located in Baluchistan at Mari, accounted for 20 percent of all production. Twenty-five gas fields were operational in FY 1993. Natural gas pipelines, in which the government owns controlling shares, link the Sui gas field and a few others to the main population centers and the major crude oil production areas. The southern pipeline leads from Sui to Hyderabad and Karachi, and a spur supplies Quetta. The northern pipeline branches at Faisalabad. One branch goes a little farther north of Lahore; the other branch is connected to the crude oil fields and supplies gas to Islamabad and Peshawar. There are plans for a new gas pipeline through which Iran would export natural gas to Pakistan.

2.2 What is the Natural Gas


Natural gas, in itself, might be considered an uninteresting gas - it is colorless, shapeless, and odorless in its pure form. Natural gas is a combustible mixture of hydrocarbon gases. While natural gas is formed primarily of methane, it can also include ethane, propane, butane and pentane. The composition of natural gas can vary widely, but below is a chart outlining the typical makeup of natural gas before it is refined. Typical Composition of Natural Gas Methane Ethane Propane Butane Carbon Dioxide Oxygen Nitrogen Hydrogen sulphide Rare gases
Biogas Power Plant

CH4 C2H6 C3H8 C4H10 CO2 O2 N2 H2S A, He, Ne, Xe

70-90% 0-20% 0-8% 0-0.2% 0-5% 0-5% trace


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Analysis of a Renewable Energy Project Analysis


In its purest form, such as the natural gas that is delivered to your home, it is almost pure methane. Methane is a molecule made up of one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms, and is referred to as CH4. The distinctive rotten egg smell that we often associate with natural gas is actually an odorant called mercaptan that is added to the gas before it is delivered to the end-user. Mercaptan aids in detecting any leaks. Natural gas is considered 'dry' when it is almost pure methane, having had most of the other commonly associated hydrocarbons removed. When other hydrocarbons are present, the natural gas is 'wet'. Natural gas is considered 'dry' when it is almost pure methane, having had most of the other commonly associated hydrocarbons A Methane molecule, CH4 removed. When other hydrocarbons are present, the natural gas is 'wet.' Source: USGS Natural gas can be measured in a number of different ways. As a gas, it can be measured by the volume it takes up at normal temperatures and pressures, commonly expressed in cubic feet. Production and distribution companies commonly measure natural gas in thousands of cubic feet (Mcf), millions of cubic feet (MMcf), or trillions of cubic feet (Tcf). While measuring by volume is useful, natural gas can also be measured as a source of energy. Like other forms of energy, natural gas is commonly measured and expressed in British thermal units (Btu). One Btu is the amount of natural gas that will produce enough energy to heat one pound of water by one degree at normal pressure. To give an idea, one cubic foot of natural gas contains about 1,027 Btus. When natural gas is delivered to a residence, it is measured by the gas utility in 'therms' for billing purposes. A therm is equivalent to 100,000 Btu, or just over 97 cubic feet, of natural gas.

2.3 The Formation of Natural Gas


Natural gas is a fossil fuel. Like oil and coal, this means that it is, essentially, the remains of plants and animals and microorganisms that lived millions and millions of years ago. But how do these once living organisms become an inanimate mixture of gases? There are many different theories as to the origins of fossil fuels. The most widely accepted theory says that fossil fuels are formed when organic matter (such as the remains of a plant or animal) is compressed under the earth, at very high pressure for a very long time. This is
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referred to as thermogenic methane. Similar to the formation of oil, thermogenic methane is formed from organic particles that are covered in mud and other sediment. Over time, more and more sediment and mud and other debris are piled on top of the organic matter. This sediment and debris puts a great deal of pressure on the organic matter, which compresses it. This compression, combined with high temperatures found deep underneath the earth, breaks down the carbon bonds in the organic matter. As one gets deeper and deeper under the earths crust, the temperature gets higher and higher. At low temperatures (shallower deposits), more oil is produced relative to natural gas. At higher temperatures, however, more natural gas is created, as opposed to oil. That is why natural gas is usually associated with oil in deposits that are 1 to 2 miles below the earth's crust. Deeper deposits, very far underground, usually contain primarily natural gas, and in many cases, pure methane. Natural gas can also be formed through the transformation of organic matter by tiny microorganisms. This type of methane is referred to as biogenic methane. Methanogens, tiny methane-producing microorganisms, chemically break down organic matter to produce methane. These microorganisms are commonly found in areas near the surface of the earth that are void of oxygen. These microorganisms also live in the intestines of most animals, including humans. Formation of methane in this manner usually takes place close to the surface of the earth, and the methane produced is usually lost into the atmosphere. In certain circumstances, however, this methane can be trapped underground, recoverable as natural gas. A third way in which methane (and natural gas) may be formed is through abiogenic processes. Extremely deep under the earth's crust, there exist hydrogen-rich gases and carbon molecules. As these gases gradually rise towards the surface of the earth, they may interact with minerals that also exist underground, in the absence of oxygen. This interaction may result in a reaction, forming elements and compounds that are found in the atmosphere (including nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, argon, and water). If these gases are under very high pressure as they move toward the surface of the earth, they are likely to form methane deposits, similar to thermogenic methane.

2.4 What is CNG and its uses


CNG is a readily available alternative to gasoline thats made by compressing natural gas to less than 1% of its volume at standard atmospheric pressure. Consisting mostly of methane, CNG is odorless, colorless and tasteless. It's drawn from domestically drilled natural gas wells or in conjunction with crude oil production.
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Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is a substitute for gasoline (petrol) or diesel fuel. It is considered to be an environmentally "clean" alternative to those fuels. It is made by compressing methane (CH4) extracted from natural gas. It is stored distributed in hard containers, usually cylinders.

2.5 Natural Gas Advantages and Disadvantages


Advantages:
Natural gas (largely methane) burns more cleanly than the other fossil fuels (45% less carbon dioxide emitted than coal and 30% less than oil) It is easily transported via pipelines and fairly easily using tankers (land and sea) It can be piped into homes to provide heating and cooking and to run a variety of appliances. Where homes are not piped, it can be supplied in small tanks. It can be used as a fuel for vehicles (cars, trucks and jet engines) where it is cleaner than gasoline or diesel. It is used to produce ammonia for fertilizers, and hydrogen, as well as in the production of some plastics and paints. It's relatively abundant, clean burning and seems easy to distribute. It's also lighter than air, so if there is a leak it will tend to dissipate, unlike propane, which is heavier than air and pools into explosive pockets. It can be used for heating, cooking, hot water, clothes dryer, backup generator power, and so forth. Some places will supply it to your house by way of underground pipes. Natural gas is more economical than electricity, it is faster when used in cooking and water heating and most gas appliances are cheaper than electrical ones. Gas appliances also do not create unhealthy electrical fields in your house.

Disadvantages:
Even though it is cleaner than coal and oil, it still contributes a large amount of carbon dioxide to greenhouse gases. By itself natural gas is mostly methane, which is 21 times more dangerous for greenhouse warming than carbon dioxide so any leakage of the gas (from animals, landfills, melting tundra, etc) contributes strongly to greenhouse emissions. If your house is not properly insulated it can be very expensive.
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It can leak, potentially causing an explosion.

2.6 Comparison of Natural gas and Biogas


An environmentally friendly and efficient energy source, natural gas is the cleanest-burning conventional fuel, producing lower levels of greenhouse gas emissions than heavier hydrocarbon fuels such as coal and oil. Historically, natural gas also has been one of the most economical energy sources. Natural gas fuels electric power generators, heats buildings and is used as a raw material in many consumer products, such as those made of traditional plastics.

Natural Gas
It is obtained in natural form. It is available in large quantities. It is used as a source of power.
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It is also used as raw material in petrochemical industries. It is supplied for household use as LPG (Liquefied petroleum Gas) and also used for running vehicles as CNG (Compressed Natural Gas).

Biogas
It is obtained from shrubs, farm wastes, animal and human wastes. It is available in limited quantities. It is used mostly in rural areas. It is not used as raw material. Decomposition of organic matter yields gas, which has higher thermal efficiency in comparison to kerosene, dung cake and charcoal. It gives no smoke. Hence, quite useful.

2.7 Why we are facing the shortage of Natural Gas

CNG has grown into one of the major fuel sources used in car engines in Pakistan. The government of Punjab, the most populous province of that country, has mandated that all
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public-transport vehicles will use CNG by 2007. Pakistan is the largest user of CNG in Asia, and third largest in the world, as of 2005. The ongoing crisis took root in 2004, when the government had decided to use natural gas to fuel automobiles. The decision had been taken in order to slash the fuel import bill, which was soaring due to high petrol prices. Another objective behind the use of CNG as a fuel was elimination environmental hazards, because CNG is much more environmentally-friendly then other fuels. However, things have changed. According to sources in Sui Northern Gas Pipelines (SNGPL), the current annual production of CNG is increasing by 7%, against growth in demand of nearly 40%. This shows that the annual shortfall of CNG is more than 400%. Similarly, the total output of gas pipeline companies in the country is around about 2,000 million cubic feet per day (mmcfd), while consumption is 2,800mmcfd. Along with private vehicles, public transportation has also converted from diesel or petrol to CNG since then. Pakistan stands first in the list of countries where CNG is the primary means of fueling vehicles. 22% of all automobiles on the road in Pakistan 3.5 million in total run on CNG. Due all above reasons we are facing shortage of Natural Gas.

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BIOGAS
3.1 Brief introduction of Biogas
In the present era of ever-increasing energy consumption and dwindling fossil fuel reserves, the importance of biomass based, decentralized fuel such as Biogas and Biomass based power generation has been greatly increased. It is a well established renewable and environment friendly fuel for rural energy needs. Biogas is ideally suited for rural applications where required animal or human excreta and agricultural waste are available in plenty. Harnessing such a resource promotes rural industries, agriculture, dairy and animal farming in a sustainable way. This will also increase employment in the rural regions and discourage migration to cities. Biogas as a renewable energy source could be an alternate means of solving the problems of energy crisis. Agriculture has the key importance in the economy of Pakistan. Agriculture has remained the basis of the Pakistans Economy as it provides employment to 45 percent population and provides input for agro based industry. The major limiting factor is energy which is responsible for impede in developing economies .In Pakistan almost 20% of the foreign exchange is spent on import of fossil fuels. The given survey shows the increase in the energy consumption of fuels and electricity in Pakistan of last five years. Pakistan is currently facing an unprecedented energy crisis. Shortage of energy, including both electricity and gas, is considered to be a major road block to Pakistans rapid economic gro wth and poverty reduction. The prices of both continue to increase due to a sharp increase in their demand, adding to the worries of the crises-hit dwellers. The consumers are facing many difficulties because of gas load shedding. In rural areas LPG is the only alternative to firewood or coal but LPG prices have already jumped to Rs100 per kilogram that makes LPG unaffordable to the rural communities.
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Due to non-consideration of daily production we are now facing the shortage of Natural gas. The main reason of shortage is the high fuel prices. In response to high fuel prices and environmental concerns, compressed Natural gas (CNG) is starting to be used in light-duty passenger vehicles and pickup trucks, medium-duty delivery trucks, and in transit and school buses. In present scenario, it is almost impossible for the Government to provide sui-gas facility to the residents of rural areas. However, the Biogas Plants act as a useful source for providing gas facility to the households. Pakistan has a great potential for domestic biogas because of the availability of sufficient animal dung, water, ambient temperature, the availability of construction materials, enough space for plant installation, freedom from floods, and availability of human resources for the construction of plant. Now we are facing the lack of Natural Gas Resources. And the main Reason of shortage of Natural Gas is that its use as CNG. So now we need to find some renewable method to produce energy which would be cheapest and ecological. One of such method is Bio-Gas Using biogas in gas engines promotes proper waste disposal and provides an efficient, profit able, low-emission energy supply. In addition, the end products of biogas fermentation can be used as fertilizer. Biogas typically refers to a gas produced by the biological breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Organic waste such as dead plant and animal material, animal dung, and kitchen waste can be converted into a gaseous fuel called biogas. Biogas originates from biogenic material and is a type of bio fuel. Biogas is produced by the anaerobic digestion or fermentation of biodegradable materials such as biomass, manure, sewage, municipal waste, green waste, plant material, and crops. Biogas comprises primarily methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) and may have small amounts of hydrogen sulphide (H2S), moisture and siloxanes. The gases methane, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide (CO) can be combusted or oxidized with oxygen. This energy release allows biogas to be used as a fuel. Biogas can be used as a fuel in any country for any heating purpose, such as cooking. It can also be used in aerobic digesters where it is typically used in gas engine to convert energy in the gas into electricity and heat.
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Biogas is an environment friendly, clean, cheap and versatile fuel. Biogas is produced by anaerobic digestion of degradable wastes such as cattle dung, vegetable wastes, sheep and poultry droppings, municipal solid waste, sewage water, land fill etc. Presently the biogas is mainly used for cooking and lighting purposes in the rural areas. The use of biogas in stationary engines used for different agricultural operations is going on. Its utilization is also feasible in automobiles, used for transportation purposes by enriching and compressing it in cylinders. Biogas can be converted in bio CNG after enrichment and bottling. It becomes just like CNG. Biogas is somewhat lighter than air and has an ignition temperature of approximately 700 C (diesel oil 350 C; petrol and propane about 500 C). The temperature of the flame is 870 C. Biogas consists of about 60 % methane (CH4) and 40 % carbon dioxide (CO2). It also contains small proportions of other substances, including up to 1% hydrogen sulphide (H2S). The methane content and hence the calorific value is higher the longer the digestion process. The methane content falls to as little as 50% if retention time is short. If the methane content is considerably below 50 %, biogas is no longer combustible. The first gas from a newly filled biogas plant contains too little methane. The gas formed in the first three to five days must therefore be discharged unused. The methane content depends on the digestion temperature. Low digestion temperatures give high methane content, but less gas is then produced. The methane content depends on the feed material. Some typical values are as follows: Cattle manure 65% Poultry manure 60% Pig manure 67% Farmyard manure 55% Straw 59% Grass 70% Leaves 58% Kitchen waste 50% Algae 63% Water hyacinths 52%
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3.2 Potential of the Biogas Technology


So far, biogas has mostly been used as fuel for cooking and running stationary engines. However, its potential has not fully utilized, yet. There is a great enhancement in its utilization potential particularly where bigger plants are in operation e.g. institutional biogas plants in Gaushalas, dairy farms or community biogas plants in villages. Gaushalas are running generally on charity basis and most of Gaushalas are not in sound financial position. Enrichment and bottling of biogas will help to improve it. The family Biogas plants in the country are estimated to be saving 39.6 lakh tones of fuelwood per year. Besides, about 9.2 lakh tones of enriched organic manure are being produced every year from these plants. There are number of Gaushalas, dairies, village communities having large number of cattle which have potential of installing biogas enrichment and bottling system. In urban areas, large quantity of biogas can be produced in sewage treatment plants using anaerobic digestion. Due to rising cost of petroleum products and environmental concerns it has become imperative to make use of local resources as an alternate to petroleum fuels. There for it is worldwide trend to explore and make use of biogas as an alternate fuel in vehicles.

3.3 Biogas Composition, Properties and Utilization as CNG


Biogas comprises of 60-65% methane, 35-40 % carbon dioxide, 0.5-1.0 % hydrogen sulfide and rests of water vapour. It is almost 20% lighter than air. Biogas, like Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) cannot be converted to liquid state under normal temperature. Removing carbon dioxide and compressing it into cylinders makes it easily usable for transport applications, say three wheelers, cars, pick up vans etc and also for stationary applications at various long distances. Already, CNG technology has become easily available and therefore, bio-methane (enriched biogas) which is nearly same as CNG, can be used for all applications for which CNG are used.

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Analysis of a Renewable Energy Project Analysis 3.3.1 Conversion Technologies


Biomass can be converted into biogas by anaerobic digestion technology. Anaerobic Digestion Technology is consisting of three distinct stages. In the first stage complex biomass material is decomposed by a heterogeneous set of microorganisms, not necessarily confined to anaerobic environments. These decompositions comprise mainly of cellulosic material to simple glucose, using enzymes provided by the coorganisms as catalyst. Similarly proteins are decomposed to amino acids and lipids to long chain acids. The significant result of the first phrase is the most of the biomass is now water soluble and in a simpler chemical form suited for the next process step.

The second stage involves dehydrogenation, such as changing glucose into acetic acid, carboxylation of the amino acids, and breaking down the long chain fatty acids into short chain acids, again obtaining acetic acid as the final product. These reactions are fermentation reactions accomplished by a range of acidophilic (acid-forming) bacteria. Their optimum performance requires a PH environment in the range 6-7 (slightly acidic), but the acid already formed will lower the PH of the solution, it is sometimes necessary to adjust the PH, for example by adding the lime. Finally the third phase is the production of biogas from acetic acid by a second set of fermentation reactions performed by methanogenic bacteria. These bacteria require a strictly anaerobic environment. Often, all processes into stages will allow greater efficiencies to be reached. The third phase takes the order of weeks, the preceding phases on the order of hours or days, depending on the nature of the feed stock.
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Analysis of a Renewable Energy Project Analysis 3.3.2 Biogas Enrichment Process


A variety of processes are available for enrichment i.e. removing CO2, H2S and water vapour. Commonly CO2 removal processes also remove H2S. One of the easiest and cheapest methods involves is the use of pressurized water as an absorbent liquid. In this method, the biogas is pressurized and fed to the bottom of a scrubber column where water is sprayed from the top. In counter-currently operated absorption process, the carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide present in the biogas is absorbed in down going water and methane goes up and collected in vessel. However, water requirement in this process is high but it is the simplest method of removing impurities from biogas.

3.3.3 Concept of Alternative Bio-CNG


Biogas contains a large proportion (about 40 % by volume) of carbon dioxide, a heavier and non combustible gas and some fraction of hydrogen sulphide. Hence it is needed to enrich biogas by removing these undesirable gases to save compression energy and space in bottle and corroding effect, which can be done by scrubbing. The scrubbing system is found to enrich methane about 95 % or more depending upon biogas inlet and water injection pressure. Biogas can be used for all applications designed for natural gas, assuming sufficient purification.

3.3.4 Scope of the Technique


Enriched biogas is made moisture free by passing it through filters after that it is compressed up to 200 bar pressure using a three stage gas compressor. Compressed gas is stored in high pressure steel cylinders as used for CNG. There is large potential of this technology in buses, tractors, cars, auto rickshaws, irrigation pump sets and in rural industries. This will help to meet our energy demand for rural masses thus reduces burden of petroleum demand, moves towards energy security and will improve economic status by creating employment generation in rural area.

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Analysis of a Renewable Energy Project Analysis

3.4 Government Roll for Biogas projects


The Government has formed a council for renewable energy technology named as Pakistan Council for Renewable Energy technology (PCRET).Which is working for the development of the biogas plants in the country. With the energy crisis in Pakistan getting worse day by day, biogas plants in rural areas can play a major role in decreasing the burden on the national energy grids. Even in the developed countries like UK, biogas plants are being built and encouraged with the help of government funds and many other incentives. In our neighboring country India, there are almost two millions biogas plants Pakistans 70 percent population lives in the rural areas. Most farmers have two or more cows/buffalos. The dung from these cattle mixed with an equal proportion of water can be used to produce biogas in a biogas plant. This biogas can then be used for cooking purposes or to generate electricity through a gas fired engine whereas the residue from this plant can be used as a fertilizer. Typically, 50 kg cow dung is required to produce 100 cubic feet of biogas that is sufficient to fulfill the daily requirements of a family of five or six members. About 4,137 biogas plants were installed in Pakistan with the help of the government in the period 1974 to 1987. The government fully funded the first 100 installations and later on withdrew the financial support. Since then, the growth rate of this technology dropped drastically and only 6,000 biogas plants were installed till the end of 2006. Pakistan Centre for Renewable Energy Technologies (PCRET) has already installed and supported 4,000 biogas plants with only 50 percent financial contribution from beneficiaries. Now PCRET is going to install 368 biogas plants in rural areas of Pakistan. Also Strategy& Business Development at KESC to discuss about the upcoming renewable power project base primarily on animal waste. hay have started the project of producing biogas from animal manure and the dairy farms honors have signed an agreement of supplying 3000 tons per day to the KESC and the production power of the plant will be 20-25 MW.
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The Initial Environment Examination (IEE) conducted for the Pakistan Domestic Biogas Program, proposed to be implemented by the Rural Support Program Network (RSPN), Pakistan. The program envisions setting up 300,000 domestic biogas plants across Pakistan within 10 years of time.

3.4.1

Available Feed Stocks

As previously described in the manure of the live stock animals, biogases, field grass, straw, and different types of cellulosic material and organic wastes are the raw material for the production of biogas. Urban areas of Pakistan generate over 55000 tones of solid wastes daily. More than a total of 15 million layer-chicken and 528 broiler chicken birds were approximately produced in 2003 with a share of 22%, 68%, 3.5% and 6.5% of Sindh, Punjab, Baluchistan and NWFP Provinces respectively. According to unofficial estimates, hardly 5 to10% poultry farms have membership of Pakistan Poultry Association (PPA). As per livestock Census 2006 there are 56.9 million animals (Buffaloes, cow, and bullocks) in Pakistan. . On the average the daily dung dropping of medium size of animal is estimated15 kg per day. This would Yield 854 million kg dung/day. Assuming 50 % connectivity the availability of fresh dung comes out to be 427million kg/day. Thus 21.35 million m3 Biogas can be produced through bio-methanation. In addition it will also produce 450 million _ones of bio-fertilizer per day.

3.4.2

Current Capacity and Production

Biogas Technology is an environment friendly technology. It contributes towards eco System management and biodiversity conservation. It provides soot-free clean gas for meeting domestic fuel needs as well as enriched bio fertilizer for improvement of Fertility/productivity of agricultural lands. The dung from animal is the source of biogas. The raw material is available in Punjab, NWFP, Sindh and some parts of Baluchistan. So far PCRET has installed 3500 biogas plants (with net generation capacity of 14395 M3 / day) on cost sharing basis throughout Pakistan.

3.5 Biogas Problems and Hazards


Biogas is really no more dangerous than other fuels such as wood, gasoline, or bottled gas. But just as these fuels have their ways of being dangerous, Biogas Face it, anything that can cook meals and fuel an engine can also burn people.
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Analysis of a Renewable Energy Project Analysis


It is very important that if a digester is built underground, that it is built in a place that never floods. If an above ground digester is built in an area that sometimes floods, make sure that the openings into the digester are above the high water mark. If a digester is built in an area that does have floods, safety measures should be taken in advance so that the gas can escape in case the digester and/or the gas storage tank are flooded. Failure to do so could result in dangerous, uncontrolled release of biogas and if the digester is a plastic bag, it could float up and away. An upside-down "T" pipe should be placed at the highest vertical point in the gas pipe line above the gas outlet from the digester. A vertical pipe and a gate valve should be joined to the stem of the upside-down "T" pipe. The gate valve can then be opened to release the biogas if a flood threatens to cover either the digester or the gas storage tank. The following is a list of safety measures that should be read with great care before a biogas system is built: Regularly check the whole system for leaks. Always maintain a positive pressure in the system. The engine room floor must be at or above ground level to avoid the buildup of heavier than air gases. The engine room roof must be vented at its highest point to allow lighter-than-air gases to escape. This is also true for greenhouses that have biogas digesters, engines, or burners in them. The engine exhaust pipe must be extended so that the dangerous and deadly exhaust gases are released outside the building. Metal digesters and gas storage tanks must have wires to lead lightning to the ground. Gas lines must drain water into condensation traps. No smoking or open flames should be allowed near biogas digesters and gas storage tanks, especially when checking for gas leaks. Methane, the flammable part of biogas, is a lesser danger to life than many other fuels. However, in the making and using of an invisible fuel, dangerous situations can arise unexpectedly and swiftly--such as when a gas pipe is accidentally cut. On the other hand, precaution can be exaggerated.
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Analysis of a Renewable Energy Project Analysis


When cars first appeared on the roads, a man waving a red flag came first. Remember the ABC's (Always Be Careful)

3.5.1 Health Hazards


Health hazards are associated with the handling of night soil and with the use of sludge from untreated human excrete as fertilizer. In general, published data indicate that a digestion time of 14 days at 35 C is effective in killing (99.9 per cent die-off rate) the enteric bacterial pathogens and the enteric group of viruses. However, the die-off rate for roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides) and hookworm (Ancylostoma) is only 90 per cent, which is still high. In this context, biogas production would provide a public health benefit beyond that of any other treatment in managing the rural health environment of developing countries.

3.6 Performance of a Biogas Generator


In the course of past three years, Biogas generators have been installed at a number of user situations at different sites for more than 300 hours without any trouble. The initial difficulties experienced during starting have also been eliminated and users have been satisfied with the field performance of these engines. On an average, derating to the extent of 50-55% of power output in diesel mode has been achieved. With manual control, the engine runs stably. It is able to maintain the speed variation within 10% from no-load to full-load condition. This speed variation does not cause any tangible deterioration in performance in actual applications. Even with higher compression ratios as used in diesel engines (16-18) no knocking has been observed with the present design of the kits. The typical performance of converted biogas engine in terms of specific fuel consumption for various engine outputs is shown in fig.3 and the comparative performance of converted biogas engine and the original diesel engine is shown in fig 4. The derating effect is also indicated. On the basis of these assessments, it is concluded that the conversion kits are quite satisfactory for field applications.

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Analysis of a Renewable Energy Project Analysis

DESIGN AND ANALYSIS


4.1 Concept Of The Biogas Project
The concept of a biogas settler is to treat the waste products entering it to create a usable gas and a safe product to be used for fertilization. The design of a biogas settler is similar to that of a septic tank, however the design incorporates the ability of biogas to be harnessed and stored. The by-products of the fertilization and biogas are possible through a process called anaerobic digestion. The airtight chamber develops sludge at its bottom and with the lack of oxygen in the chamber a chemical reaction takes place that creates a methane rich biogas that is able to be used in household gas appliances such as stoves and lamps. With the lack of oxygen in the chamber, and as the influent may take 60-80 days to pass through the system, most harmful pathogens are destroyed and the effluent liquid and slurry are able to be used for fertilization of the surrounding farmland, reducing the waste and increasing the sanitation of the area. The use of a biogas settler is ideal in this situation as the initial cost of the unit is relatively low, it requires little maintenance, has no energy consumption as opposed to many similar design that may be affected by flood, the biogas settler will not be affected by its location in such a wet area. The advantages of the settler far outweigh its negatives, one of which being the removal of the sludge; approximately every 5 years the sludge will accumulate to a level at which it will need to be removed and whilst many of the harmful pathogens have been removed by this stage, it is required to be done by skilled personnel. This sludge will usually then is placed in a drying bed before it is used for fertilization. Large retention times on the influent and warmer temperatures of the chamber are ideal in
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Analysis of a Renewable Energy Project Analysis


the treatment of the effluent to increase the effectiveness of the removal of harmful products, resulting in by-products higher nutrients and more suitable for uses as fertilization. Ideally the hydraulic retention time (HRT) would be close to 100 days and chamber temperature would be close to 55C to ensure pathogens are destroyed. By placing the chamber below ground, the temperature can be regulated much more easily with the chemical reactions inside creating its own heat within the chamber. An expert design is then required to ensure the HRT is as large as possible whilst still producing a consistent amount of biogas for the colonys demands. Once biogas is initiated, the pressure level within the main chamber is increased, for this reason a compensation tank is needed. Connected to the lower of the main chamber, as pressure increases, the sludge is then forced through a pipe into the compensation chamber, thus reducing the absolute pressure in the main chamber and preventing fractures in the frame. This compensation tank is then open to atmosphere as the sludge stored within it is practically harmless and can be placed within the drying beds. The benefits of a biogas plant seem endless- low construction costs, low running costs and a clean source of energy. However the system can have some downsides, such as gas loss if chamber suffers a fracture and the dependence on the community to participate in the use and production of the biogas plant.

4.2 The Digestion Process


Biogas is produced by putrefactive bacteria, which break down organic material under airless conditions. This process is called "anaerobic digestion". The digestion process consists of two main phases: Acid formation, Methane formation In the first phase, protein, carbohydrate and fat give rise to fatty acids, amino acids and alcohols. Methane, carbon dioxide and ammonia form in the second phase. The slurry
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Analysis of a Renewable Energy Project Analysis


becomes somewhat thinner during the process of digestion. The better the two phases merge into each other, the shorter the digestion process. The conditions for this are particularly favorable in the "fermentation channel" arrangement. The following types of digestion are distinguished according to the temperature in the digester: psychrophilic digestion (10-20 C, retention time over 100 days), mesophilic digestion (20-35 C, retention time over 20 days), thermophilic digestion (50-60 C, retention time over 8 days). Thermophilic digestion is not an option for simple plants. The pH of the fermentation slurry indicates whether the digestion process is proceeding without disturbance. The pH should be about 7. This means that the slurry should be neither alkaline nor acid. Biogas can in principle be obtained from any organic material. Cattle manure can be used as a "starter". Feed material containing lingn in, such as straw, should be pre composted and preferably chopped before digestion. More than ten days' preliminary rotting is best for water hyacinths. Gas production is substantially improved if the preliminary rotting time is twenty days.

4.3 The Fermentation Slurry


All feed materials consist of organic solids, inorganic solids, water The biogas is formed by digestion of the organic substances. The inorganic materials (minerals and metals) are unused ballast, which is unaffected by the digestion process. Adding water or urine gives the substrate fluid properties. This is important for the operation of a biogas plant. It is easier for the methane bacteria to come into contact with feed material
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Analysis of a Renewable Energy Project Analysis


which is still fresh when the slurry is liquid. This accelerates the digestion process. Regular stirring thus speeds up the gas production. Slurry with a solids content of 5-10% is particularly well suited to the operation of continuous biogas plants. Example: Fresh cattle manure is made up of 16 % solids and 84% water. The cattle dung is mixed with water in the proportions of 1:1. The prepared fermentation slurry then has a solids content of 8% and a water content of 92%. All feed materials consist to a great extent of carbon (C) and also contain nitrogen (N). The C/N ratio affects gas production. C/N ratios of 20:1 to 30:1 are particularly favorable. Mixtures of nitrogen-rich feed material (e.g., poultry manure) and carbon-rich feed material (e.g., rice husks) give high gas production.

4.4 Fermentation Slurry As Fertilizer


During the digestion process, gaseous nitrogen (N) is converted to ammonia (NH3). In this water-soluble form the nitrogen is available to the plants as a nutrient. A particularly nutrientrich fertilizer is obtained if not only dung but also urine is digested. Compared with solid sludge from fermented straw and grass, the liquid slurry is rich in nitrogen and potassium. The solid fermentation sludge, on the other hand, is relatively richer in phosphorus. A mixture of solid and liquid fermented material gives the best yields. The nutrient ratio is then approximately N:P2O5:K2O= 1:0.5:1. Fermented slurry with a lower C/N ratio has better fertilizing characteristics. Compared with fresh manure, increases in yield of 5 - 15 % are possible. Particularly good harvests are obtained from the combined use of compost and fermentation slurry. The fertilization effect depends on the type of crop and on the soil. Information given in specialized literature is seldom applicable directly. Tests of one's own are always better. Reliable information is possible only after three to five years. When fermentation slurry is used as fertilizer for years, the soil structure is improved. The
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Analysis of a Renewable Energy Project Analysis


proportion of organic materials in the soil is increased, enabling the soil to store more water. If fermentation slurry is to be stored before spreading on the field, it should be covered with earth in layers. This reduces evaporative nitrogen losses even further.

4.5 Feed Methods


A distinction is made between batch and continuous plants. Batch plants are filled completely and then emptied completely after a fixed retention time. Each design and each fermentation material is suitable for batch filling. Large gasholders or a number of digesters are required for uniform gas supply from batch plants. Continuous plants are filled and emptied regularly -normally daily. Each design is suitable for continuous operation, but the feed material must be flow able and uniform. Continuous plants empty automatically through the overflow. Continuous plants are more suitable for rural households. The necessary work fits better into the daily round. Gas production is constant, and somewhat higher than in batch plants. If straw and dung are to be digested together, a biogas plant can be operated on a semi batch basis. The slowly digested straw-type material is fed in about twice a year as a batch load. The dung is added and removed regularly.

4.6 Bio GAS Plant Types


Three main types of simple biogas plants can be distinguished (see Figure): balloon plants, fixed-dome plants, Floating-drum plants. See the figure below. A. Floating-drum plant B. Fixed-dome plant C. Fixed-dome plant with separate gas holder. The gas pressure is kept constant by the
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Analysis of a Renewable Energy Project Analysis


floating gasholder. The unit can be operated as a continuous overflow-type plant with no compensating tank. The use of an agitator is recommended.

D. Balloon plant E. Channel-type digester with folia and sunshade

4.6.1 Balloon Plants


A balloon plant consists of a plastic or rubber digester bag, in the upper part of which the gas is stored. The inlet and outlet are attached direct to the skin of the balloon. When the gas space is full, the plant works like a fixed-dome plant - i.e., the balloon is not inflated; it is not very elastic. The fermentation slurry is agitated slightly by the movement of the balloon skin. This is favorable to the digestion process. Even difficult feed materials, such as water hyacinths, can be used in a balloon plant. The balloon material must be UV-resistant. Materials which have been used successfully include RMP (red mud plastic), Trivia and butyl. Advantages: Low cost, ease of transportation, low construction (important if the water table is high), high
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Analysis of a Renewable Energy Project Analysis


digester temperatures, uncomplicated cleaning, emptying and maintenance. Disadvantages: Short life (about five years), easily damaged, and does not create employment locally, little scope for self-help. Balloon plants can be recommended wherever the balloon skin is not likely to be damaged and where the temperature is even and high. One variant of the balloon plant is the channel-type digester with folia and sunshade.

4.6.2 Fixed-Dome Plants


A fixed-dome plant (Figure) consists of an enclosed digester with a fixed, non-movable gas space.

Fixed-dome plant 1. Mixing tank with inlet pipe. 2. Digester. 3. Compensating and removal tank. 4. Gasholder. 5. Gas pipe. 6. Entry hatch, with gaslight seal and weighted.
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Analysis of a Renewable Energy Project Analysis


7. Difference in level = gas pressure in cm WC. 8. Supernatant scum; broken up by varying level. 9. Accumulation of thick sludge. 10. Accumulation of grit and stones. 11. Zero line: filling height without gas pressure. The gas is stored in the upper part of the digester. When gas production commences, the slurry is displaced into the compensating tank. Gas pressure increases with the volume of gas stored; therefore the volume of the digester should not exceed 20 m. If there is little gas in the holder, the gas pressure is low. If the gas is required at constant pressure (e.g., for engines), a gas pressure regulator or a floating gasholder is required. Engines require a great deal of gas, and hence large gasholders. The gas pressure then becomes too high if there is no floating gasholder. Advantages: Low construction cost, no moving parts, no rusting steel parts, hence long life (20 years or more), underground construction, affording protection from winter cold and saving space, creates employment locally. Disadvantages: Plants often not gaslight (porosity and cracks), gas pressure fluctuates substantially and is often very high, low digester temperatures. Fixed-dome plants can be recommended only where construction can be supervised by experienced biogas technicians.

4.6.3 Floating-Drum Plants


Floating-drum plants (Figure) consist of a digester and a moving gasholder. The gasholder floats either direct on the fermentation slurry or in a water jacket of its own. The gas collects in the gas drum, which thereby rises. If gas is drawn off, it falls again. The gas drum is prevented from tilting by a guide frame.

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Analysis of a Renewable Energy Project Analysis

Floating-drum plant 1. Mixing tank with inlet pipe. 2. Digester. 3. Overflow on outlet pipe. 4. Gasholder with braces for breaking up surface scum. 5. Gas outlet with main cock. 6. Gas drums guide structure. 7. Difference in level = gas pressure in cm WC. 8. Floating scum in the case of fibrous feed material. 9. Accumulation of thick sludge. 10.Accumulation of grit and stones. 11.Water jacket with oil film. Advantages: Simple, easily understood operation, constant gas pressure, volume of stored gas visible directly, few mistakes in construction. Disadvantages: High construction cost of floating-drum, many steel parts liable to corrosion, resulting in short
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Analysis of a Renewable Energy Project Analysis


life (up to 15 years; in tropical coastal regions about five years for the drum), and regular maintenance costs due to painting. In spite of these disadvantages, floating-drum plants are always to be recommended in cases of doubt. Water-jacket plants are universally applicable and especially easy to maintain. The drum won't stick, even if the substrate has high solids content. Floating-drums made of glass-fiber reinforced plastic and high density polyethylene have been used successfully, but the construction cost is higher than with steel. Floating-drums made of wire-mesh-reinforced concrete are liable to hairline cracking and are intrinsically porous. They require a gaslight, elastic internal coating. PVC drums are unsuitable because not resistant to UV. The floating gas drum can be replaced by a balloon above the digester. This reduces construction costs (channel type digester with folia), but in practice problems always arise with the attachment of the balloon at the edge. Such plants are still being tested under practical conditions.

4.7 Design of Biogas Project


Biogas settlers involve the construction of carefully calculated chambers in order for them to produce the biogas efficiently. The following diagram shows a good representation of the system and how it is hoped to be implemented. The toilets will be placed in latrines near the villages for which people can use to contribute to the production of the biogas and the manure mixing chamber allows for farmers and villagers to dispose of their livestock waste into the biogas plant. Once gas begins to be produced the sludge can then flow into the compensation chamber and eventually into the drying bed, where now almost pathogen free is harmless to humans. Once left in the drying bed for approximately a month, it is then able to be used as a nutrient rich fertilizer. Many areas are involved in the calculations that make for an effective system, including usage and production of the biogas itself, as well as the time the waste will spend in the chamber. The following table outlines the values of which I will be using to develop a
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Analysis of a Renewable Energy Project Analysis


suitable chamber. In order to accommodate the entire village, a 200 000 liter tank is required. However, it is expected that not all the villages will fully cooperate with the idea. Therefore the tank has been reduced in size by 25% to a 150 000 liter tank. People in the village who have lived without using toilets ever since were born will require time and education in order for them to accept the new plan. This can be done by teaching the villagers the many possible benefits that the plan may provide and that there is nothing wrong with using a toilet.

4.8 Analysis of the Biogas Digester Design


Biogas settlers involve the construction of carefully calculated chambers in order for them to produce the biogas efficiently. The following diagram shows a good representation of the system and how it is hoped to be implemented. The toilets will be placed in latrines near the villages for which people can use to contribute

to the production of the biogas and the manure mixing chamber allows for farmers and villagers to dispose of their livestock waste into the biogas plant. Once gas begins to be produced the sludge can then flow into the compensation chamber and eventually into the drying bed, where now almost pathogen free is harmless to humans. Once left in the drying bed for approximately a month, it is then able to be used as a nutrient rich fertilizer. Many areas are involved in the calculations that make for an effective system, including usage and production of the biogas itself, as well as the time the waste will spend in the
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Analysis of a Renewable Energy Project Analysis


chamber. The following table outlines the values of which I will be using to develop a suitable chamber. If a digester is built in an area that does have floods, safety measures should be taken in advance so that the gas can escape in case the digester and/or the gas storage tank are flooded. Failure to do so could result in dangerous, uncontrolled release of biogas and if the digester is a plastic bag, it could float up and away. An upside-down "T" pipe should be placed at the highest vertical point in the gas pipe line above the gas outlet from the digester. A vertical pipe and a gate valve should be joined to the stem of the upside-down "T" pipe. The gate valve can then be opened to release the biogas if a flood threatens to cover either the digester or the gas storage tank. The following is a list of safety measures that should be read with great care before a biogas system is built: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Regularly check the whole system for leaks. Provide ventilation around all gas lines. Always maintain a positive pressure in the system. The engine room floor must be at or above ground level to avoid the buildup of heavier than air gases. The engine room roof must be vented at its highest point to allow lighter-than-air gases to escape. This is also true for greenhouses that have biogas digesters or engines The engine exhaust pipe must be extended so that the dangerous and deadly exhaust gases are released outside the building. Metal digesters and gas storage tanks must have wires to lead lightning to the ground. Gas lines must drain water into condensation traps. No smoking or open flames should be allowed near biogas digesters and gas storage tanks, especially when checking for gas leaks.

4.9 Uses and implementation


This proposal aims to provide a solution to the current waste problem in Kalas Sharif where waste is being left in the open increasing the chance of disease. Currently human faeces are
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deposited behind the houses along with livestock manure where they are left un-buried and untreated. These unsanitary conditions can lead to the build-up bacteria seeing the community susceptible to disease. The proper implementation of a biogas digester would solve this problem while also taking the load of the local power problem by providing the community with another energy source in the form of biogas. They would be able to use the biogas for a number of things but primarily in biogas stoves for cooking which are quite efficient. The other product made from the bio-digesters is fustigation water. This water when implemented into the local irrigation systems and farming areas would benefit the crops and agricultural yield that the area produces. The Position of Bio-digester in relation to the town is dependent on the size and how the waste is being collected. Our proposal also includes the construction of central village latrines and animal manure collection points. The actual implementation into the community of the bio-digesters would require the education of how all processes or at least primary functions of the unit would entail, the precautions needed with the use of the biogas and possibilities of infection with the misuse and storage of the fustigation water. The way this water can be incorporated into the village is by adding it to the existing irrigation system which would enrich the towns. The main objective of our biogas program is to improve the life of people of small villages. We are trying to improve the quality of farmers in Pakistan by establishing the biogas power plants commercially. It has been reported that only 7 households have access to a latrine seeing the widespread practice of open defecation behind homes as the norm. This system not only results in an unpleasant odour but it is also a health risk. The spread of disease is increased during monsoon season when these deposits are washed into water sources that in turn become contaminated. The use of firewood or kerosene fuelled stoves indoors is everyday practice in most of Pakistan. In Kalas Sharif in particular, this is the method of choice for all but 7 households. The
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use of such stoves is not only particularly bad for the environment but it also has detrimental health effects.

4.10 Calculation of the Design and Project


From the information given by the People, the following population statistics can be estimated. 358 People: approx. 131 in village 38 households in village 4 goats per household in village (75% of households) 4 cows per household in village (75% of households) 2 goats per household in village (25% of households) 2 cows per household in village (25% of households)

These values will form the basis of all following calculations


4.10.1 GAS PRODUCTION

Name goats cows Name Cows Goats Human

colony households Quantity No % 27+23 75 4 27+23 75 4 No 169 169 169

village households No % Quantity 38 25 2 38 25 2 yield per day 250L 200 40L Each
42,250L/d 33,800L/d 14,320L/d

Total 169 169 Total


90370L/d Or 3,760L/hr

4.10.2 GAS USAGE A community consisting of 8 people used a total of 200L/d of gas in their daily duties including cooking, making tea and using gas lamps.
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By dividing this by 8, we can get the average usage per person, but multiplying this by 358 will provide a decent estimation to the energy consumption of the entire Town Kalas Sharif.

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BIOGAS DIGESTER :
Concrete Base 56 x 0.4m x 500 per m (cubed) Concrete Walls (4/3pi r cubed/2 - inside) x 500 Concrete Base (small tank) 28m (sqrd) x .4 x 500 Concrete Walls (small tank) (1/2)4/3pi r cubed inside Corrugated Iron 50m sqrd x 200/m sqrd Gas Pipes 500m x 500/m Toilet Room 11200 23200 5600 7130 10000 250000 30000

DELIVERY
Transportation 15500

SETUP
Installation Connection to Homes 38 x 500 20000 19000

LABOUR
On site engineer Hourly rate x # of labors 30 x 10 x 40hours
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10000 12000
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MAINTENANCE
Labour 10000 Damages 5000 Gas 5000 Fertilizer 2000 __________________________________________________________________ TOTAL COST Rs 435630

Cost Comparison with Natural Gas


If we are using Natural gas for Electricity then per unit cost will be Rs 6.04. If we are using Bio gas for Electricity then per unit cost will be Rs 4.51

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This chapter presents an introduction to Natural Gas and its Brief History. Then we will explain the Natural Gas as source of Energy. Then we will describe the compression of Natural gas and Biogas. After reading this Chapter you will be able to: 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 Making a Entire Community on Board Environmental Impact of Project Social Impact of Project Social Implementation of Project Effect on the life of People

6.1 Making a Entire Community on Board


For any new program or service to work successfully in rural Pakistan it is important that the entire community is on board. Forcing a scheme upon the group will result in resistance and see the scheme fail due to lack of use and support. To ensure that the biogas settler is used to its full potential a well-developed behavior change program must be created with the views and values of the community kept in mind. On a broad scale, the following behavior change models may prove useful in both the planning and implementation of this project.

6.1.1 Tran theoretical Model (TTM):


Developed by Prochaska and Di Clemente in 1985, this model gives an insight into the thought process taken when people are faced with change (Department of Transport (Vic), n.d). As there may be communication barriers and delays between those implementing the
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program and the citizens in the planning stage must be thorough. To make the most of face to face contact time the TTM model can be used as a planning and understanding tool.

6.1.2 Diffusion of Innovation:


This concept attempts to estimate the rate of take up of change (National Centre of Sustainability, 2011). This model makes an attempt to understand and analyze the time difference in innovation acceptance between participants. It will be useful in the planning stage as it provides further insight into how and more importantly when the group may react to the innovation.

Diffusion of Innovation Curve

6.1.3 Community Based Social Marketing (CBSM):


Detailed planning and preparedness will assist in implementing a successful program with few surprises and hitches along the way. The CBSM model will be a valuable tool here, providing a useful framework for the entire project life time. The stage which calls for the development of tools to overcome possible change barriers will be priceless in pre-empting participant resistance and hopefully provide options for addressing such issues. The key steps in this process are: a. Identification of the behaviors to change b. Brainstorming of barriers and drivers c. Development of tools to overcome barriers and reinforce drivers
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d. Piloting and implementation of the program e. Evaluation of the program and adjustment of its running accordingly A Polythene Biogas unit can yield a whole range of benefits for their users, the society and the environment in general, the chief benefits being.

6.2 Environmental Impact Of Project


As previously mentioned, present day waste management and energy sources in Kalas Sharif are substandard. This project will have many positive environmental effects seeing a sustainable shift in the area, these include. Lower odour due to reduction in open defecation Reduction in spread of disease due to less waste left openly Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions of present fuel sources No external energy source required Generation of sustainable and cleaner biogas Generation of sustainable natural fertilizer Reduced demand on electricity grid

6.2.1 Local Environmental Impacts


The combustion of fossil fuels and traditional wood fuels can create adverse local environmental effects. In developing countries, the local environmental problems associated with energy use remain matters of concern that are as, or even more, urgent than they were in industrialized countries 50 or 100 years ago. Further, it is the poor who suffer most from such problems; because it is they who are forced to rely upon the most inefficient and polluting sources of energy services for lack of access to better alternatives. The connection between wood fuel use, cooking and the epidemiology of respiratory and other illnesses is a topic of active research. Nevertheless, a consistent pattern linking energy, environment and health has become clear. Wood fuel combustion in confined, often unventilated indoor areas and at low thermodynamic efficiency leads to high concentrations of smoke and other pollutants.
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The World Bank has estimated that the economic costs of air pollution from all sources are US$ 350B/year, or the equivalent 6% of GNP of all developing countries. Much attention is now being given to technical and policy measures that can reduce the local environmental impact of energy use.

6.2.2 Climate Changes


An issue of much relevance to future energy policy is mitigation of the effects of global climate change. Industrialized countries are responsible for at least 80% of the build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, and consumption of fossil-fuel derived energy accounts for the largest share of anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases. Through the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and Agenda 21 (UNCED, 1992), the international community has agreed to work together to meet the problems of climate change, and industrialized countries are taking steps to reduce or stabilize their emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases. The implementation of the Kyoto Protocol, once in force, or of any other agreement, which might develop from the Protocol, will greatly influence energy policy, investment decisions and the development and deployment of energy technologies. The Protocol assigns legally binding emission reduction targets and through Joint Implementation and the Clean Development Mechanism, industrialized countries (listed in Annex 1 to the Protocol) can meet part of these targets by financing initiatives to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in other countries. This process may help to lever new financial support for sustainable energy development projects by providing additional benefits to investors (UNDP, 1998). Dealing with climate change will require global efforts to control greenhouse gas emissions. Emissions from developing countries are increasing, and will eventually naturally exceed those of industrialized countries. The means by which economic growth and increased energy demand can be reconciled with protection of the local and global environment is central for future sustainable energy development.

6.3 Social Impact


There are a total of 350 people (86 families) living in Kalas Sharif (2010). The Kalas Sharif
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household occupancy is generally between 4 - 7 people per family. There houses are mostly hut styles built with either cement or mud floors, walls are usually made from mud or burnt brick with a thatched roof or one that is made from palm leaf and this is a clear reflection of their low social status. Most of the houses generally have thatched bathrooms without a toilet most community members rely on open defecation as the common practice, which poses a lot of health issues the whole community.

6.4 Social Implementation of Project


There are a number of factors that may hinder the effectiveness or success of this initiative from technical, cultural and economic standpoints. The first hurdle that must be overcome pertains to the design of the plant. It is important that the plant is not too large or too small as both errors will result in underfeeding of the system and consequential failure. Projected participation rates of householders and the wastes they contribute must be accurate so to ensure that the most efficient size digester is built. Unexpected events such as drought, flood and alike must also be factored in to the design as they will all effect the unit directly as well as the biomass sources. Construction is also a very important issue to consider. It has been reported in other cases across Pakistan that prudence when it comes to finding, employing or training skilled workers has seen the failure of a number of systems. Government support for such programs can be very difficult to secure and can be unreliable once secured. This further highlights the need for true support of the community of Kalas Sharif themselves.

6.5 Effect on the life of People


Persuading the citizens to approve of as well as actively engage in the biogas settler initiative will be pivotal to the programs success. It is important that the unique concerns of the population are understood and addressed as well as any other barriers to this change. In a town where only three houses own fridges, the installation of a large machine may be prove daunting. There is also the possibility of religious or cultural beliefs reducing the use and
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acceptance of the unit. The following plan has been developed in an attempt to avoid or overcome some of these barriers and support a successful innovation;

Education:
The citizens must be schooled in how the innovation works in simple to understand terms that all of them can comprehend and appreciate. This will be most effective if done by a person who speaks the local language and is from a nearby area as there may be a better sense of trust between them and more chance of the citizens asking questions and alike. This education should include the inputs into the system, how the system converts these products and most importantly the resulting products of the system and the advantages of using them.

Involvement in planning and construction:


as the citizens will have to feed the system it is vital that they are satisfied with placement, layout and construction plans for it. Comments and concerns of citizens should be taken on board when finalizing the planning stage. Implementing the construction of the system as a town project and getting as many people as possible involved in some part of the construction and logistics surrounding it will help to create a sense of ownership over the system and hopefully increase the chance of take up.

Post installation jobs:


There will be a need for a small amount of citizens to be employed to maintain the system as well as engage in the de-sludging process. This task will provide jobs for the community or could even be based on a rotational timetable system.

Examples from other villages:


The voice of other locals who have had biogas settlers installed in their villages will work wonders in Devikulum. These examples can demonstrate how successful and fruitful the scheme can be and also help to dampen any concerns the citizens have.

Cultural
There is a concern that cultural values and beliefs may conflict with the use of this system. This issue has been dealt with in other communities by reinforcing the vision of the revered Mahatma Gandhi and his belief that one day Indians would live in self-sufficient communities
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obtaining their needs from the local environment and generating income and benefits from co-operative structures. There are a number of factors that may hinder the effectiveness or success of this initiative from technical, cultural and economic standpoints. The first hurdle that must be overcome pertains to the design of the plant. It is important that the plant is not too large or too small as both errors will result in underfeeding of the system and consequential failure. Projected participation rates of householders and the wastes they contribute must be accurate so to ensure that the most efficient size digester is built. Unexpected events such as drought, flood and alike must also be factored in to the design as they will all effect the unit directly as well as the biomass sources. Construction is also a very important issue to consider. It has been reported in other cases across Pakistan that prudence when it comes to finding, employing skilled workers has seen the failure a number of systems. Government support for such programs can be very difficult to secure and can be unreliable once secured. This further highlights the need for true support of the community of Kalas Sharif themselves. Persuading the citizens to approve of as well as actively engage in the biogas settler initiative will be pivotal to the programs success. It is important that the unique concerns of the population are understood and addressed as well as any other barriers to this change.

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CONCLUSIONS
7.1 Bio gas Project Need
With rapid increase in population and industry, energy needs are on rise. Almost 7million m3 wood is used for commercial and domestic purpose annually in Pakistan. Biogas energy generation systems are in demand and their number is increasing steadily. They are cheaper and can be run with very low operating cost. This bio energy corridor can work as a good substitute for nearly 70% of countrys population residing in rural areas. Installation of plants to bottle the biogas can be another option. This will decentralize the source of energy and ensure uninterrupted power supply to the villages in Pakistan. At present many agencies like PDDC, PCRET and RSPN are working to disseminate this renewable energy technology. But the need of a National policy is imperative to bring this technology at farmers doorstep and boost its success rate. Biogas can be used to generate electricity with a combustion engine generator where it would replace petrol or diesel. Biogas can be sued directly in petrol engines, using the Otto cycle, where spark plugs are used to ignite the fuel and in modified diesel engine in which biogas are introduced into the cylinder with the air supply. A small amount of diesel is required to ignite the mixture in these duel fuel engines. Another option is to adapt a diesel engine to an Otto cycle by replacing the diesel injector with a spark plug. There are also some duel fuel generator sets on the market that are specifically aimed at biogas use.

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7.2 Operational And Financial Benefits


This project has numerous operational, financial and community benefits, including: 1. Saving local businesses money by providing an advanced, local receiving station for wastes that can reduce fuel and fleet costs associated with trucking the waste to distant locations. 2. Increasing the production of biogas which will be used to generate renewable electricity for up to 1,000 homes in the region. 3. Utilizing existing waste processing and power generation infrastructure to minimize capital costs. 4. Eliminating greenhouse gas emissions associated with organic waste in landfills and its transportation to disposal sites outside the region. 5. Reducing the amount of wastes entering the local sewer collection system.

7.3 Conclusion
Bio energy is one of the primary sources of fuel in Pakistan. The energy utilization in Karnataka considering all types of energy sources and sector wise consumption revealed that traditional fuels such as firewood (7.440 million tons of oil equivalent -43.6%), agro residue (1.510 million tons of oil equivalent -8.85%), biogas, cow dung (0.250 million tons of oil equivalent -1.47%) accounts for 53.20% of the total energy consumption in Karnataka. In rural areas the dependency on the bio energy to meet the domestic energy requirements are as high as 8085%. The production and use of biogas for domestic purposes can drastically reduce the depletion of natural resources like forests, which are otherwise the prominent and traditional source of energy for cooking and lighting. It removes dependence on forest and enhances greeneries leading to improved environment. Kolar depends mainly on non-commercial forms of energy. Non-commercial energy constitutes 84%, met mainly by sources like firewood, agricultural residues and cow dung, while commercial energy share is 16%, met mainly by electricity, oil, etc. Availability of animal residues for biogas generation gives a viable alternative for cooking, lighting fuel and a useful fertilizer. Biogas technology is gaining additional upwind through new subsidy programmers for market incentive and development of renewable energies. Biogas potential in Kolar district is good (>60%). Analyses reveals that the domestic energy requirement can be met by biogas option in 301 villages in Kolar district for more than 60% population, 363 villages for 40-60%
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population, 1025 villages for 20-40% population and 1656 villages for less than 20% of the population. However to support the present livestock population fodder from agricultural residues is insufficient in these Taluks, which could be augmented by growing fodder crops during non-agriculture seasons. Various alternatives for improved utilization of bio resources and to enhance bio resource stock in a region are fuel-efficient stoves, biogas, energy plantations, etc.

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FUTURE ENHANCEMENT
8.1 Energy Production Potential
Appropriate feedstock for electricity-generating biogas plants is available in adequate quantities in many countries. Small and medium-size biogas plants could provide a considerable contribution to national electricity generation in such countries. However, in comparison to industrialized countries, only very few small and medium sized biogas plants are used for electricity generation in Africa, Latin America and even Asia. Electricity production from biogas can be a very efficient method for producing electricity from a renewable energy source. However, this applies only if the emerging heat from the power generator can be used in an economically and ecologically sound way. The average calorific value of biogas is about 21-23.5 MJ/m, meaning that 1 m of biogas corresponds to 0.5-0.6 l diesel fuel or an energy content of about 6 kWh. However, due to conversion losses, 1m of biogas can be converted only to around 1.7 kWh el. Bigger biogas plants are generally more cost-efficient than smaller ones. However, electricity generation from biogas is a technology appropriate even for relatively small applications in the range of 10-100kW.

8.2 Technical Aspects


There is mature, reliable high quality technology available on the global market. The technological difficulties with which small biogas plants were confronted two decades ago have been resolved. Different methods of desulphurization have been successfully established and combustion motors tolerant to biogas that have proven their durability are available in the market.

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Sufficient know-how for planning and constructing reliable biogas power plants is also available. Germany is one of the leading countries in terms of high quality components and know-how required for electricity-generating biogas plants. Know-how and technical components are also available in China, Thailand and other Asian countries as well as in Brazil. Electricity generation from biogas in Africa is still limited to a few pilot plants, with Kenya apparently being one of the centers of development and experience. For the construction of efficient and reliable biogas power plants, at least some technical core components must be imported from industrialized countries. The electricity generation component of a biogas power plant does not require much more know-how and effort for maintenance than a normal generator set for fossil fuelswith a well functioning biogas fermentation process as an indispensable prerequisite.

8.3 Economic Aspects


Economically, electricity from biogas must compete with electricity generation from fossil fuels and other renewable energies such as hydro power. Supporting factors are: Rising prices of fossil fuels; Low reliability of electricity provision from national grids with persistent risk of power cuts and vulnerability of hydro power to drought. Inhibiting factors are: Relatively low prices of fossil fuels; Need to buy high quality components from industrialized countries; Unfavorable conditions for selling electricity; Lack of awareness, capacity and experience preventing the economic operation of infrastructure components.

The economic feasibility of a biogas plant depends on the economic value of the entire range of plant outputs. These are: Electricity or mechanical power; Biogas; Heat, co-generated by the combustion engine;

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The sanitation effect with COD and BOD (chemical and biological oxygen demand) reduction in the runoff of agro-industrial settings; Slurry used as fertilizer. Most of the commercially run biogas power plants in developing countries are of medium size and are installed in industrial contexts, primarily using organic waste material from agroindustrial production processes such as cow, pig and chicken manure, slaughterhouse waste, or residues from sisal and coffee processing. Assessments of economic feasibility are contradictory or inconsistent. Many press releases and information from biogas power plant producers refer to payback periods of only 1.5 2.5 years. In such cases, the electricity from biogas plants can be compared to the price of electricity provided through the national grid or the price of bottled LPG. However these figures are unrealistic, except for direct thermal energy use as for cooking energy, or in very few locations with extremely expensive diesel fuel. More realistic figures seem to be those calculated by GTZ experts in Kenya for medium and large plants (>50kW): They anticipate payback periods for plants under the DBFZ tariff scheme (~0.15 US$/kWh) of 6 years under very favorable conditions, and 9 years for unfavorable but still economically viable investments. In spite of this theoretical profitability, recent examples from Africa show that electricity generation from biogas has not really captured the market as a profitable technology. None of the plants described here could have been installed without international technical and financial support. This is due to the pilot status of the market and barriers such as a lack of awareness, experience, local capacity, upfront financing for project development (for own consumption projects, i.e. where there is no feed-in component) and the existence of policy barriers in cases where feed-in is required. Many new studies come to the conclusion that biogas power plants are not commercially viable without subsidies or guaranteed high prices (~0,20US$) for the produced outputs. In Germany and other industrialized countries, only guaranteed feed-in tariffs have led to a breakthrough. Almost all well-known biogas power plants in developing countries depend on financial support from a third international party.

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We have little experience to draw on concerning the possibility of using biogas power plants to cover the basic energy needs of the rural population. Most biogas power plants are connected to agro-industrial facilities and provide electricity only to very few immediate neighbors. However, calculations show that biogas could play a role in supplying isolated grids, where it represents a least cost option.

8.4 Necessary Framework Conditions


In Germany, power generation from biogas is only profitable due to grid connection and supporting feed-in tariffs. By contrast, power generation in most developing countries seems to be especially profitable in settings far away from the national grid and other energy sources, as the legal framework conditions and the lack of appropriate feed-in tariffs do not support feeding into the grid. However, there are the first signs of financial and legal support for feeding in electricity from biogas power plants in countries such as Brazil. Output-oriented support schemes (such as the German EEG) have proved to be more successful than investment-oriented financial support. Direct subsidies and public financial contributions to installation costs have been crucial for the installation of some pilot plants. However, they have not provided incentives for proper and efficient operation. By contrast, the establishment of appropriate feed-in tariffs stimulates the construction of efficient plants and their continuous and efficient operation. Through its projects and programmers, GTZ therefore recommends the establishment of guaranteed feed-in price schemes similar to the one in Germany. However, besides price considerations, there remain many barriers to market penetration and development of the biogas sector: Lack of awareness of biogas opportunities; High upfront costs for potential assessments and feasibility studies; Lack of access to finance; Lack of local capacity for project design, construction, operation and maintenance; Legal framework conditions that complicate alternative energy production and commercialization: for example, the right to sell electricity at local level has to be in place.
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As long as the national framework conditions are not favorable, electricity generation from biogas will remain limited to a few pilot applications.

8.5 Costly Benefit Of Biogas Plant In Future


As soon as the cost and benefit of a biogas plant in plan can be expected, collected and analyzed, and as soon as a rate of interest for the calculation is determined it can be worked out with the assistance of a dynamic investment calculation if the plant is economical or not. Where there are several alternatives relative advantage can be ascertained. These methods are principally equivalent. The selection is effected according to the purpose and plausibility, e.g. distinctness of each advantage key. In practice the discounting method is used most frequently. According to this method the cost and benefit of different periods of time are concentrated onto one point in time, normally the current value or cash value, discounted and so made comparable. When comparing alternatives with different economic lifetimes and investment costs the annuity method is especially suitable. For the calculation of user fees the annuity method should be used. According to this method the non-recurring and a periodical investment costs are converted into equal constant annual amounts for the economic lifetime of the plant and related to the quantity of gas distributed. This occurs by means of a capital return factor which states the annual amount of depreciation and interest which has to be used at the end of each year during n years to regain the original capital with interest and compound interest.

8.6 Difficulties
In order to avoid misinterpretations the basic weakness of efficiency calculations from a micro as well as macro-economic point of view have to be pointed out. For reasons of operational ability these calculations extensively comprise monetary effects. This means that cost and benefit are only determined with a view to monetary aims. There are then, 'intangible' aims and thus, 'intangible' cost and benefit for which a final valuation lies within the judgment of the decision maker.

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Further difficulties arise with the uncertainties combined with the determining of most of the basic influencing factors involved in the economic and financial profitability of biogas plants. To pinpoint the importance of possible fluctuations of any exceptions or data for the profitability calculated, sensitivity analyses should be carried out. The extent of any effects on the result of the profitability calculation should be investigated especially for the following factors: available quantity of substrates expected gas production, especially the reduction for colder seasons the proportion of effectively utilizable gas production on total production type and quantity of replaceable fuels price of the fuels replaced (also in time-lapse) type and quantity of the replaced mineral fertilizer price of the mineral fertilizer (also in time-lapse) extent of the increase in agricultural production as a result of bio dung economic lifetime of the plant, respectively its most important components rate of interest for capital invested amount and development of the running costs

8.7 Observation of the Development


It would be practical to observe the development of the most important determinants in the profitability over a period of time and compare them now and again with the assumptions made at the planning stage. A year after being taken into operation the plant should be subjected to a renewed assessment concerning the economic advantage and the financial productivity. Unlike conventional gas power plants biogas has no environmental hazards and handling aspects. As it is a renewable energy resource hence it is profitable. It is cheaper than all other energy resources so it is best fit for the alternate energy resource in future. Mostly countries

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are installing the biogas plants on commercial level on large scale. In future biogas is going to be the beneficial sources especially for the rural areas as well as urban areas. There are significant social, economic and environmental benefits of biogas technology. The government of Pakistan through PCRET and Alternative Energy Development Board (AEDB) should take the initiative and announce more funds and support for this proven technology to be a part of our rural society. In parallel, the media should raise the level of awareness among the rural community by highlighting the benefits of this technology. NGOs and foreign investors should been courage to invest in this sector too.

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REFERENCE
http://creative.com.pk/energy.html http://rspn.org/our_projects/pdbp.html http://paksc.org/pk/how-to-make/bioenergy/biogas-plant.html http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs/11474/InTechEnvironmental_technology_assessment_of_natural_gas_compared_to_biogas.pdf http://www.chevron.com/deliveringenergy/naturalgas/ http://www.photius.com/countries/pakistan/geography/pakistan_geography_ene rgy.html http://www.doi.vic.gov.au http://www.papg.org.pk http://www.buzzle.com/articles/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-naturalgas.html http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_are_the_advantages_and_disadvantages_of_n atural_gas_for_our_planet http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_are_the_uses_of_CNG http://www.preservearticles.com/201104195606/difference-between-naturalgas-and-biogas.html http://www.buzza.in http://www.ewb.org.au/explore/initiatives/ewbchallenge/2011ewbchallenge/ma ps http://www.ewb.org.au/explore/initiatives/2011ewbchallenge/transportation http://www.ewb.org.au/explore/initiatives/2011ewbchallenge/power http://www.indexmundi.com/australia/life_expectancy_at_birth.html http://www.ganesha.co.uk/Articles/Biogas%20Technology%20in%20India.htm#Ta ble
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http://ilearn.swin.edu.au/webapps/portal/frameset.jsp?tab_group=courses&url= %2Fwebapps%2Fblackboard%2Fexecute%2FdisplayLearningUnit%3Fcourse_id%3 D_107750_1%26content_id%3D_2252543_1%26framesetWrapped%3Dtrue http://www.odamindia.org/our- projects/climate-change/charcoal-briquettes/ http://www.povertyactionlab.org/evaluation http://www.sswm.info/print/1249?tid=854 http://www.sswm.info/category/implementation-tools/reuse-and recharge/hardware/reuse-energy-products-form-waste-and-was-1 http://www.mekarn.org/procbiod/prest.htm http://www.unicef.org

Tables List:
Table 01 Table 02 Table 03 Table 04 Table 05 Table 06 Table 07 Table 08 Total Primary Energy Supply Total Energy Consumption Total Energy Sector Utilization Typical Composition of Natural Gas Comparison of Natural Gas and Biogas Natural Gas Consumption Gas Production Cost Comparison with Natural Gas Page 12 Page 13 Page 13 Page 18 Page 22 Page 23 Page 48 Page 51

Figures List
Figure 01 Figure 02 Figure 03 Figure 04 Figure 05 Figure 06 Figure 07 Figure 08 Selecting a place to start a project A Methane molecules, CH4 Anaerobic Digestion Process Bio GAS Plant Types Fixed-dome plant Floating-drum plant Biogas Digester Design Diffusion of Innovation Curve Page 16 Page 19 Page 29 Page 40 Page 41 Page 43 Page 45 Page 53
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