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Full Annotated Bibliography Peer Pressure of Underage Drinking

GPA, Depression, and Drinking: A Longitudinal Comparison of High School Boys and Girls
Sociological Perspectives, Vol. 54, No. 3 (Fall 2011), pp. 351-376

The authors of this article test five hypotheses between the correlations of GPA, depression, and drinking between girls and boys in high school. They used longitudinal high school data from the Youth Development Study. The first hypothesis is that the GPA negatively affects drinking, but without consistent gender differences. Secondly, GPA also negatively affects depression, more strongly for girls. The third hypothesis states that drinking positively affects lagged depression, more strongly for girls. All of these hypotheses are related, and it shows that in this study the chain mostly effects girls. It also suggests that alcohol may provide divergent behavioral problems and emotional coping functions for boys and girls. Adolescents tend to cope different ways, some turning to alcohol to solve all of their problems. These behavioral responses can be short term or last long term. Teens school success, emotions, and alcohol use are inter-twined to where troubles in one area tend to affect the other areas.

Alcohol Marketing and Young Peoples Drinking: A Review of the Research


Journal of Public Health Policy, Vol. 26, No. 3 (2005), pp. 296-311

This journal is a representation of how alcohol marketing has an effect on young peoples drinking. There have been two types of research of alcohol advertising on consumption and has taken two principal forms which are econometric studies and consumer studies. The econometric studies involve a statistical examination of the relationship between overall levels of alcohol consumption. Consumer studies examine how peoples drinking knowledge, attitudes and behavior vary with their exposure to advertisements of alcohol. The econometric studies work suggests that alcohol advertising has a minimal effect when compared to other things on aggregate alcohol consumption. Someone researching this study found that the effect of advertising to be insignificant when compared to the influence of income, a follow-up study also revealed that advertising is to be of limited significance in terms of total consumption or demand. They use this case to support that advertising does not affect demand for alcohol.

Impulsive and Self-Conscious: Adolescents Vulnerability to Advertising and Promotion


Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, Vol. 24, No. 2 (Fall, 2005), pp. 202-221

In this article the authors review basic research on adolescents and their development in marketing, and other things. They have concerns that marketers may be unfairly exploiting adolescents, particularly in tobacco and alcohol marketers. This concern is based off of the belief that adolescents may be especially susceptible to marketers influence attempts. The United States Department of Health and Human Services addressed this issue by reviewing basic research on adolescents cognitive and emotional development. This development has been conducted in three academic disciplines. These disciplines are neuroscience, psychology, and marketing. They have also examined how they U.S. tobacco and alcohol industries try to protect adolescents through self-regulation and the tobacco settlement only that the assumption is that adolescents are susceptible to influence by advertising. The main implication of this review is that policy official might want to comprehensive federal legislation to protect these adolescents from advertising and promotion for high-risk addictive products.

Alcohol Advertising and Youth: A Measured Approach


Journal of Public Health Policy, Vol. 26, No. 3 (2005), pp. 312-325

Alcohol industry self-regulation is the primary protection against youth exposure to alcohol advertising. Using commercially available databases, the Center on Alcohol and Youth has combined occurrence and audience data to calculate the data between adolescents and adults exposure to alcohol advertising on the tv and the radio, magazines, the internet, and other media sources. The research in the United States shows that alcohol companies have placed significant amounts of advertising where youth are more likely to be exposed to it than adults. Further tests have been run and it has been shown that much of the excess exposure of adolescent and youth to alcohol advertising in the United States could be eliminated if alcohol companies would adopt a threshold of a certain amount as the maximum to youth audience composition for their advertising. If they did this is would still leave much exposure to kids of alcohol marketing. Adolescent alcohol consumption is a representation of an international public health crisis.