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A Whitepaper by: Michael Yeats

Physical properties are defined by ASTM testing standards, The Aluminum Association Design Manual, The Naval Facilities Design Manual DM 7.2, The US Army Corps of Engineers General Design Guide: PVC Sheet Pile and/or standard engineering practice. The values shown are nominal and may vary. The information found in this document is believed to be true and accurate. No warranties of any kind are made as to the suitability of any CMI product for particular applications or the results obtained there from. Crane Materials International is a Crane Building Products company. ShoreGuard, The ShoreGuard Seawall SystemTM, C-Loc, TimberGuard, GeoGuard, Dura Dock, Shore-All, GatorGates, GatorDock EliteTM, ArmorWareTM, ArmorRodTM, Box ProfileTM, UltraCompositeTM, Elite WallTM, Elite PanelTM, Elite Fascia PanelTM, Flat PanelTM, XCRTM, XCR TechnologyTM, XCR VinylTM, GatorBridgeTM, Gator AluminumTM, Gator Sheet PilingTM, GatorDockTM, I-Beam LockTM, Textured SlateTM, Crane Materials InternationalTM logo, CMI Sheet Piling SolutionsTM, Aqua Terra SystemTM, EnduranceTM, Endurance CSPTM, PolarisTM, EclipseTM, GridSpineTM, 21 PolyTM, PileClawTM, SheerScapeTM, SheerScape Retaining Wall SystemsTM, Sheer PanelTM and CMI Waterfront SolutionsTM are trademarks, service marks or trade names of Crane Materials International. United States and International Patent numbers 4,674,921; 4,690,588; 5,292,208; 5,145,287; 6,000,883; 6,033,155; 6,053,666; D420,154; 6,575,667; 7,059,807; 7,056,066; 7,025,539; 7,393,482; 5,503,503; 5,803,672; 6,231,271; 1,245,061CA and other patents pending. 2011 Crane Materials International. All Rights Reserved.

2011 Crane Materials International 4501 Circle 75 Parkway, Suite E-5370 Atlanta, GA 30339 USA Phone 866-867-3762 Fax 770-933-8363 International 00+1+770+933+8166

2|P r o d u c t D e s i g n T h e o r y

CMI provides product design innovations through extensive research and development. Our engineering personnel scrutinize every product extensively to ensure that each product meets and exceeds the performance standards our customers desire. It is of paramount importance that all factors of the products performance are analyzed carefully. Our products are not only designed with a simplified theoretical overall bending strength, but all aspects of cross sectional loading and buckling, as well as ancillary stresses and deformations. CMI products are analyzed and tested by advanced computermodelingandFiniteElementAnalysis.Finished product performance is proven through extensive internal and third party testing of both material coupon cut outs, and full length full product sections. While testingandanalysesareimportantfactorsinensuringthe performance and stability of CMI products, a customer should feel secure in purchasing a CMI product; even when these tests and analyses become confusing or monotonous. This paper provides for the customer the fundamentalsbasisforCMIproductdesign. MomentofInertiaandBendingMoment The bending performance of a particular beam is largely controlled by a cross section property known as the secondmomentofareaormorecommonlyknownasthe moment of inertia, I. The moment of inertia is based solely on the shape of a crosssection, or area, and not controlled whatsoever by material properties. The units for moment of inertia are most commonly measured in inches to the power of four (in4). In the following calculation, the moment of inertia of area A is calculated aboutaxisx.

Figure1 SimplySupportedBeamwithUniformlyDistributedLoad

Forasimplysupportedbeamwithauniformlydistributed load (Figure 1), the maximum bending moment occurs at mid span. Bending moment can be visualized as a force applied at a distance or moment arm and is usually reported in footpounds (ftlbs). Mmax is the maximum moment,wisthedistributedload,andListhespan.

M max

wL2 8

The loading configuration of a sheet piling wall can be complicated; therefore for this section we will examine more simplified loading cases for illustration purposes. Please refer to other CMI white papers for more detailed informationonsheetpilingloadingconfigurations.

I x y 2 dA

A

When a component is subjected to beam loading (i.e. the loading is applied perpendicular to the components longitudinal axis), there is an occurrence known as a bending moment induced in the beam. The induced

2011 Crane Materials International 4501 Circle 75 Parkway, Suite E-5370 Atlanta, GA 30339 USA Phone 866-730-9210 Fax 770-933-8363 International 00+1+770+933+8148

3|P r o d u c t D e s i g n T h e o r y

Stress () Applied force over a given area, usually given in pounds per square inch (psi) Strain () Amount of deformation or stretch of a material, usually given in inch per inch (in/in) or percentage (%)

Hookes law relates stress and strain for materials that have identical values of a property in all directions, also known as isotropic materials. Hookes law states that stress is proportional to strain. The slope of the stress strain curve (Figure 2) is the elastic modulus or modulus of elasticity, E, and is given in pounds per square inch. E is a number that describes the amount of stress required for a unit elongation, or more simply put, the material stiffness. The elastic modulus is also known as Youngs modulus and only applies up to the proportional limit of the material. The proportional limit is the maximum stress for which stress is proportional to strain, shown as point P. The elastic modulus, E, is a material property only and is not controlled by cross sectional, or other shape,parameters.

Figure 2 StressStrainCurvefollowingHookesLaw

With the exception of brittle materials, high values of E typically correspond to stiffer materials. Low values of E areacknowledgedwithmoreflexiblematerials. BendingStress The bending stresses induced in the cross section of the beam are primarily tensile stresses in the bottom section reaching a maximum at the bottom edge, and compressive stresses in the top section reaching a maximum at the top edge (Figure 3). For a symmetric cross section, c can be assumed to be half of the cross sectiondepth.

Stress or E Strain

Figure 3 BendingStressDistributions

2011 Crane Materials International 4501 Circle 75 Parkway, Suite E-5370 Atlanta, GA 30339 USA Phone 866-730-9210 Fax 770-933-8363 International 00+1+770+933+8148

4|P r o d u c t D e s i g n T h e o r y

The bending stress formula, also known as the flexure formula, gives the maximum normal stress on a cross section that has a bending moment M. The bending stresses can be calculated as shown, where y, the distance of the stress element from the neutral axis of the cross section. This formula gives the normal stress at anypointonacrosssection.

stresses above the yield point, a portion of the deformation is not recoverable, and the material will not relax into its initial shape. This unrecoverable deformation is known as plastic deformation. Yield Strength, YS: The stress that will cause the materialtoundergoacertainspecifiedamountof permanentdeformationafterunloading. Ultimate Strength, U: The maximum amount of stress a material can support up to failure. After a ductile material has been loaded to its ultimate strength it begins to "neck" as the crosssectional area of the specimen decreases due to plastic flow. Necking is accompanied by a region of decreasing stress with increasing strain on the stressstraincurve. Breaking Strength, B: The stress in the material based on original crosssectional area at the time it breaks. Also known as the fracture or rupture strength.

My I

Since we are generally interested in the maximum induced stress, or the case where ymax = c, the formula canberepresentedas

max

Mc I

Both I and c are constants for a given cross section. In order to simplify calculations, a new constant, Z, can be substitutedintothebendingstressformulaforsymmetric cross sections. This new constant is called the elastic section modulus. Section modulus is usually reported in inchescubed(in3),andisashapepropertyonly.

max

M Z

The stressstrain curves shown in Figure 4 are for three different kinds of material: Brittle, Ductile, and Low Carbon Steel. There are several points of interest that canbeidentifiedonthesecurves: Proportional Limit, P: The maximum stress for which stress is proportional to strain, or the point at whichthestressstraincurvebecomesnonlinear. Yield Point, Y: The stress for which the strain increases without an increase in stress, or the point at which a material begins to plastically deform. All deformation below this point is recoverable, and the material will relax into its initial shape when the load is removed. For

2011 Crane Materials International 4501 Circle 75 Parkway, Suite E-5370 Atlanta, GA 30339 USA Phone 866-730-9210 Fax 770-933-8363 International 00+1+770+933+8148

5|P r o d u c t D e s i g n T h e o r y

Ductile metals other than LowCarbon Steel typically do not have welldefined yield points. Brittle materials do not have yield points, and do not strainharden, which means that the ultimate strength and breaking strength arethesame. Deflection The deflection of a beam is principally a function of the moment of inertia of the beam crosssection, and the modulus of elasticity of the beam material. Generally speaking, the higher the moment of inertia and modulus ofelasticityofaparticularbeam,thelowerthedeflection andthereforestifferthebeamwillbeinbending. For the situation noted in Figure 1, the maximum deflection will occur at the center of the span and can be calculated in the following equation. max is the maximum deflection usually reported in inches (in). For deflection information on CMI products, refer to other CMIwhitepapers.

max

5wL4 384 EI

6|P r o d u c t D e s i g n T h e o r y Stress, Applied force over a given area. Usually given inpoundspersquareinch(psi) Tensile Stress, t The stress state leading to expansion; that is, the length of a material tends to increase in thetensiledirection. Ultimate Strength, U The maximum amount of stress a materialcansupportuptofailure. Yield Point, Y The stress for which the strain increases without an increase in stress, or the point at which a materialbeginstoplasticallydeform. Yield Strength, YS The stress that will cause the material to undergo a certain specified amount of permanentdeformationafterunloading.

DefinitionofTerms Bending Moment, M The primary term that describes bendingforcesinabeam. Breaking Strength, B The stress in the material based onoriginalcrosssectionalareaatthetimeitbreaks.Also knownasthefractureorrupturestrength. BrittleAmaterialsisbrittleifitisliabletofracturewhen subjectedtostress. Compressive Stress, c The stress applied to materials resultingintheircompaction(decreaseofvolume). Deflection The degree to which a construction or structuralelementbendsunderaload. Ductile A material is ductile if it is capable of sustaining largeplasticdeformationswithoutfracture. Modulus of Elasticity, E (Also known as Youngs Modulus)Themathematicaldescriptionofanobject orsubstance'stendencytobedeformedwhenaforce is applied to it, or more simple put the stiffness or resistance of a material to loads. The elastic modulus of an object is defined as the slope of its stressstrain curve. Moment of Inertia, I The primary number which describes the bending performance of a particular shape. Proportional Limit, P The maximum stress for which stress is proportional to strain, or the point at which thestressstraincurvebecomesnonlinear. Section Modulus, Z The primary shape property used to describecapacityofacrosssection Strain, The amount of deformation or stretch of a material. Usually given in inch per inch (in/in) or percentage(%)

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