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1: How can ozone be both good and bad?

- Ozone can be both good and bad because the "bad" ozone is an air pollutant that is harmful to breathe and it damages crops, trees and other vegetation. It is a main ingredient of urban smog. "Good" ozone protects life on Earth from the sun's harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays. 2: What is happening to the good ozone layer? - The "good" ozone is gradually being destroyed by man-made chemicals referred to as ozone-depleting substances (ODS), including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), halons, methyl bromide, carbon tetrachloride, and methyl chloroform. 3: How much damage can 1 Chlorine atom do? Explain. - Causes increased amounts of UV radiation to reach the Earth which can lead to more cases of skin cancer, cataracts, and impaired immune systems. 4: How does the good ozone protect the Earth? - it prevents the dangerous UV rays from passing. 5: What is being done about ozone depletion? - The US, along with over 180 other countries, recognized the threats posed by ozone depletion and in 1987 adopted a treaty called the Montreal Protocol to phase out the production and use of ozone-depleting substances. Bad Nearby 1: What causes bad ozone? - What causes "bad" ozone, is chemical reactions between oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the presence of sunlight. 2: What are some sources of bad ozone? - Sources of bad ozone are Emissions from industrial facilities and electric utilities, motor vehicle exhaust, gasoline vapors, and chemical solvents are some of the major sources of NOx and VOC. 3: How does bad ozone affect human health and environment? - "bad" ozone affects human health and the environment by strong sunlight and hot weather result in harmful ozone concentrations in the air we breathe. Many urban and suburban areas throughout the United States have high levels of "bad" ozone. 4: What is being done about bad ozone? - What is being done, is that the EPA has set protective health-based standards for ozone in the air we breathe. EPA, state, and cities have instituted a variety of multi-faceted programs to meet these health-based standards. Throughout the country, additional programs are being put into place to cut NOx and VOC emissions from vehicles, industrial facilities, and

electric utilities. Programs are also aimed at reducing pollution by reformulating fuels and consumer/commercial products, such as paints and chemical solvents, that contain VOC. 5: What can we do/actions can we take to reduce our risks? - We could encourage communities to adopt practices, such as carpooling, to reduce harmful emissions. Ozone- Air Now Go to: www.epa.gov/airnow/ In the far right corner- choose Ozone- found under Air Quality Basics. Read about good and bad ozone and answer the following questions. 1: Where is the good ozone located and what is its function? /- Good Ozone occurs naturally in the Earth's upper atmosphere - 6 to 30 miles above the Earth's surface. It's function is to absorb UV light so that it doesn't all go directly to us. 2: What depletes good ozone? - The ozone hole depletes good ozone. 3: Where is the bad ozone located and what creates it? What does NOX and VOC stand for? - Bad ozone is located in the Earth's lower atmosphere, near ground level, ozone is formed when pollutants emitted by cars, power plants, industrial boilers, refineries, chemical plants, and other sources react chemically in the presence of sunlight. Ozone at ground level is a harmful air pollutant. 4: List three health problems associated with bad ozone. (Hint: You may need to go to Ozone and your Health- How can ground-level ozone affect your health?) - Reduce lung function - Cell damage - Lung disease 5: Scroll down to the Air Quality Index Color Chart- Write down a one-word descriptor of each color code. - Green- Good - Yellow-Moderate - Orange-Unhealthy for sensitive groups - Red-Unhealthy - Purple-Very unhealthy. 6: After answering this question, go back to Air Now at: www.epa.gov/airnow/ In the far left corner, choose National Overview and then choose Ozone Now.

What is the current ozone reading for our area? ____Yellow (Moderate)____ (use color code) Watch video and take notes *Sunlight in the upper atmosphere can easily split ozone into an oxygen atom and an oxygen molecule. *An O2 atom can react with an ozone molecule to create two oxygen molecules. Under natural conditions there is a balance between the creation and destruction of ozone molecules in the stratosphere. *Ground level ozone, a harmful air pollutant, is formed when pollutants emitted by cars, power plants, industrial boilers, refineries, chemical plants, and other sources react chemically in the presence of sunlight. *Ozone is naturally produced in the stratosphere by a two- step reactive process. In the first step, solar ultraviolet radiation (sunlight) breaks apart an oxygen molecule to form two separate oxygen atoms. *In the stratosphere, the destruction of ozone occurs as quickly as ozone is formed. Ozone occurs in two layers of the atmosphere: *Troposphere *Stratosphere *Ozone in the upper atmosphere forms the ozone layer, which protects the earth from ultraviolet light (UV-B) *Ozone at ground level is a common air pollutant which is harmful to lungs and the breathing structures of plants too. Smog City 2- Save the Smog City from Ozone Go to: www.smogcity2.org Instructions: Change the settings in Smog City and notice the effects that those changes have on the amount of smog the city produces and the air quality. On your paper, take notes about what the various condition changes do to the AQI. Which set of conditions produce the best possible scenario for the city? - The set of conditions that produce the best possible scenario for the city is when the weather is sunny, with cloud sky cover, when temperature is high, when there are less cars and trucks, less off road transportation, and most importantly, when there is a small population. Which set of conditions produce the worst scenario for the people, animals and

plants of Smog City? - When the weather is cloudy, when there are lots of cars, trucks and planes, when there is high industry, and high population. It's bad when the weather is kind of cold. Notes: *Cold weather is bad because it traps heat, which warms up, and pollutants get trapped. *The solution to better ozone, is if there is a smaller population. *Ozone is bad when it's lower on the atmosphere, like the troposphere. On your paper, write a 2-3 paragraph summary about what you have learned about ozone, ozone depletion, ozone destruction and air quality by completing this assignment. Make sure to use the new vocabulary that you have learned.

Ozone occurs in two layers of the atmosphere. The ozone that is commonly associated with ozone depletion and the ozone hole is in the stratosphere, a layer that extends upward from about 10 to 30 miles (15 to 50 kilometers) above the earth. This good ozone shields life on earth from the sun's harmful ultraviolet rays (UV-b). The layer surrounding the earth's surface is the troposphere. Here, ground-level or "bad" ozone is an air pollutant that damages human health, vegetation, and many common materials. It is a key ingredient of urban smog. The troposphere extends from the surface to about 10 miles (15 kilometers) above the surface. Ground level, or bad ozone, is also called tropospheric ozone while good ozone is called stratospheric ozone. About 80-90% of all ozone in the atmosphere is found in the stratosphere.

The Air Quality Index (AQI) is an indicator of air quality, based on air pollutants that have adverse effects on human health and the environment. Air quality gets terrible when ozone

is lower, closer to us because toxins and pollutants get trapped. Ozone depletion is the destruction of the upper atmospheric layer of ozone gas, caused by substances formed from breakdown of ozone depleting substances. The destruction of ozone is bad when it's higher in the atmosphere. Keep ozone up high, not near by!