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INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT D CONCRETE PROCESSES

Image (CEI Report, 2012)

Formwork
KN Volmink
Word Count Main text 1701 Tables (0 x 150) 0 Figures (6 x 150) 900 Total 2601

INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT C CONCRETE PROCESSES Production of Precast Concrete Tunnel Lining

Individual Assignment D
(a) Discuss recent developments in climbing, sliding, permanent and inflatable formwork. (b) Describe examples of the use of each system. (c) Discuss the potential for the increased use of each system in the future.

INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT C CONCRETE PROCESSES Production of Precast Concrete Tunnel Lining

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page 1.
1.1 1.2

INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................... 1
Importance of Formwork .......................................................................................... 1 Formwork Systems.................................................................................................. 1

2.
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4

CLIMBING FORMWORK .............................................................................. 2


Introduction ............................................................................................................. 2 Climbing Process .................................................................................................... 2 Self-Climbing Formwork .......................................................................................... 2 Self-climbing Process .............................................................................................. 3 2.4.1 Lifting the Climbing Profile ......................................................................... 3 2.4.2 Climbing the Scaffolding ............................................................................ 4 Recent Use of Self-climbing Formwork .................................................................... 5 Future Use .............................................................................................................. 5

2.5 2.6

3.
3.1 3.2

SLIDING FORMWORK ................................................................................. 6


Introduction ............................................................................................................. 6 Slipforming Process ................................................................................................ 6

4.
4.1

PERMANENT FORMWORK ......................................................................... 7


Introduction ............................................................................................................. 7

5.
5.1

INFLATABLE FORMWORK ......................................................................... 8


Introduction ............................................................................................................. 8

6.

REFERENCES .............................................................................................. 9

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INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT C CONCRETE PROCESSES Production of Precast Concrete Tunnel Lining

LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2-1 Climbing formwork sequence (Middel, 2009) ....................................................... 2 Figure 2-2 Mobile self-climbing device and hydraulics (CEI Report, 2012) ............................ 3 Figure 2-3 Idle stroke (Doka, 2013) ....................................................................................... 4 Figure 2-4 Working stroke (Doka, 2013)................................................................................ 4 Figure 2-6 Idle stroke (Doka, 2013) ....................................................................................... 4 Figure 2-5 Working stroke (Doka, 2013)................................................................................ 4

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INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT C CONCRETE PROCESSES Production of Precast Concrete Tunnel Lining

1.
1.1

INTRODUCTION
Importance of Formwork
Concrete, whilst fresh and being placed, is fluid and until it has sufficiently achieved strength requires containment through formwork. Formwork also provides the required shape, surface quality and support to the fresh concrete in the structure. The formwork therefore needs to have sufficient strength and stability to provide a mould for the fresh concrete. After the concrete has however achieved the required strength and durability the formwork is redundant, having fulfilled its function, and is removed. Although only used for a short period of time in the construction process, formwork accounts for as much as 60% (Middel, 2009) of the construction cost. This is due mainly to the cost of formwork materials as well as the labour and time required for erection. A reduction in any these components would result in a reduction of construction costs. One way of reducing formwork material costs is to reuse it as much as possible however this must be weighed up against the time and labour required to cycle the formwork. The efficient use or use of cheaper materials will also reduce construction costs however material strength, stability and durability are limiting factors. The efficient use of formwork therefore is of great importance in construction economy.

1.2

Formwork Systems
In the construction of concrete structures formwork systems have recently been developed and optimized by effectively utilising materials through reuse or once off use or even complete new applications of materials. These formwork systems are: Climbing Formwork Slipforming Permanent Formwork Inflatable Formwork Recent developments in these formwork systems are attributed to advances in technologies such as hydraulic lifting, concrete admixtures and new formwork materials. This has resulted in greater economy certain formwork systems and increased the potential for the use of such systems. The recent advances in these formwork systems are discussed and an example of each system described and finally the potential of increased use discussed.

INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT C CONCRETE PROCESSES Production of Precast Concrete Tunnel Lining

2.
2.1

CLIMBING FORMWORK
Introduction
Climbing formwork makes use of the lower (previously cast) concrete sections to support the formwork of subsequent higher sections climbing higher up the structure as work progresses. The time between successive climbs therefore determines the efficiency of the system.

2.2

Climbing Process
In conventional climbing formwork the process starts on the ground with the first lift cast conventionally however a fixing anchor is installed to support the formwork of the next lift. Once the concrete has achieved sufficient strength the formwork is moved (by crane after the second lift) to the next lift and the process starts again. This sequence, from the first lift to successively higher lifts, is detailed in Figure 2-1.

Figure 2-1 Climbing formwork sequence (Middel, 2009) Climbing enables the reuse of the formwork making it a very effective solution in reducing formwork material costs with particular benefit in tall vertical structures such as shafts, large enough columns etc. Once the system is erected for the first lift the labour required for the erection of successive lifts is also reduced further reducing construction costs. The factor determining the efficiency of the system though is the movement from one lift to the next. A reduction in the climbing time would increase the construction rate making the system more efficient.

2.3

Self-Climbing Formwork
Due to advances in hydraulics and its incorporation into climbing formwork systems craning is no longer required to move the formwork to successive lifts. Mobile hydraulic units are used to lift the formwork to the next lift as it climbs up the structure. Figure 2-2 shows an operator and the mobile self-climbing device and

INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT C CONCRETE PROCESSES Production of Precast Concrete Tunnel Lining

hydraulics. The climbing process is crane-independent and therefore reduces the time and labour and subsequently the construction costs.

Figure 2-2 Mobile self-climbing device and hydraulics (CEI Report, 2012)

2.4

Self-climbing Process
The self-climbing process takes place in two phases namely climbing the profile and climbing the scaffold. The profile and the scaffolding are further climbed in two strokes, and idle stroke and a working stroke.

2.4.1

Lifting the Climbing Profile During the idle stroke shown in Figure 2-3 the hydraulic cylinder (E) extends until the lower lifting mechanism (B) automatically engages the lifting profile (D). This is done while the entire system is fixed to the structure at the lower suspension shoe (C). During the working stroke shown in Figure 2-4 the hydraulic cylinder (E) retracts pushing the lifting profile up until it engages the upper lifting mechanism (A) which keeps it in place for the idle stroke to be repeated. These two strokes are repeated until the profile as climbed high enough to be attached to the top suspension shoe (F) in Figure 2-5.

INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT C CONCRETE PROCESSES Production of Precast Concrete Tunnel Lining

Figure 2-3 Idle stroke (Doka, 2013)

Figure 2-4 Working stroke (Doka, 2013)

Figure 2-6 Working stroke (Doka, 2013) Figure 2-5 Idle stroke (Doka, 2013) 2.4.2 Climbing the Scaffolding With the climbing profile (D) attached to the upper suspension shoe (F) the scaffolding is now climbed on the profile. In the working stroke in Figure 2-5 the

INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT C CONCRETE PROCESSES Production of Precast Concrete Tunnel Lining

bottom lifting mechanism (B) is attached to the profile and the hydraulic cylinder (E) is extended pushing the top lifting mechanism (A) and the scaffolding system until it engages the climbing profile again. With the scaffolding supported on the climbing profile (D) at (A) the hydraulic cylinder retracts pulling the bottom lifting mechanism (B) to a higher position ready for the working stroke to be repeated. The strokes are repeated until the scaffolding is climbed to the position of the new cast.

2.5

Recent Use of Self-climbing Formwork


Self climbing formwork was recently used to construct the 297m tall Tower 4 of the World Trade Centre in New York. Some of the challenges that were overcome included (Reinmann, 2012): Differing storey heights Varying layouts and floor thicknesses Complicated logistics The PERI XClimb60 system was used on the inside of the Mega Columns providing a hoisting platform for materials and assisting with the complicated logistics. The PERI SKE100 was used on the outside with no craning required. Despite the challenges, some of which would render climbing formwork impractical, self-climbing technology enabled construction to be completed on schedule (Reinmann, 2012).

2.6

Future Use
Due to the reliance of climbing formwork on the support of the structure below concrete strength and more importantly the rate of strength gain is crucial. If the structure below is able to gain sufficient strength in a shorter period of time the formwork can be climbed sooner shortening the formwork turnaround time. The current minimum wall thickness required to support the system is 190mm (Doka, 2013) and maximum casting section height is 5.5m. These limits, with advances in high strength concrete and high strength concrete becoming less expensive, can be reduced and increased respectively if high strength concrete is used.

INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT C CONCRETE PROCESSES Production of Precast Concrete Tunnel Lining

3.
3.1

SLIDING FORMWORK
Introduction
Slipforming is another self-climbing type of formwork system which is supported by tubes which are cast into the concrete and run vertically through the structure. This formwork system has been used since the 1930s (Middel, 2009) with a number of advances though the year and is capable of climbing at a rate 30-40m per week (Horne, 2003). Slipforming is a continuous casting method and not segmental such as climbing discussed in the previous section. The system is also support by the previous sections of concrete however because of the quick lifting times the support system extends far down into the structure below. This also lends the system to being used on very thin sections. The main determining factors in whether Slipforming would be an efficient and effective formwork system are that the structure doesnt change in plan frequently and that it is taller than 20m (Concrete Society, 2008). Other factors such as the concrete supply rate and rate of strength gain also impact on the effeciency of slipforming.

3.2

Slipforming Process
Vibrating equipment shall not be used to achieve compaction as this may cause segregation and unwanted movement in the concrete once in place. Compaction should be achieved through correct placement practices detailed above.

INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT C CONCRETE PROCESSES Production of Precast Concrete Tunnel Lining

4.
4.1

PERMANENT FORMWORK
Introduction
Permanent formwork is cast into the concrete structure and cannot be reused in the construction phase.

INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT C CONCRETE PROCESSES Production of Precast Concrete Tunnel Lining

5.
5.1

INFLATABLE FORMWORK
Introduction
Inflatable formwork was pioneered by Italian Architect Dante Bini in 1964 (Mclean, 2013). Since then it has inspired many developments in inflatable and

INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT C CONCRETE PROCESSES Production of Precast Concrete Tunnel Lining

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

REFERENCES
CEI Report, 2012. Administration building, Central Bank of Nigeria, Lagos, Nigeria. Concrete Engineering International, pp. 34-36. Doka, 2013. Doka, Amstetten: Doka. Horne, R., 2003. Slipform. In: J. Newman & B. S. Choo, eds. Advanced Concrete Technology - Processes. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, pp. 14/1-14/24. Middel, C., 2009. Formwork. In: G. Owens, ed. Fulton's Concrete Technology. Midrand, South Africa: Cement and Concrete Institute, pp. 251-264. Pallett, P., 2003. Formwork and Falsework. In: J. Newman & B. S. Choo, eds. Advanced Concrete Technology: Processes. London: Butterworth-Heinemann, pp. 20/3-20/27. Reinmann, J., 2012. Rebuilding at Ground Zero, Amstetten, Austria: Doka Group. Society, C., 2008. Good Concrete Guide 6 - Slipforming of Vertical Structures. CS162 ed. Surrey: Concrete Society.

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