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# M&AE 3272 - Lecture #8 Load Cell Calibration / Module 3

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## Bikes of the Future?

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## M&AE 3272 - Lecture 8

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## Tasks to do during the next two Weeks, March 4th- March15th:

Sections:401-404; Sections 405-408; 409; and 411 410; and 412

## Mar 11th Mar 15th Mar 16th Mar 24th

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Construct LabVIEW vi in 163 Rhodes Test and Calibrate your Load Cell in Upson B-30 (see Schedule) Spring Break

## Construct LabVIEW vi in 163 Rhodes Build Load Cell in Upson B-30

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## M&AE 3272 - Lecture 8

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## Calibration and Testing Measurement Procedure:

Load your Load Cell in incremental load steps while collecting averaged LabVIEW load cell/Wheatstone Bridge output voltages. Save the calibration to a LabVIEW lvm-file. Import lvm-file data into an Excel spreadsheet and process (using either Trendline or LINEST) to determine Slope, K , and zero-offset, V0 . Compare K to what you computed. Upload results to LabArchives. Use your calibration coefficients to determine the unknown load. Use a number (e.g. 4-9) repeat measurements to be able to determine the measurement Uncertainty. Upload results to LabArchives.
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## M&AE 3272 - Lecture 8

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## Excel LINEST Output:

Quantity Slope +/Coeff of Determ, r2 F-statistic Regress ss
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LINEST Output out #1 out #3 out #5 out #7 out #9 out #2 out #4 out #6 out #8 out #10

## Quantity Intercept +/(y) Degs of Freedom Residual ss

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## Calibration and Testing Measurement Tips:

From a TA . . .
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## M&AE 3272 - Lecture #8 Load Cell Calibration / Module 3

11 March 2013

Measure: Load Cell/Bridge Output Voltage, V vs. Input Load, P Under Standard Conditions: When P = 0 V = 0 (or V = V0) Take measurements from 0 to Pmax in steps of 0.1Pmax (11 Readings) Quasi-statically Unload from Pmax to 0 in steps of -0.1Pmax Reload and Unload; Repeat (33 Data Points; 44 Total). Fit Regression: V(P) = aqPq
0 N

## We shall assume that: V(P) = K P + V0; K = Sensitivity

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## Dynamic Range of a Load Cell:

The maximum range of loads that your Load Cell can safely carry is determined by the smallest of: Start of inelastic deformation of the elastic members comprising your load cell, i.e. yield with a Factor of Safety of 2.0 . For 2024-T4 Al, yield = yield/E = 47ksi/10.6Msi = approx 4400 ; with Factor of Safety, use approx 2200 . Failure of the strain gage and/or its attachment adhesive. gage-fail approx 3% or 30000 . Load cell signal exceeds dynamic range of digitizing A/D unit.
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## Dynamic Range / Resolution of Load Cell:

A/D Converter Resolution: 16 bits = 65,536 voltage levels A/D Converter Input Signal Range: +/-200 mV Maximum Input Voltage (before Clipping): +200 mV Vmax Voltage Resolution: 200 mV/65535 = 3.052 V PADmax = Vmax/Calib_Factor >>> System Maximum Load This will correspond to the Maximum Allowable Load if A/D Converter Controls Dynamic Range. Load Resolution: Smallest theoretically detectable Load Resolution corresponding to one level or . . . PADmin = 3.052E-6/Calib_Factor >>> System Load Resolution
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## Using a Calibrated Load Cell:

From Calibration Measurements: V(P) = K P + V0 2 = (1/N) [{Vout - V0}/K Pin]2 Measurement of an Unknown Weight: Pest = {Vmeas - V0}/K Thus if a measured load cell voltage is Vmeas then the estimate of the true load is: Pest +/- 3 with a probability of 99.7%. The bias in the measurement is given by: Pest Ptrue The quantity 3 corresponds to the Imprecision or Uncertainty of the load determination.
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## Module 2 Deliverable: Load Cell Calibration Data and Curve:

20
Measured Calibration Data Linear Fit: 0.215 [mV/lb]

15

10

3b

Zero

3a
0 0 20 40

## Slope: Calibration Constant or 1/Sensitivity

60 80

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1. 2.

3.

## Due: Week of March 25th to 29th

Two weeks after you did the Calibration
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4.

5.
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## NOTICE: Load Cell Calibration and Application:

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## Load Cell Calibration Hand-in Schedule (March 25th 29th):

Hand-in your Groups Calibration Sheet and Calibration curve:

-- AND --

## Each person hands-in his/her

Abstract to your TA during Office hours. . . ORcertainly by the date/time indicated on the chart at right (exactly two (2) weeks after you calibrated your load cell!)
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## Tasks to do during the next two Weeks, March 4th- March15th:

Sections:401-404; Sections 405-408; 409; and 411 410; and 412

## Mar 11th Mar 15th Mar 16th Mar 24th

M&AE 3272 - Lecture 8

Construct LabVIEW vi in 163 Rhodes Test and Calibrate your Load Cell in Upson B-30 (see Schedule) Spring Break

## Construct LabVIEW vi in 163 Rhodes Build Load Cell in Upson B-30

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## M&AE 3272 - Lecture 8

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## Module 3: Modeling - Four Bicycle Crank Designs

Crank #1: Crank #2:

Crank #3:

Crank #4:

Parasolid files of these geometries are available to you for direct input to ANSYS
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Measurement Systems:

Actuator

Actuator System

Control Stage

Sensing Element

## Signal Conditioning/ Processing Stages

Transduction System

Stage 1

Stage n

Output Stage

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## Module 3: Bicycle Component Modeling/Testing

etc. . .

etc. . .

etc. . .

5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 -1000 -2000 -3000 -4000 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2

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## Coming in Module 3: Bicycle Component Modeling and Testing

Crank Geometry Crank designs based on past years M&AE 3250 designs ANSYS Modeling Model with ANSYS to find two locations for strain gage rosettes: (1) High stress concentration; (2) Uniform stress location Gaging and static Pre-machined crank arms provided; Gage with testing strain gage rosettes; Static loading; comparison with ANSYS modeling In-situ Testing Crank installed on bicycle: Pedal Force components; Crank Position; LabVIEW vi provided! (22 data sets) 2 Strain gage rosettes (2 times 3 strain components) Data Comparison Compare principal strains/directions with ANSYS model predictions Presentations Group makes 5-Slide Presentation of results
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