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M&AE 3272 - Lecture #8 Load Cell Calibration / Module 3

11 March 2013

Coming in Module 3: Bicycle Component Modeling and Testing

M&AE 3272: Mechanical Property and Performance Laboratory

Bikes of the Future?


M&AE 3272 - Lecture 8 WSachse; 3/2013; 1

But First: Week 8 Module 2:

M&AE 3272: Mechanical Property and Performance Laboratory

This is it ! . . . Load Cell Calibration and Testing Week.

M&AE 3272 - Lecture 8

WSachse; 3/2013; 2

M&AE 3272 - Lecture #8 Load Cell Calibration / Module 3

11 March 2013

Tasks to do during the next two Weeks, March 4th- March15th:


Sections:401-404; Sections 405-408; 409; and 411 410; and 412

Feb 25th Mar 1st

Build Load Cell in Upson B-30

Mar 4th - Mar 8th

Mar 11th Mar 15th Mar 16th Mar 24th


M&AE 3272 - Lecture 8

Construct LabVIEW vi in 163 Rhodes Test and Calibrate your Load Cell in Upson B-30 (see Schedule) Spring Break

Construct LabVIEW vi in 163 Rhodes Build Load Cell in Upson B-30

WSachse; 3/2013; 3

Load Cell: Testing Schedule (March 11th - 15th)

M&AE 3272 - Lecture 8

WSachse; 3/2013; 4

M&AE 3272 - Lecture #8 Load Cell Calibration / Module 3

11 March 2013

Calibration and Testing Measurement Procedure:


Load your Load Cell in incremental load steps while collecting averaged LabVIEW load cell/Wheatstone Bridge output voltages. Save the calibration to a LabVIEW lvm-file. Import lvm-file data into an Excel spreadsheet and process (using either Trendline or LINEST) to determine Slope, K , and zero-offset, V0 . Compare K to what you computed. Upload results to LabArchives. Use your calibration coefficients to determine the unknown load. Use a number (e.g. 4-9) repeat measurements to be able to determine the measurement Uncertainty. Upload results to LabArchives.
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Calibration and Testing Measurement Procedure:

Demo . . . . . . with simulated data.

M&AE 3272 - Lecture 8

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M&AE 3272 - Lecture #8 Load Cell Calibration / Module 3

11 March 2013

Excel LINEST Output:


Quantity Slope +/Coeff of Determ, r2 F-statistic Regress ss
M&AE 3272 - Lecture 8

LINEST Output out #1 out #3 out #5 out #7 out #9 out #2 out #4 out #6 out #8 out #10

Quantity Intercept +/(y) Degs of Freedom Residual ss


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Calibration and Testing Measurement Tips:


From a TA . . .
. . .We adjusted the DAQ part of the VIs to read in 2000 samples instead of 100 (since this makes the LabVIEW output readings much less volatile). During calibration and testing, after a load is added or removed (including the bucket), have everyone stand at least a meter away from the set-up and remain still. Wait at least 20 seconds before clicking "Accept Value" button. Unfortunately the readings are very sensitive and do respond to movement on the floor, so this step is necessary. The table generated from calibration may likely have one or more "bad readings." If it does, don't use the slope calculated by the VI. Open the results file up in Excel, remove the bad point(s), plot it, and calculate the slope using "add trendline." Use the slope in the 407 output.vi and follow Matt's procedure for testing. Once again, wait 20s - 1min for the load output readings to settle down and have everyone stand far away. . . . amazingly accurate.
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M&AE 3272 - Lecture #8 Load Cell Calibration / Module 3

11 March 2013

Load Cell Static Characterization:


Measure: Load Cell/Bridge Output Voltage, V vs. Input Load, P Under Standard Conditions: When P = 0 V = 0 (or V = V0) Take measurements from 0 to Pmax in steps of 0.1Pmax (11 Readings) Quasi-statically Unload from Pmax to 0 in steps of -0.1Pmax Reload and Unload; Repeat (33 Data Points; 44 Total). Fit Regression: V(P) = aqPq
0 N

We shall assume that: V(P) = K P + V0; K = Sensitivity


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Dynamic Range of a Load Cell:


The maximum range of loads that your Load Cell can safely carry is determined by the smallest of: Start of inelastic deformation of the elastic members comprising your load cell, i.e. yield with a Factor of Safety of 2.0 . For 2024-T4 Al, yield = yield/E = 47ksi/10.6Msi = approx 4400 ; with Factor of Safety, use approx 2200 . Failure of the strain gage and/or its attachment adhesive. gage-fail approx 3% or 30000 . Load cell signal exceeds dynamic range of digitizing A/D unit.
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M&AE 3272 - Lecture #8 Load Cell Calibration / Module 3

11 March 2013

Dynamic Range / Resolution of Load Cell:


System uses NI-9205 Analog Input Module:
A/D Converter Resolution: 16 bits = 65,536 voltage levels A/D Converter Input Signal Range: +/-200 mV Maximum Input Voltage (before Clipping): +200 mV Vmax Voltage Resolution: 200 mV/65535 = 3.052 V PADmax = Vmax/Calib_Factor >>> System Maximum Load This will correspond to the Maximum Allowable Load if A/D Converter Controls Dynamic Range. Load Resolution: Smallest theoretically detectable Load Resolution corresponding to one level or . . . PADmin = 3.052E-6/Calib_Factor >>> System Load Resolution
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Using a Calibrated Load Cell:


From Calibration Measurements: V(P) = K P + V0 2 = (1/N) [{Vout - V0}/K Pin]2 Measurement of an Unknown Weight: Pest = {Vmeas - V0}/K Thus if a measured load cell voltage is Vmeas then the estimate of the true load is: Pest +/- 3 with a probability of 99.7%. The bias in the measurement is given by: Pest Ptrue The quantity 3 corresponds to the Imprecision or Uncertainty of the load determination.
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M&AE 3272 - Lecture #8 Load Cell Calibration / Module 3

11 March 2013

Bridge Output Voltage [mV]

Module 2 Deliverable: Load Cell Calibration Data and Curve:

6 Load Cell Calibration


20
Measured Calibration Data Linear Fit: 0.215 [mV/lb]

Linear Fit Line

15

Calibration Data Points

10

3b

Zero

3a
0 0 20 40

Slope: Calibration Constant or 1/Sensitivity


60 80

Applied Load [lbs]


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Load Cell: Calibration Sheet


1. 2.

3.

Due: Week of March 25th to 29th


Two weeks after you did the Calibration
M&AE 3272 - Lecture 8

4.

5.
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M&AE 3272 - Lecture #8 Load Cell Calibration / Module 3

11 March 2013

NOTICE: Load Cell Calibration and Application:


During your testing period your TA will ask each member of your group questions about your load cell and measurement system: Aspects of your load cell design Elements and properties of strain gages Your measurement system and especially your LabVIEW vi routine How you are/will be processing your data Modifying and Interfering effects Errors and Uncertainties and how you will deal with them
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Load Cell Calibration Hand-in Schedule (March 25th 29th):


Please . . .
Hand-in your Groups Calibration Sheet and Calibration curve:

To your TA during Office hours


-- AND --

Each person hands-in his/her


Abstract to your TA during Office hours. . . ORcertainly by the date/time indicated on the chart at right (exactly two (2) weeks after you calibrated your load cell!)
M&AE 3272 - Lecture 8 WSachse; 3/2013; 16

M&AE 3272 - Lecture #8 Load Cell Calibration / Module 3

11 March 2013

Tasks to do during the next two Weeks, March 4th- March15th:


Sections:401-404; Sections 405-408; 409; and 411 410; and 412

Feb 25th Mar 1st

Build Load Cell in Upson B-30

Mar 4th - Mar 8th

Mar 11th Mar 15th Mar 16th Mar 24th


M&AE 3272 - Lecture 8

Construct LabVIEW vi in 163 Rhodes Test and Calibrate your Load Cell in Upson B-30 (see Schedule) Spring Break

Construct LabVIEW vi in 163 Rhodes Build Load Cell in Upson B-30

WSachse; 3/2013; 17

Coming in Module 3: Bicycle Component Modeling and Testing

M&AE 3272: Mechanical Property and Performance Laboratory

A/D Conversion; Signal Processing; and Display

M&AE 3272 - Lecture 8

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M&AE 3272 - Lecture #8 Load Cell Calibration / Module 3

11 March 2013

Module 3: Modeling - Four Bicycle Crank Designs


Crank #1: Crank #2:

Crank #3:

Crank #4:

Parasolid files of these geometries are available to you for direct input to ANSYS
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Measurement Systems:

Material or System under Test

Actuator

Actuator System

Control Stage

Sensing Element

Signal Conditioning/ Processing Stages

Transduction System

Stage 1

Stage n

Output Stage

M&AE 3272 - Lecture 8

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M&AE 3272 - Lecture #8 Load Cell Calibration / Module 3

11 March 2013

Module 3: Bicycle Component Modeling/Testing

etc. . .

etc. . .

etc. . .

5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 -1000 -2000 -3000 -4000 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 -10 -20 -30

M&AE 3272 - Lecture 8

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Coming in Module 3: Bicycle Component Modeling and Testing


Crank Geometry Crank designs based on past years M&AE 3250 designs ANSYS Modeling Model with ANSYS to find two locations for strain gage rosettes: (1) High stress concentration; (2) Uniform stress location Gaging and static Pre-machined crank arms provided; Gage with testing strain gage rosettes; Static loading; comparison with ANSYS modeling In-situ Testing Crank installed on bicycle: Pedal Force components; Crank Position; LabVIEW vi provided! (22 data sets) 2 Strain gage rosettes (2 times 3 strain components) Data Comparison Compare principal strains/directions with ANSYS model predictions Presentations Group makes 5-Slide Presentation of results
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M&AE 3272 - Lecture #8 Load Cell Calibration / Module 3

11 March 2013

Summary for Module 2: Tasks to complete this Week (March 11th15th):

Testing of Load Cells on your Groups scheduled testing


period! e.g. Monday: Groups #401(A-D) followed by Groups #405(A-D); Tuesday: Groups #402(A-D) and #406(A-D), etc. All Groups must finish by 4 pm Friday!

OPEN Lab Periods (8 am to 2 pm)

for Last-Minute Help with your LabVIEW program or Load Cell Construction and Final Testing. Modeling and Testing Handout and carry it with you next week. Impress your mom and friends!

If you wish: Download Module #3 Bicycle Component Catch ride/bus/plane head off for Spring Break.
Have fun! And re-charge your batteries for Module #3.
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