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Original Title: Fast Power Flow

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1.0 Introduction

What we have learned so far is the so-called

full-Newton power flow algorithm. The

full-Newton is perhaps the most robust

algorithm in the sense that it is most likely

to obtain a solution for tough problems.

For eample! solving a large power flow

case from a flat start is usually considered

to be a tough problem! and as a result! it is

best to do that with a full Newton.

"ut many times! the problem is not so

tough! and in that case! the so-called fast

decoupled algorithm is also effective in

getting the solution! there is no loss of

accuracy! and it is much faster. # common

situation where fast-decoupled algorithm is

attractive is when you have solved the case!

and then you want to re-solve the case

$using a hot start% to analy&e the effect of

some not-so-dramatic change.

'

There are still other situations where speed

is paramount! but accuracy is not. For

eample! in on-line analysis of ()!)))

contingencies! we may want to only filter

the contingencies that have potential to

result in problems! and then perform full

analysis on those set.

2.0 The fast decoupled power flow

We observed in the eample of the previous

set of notes $*ample ').+% that the ,acobian

matri

1

]

1

22 21

12 11

J J

J J

J

$'%

has a special characteristic in that the

elements of the off-diagonal submatrices J

12

and J

21

are usually very small relative to the

elements of the diagonal submatrices J

11

and

J

22

. $-n fact! in the first iteration of a flat

start! when we assume all angles are )! the

elements of the off-diagonal matrices are )%.

The reason for this can be seen in the

epressions for the ,acobian elements.

/

( ) ) sin( ) cos(

) (

21

q p pq q p pq q p

q

p

pq

B G V V

x Q

J

$/%

( )

2

1

2

21

) sin( ) cos(

) (

) (

p pp

n

k

k p pk k p pk k p

p pp p

p

p

pp

V G B G V V

V G x P

x Q

J

'

$0%

( ) ) sin( ) cos(

) (

12

q p pq q p pq p

q

p

pq

B G V

V

x P

J +

$1%

( )

p pp

n

k

k p pk k p pk k p

p

p pp

p

p

p

p

pp

V G B G V V

V

V G

V

x P

V

x P

J

+

'

+

+

1

12

) sin( ) cos(

1

) ( ) (

$(%

Notice that every term in all of the above

epressions are either $a% multiplied by a

2 or $b% multiplied by a sin. The overall

terms are small because! for transmission.

conductance 2 tends to be small and

angular differences across circuits tend to

be small! resulting in small sin terms.

These observations are consistent with our

understanding that 3 is not very sensitive to

voltage magnitude $i.e.! small

q

p

V

x P

) (

and

p

p

V

x P

) (

%! and 4 is not very sensitive to angle

$i.e.! small

q

p

x Q

) (

and

p

p

x Q

) (

%.

0

We can take advantage of these observations

in the following way. -nstead of using the

eact ,acobin! lets assume that all elements

of the off-diagonal submatrices are in fact 0

and remain 0 throughout the entire Newton-

Raphson algorithm. -n other words! let5s 6ust

use the following ,acobian.

1

]

1

22

11

0

0

J

J

J

T

$+%

Note what this does to our update e7uation.

1

1

1

]

1

Q

P

x J

j j ) ( ) (

$8%

9ubstituting $+% into $8%! we have.

) ( ) (

) (

22

11

0

0

j j

Q

P

V

J

J

j

T

1

1

1

]

1

1

1

1

]

1

1

]

1

$:%

3erforming the indicated matri

multiplication! we obtain.

) ( ) ( ) ( 11 j j j

P J

$;%

) ( ) ( ) ( 22 j j j

Q V J

$')%

These e7uations are the same as e7s.

$').('a% and $').('b% in the tet! ecept that

here! there are negatives signs out front of

the real and reactive mismatch vectors on

the right-hand-side.

1

The reason for the difference is that - have

defined the mismatch as calculated-

specified $e!g!

k k

P x P ) (

and

k k

Q x Q ) (

% instead of

specified-calculated $e.g.!

) ( x P P

k k

and

) ( x Q Q

k k

%. The tet does the opposite $see e7.

$').08% at top of page 01(%.

*7uations $;% and $')% have the following

remarkable feature. real power equations

are decoupled from the voltage magnitudes,

and reactive power equations are decoupled

from the angles The implication is that

either one of e7uations $;% and $')% may be

solved independent of the other one<

=ur power flow algorithm remains eactly

as it was before! with the only eception

being in 9tep 1.

'. 9pecify.

#ll admittance data $series >! charging

capacitance! transformer taps! ? shunts%

(

3

d

and 4

d

for all buses $whether 3@! 34!

or swing%

3

g

and A@A for all 3@ buses

A@A for swing bus! with B)

/. 9et the iteration counter 6B). Cse one of

the following to guess the initial solution.

Flat 9tart. @

k

B'.) ) for all buses.

Dot 9tart. Cse the solution to a

previously solved case for this network.

3. Eompute the mismatch vector for

$6%

!

denoted as f$%. -n what follows! we

denote elements of the mismatch vector as

3

k

and 4

k

corresponding to the real and

reactive power mismatch! respectively! for

the k

th

bus $which would not be the k

th

element of the mismatch vector for two

reasons. one reason pertains to the swing

bus and the other reason to the fact that for

type 34 buses! there are two e7uations per

bus and not one%. This computation will

also result in all necessary calculated real

+

and reactive power in6ections. 3erform the

following stopping criterion tests.

-f A3

k

AF

3

for all type 34 ? 3@ buses

and

-f AA4

k

AF

4

for all type 34 buses!

Then go to step (

*lse

2o to step 1.

1. Find an improved solution as follows.

*valuate the ,acobian , at

$6%

. Genote

this ,acobian as ,

$6%

9olve for

$6%

by applying HC

decomposition to.

) ( ) ( ) ( 11 j j j

P J ) ( ) ( ) ( 22 j j j

Q V J

Eompute the updated solution vector as

$6I'%

B

$6%

I

$6%

.

Jeturn to step 0 with 6B6I'.

(. 9top.

8

This is only

change in

algorithm<<

Dow to see that the fast-decoupled $FGE%

algorithm is faster than the full NewtonK

-n full Newton! step 1 computes

1

1

1

]

1

Q

P

x J

j j ) ( ) (

The ,acobian has dimension $/N-'-N

2

%.

-n the above algorithm! ,

''

has dimension

$N-'%! and ,

//

has dimension $N-N

2

%.

For eample! if we have /)))) buses and

/))) generators! then the ,acobian in the full

Newton has dimension of 08!;;;! but the

FGE algorithm ,acobians will have

dimension of ';!;;; and ':!)))!

respectively.

-t is known that the speed of HC

decomposition is a function! approimately

linear! of the number of elements. The

number of elements in the full Newton is

$08!;;;%

/

B'.11*;! whereas in the FGE

algorithm it is $';!;;;%

/

I$':!)))%

/

B8./1*:.

Therefore the above version of the FGE

:

algorithm will be about twice as fast per

iteration as the full Newton.

Dowever! because the ,acobian gives the

direction to move the solution in each

iteration! we do suffer a loss in accuracy per

iteration! and therefore we may need more

iterations to obtain the final solution.

2iven these two opposing forces $less time

per iteration and more iterations%! it is

usuall! the case that the FGE algorithm is

between '.( and / times faster than the full

Newton.

"ut what about accuracyK We have said that

the FGE algorithm will be less accurate per

iteration. Goes that imply that it will provide

a less accurate solution once it stops

iteratingK

The answer to this 7uestion depends on the

stopping criterion. Note that in the above

;

FGE algorithm! the stopping criterion is

given in 9tep 0! and it is e"actl! the same as

the stopping criterion used in the full

Newton algorithm. That is! both algorithms

are computing the mismatch as

k k

P x P ) (

and

k k

Q x Q ) (

! and

) ( x P

k

and

) ( x Q

k

are computed with

the full real and reactive power flow

e7uations! respectively! in both algorithms.

-t is very important to recogni&e that the

appro"imation in #$% algorithm is applied

to the Jacobian matri" but N&' the power

flow equations used to compute the elements

of the mismatch vector.

The conclusion that we can make here is that

# 3=W*J FH=W 9=HCT-=N

="T#-N*G "> FGE #H2=J-TDL -9

,C9T #9 #EECJ#T* #9 # 3=W*J

FH=W 9=HCT-=N ="T#-N*G "> #

FCHH N*WT=N.

3.0 FDC alorith!" enhance!ents

')

We may simplify the FGE algorithm still

further! making it still faster $but less

accurate% per iteration by working with the

epressions of the ,acobian elements for J

11

and J

22

.

-n what follows! we provide more in-depth

development to tet pg. 0(0.

Eonsider the terms

11

pq

J

. -f we neglect 2 and

under small angle approimation $so that

sin$M

p

-M

7

%N) and cos$M

p

-M

7

%N'%.

( )

pq q p

q p pq q p pq q p

q

p

pq

B V V

B G V V

x P

J

) cos( ) sin(

) (

11

$''%

Now consider the terms

11

pp

J

.

( )

2

1

2

11

) cos( ) sin(

) (

) (

p pp k p pk k p pk

n

k

k p

p pp p

p

p

pp

V B B G V V

V B x Q

x P

J

'

$'/%

#gain! using small 2

pk

and small angle

approimation! the above is

2

1

11

) (

p pp pk

n

k

k p

p

p

pp

V B B V V

x P

J

'

$'0%

''

We will now make use of an assumption that

the voltage profile is flat! i.e.! A@

k

ABA@

p

A.

Then.

1

]

1

'

'

'

pp

n

k

pk p pp p pk

n

k

p

p pp pk

n

k

p p

p

p

pp

B B V B V B V

V B B V V

x P

J

1

2 2

1

2

2

1

11

) (

$'1%

Now consider the summation in the curly

brackets.

pn p p pp p p p p

n

k

pk

B B B B B B B + + + + + + +

+

... ...

1 # 1 # 2 1

1

$'(%

Jecall that from definition of >-bus

elements.

kOp. "

pk

B-b

pk

b

pk

B-"

pk

kBp.

"

pp

Bb

p'

Ib

p/

IPIb

p!p-'

Ib

p

Ib

p!pI'

IPIb

pn

and using the relation from the first bullet.

B-"

p'

-"

p/

-P-"

p!p-'

Ib

p

-"

p!pI'

-P-"

pn

$'+%

where b

p

is sum of all shunt susceptance

at bus p.

9ubstituting this last epression $'+% for "

pp

into $'(%! we obtain.

'/

( )

p

pn p p

pn p p p p p p p

p p p p

n

k

pk

b

B B

B B b B B B

B B B B

+ + +

+ +

+ + +

+

+

...

... ...

...

1 #

1 # 1 # 2 1

1 # 2 1

1

$'8%

9ubstituting $'8% into $'1%! we obtain.

[ ]

pp p p

p

p

pp

B b V

x P

J

2

11

) (

$/8%

We could perform the subtraction in $/8%

using $'+% to see that the term is 6ust the

negative of the sum of all non-shunt

branches connected to bus p.

Dowever! b

p

is typically very small

compared to "

pp

so that neglecting b

p

is 7uite

accurate! resulting in.

pp p

p

p

pp

B V

x P

J

2

11

) (

$/:%

Hikewise! under assumptions of flat voltage

profile and small angle! we can show that.

( )

pq p

q p pq q p pq p

q

p

pq

B V

B G V

V

x Q

J

) cos( ) sin(

) (

22

$/;%

pp p

p pp

p

p

p

p

pp

B V

V B

V

x Q

V

x Q

J

) ( ) (

22

$0)%

'0

9ummari&ing e7s. $''%! $/:%! $/;%! and $0)%!

we have.

pq q p

q

p

pq

B V V

x P

J

) (

11

$''%

pp p

p

p

pp

B V

x P

J

2

11

) (

$/:%

pq p

q

p

pq

B V

V

x Q

J

) (

22

$/;%

pp p

p

p

pp

B V

V

x Q

J

) (

22

$0)%

Noting that the ,acobian matri has no

e7uations or variables for bus ' $the swing

bus%! and assuming we will have ,

''

and ,

//

terms for all buses in the network $not

eactly true! since we will not have reactive

power flow e7uations for type 3@ buses Q so

this is e7uivalent to assuming no type 3@

buses%! we define the "5 matri as.

1

1

1

1

]

1

nn n n

n

n

( ( (

( ( (

( ( (

(

...

...

...

...

R

0 /

0 00 0/

/ /0 //

$0'%

where this matri may be obtained from the

>-bus by simply stripping off the first row

and first column $assuming the swing bus is

'1

S'% and taking the imaginary part of all

elements.

Csing the "5-matri of e7. $0'%! then! e7s.

$''%! $/:%! $/;%! and $0)% may be written

more compactly as.

[ ] [ ] ) ( ) J

''

$0/%

[ ]( ) J

//

$00%

where

[ ]

1

1

1

1

1

]

1

n

V

V

V

V

0 0

0 0

3

2

$01%

Jecalling e7s. $;% and $')%.

) ( ) ( ) ( 11 j j j

P J

$;%

) ( ) ( ) ( 22 j j j

Q V J

$')%

and substituting $0/-00% into $;-')%! we

obtain.

[ ] [ ]

% $ % $ * *

+ ) ( )

$0(%

[ ]

% $ % $ * *

, ) ( )

$0+%

Lultiplying both sides by -' results in.

[ ] [ ]

% $ % $ * *

+ ) ( )

$08%

[ ]

% $ % $ * *

, ) ( )

$0:%

'(

*7uations $08% and $0:% differ from e7s.

$').(8a% and $').(8b% in the tet because the

mismatch vectors are defined differently

here.

Whereas - have defined the mismatch as

calculated-specified $e!g!

k k

P x P ) (

and

k k

Q x Q ) (

% instead of specified-calculated

$e.g.!

) ( x P P

k k

and

) ( x Q Q

k k

%. The tet does the

opposite $see e7. $').08% at top of page 01(%.

There are two more changes which prove

useful in terms of capturing additional

computational efficiency $more speed%.

The first change is an approimation. let the

second T@U in e7. $08% be the identity matri.

The book indicates that the basis for this

change is that we are assuming a flat

voltage profile. This does not tell the whole

story. The basis for this change is that

voltages are flat and typically close to '.).

'+

Laking this change in e7s. $08% and $0:%

results in

[ ]

% $ % $ * *

+ ( )

$0;%

[ ]

% $ % $ * *

, ) ( )

$1)%

The second change is to pre-multiply both

e7uations by T@U

-'

. This change results in

[ ]

% $ ' % $ * *

+ ) (

$1'%

[ ]

% $ ' % $ * *

, ) ) (

$1/%

9ince T@U is diagonal! T@U

-'

is

[ ]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

]

1

n

V

V

V

V

1

0 0

1

0 0

1

3

2

1

$10%

Lultiplication of $10% by the mismatch

vectors is.

'8

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

]

1

n

n

n

n

V

P

V

P

V

P

P

P

P

V

V

V

3

3

2

2

3

2

3

2

1

0 0

1

0 0

1

$11%

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

]

1

n

n

n

n

V

Q

V

Q

V

Q

Q

Q

Q

V

V

V

3

3

2

2

3

2

3

2

1

0 0

1

0 0

1

$1(%

"ased on $11% and $1(%! e7s. $1'% and $1/%

become.

+

)

+

)

+

)

+

(

*

n

n

*

V

% $

0

0

/

/

% $

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

]

1

$1+%

,

)

,

)

,

)

,

) (

*

n

n

* V

% $

0

0

/

/

% $

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

]

1

$18%

':

where the notation of the far right-hand-side

in $1+% and $18% is from the tet.

Three comments remain.

'. *ffect of voltage controlled buses . We

previously assumed $page '(% that we

would have no type 3@ buses. 9ince this

assumption will almost never hold! we

must determine how to handle 3@ buses.

-f a bus is 3@! then we do not represent the

reactive power flow e7uation! and we do

not use the bus5s voltage as an unknown.

This change will have no affect on e7.

$1+%! but it will affect e7. $18%. To account

for 3@ buses in e7. $18%! we need to

Jemove the row and column

corresponding to this bus in "5.

Jemove the element corresponding to

this bus in

Q

$

.

We will call the resulting matri "55.

/. Where5s the speed-upK We still retain

the speed up of the previous FGE

';

algorithm! which is due to the fact that the

HC-decomposition is faster per iteration as

a result of the decoupling $and

corresponding reduction in total matri

elements%. The method described here

provides additional speed-up from two

sources.

The "5-matri need not be reevaluated

in each iteration! and so we save the

time of evaluating ,acobian matri

elements.

"ecause the left-hand-side of e7s. $1+%

and $18% are constants! we need perform

HC-decomposition only once. 2iven the

H and C factors! we need to only

perform forward and backward

substitution for each different right-

hand-side.

0. #lgorithm . - indicated the power flow

algorithm is eactly the same as in the

full-Newton! but there is a minor

difference in that 9tep 0 $page 8% and 9tep

1 $page :% can be alternated! as follows.

/)

a. 9tep 0a. Eompute mismatch of

P

$

using

) 1 (

and

) 1 (

j

V

.

b. 9tep 1a. 9olve e7. $1+% for

) ( j

.

c. 9tep 0b. Eompute mismatch of

Q

$

using

) ( j

and

) 1 (

j

V

.

d. 9tep 1b. 9olve e7. $18% for

) ( j

V

.

e.9tep 0c. 3erform stopping criterion

tests.

-f A3

k

AF

3

for all type 34 ? 3@ buses

and

-f A4

k

AF

4

for all type 34 buses!

Then go to step (

*lse

) ( ) ( ) 1 ( j j j

+

+

) ( ) ( ) 1 ( j j j

V V V +

+

Jeturn to step 0 with 6B6I'.

The reason why this improves speed is

because the update on voltages are done

with using a step-si&e based on the most

recent update on angles.

%.0 DC Power Flow

/'

Jeturn to e7uation $1+%! repeated here for

convenience.

+

)

+

)

+

)

+

(

*

n

n

*

V

R

% $

0

0

/

/

% $

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

]

1

$1+%

Now assume all voltages are '.). Then e7.

$1+% becomes.

P

P

P

P

P

P

P

B

j

n

j

n

j

1

1

1

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

]

1

) (

3

2

) (

3

2

) (

0 . 1

0 . 1

0 . 1

$1:%

9o! e7uation $1:% becomes.

P B

j

) (

$1;%

This e7uation! when solved 6ust once $6B'%

for WM

$'%

! and with a flat-start solution!

implies that MB)IWM

$'%

BWM

$'%

! and! if we

assume that this solution is the correct one!

then in other words!

P P P P B ) 0 (

$()%

where 3$)% are the real power flow

e7uations for buses / to N evaluated at M

$)%

B)

//

$i.e.! the flat start%! and 3 are the real power

flow in6ections into each bus / to N.

Therefore!

P B

$('%

This gives all of the angles for the network

with a single solution to a set of linear

e7uations. Then! the real power flows can be

computed with

% $

* - -* -*

( +

$(/%

which is the power flowing across a circuit

connected between buses k and 6 under

conditions of $a% neglecting resistance! $b%

small angle approimation! and $c% all

voltage magnitudes are '.).

/0

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