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Kakyo: Zeami's Fundamental Principles of Acting. Part Three Author(s): Mark J. Nearman Source: Monumenta Nipponica, Vol.

38, No. 1 (Spring, 1983), pp. 49-71 Published by: Sophia University Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2384011 . Accessed: 11/02/2014 20:38
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Kaky&
Principles Zeami's Fundamental of Acting
Part Three by MARK J NEARMAN in theautumn issue of Monumenta published In thefirst part of thisarticle, Nipto the theatretreatise ponica,pp. 333-74, the authorprovidedan introduction Zeami Motokiyo IfJ:5it. The treatise Kakyo tJ, 1424, by the Noh master thathave a universal thoseaspectsin theprocessof artistic development outlines and understanding are based on a profound awareness becausethey of significance and are not simplytheproductof a personalor the natureof humancreativity thelevelofa technical viewofart.Hence,thework training goes beyond subjective to thestudy Noh actingto makea majorcontribution of thephenomena manualfor and thepsycho-spiritual processes and theirrelationto aesthetics of the theatre a detailedcommentary, with art. A translation, thatunderlie together any creative The second part of the provided. of actingwas then ofZeami's six basicprinciples a translation of and in thewinter issue, pp. 459-96, and contained article appeared on the up thelatter a commentary practicaltopicsmaking firstnineof thetwelve in thisthird are dealtwith and last installthe topics finalthree partof thetreatise; of thearticle. ment

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[Section 10] the Actor's Perspective] ConcerningCriticism [from When it comes to talkingabout 'critiquingacting', the preferences diverse.Hence, whatwill accord withthe heartsof of people are highly everyonedoes not readilyor easily occur. Even so, [the actor] should base [theactingdone] by an established take as his [critical] masterwho acclaimed234by the public. has been singularly To startwith, [the actor] can recognizethis [more effective acting which audiences prefer] in both sightand by carefully differentiating sound the momentsin a givenperformance235 when the actingworks and when it does not work.236With given performances where the acting works, there are three [typesof effects]: visual, auditory,and mental.2 37 What I call 'acting that worksfromthe visual [standpoint]' is [that whereno sooner [has the show] which occurs in] a givenperformance begun than the audience getscaughtup [in it],the spectators high and because the appearance of the way that low give voice to theirfeelings the dancing [i.e., the moving]and reciting are done is interesting [to looks brilliant. This is actingthat works them],and [theoveralleffect] from thevisual [standpoint]. Such an occasion is a performance at which everyone-those witha discerning eye,it goes withoutsaying,but even those who do not know that much about acting-unanimously feel, 'How interesting!' Yet thereis something about thiskind of actingthatthe actor must be aware of. At a place wheretheactingworkstoo well and theviewer's spiritsare exhilaratedto the extentthat [everything] is interesting no matter whatis done, thegap betweenwhatthe audience sees and how it
234

as a fighter froma ring. Zeami's use implies that the audience has pushed the actor from the circle of ordinaryactors into a position of singularprominence or, in Zeami's words, of being considered 'an exception among exceptions' (Kyakuraika, p. 163). The verb derives from oshiidasu, which in medieval times had an additional meaning of 'to be well known'. 235 Toza ' rm customarily referseitherto 'a given instance,the immediatemoment' or

s ;, literally, 'to be squeezed or pushed out',

A freetranslation of oshiidasaru IT 1?

to 'the acting company in question', but contextimplies a more literal meaning as 'a given[moment of]performance' as an instance of an actual performancein contrast with actingin general. 236 Idekitaru ,?XtK , 'to succeed, to be competent',or, in Western theatre parlance, 'to work', that is, to succeed by being effective in holdingthe audience's interest. 237 For a correlationof these termswith Zeami's upper threelevels of performing and Buddhist psychology,see Kyui, pp. 304 & 322-25.

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forthe emotionally responds238 disappears,and thereis a tendency239 actingto go a bit astray. [Also,] at a point wherethe actor gets caught up in the enthusiasm to create]to [he is trying [of his audience] and pushes the stage effect theviewer'sspirit and the actor's spirit thegap between thelimit, disapmomentsget confusedand pears. The boundariesthatdelimiteffective toward the flashy240 and is thereare signs that the acting is shifting defectsof [momentary] overgoing bad. I consider these [situations] acting.24' the condition]at such times,[theactor]createsa respite [To remedy his acting,by holding in a littleon his expressionof by restraining the spectator'seye and emotionsand on his demeanor,and by letting place is done calmly mind rest; [then]if the [next]interest[-arousing] an increasedfeelingof interest while he slows down his breathing,242 will [thereby] be produced [in the audience],and as the programprogresses,his emotional impact will not be spent. [Theatrical]achievementslike this in sarugaku I call 'acting that works fromthe visual [standpoint]'. ofthis theterm 'criticism' doesnotrefer section to the As thecontents reveal, a performance or evaluate in which a theatre critic for the manner might analyze with thetechniques itisconcerned ofspectators. an actor benefit bywhich Rather, or histeacher as wellas theperformances can makeuse ofaudience of response is therefore The section to a great other actors fordeveloping his own skills. oftheimport and practical behind Zeami'searlier degree an expansion analysis should remark that hisdevelopment an actor payattention toboth comtofurther remarks andnegative plimentary critiques. howaudience Moresignificantly, Zeamishows can be utilized responses proare naturally As later eventhough diverse. of parts fitably spectator preferences ofthetext will Zeamimakes twobasicdifferentiations this among section indicate, he distinguishes that audience between 'connoisseurs', is,those with a types. First, in general', thatis, thosewhoseresponse is basidiscerning eye,and 'audiences in theresponses differences of urban he observes and callylesscritical. Second, hisremarks are notdepreciatory ofanyof these audiences. provincial However,
238 Shonin no mekokoro (or mokushin) N literally, '[between] everyone's M,J W1L', eye and mind (heart)'. 239 Tn, t 'tendency,sign', refers to an effect thatcan serveas a 'mark' or 'symptom' a cause. Here, it refers to for identifying situations in a performance symptomatic of troubles that the actor can and should correct. 240 Kecho 8X :C5 appears in Muromachi-

period texts in referenceto somethingprominentin a gaudy or spectacular way (zz, p. 102). 241 In contrastwith a Level Eight actor's or deliberate 'hamming' (Kyii, unrestrained pp. 309-10). 242 Iki o tsukaseru,thSl: might be translatedmore preciselyas 'to lengthen[the expulsionof] the breath'.

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reofa given to aid theactorin evaluating thenature butattempt ofviewers types his that he accordingly. diverse audiencesso may gauge performing sponsefrom threekindsof successful acting.By implication, Zeami distinguishes Further, be school would all three. in to fully master expected actor Zeami's theprofessional of Zeami's each will be analysis As these are not completely self-explanatory, a followed by commentary. immediately as 'actingthatworksfromthe kind,givenabove, Zeami designates The first is not li'visual',thiskind of performing Despite the epithet visual standpoint'. mime, can such as dancing, actually see, thespectator mited to thoseaspectswhich includes music as the term 'visual' but and well.Hence, reciting mask,and costume, thata spectator can 'pointto' aspectsof presentation to themoreconcrete refers his of this has as the sourceof kind,Zeami finds, response.Acting and identify be personal a directand universal appeal even thoughtherewould undoubtedly forspectators. For viewers, suchacting in thequality oftheexperience differences as entertainment. withtheidea of theatre wouldprobably be consonant typeof acting,and Zeami dulycautions Some problemsarise fromthisfirst on brilliance, suchperforming mayoverstiagainstthem.Because of itsemphasis his properly, mulatetheaudience,and iftheactordoes not pace his performance loses of and points sight thespecific audiencegetscaughtup in itsownexcitement As a result,the largerpatternof the actingwill be that the actor is creating. in generalmay be well missedby the audience,and eventhoughthe performing caughtup in theirown impactwill be lost. The spectators, its greater received, insteadofbeingrefreshed exhaust and enervate themselves ultimately enthusiasm, of performing. and revitalized by theactor'smastery of the get caughtup in the enthusiasm an actor may himself Furthermore, he would well, feel he marvelously is succeeding he may Although audience. As a result,his of personal satisfaction. in feelings actuallyonly be indulging to 'top forgenuine as he attempts brilliance, willsubstitute flashiness performance applying However, by climaxes. himself' keyed higher and higher by producing forkeeping a reinon theaudience'senthuthetechniques thatZeami recommends away fromexcessive the spectators actor willbe able to draw siasm,the trained their extinguishing or altogether emotionality withoutlosing their attention enthusiasm.

is done What I call 'actingthatworksfromthe auditory[standpoint]' is all fromthe outset; the reciting manner243 in a quiet [but heartfelt] in itsgracefulness. is interesting and [theeffect] butsetto a modal key244
243 The meaning of shimijimi in context is uncertain.As Nose, i, p. 394, implies,the acting from the beginning would be done with composure, which suggests that the actor's performing is to be more subdued from theoutsetwithemphasison the'musical' aspects (rhythm, gracefulness) ratherthan on the pictorialaspects associated witha visually predominant mode of acting. 244 Yagate ongyoku choshini au

MP+{

refers to the actor's conscious ofthetonal aspectof speech.Tanaka, stressing p. 149, among othershas suggestedthat this phrase means that the reciting should be brought into accord with the tone or pitch of the flute. But such a technique would occur on all levels of trained acting by apand would plicationof Zeami's FirstPrinciple, of thereforenot be a unique characteristic thistypeof acting,as the textimplies.

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are [thekinds These,in general, of]feelings engendered [ina spectator] by recitation.245 Theyare the feelings [thatarise]whena supremely skilled[actor]goes intothe strong [But] points[in his performance]. in provincial forinstance, do not themorediscerning [audiences],246 all thatmuchof the savor [of the experience] achievedby this think
manner.247

in a variety is proficient Sincethesupremely skilled ofstylistic [actor] this sort of acting effects [produced] naturally by his own mind,248 If a second-string actor249 were to becomesever more interesting. was not all thatdeveloped perform at a timewhenhis concentration to act in that[more manner wanted [ofcreative yethe [still] advanced] of his therewould in the end be a lessening acting], [in the imnpact acting]. while When[an actor]does his performing coolingdown[thesuperof intensity] and producing withserenity ficial expression [hiseffects] a situation and [an aesthetically] pleasing[grace], may occur where low key2 50 as thepiecesin theprogram thelook oftheacting becomes theactorshouldconcentrate a little pile up. Awareof this[problem], and shouldentice moreintensely on his performing themindsof the and should spectators by selectively displaying interesting highlights his acting] holding adjustthe look [achieved through by [alternately] backand opening up. Witha supremely turns out all the skilled [actor], [hisperformance] 51 the[spectator's] moreinteresting at thepoints where view2 objectified
that may Hence, the source of the epithet'audi- termfor a generallypositive effect become negativewhen in an excessive state. 246 Tanaka, p. 149, n. 13, suggests that It appears close to the Western term 'low inaka mekiki^EIJJ may mean not only key', thatis, markedly subdued. 'a rural connoisseur'but also 'a self-centered Like its Western counterpart, shizumu to acting intendedto pull the audience [opinionated ?] connoisseur'. However, the refers in conrelevance of the latter interpretation to the into a deeper state of concentration contextis difficult to grasp. trastto a brilliancethat derivesfromenergy 247 That is, theyare apt to prefer brilliance projected out to the audience by the actor over subtlety. and which excites and stimulatesthe enthu248 That is, a personal creationas distinct siasm of the viewer. 251 froma learnedmodel. 'a view at a disEnken I&, literally, 249 As thetextimplies, nakatsuashi 1 tance', refersto the spectator's spontaneous r-P does not necessarilyreferto a 'second-rate experienceof a typeof aestheticdistancethat actor', but rather to one who has not yet would replace the more superficialempathy attained a fullertechnical masteryalthough and enthusiasm aroused by the brilliance trainedsufficiently thathe could perform with that Zeami associates with 'visually' appeala professional company. ing acting. The viewerhaving this experience 250 Althoughshizumu &5Wlexicallymeans becomes aware of deepermeaningsand signi'to be submerged,to become depressed or ficance in the performance than the surface gloomy', it appears in Zeami as a technical contentalone could convey.
245

tory'.

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were not low key.252

oftheapparentsignificance ofhismovements and reciting spontaneously arisesfrom[theinteraction of] thegivenrepertory piece [with theactor's] body [as his expressive medium]and his mind. A second-string actor, out [his performance] thinking completely[in advance] and following the repertory [as he has learnedit],will regard[his acting]as thoughit

This [actingwith'auditory'appeal] in addition should not appear in the eyes of the spectator as [if]'He's doing it [thatway] so thatit won't low key!' The spectatorshouldjust respondas if he felt be [negatively] it's become!'2 5 3 only'How interesting Treat these [techniques]as an actor's secretsand as 'tricksof the trade'.2 5 Instancesof actinglike thisI call 'actingthatworksfromthe auditory[standpoint]'.

The secondkindofappeal Zeami associateswith theexperience ofhearing. That is, it correlates thoseperformance with thesurface aspectsthattranscend content, To thatdegree, 'seen' by spectators. which itrefers can be readily to a deeperlevel of impactfrom a performance and notjust to recitation per se. kindof acting As Zeami cautions, thismoresubtle a moresophisticated requires forconsciousappreciation. he seems spectator to recommend thatthe Therefore, actor stressbrilliance when performing beforeless sophisticated audiencesand formoreselectoccasions.Nevertheless, leave subtlety his examplesof the use of thiskindof actingimply thatit could be employed in combination effectively with theprevious typeof performing. To achievethismoresubtle effect thattheactortonedownemphasis requires on the outerexpression of his performance so thatthe deeper'resonances'may be 'heard' by the viewer.However,like 'visually'appealingacting,this 'auditory' also has itspitfalls. The acting type becometoo low keyto be effective, maysimply as it requires forsuccessthattheactorhas developedskillsin maintaining inner intensity and concentration whilemodifying itsouterexpression, and thenplaying withhis audienceby holdingback and revealing thisinnerintensity at carefully chosenpoints. themainproblems wouldarisewith Beyondthis, actorson less developed levels of theirmore advanced models.Those less to emulatethe restraint attempting a flat ifthey skilled wouldend up with had notyetmastered thetechperformance inner On theotherhand,iftheywerestillworkniquesformaintaining intensity. teacher's ingon a levelwheretheyweretiedto their models,theywouldnot feel freeto deviatefrom whathas been established in training sessions.
That is, keeping to what he has been taught,he cannot play creatively with levels of intensity in performance to stimulatethe spectatorto discover deeper levels of significance. 253 That is, the spectatoris so drawn into the performance that he does not openly say
252

but only thinks,'How interesting!', in contrastwith the visuallystimulatedviewerwho is more prone to audible expressionof his feelings. 254 Koshitsu(or kojitsu) . literally, 'ancienttruths', thatis, triedand truemethods.

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on the has an impact is Zeami's idea thatthistypeof acting Also of significance has of The actor who a spontaneous attained which feeling depth. viewer produces creativity has learnedhow to bringhis individual thishighlevel of development creativity the viewer's would now be used to stimulate into play. This creativity expression. in an artistic thedeepersignificances neededforhimto discover

With 'acting that works fromthe [standpointof] mind', there are of the suplaces in the sarugaku [performance] wonderful indefinably skilled[actor]wheretheactingis done witha tranquilsimplicity premely and movement], the [i.e., reciting [while]the two modes of performing are nothingin particular as well as the plot [interest] characterization, I also call this 'a piece [itself].255 beyond [what is in] the repertory This level is unfamiliar even to a of mode performing'. cooled-down discerningconnoisseur. Even more, provincial connoisseursand the like do not as much as approach the thought[of such a level existing]. be experienced as, say,an [bya viewer] This [typeof acting]may simply I call this[type] skilled a [actor]. effect achieved supremely by auspicious of] mind'; I also call it 'acting 'actingthatworksfromthe [standpoint well as as [The actor]should be pattern'. mind' 'acting beyond beyond and recognizethe many [types]of such highly aware of, differentiate, detailedeffects. themind, is generally with Zeamiassociates kindof appeal,which The third viewers becauseit evenby the mostsophisticated consciously not recognized withperformance of expression associated forms transcends boththe 'visible' diswith themind's associated ofmeaning and the'audible' resonances patterns as 'beyond effect kind ofacting to this Zeamirefers Hence, functions. criminative
thiskind of actingcreatesan impact and 'beyondmind'. Nevertheless, pattern' on thespectator he is not consciousof it. eventhough histreatises places greatvalue on theactorwho can Because Zeami throughout itmaybe useful to make from themind', attain thislevelofperforming that'works it derives from theabiBasically, someobservations on thetypeofacting implied. infertile and seemingly eventhemostsimple ofan advancedactorto transform lity material intoan effective piece of acting.At the same time,he shouldnot appear forthatwould call coloringhis material, by highly to achievethiseffectiveness emphasis.The does not warrent undue attention to subjectmatter thatin itself consumis to be achieved bythepoweroftheactor'smindand requires solely effect of thenatureof acting. understanding mateskilland a profound that the spectator anything The impactof this typeof actingwill transcend appear as if the would selectas particularly effective, since it would outwardly fortheteacher in particular. Yet it wouldbe mandatory actorweredoingnothing
255 That is, thereis nothingin the actor's that appears on the surface as performing notably inventiveor singularlymoving, and

yet the viewer is held and becomes totally absorbed in the performancebeyond any judgmentalthoughtor feeling.

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thiseffect when it occurs on stageand to and theactorto be able to recognize realize thatthisadvanced stateof theartis one thatall actors theoretically are capableofattaining. thereare some people who have just a discerning Generallyspeaking, eye but do not know [what]acting[is about]. There are also those who know [what]acting[is about] yet do not have a discerning eye. When the eye and the understanding are in accord, [such a person]will be a good spectator. Do not judge [an actor] on the basis of the timeswhen the sarugaku [performance] of a skilled[actor]does notworkor on thetimeswhenthe sarugakuof an unskilled[actor]does work. To succeed in actingmajor 57 is the customof the skilled.Actingthatsucroles256 on large stages2 ceeds [only]on small stages or in minorroles is the custom of the unof the way to with an understanding skilled.The actor who performs forhis interest his viewerswill have the power to command respect258 acting. of theactorwhilewatching thespirit Further, theviewerwho discerns the actingwill be a viewerwho knows [what]acting[is all about]. For critiquing [fellowactors],it is said, 'Forget259about the [theatricaleffects] achievedand look at [thedeepermeaningimpliedby] the acting. Disregardingthe acting, look at the actor. Disregardingthe actor, look at his spirit.Disregardingthe spirit,comprehend[what] acting[is all about]!' ofcriticism Zeami's analyses ofaudience types andgeneral principles seem sufcomment. The procedure fordeveloping ficiently clearthat they needno further has skill with which intoseeing intothenature ofacting Zeamiendsthis section inthefinal extended he willexplore section ofthetext. meanings that

258 256 Daiji &4, 'majorroles',is in contrast toku aru Omote, zz, p. 104, interprets with katawaki)t- 'minor or supporting PPM6 as 'to gain profit',implyingthat for ecoThe two terms Zeami the goal of acting was primarily [roles]'in the nextsentence. 'major events', nomic. However, the view that economic may also mean respectively should be derivedfroma reputation such as at festivalsand court-supported benefits thatis, in the forfineactingwould be more in keepingwith functions, and 'the byways', provinces. Zeami's previously statedviews. 257 Oniwa AS, literally, 'large gardens', 259 Zeami's use of the word wasuru = as largeaudiences, the first refers to performances before verb in each of the sentencesin this in contrast to koniwauJJ,, 'small gardens', finalparagraphcovers a wide range of meanprobablymeaningthe smaller and more ings that no single equivalent consistently intimate performing areas associatedwith conveys: 'to forget,to disregard,to put out private performances. of one's mind,to ignore'.

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[Section 11] the Way to Practice Concerning the Auditory[Aspectof Acting]260 The methods of practice [related to what is recited]are [of] two kinds. [With]one, the person who composes the text for reciting26' modes a sequence will fashionwith [prior]knowledgeof performance of words in a pleasing manner.And [with]the other,the person who the syllables [into words] while adding the recites will differentiate line.262 intonational
In thefirst partof his moredetailedanalysisof the vocalizedaspectof acting, theactorand whattodaywouldbe called the between Zeami makesa distinction as a completely in Zeami's timetheconceptof a 'playwright' although playwright, as playscripts werecomposedfor did notyetexist, artist professional independent Zeami's statement thattheone whofashions themostpartbyactors.Nevertheless, of the variousmodes of performing the textshould have a practicalknowledge forposscripts thatpersonsotherthanactorsmay have begunto write suggests have been amateurs courtheywouldpresumably sibleperformance. However, scripts by such Although oftheeducatedgentry. members and other tiers, priests, noneoftheplaysthat beengiven courtesy performances, authors haveoccasionally seemsto have been composedby in the standardNoh repertory have survived actor. someoneotherthana trained for theirfamily actors were expectedto be playwrights Not all professional the same by Zeami. The actor but theiractingtaskswereconsidered companies, for interpreting the meaningof the words what was the person responsible the syllables'into words and the mannerin which Zeami calls 'differentiating the addingof an intonathrough thesewordswould be made vocallyexpressive tionalline. to have appearsat least superficially In Noh practice today,thisresponsibility The intonaof traditions of performing. theestablishment been modified through and their tional lines are now 'scored' as part of the scriptused by thestudent, exBut Zeami evidently passed on to himby his teacher. methodof performance fororal interpretation. to handlethemajorresponsibility pectedtheactorhimself between of Noh mastersdifferences However,even today,in the performances ofperformance therecitational modelsetdowninthescript and theactualmanner can often be detected.
260 Onshado5no Koto (or On [o] Narau Michi no Koto) E Some later manuscript copies have the title as Ongyoku no Koto M A;LA, 'ConcerningRecitation'. 261 Utai no hon AQV*, literally, 'the basis of what is recited',Zeami's termfor a playscript from the composer's viewpoint,was later contractedto utaibon,the name given

to collectionsof scriptspreparedfor training the amateuractors of the court. 262 Fushi o tsukete tXW, 'to add or affixan intonationalline', implies that it is the actor himselfwho is to be responsible the intonational pattern to for determining be applied to the text.

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[The actor,as part of his preparation forperformance,] adds intonational lines [withtwo purposes,]so that theywill create an aesthetic effect[that is dependent on and] in accordance with the words,263 and so that the linkage of words in the sequence of verses,when accompanied with the proper use of the five[principal] pitches,will be easy to listento withits [conversationally] flowing quality264 and will [also] have a [pleasing]lilt. Then, whenever[the actor] recites[in public], he will recitewith a of thismode of [vocal]performing. As a [direct] thorough understanding in the audience] in result,therewill be a feelingof interest [generated [any]place wherethe methodsfor [prior]adding [of intonationallines of their]mode of performance and themethods withan understanding are in accord [withthe textas well as with [used] in [theactual] reciting the nature of the audience, time of day, etc.]265Hence, he will make [himself] into one highly knowledgeable266 [in the art of] recitation just lines. by his methodof adding intonational When the sequence of words has been pleasing[lyfashionedby the is in playwright] and the [actor's selectionof] high and low [tones]267 keeping with the performing mode, an aesthetic effectresults. The intonational line is the pattern[producedby the sequence of tones],the dependentaestheticeffect is [a productof] the sequence of words,and the mode of performing [the intonationalline to those words] is the spirit[of the recitation]. The distinctions betweenthe breathand the ch'i268[i.e., the vitality feltas the flowof energyassociated withthe breath]and betweenthe
263 Kakari 9> D in Zeami's texts has customarilybeen interpreted by scholars as 'aesthetic effect'. However, it still seems to maintain its sense of an effect created by some element of performinghaving been treatedas dependenton some otherelement, hence,a 'dependenteffect'. In the present instance, the intonational line is to be treatedas a performance element dependenton the words of the text, rather than as an independent'melody line' superimposed on the words regardless of their semanticcontent. 264 Subeyaka ni , renderedhere as 'flowing' in a conversational manner, derives from the verb suberu Mb, 'to glide' as on ice, which has an extendedmeaningof 'to slip' out of themouthwithoutthought. The image createdby theword is thatof an easy flowing delivery(as in conversational

speech) ratherthan one of speech that flows by smoothlyglidingfromone sustainedtone to the next(as in singing). 265 The specific techniques for adding intonationallines expressively to a text are given in Zeami's later treatises Fushizuke Shidai and Fugyoku Shu, citedin n. 17, above. 266 Hakase (or hakushi)t4?, the modernday termfor 'doctor of philosophy',referred in Zeami's timeto one so well versed,knowledgeable,and expertin a subjectthathis work could serveas a model forothersto learn by. 267 Context suggeststhat the words sumi 4 and nigoriN 9 in the presentinstance derive from Chinese acoustical termsmeaning higher,'clear' tones and lower, 'turbid' tones (Needhamn, p. 203), rather than refer to their more familiar present-day meaning of 'unvoiced' and 'voiced' consonants. 268 Discussed on p. 349, above.

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intonationalline and the shaping [of that line] must be thoroughly comprehended.
fororal interpretation of a script mayseem instructions WhileZeami's general of his major pointsmay be clear enoughto thosetrainedin acting,a summary interest. useful to readers witha moregeneral on thebasis ofthemeanis to develophispresentation The actoras interpreter vocal lineon thewords, an arbitrary thanby superimposing ingofthetextrather the use of converwillderivein partfrom Effectiveness in delivery as in singing. willmakethelineseasyto listen as they ofintonation, derived patterns sationally the base patterns to and givethema lilt.Whentheactormakessuchintonational will appear fromthe audience'sviewpoint effect forvocalization, the aesthetic of the text,whilethe mode of shapingthe line the content to arisedirectly from That is, the tonalityof in delivery will appear as 'the spirit'of the recitation. of the textwill seem to arise of the emotionalcontent speechas an expression of thetext. content out of and be integrated withthesemantic breath thephysical between to distinguish just as the actoris expected Finally, breathofcreative with oftheinner energy (ch'i)associated and theexperience flow lineand theshaping intonational thephysical between ing,so he is to differentiate boththe outerand innereleof thatline expressively. That is, he is to recognize thetwo or ignoreone and not confuse ments thatcome intoplay in performance in favorof the other.

In [vocal] study,it is said, 'Puttingaside the [matterof production of] voice, be aware of the shaping [of the intonationalline]. Putting creates aside the shaping,be aware of the modes [whose employment aside the modes, be aware of rhythm.' moods]. Putting Also, [as] the sequence for studyingrecitation,first[comes] the memorizingof the lines, then the masteringof the intonationalline, of the intonationalline, then the then the coloring [i.e., interpreting] [i.e., phrasingfor of word [stress through] pronunciation distinguishing of thentheholding[to]theinnerspirit[or intent emphasisand content], should extendover the beginning, the passage]. The [studyof] rhythm middle,and end [of the sequence].
Zeami's procedurefor vocal studyneeds littlecomment.His termwasurete one element 'put aside, forget about', refers to the practiceof mastering .k of vocal technique before shifting attention to another. First,the-actor In his procedure forrehearsing, two pointsare of significance. manner rather thanstrive to is expected to buildhis performance in a systematic for and intensity reserved perform the role on 'first reading'withthe fullness his lines before actual performance. Second, the actor is expectedto memorize he masters how he willexpress themvocally. While this latterprocedurewas dictatedto some degreeby the practicein thelinesofthetextto theactor Zeami's timeoftheteacher-playwright presenting
,

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it had other as well. merits thangiving hima copyof thescript, orally rather line fixing theintonational thewordsbefore theactorto memorize Requiring in so ontoan intonational pattern freezing wouldtendto keeptheactorfrom as his to alter or colorthelinedelivery be reluctant that he would rigid a manner of the actual performing the role and as the demands deepened of understanding andplace. overtime situation changed of the voice: [the actor] should use his Concerningthe treatment voice [whilekeepingin mind]not to lose the timeforwhichit is [best] a dialect Further, as to the use of a provincialaccent in recitation, but a dialect associated with intonationis not grating, pronunciation will be bad. This distinction, again, is of words [in itself] pronunciation Studyit thoroughly. important. What I call 'a dialect pronunciationof words' [is] to speak with a the pronunciation270 of words in general. provincialaccent by altering What I call 'a dialect pronunciationassociated with intonation' is with particleswritten the voice [quality]used with the [grammatical] [phonetic]kana. The pronunciationused with the particlecharacters depends on the streamof recitedwords whichflowsin speaking.Even is a littleoff,it will not gratewhen the inthoughthe pronunciation tonationallineis good. It is said that[tonal]stressand pitchdifferentiation27' depend on what precedes. [This] is also called 'euphony'.272
Kuden,which Zeami's treatiseOngyoku contains an earlierversionof this section on voice, follows this sentence with a description of the qualities of the voice early in the and thenlaterin the day, along with morning for the methods of practice suitsuggestions times. able forthesedifferent Zeami's omission in Kakyo of this more specialized elaboration suggests that suitaof voice to timeis to be takenin broader bility contexts. That is, physical voice quality is not absolute but relativeto the state of the voice at a given time, not only fromday to day but also over the various periods in the actor's life. 270 In OngyokuKuden an almost identical sentence occurs, except that in the earlier text Zeami has used P sho (or koe), 'voice, voicing', where in Kakyo he uses liE sh, apt', as an ateji for v*. '[theatrically] literally, However, as Zeami in Kakyo appears to to the physicalphenomenonof use P to refer voice, liE would be the quality of the vocal sound associated with'voicing'as discussedin thatis, the 'pronunciation'. his FirstPrinciple,
269

suited.269

betweenP and SE therefore This relationship parallels that betweenfushi as 'intonational line', and kyokuas its 'mode of performance'. 271 Seidaku A in the presentcontextis ambiguous. As a technicalterm in Zeami it refersto 'high and low' in terms of pitch (see n. 267, above), hence, 'pitch differentiato thepractice tion'. But it may also hererefer in Japanese of voicing unvoiced consonants environments. in certainlinguistic For example,theinitialunvoicedconsonant [k] in the word kawa, 'river', often changes to the voiced consonant [g] when the word becomes part of a proper name, as in sumidagawa, 'Sumida River'. While today such a euphonic change is mark, texts by a diacritical indicatedin printed in Zeami's time such marks were usually omitted in manuscripts.If Zeami intended seidaku to refer to such phonetic changes, thiswould suggestthat the use of manuscript copies of plays may have played a largerpart actors than has of professional in the training hitherto been recognized.

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It must be thoroughly [covered as part of] the oral transmission [of training techniques]. Concerningthe particle words: such ending words [and syllables] written withkana as wa, ni, no, 0, ka, te, mo, and shi,273 are not hard to listento when the aestheticeffect of the intonationalline is good, even thoughthe pronunciation is a littleoff.What I call 'the intonational line' and 'its mode of performance' are, in sum,reverberations of the particlesyllables[whichcan be pronouncedon contrastive tones]. As a rule,[an actor]does not perform a recitation withsyllabicpurity. He should recite by singlingout [for emphasis the most important] withChinesecharacters among thewordswritten and by contracting or extending [theline] by means of the particlesyllables.274 Furthermore, [the actor] must coordinatethe fourpitch patternsof 'level', 'rising','departing[upward]',and 'entering[downward]'.275 While Zeami'sremarks on thespecifics of recitation are madein reference to the properties of the Japanese his underlying language, principles have wider To summarize application. these theactor's voice should points, notshow tell-tale ofa provincial signs as faras thephonetic accent, specifically element ofspeech is concerned, as this callsattention to thespeech pattern in'andofitself. The intonation with a provincial associated wouldbe acceptable accent, however, as it doesnotjar theearofthelistener. Sucha use ofintonation basedon conversational also helps patterns give flow tothespeech andbypasses thestilted that quality results from an attempt to maintainsyllabic purity. 'Syllabic occurs purity' wheneach syllable is treated as an
272 Bin'on . has been generallyinterpreted by scholars as Zeami's equivalent of the modern-dayonbin 'E , 'euphonic changes', such as those mentionedin the previous note. 273 These particlesrepresent those endings and suffix-like words that occur in Japanese but not in Chinese. In otherwords, passages in Buddhist scriptures,writtenin Chinese, would have had their pronunciation standardized throughout Japan by the priestsand would not have been so subjectto distortions due to provincial accent; whereas the 'lilt' of the Japanese intonation would come throughwhen the polysyllabicsof Japanese occurredin a script. 274 That is, theactoris to pronouncewords in relation to t-heir everydayspoken context and not by a uniformly consistent pronunciation of each syllable as in recitingBuddhist texts. 275 'The four pitch patterns'(shisho V'WP)

originally referred to the tonal patterns called hyo5 T, 'level'; jo I, 'rising'; kyo X, 'departing'; and nyu k, 'entering', used by the Chinese in pronouncing and differentiating their monosyllabic, often homonomouswords. But this method of inflecting each syllable does not occur in Japanesespeech. Zeami apparently adapted this terminology for his own purposes. On the basis of a passage in Komparu Zenchiku's treatise Go'on Sangyoku Sha X --PA, 'Collected Comments on the Five [Feeling] Tones and the Three Performing Modes [Used to Create Them]', zz, p. 371, the followingdefinitions can be surmised.Hyo5refersto maintaining level pitch on a given syllable. Kyo is an upward and nyu a downward shiftof pitch at the end of a syllable.Jo is undefined, but probablyrefers to the risingat the beginning of a syllablefrom thebase toneto theintended pitchlevel.

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a fixed thatis to be maintained absolute entity having pronunciation regardless results in whatis calledin Western or stress. Use of syllabic of context purity as in everyday 'overrefined acting approaches speech'.When, speech, pronunit aids in phrasing or modified ciation is altered and determining by context, emphasis. as Zeamiadvocates here moves theactortoward Suchrecitation techniques a of mimetic of and uses reinforcement therepresentational rather thantospeech ward themore associated with or chanting. formal, 'musical' approaches singing It says in [theChinese classic] The Historyof theHan [Dynasty] [conthe originof thetwelvetones [used in constructing modal keys, cerning] as discussed]in [thechaptertitled]'A Monograph on Pitch Pipes and Calendars', that [theYellow Emperor],having gone to [thelegendary] Mt Konron, heard the voice of the male phoenix and the voice of the themtheritsu-ryo oftonality], femalephoenix,and derivedfrom [system etc.276 Ritsu [is] the voice of the male phoenix [and is therefore] Yang [in nature].Ryo [is] the voice of the femalephoenix [and is therefore] Yin [in nature].Ritsu [is] the voice that descends fromabove [and is] the inspiredbreath.Ryo is the voice that ascends frombelow and is fromthe ch'i, the expressedbreath.Ritsuis the 'voice' thatcomes forth fromthebreath.Ritsuis mu 1f [beyond ryois thevoice thatcomes forth phenomenalconcreteness, i.e., the ideational or relational],ryo is u 1 [the presence of the phenomenal,that is, the manifest]. Hence, ritsu would probablybe shu I [thehighpitchtones],ryowould be o tA [the basic pitch].
of the Whileat first his discussion glanceZeami appearsonlyto be reiterating in relation to his Firstand Sixth ritsu-ryo theory of tonality whichhe presented ofnewterminology Principles, theChinesequotation he uses plus hisintroduction oftheabove passagesuggest inthelasttwosentences thathispurposeis somewhat In theearlier to desthisChinesetheory different. partsof thetext, he employed Here, he seemsto use cribethe applicationof the voice to the art of recitation. it to describe thenatureof voice itself. He beginswitha metaphorical of the originof producedsounds description As the significance takenfromthe Chineseclassic history of the Han dynasty. of the imagesin thisquotationmay be unfamiliar to some Western readers, the following analysismay be helpful. Mt Konron (in Chinese,K'unlun) V;, purin the earliestChinesetextsas a magical portedto be in Tibet, is mentioned or range.To say thatsomeonegoes to thismountain is a metaphorical mountain intoa stateofdeep meditation which expression foran individual whohas entered visionsand powersarise. has led himintothatinnerrealmwhencemystical
276 Zeami's Chinese quotation is actually in Chapter21 of Han Shu (J. Kansho) ig. a paraphrase of the passage on this subject

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thepersonin thetexthas had a direct Whilein sucha meditative experistate, of the nature of the forces. This has taken the form of Yin-Yang experience ence Unique amongall aniphoenixes'. hearing the 'voicesof themale and thefemale consideredthe direct the phoenixis traditionally mals in Chinese mythology, other of biologwhereas creatures of Yin and both regardless embodiment Yang, Yin or nature. as either thedirect are viewed By being being Yang by ical gender the is considered to cosmic eternal of two life. enjoy forces, phoenix expression the of the Yang forcehas the additional the male as the embodiment Furthermore, at will into a femalephoenix,the himself property of being able to transform of theYin force. embodiment termsrelating to the human into moreconcrete To translate thesemetaphors the eternal directly experienced voice,the personin the textwhilein meditation the sound and as the of the Yin as relationYang 'voices' vibratory phenomenal are differentiated. While these sounds manifestations whereby shipsor intervals existence or pitch, which Zeami ofYin areconsidered to haveconcrete phenomenal do not manifestations, strictly speaking, describes as u, 'havingexistence', Yang in that they represent relationships (tonal intervals). have such concreteness as mu,'not existing' in a physical This lack ofconcreteness Zeami describes sense. is said t( correspond to thebasic voiceofthefemale phoenix The ryoor Yin-like tone of a pitchof any givenhumanvoice. This pitchis the naturalfundamental Western to in voice the base tone is and theory produced givenvoice equivalent placed. In an adult'svoice,thislow, open tone is abwhenthe voice is properly ofthevocal chords voice,as itis determined bythelength soluteforthatparticular the chordsin a stateof and is the tone producedwhenair is expelledthrough below' naturalrelaxation; or in Zeami's words,it is 'the voice thatascendsfrom and is associatedwith'the expressed breath'. to by Zeami as J, 'the horizontal [tone]', The tone thusproducedis referred which all othertoneswillbe dewhich as thenatural base from serves thespeaker of the vocal chords.As thesederived toneswill rivedby degreesof contraction to themas shui, 'the vertical sound above thisnaturalvoice pitch,Zeami refers a degreeof mentalactivity of thesetonesinvolves As theproduction and [tones]'. or idea (a Yang expresto derivefrom an inspiration intent, theyare considered of the idea of interval sion) that descendsfromabove.277This transformation to the metaphor of the transformation of into actual levelsof pitchcorresponds theYang-like male phoenixintotheYin-like female. By implication fromZeami's analysis,then,the human voice is a natural vocal effects of the actorby used to createthe myriad instrument forexpression That is,'theactor'svoice'is not Yin-Yangproperties. employment ofitsinnherent
277 Zeami's technical terms o and shu have been subjects for considerable speculation among Zeami scholars. The above interpretation is based on their use in Zeami's othertreatises on voice, as well as on theideas presented in his Firstand SixthPrinciples. As these terms appear in Kakyo only in the above passage and once in the following examined sectionand are not comprehensively

in Zeami's immediate discussion, a more thorough analysis of their various other meaningsis postponed until translations and commentaries for Zeami's more technical treatiseson voice are completed.Meanwhile, a preliminaryessay into their functional meanings can be found in zz, pp. 443-44, n. 32.

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a unique instrument possessed onlyby someselected or 'chosen' individual but is thedevelopment ofa common human property. In the Analects [thereis a singularpassage that] runs, 'Bear, tiger, and leopard are the pelts [thatserve] as targetsfor the bow.'278 The tiger[is for]the child of heaven [i.e., the emperor],the leopard [is for] thebear [is for]thehighsteward. thegentleman [or government official], one would surely say, even though [in everyday situations] Hence, the social conventionof citingthings 'Tiger, leopard, bear' [following fromthe highestrank to the lowest],it is said [in the text] just like this [order of 'bear, tiger,and leopard'] so that the recitingof the words [aloud] will fall more euphoniously[upon the ear], and so forth. Zeami'sfinal point is primarily related to theuse of euphony in composing a script. By citing a Confucianist text as an illustration of hispoint, Zeamiis apfortheviewthatstrict to social parently trying to borrow authority adherence forms usageor established literary does notmakethebestor mosteffective apto notblind proach to script writing. Thatis, sensitivity to euphony, adherence what historical custom or artistic tradition, is thebetter guidefordetermining deviated willbe artistically of thequotation effective. Hence, justas theauthor felicitous from oftheanimals in order a more theconventional listing to produce should spoken line, so byimplication theplaywright and,byextension, theactor notfeel compelled to conform strictly to established socialorartistic models. Zeami's ofform' rather implied criticism is ofthose whoinsist on a rigid 'purity thantrust to theimpact oftheartistic expression ofone sensitive to the'unseen' and unseeable Yangelement thatis thesource ofvitality, harmony, and artistic in creative 'rightness' expressions. Zeami'spoint also has relevance in theWest, where latereditors his and hacks'corrected' Shakespeare's texts to complete linesso that they wouldscanproperly or altered hiswording so that lines would rhyme. [Section 12] [Concerning] the Inner Grades [of an Actor's Development] In general,thissinglevolume has alreadyset down the various items [relevant to the training of the actor].There are no subjectsforpractice outside these [topics].279 There is nothingfurther [to the practice of
278 The source of this quotation is uncertain. The passage does not appear in the Analectsbut,as Tanaka, p. 154, n. 8, suggests, may be a composite of material drawn from two Chinese classics: The Rites of the Chou [Dynasty](Chou Li, J. Shurai )NItL), and The [Han Dynasty]Etymological Dictionary (Shou

Wen,J. Setsumon StZ). 279 However, as his later treatises offer ample evidence,many aspects of the subjects that Zeami presents in Kakyo became the basis for greateranalysis, development,and No single Zeami treatise is ulrefinement. timately'all encompassing'. Only the total

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If [theactor]does not discern 'to knowacting'.280 theart]butsimply thesevariousitems[which have been acting, thereasonsforknowing presented here]will be fornaught.[But]if indeed[an actor]should he shouldfirst proto knowacting, putaside thevarious[other desire absorbhimself onlyin thisart,28'and fessional] pathsand concerns, when[the and [then] [each aspect]in succession; thoroughly practice in his heartas he pilesup of thistraining] arisespontaneously effects of this [art of he willhave [true] knowledge experiences], success[ful acting]. havedeepconfidence inthesayings oftheTeacher ofall,hemust First of theTeacher' his heart.'The sayings [Zeami]and hold themwithin the major businessin means that [the actor]make [the following] inthis volume helearn every item thoroughly acting: that understanding he reaches when theactual inmind;then bear[eachof]them and always he attempt to applyeach of theseitems.And if stageof performing, he willbe esteemed of a trueflowering], as truly is thatgain[ing there forhis his ever-increasing and through respect [beinga professional], year. yearafter he willpileup successes profession, studies, continually as a whole, [the practitioner] In artistic professions indeedshouldbe thewayto practice [his for[that] learns, continually too, [theactor]shouldlearn [his trade], Withsarugaku, profession]. intopractice. items and thenputthese various it is said that to student], bymaster instructions282 [given In private penetrate must completely hisyoung years until old age,[anactor] from until Whatis called'studying of [every intothestudy aspectof]acting. foreach age period,exwhatis appropriate old age' meansto study to and then after to hisprime, age forty from thenovice[stage] tending moresparing in on stageof his beinggradually createan appearance
a completepresentabody of his worksoffers tion of his ideas, and except for Kashu, the earlier version of Kakyo, none can be disas each makes carded as merelyrepetitive, contribution to some unique and significant his analysis of the nature and art of theatre. 280 No o shiru,discussed on pp. 335-36, above. 281 This injunction probably stems from Zeami's observation of certain noblemen whose dilettante pursuit of various arts diffusedtheir energies. Zeami in his other treatises indicates, for instance, that the professionalstudy of the art of poetic comin position is advisable for actors interested play writing. 282 According to Omote (zz, p. 438, n. 22), the Zenchiku manuscripthas shigi fJi&, 'private or personal instructions',whereas latercopies have higiV, 'secretinstructions'. Some scholars have speculated that this may be the name of a treatisenow lost, but the subsequent statementis more in the nature of a preceptthan a quotation. Limitingsuch a preceptto private discussions betweenmasterand studentwould help preserveit from becoming a sententiousor platitudinous catchphrase.

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his acting.This will become the studyof the stage appearance of [an [years]and over. actor]of forty [the actor] in general makes 'doing nothing' his Beyond age fifty, method.283[This] is a critical period. What is called 'study at this of all, [thatthe actor] should reduce his repertory. period' means,first He should make recitationhis base and lighten[up emphasis on] the Even in his dancing, for [physical]appearance [of his performance]. of reduce the number he should his gestures and should show instance, style. [but]the vestigesof his former is the mode of performing that takes Generallyspeaking,recitation [only] 'one hand' for an older person.284Since a mature voice has with [already]rid itselfof any rawness,and the mode of performing it be on the high tones, the base voice is good whether the resultant of interest the in or [arousedin the aufeeling [any] combination, pitch, dience] has [thatmore subtle quality associated with]hearing.This is by the older actor]. Understanding one clue [to successfulperforming and being prudentby doing all such [similar]aspects [of performing] this stage appearance is what I what comes easily to hand in [creating] call 'the appearance that [theactor] studiesin old age'. thatan older person should play,characAs to the characterizations tersassociated withthe two role typesof 'old people' and 'women' are suitable. [The acting],however,should be based on the strongpoints of that [actor's]physique. For an actor who would acquire a look of tranquil[ease and controlon stage],these [points]must be in keeping withhis elderlyappearance.28"If his strongpoint is [in] acting[parts] his elderly wherehe expresses madness,it would not be in keeping[with appearance]. However, among those [factorsthat he must consider], that originally would be conhe should regardall physicalmovement as six- or seven-tenths, and he should regardthem sideredten-tenths withthe Second whenhe is usinghis body in [conformity [so] especially He [to begin with].286 Principleof] 'workingthe body seven-tenths' as [partof] what [an actor] studiesin old should recognizethis [factor] age.
283 The method of 'doing nothing'derives from Zeami's descriptionin Fushikaden of after age his father's mode of performing fifty.The particulars of this method are in the text. describedsubsequently 284 That is, it is easily handled and does not tax the physical abilities of the older performer. 285 The limitation would only be upon the playingof roles demandinga displayof more physical vigor than the older actor might still have. It does not mean that the older actor should perform onlythe roles of elderly characters. 286 That is, his performing will need to be even more restrained.

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is one overriding maxim: in our school [ofacting], there Consequently, thattakes threeforms: This maximhas an oral transmission the beginner's spirit! By all means,do not forget Do not forget the beginner's spiritof any [given]moment! the beginner's spirit! In old age, do not forget These three[formsof the maxim] should be communicatedorally [to [yetwithgreatcare].288 the students] thoroughly Item,as to whatis [meantby]themaxim,'By all means,do not forget the beginner'sspirit!'When [an actor] maintainswithinhimself[both physicallyand mentally]the beginner'sspirit of his youth, without [thathe will realize] in old age. forgetting it, thereare various benefits a knowledgeof whatwas not [achieved]in what It is said, 'Make [from] preceded,[thebasis of] what will be in what follows!"289 [Also] 'When it is a warningto the cart behind,'290 the cart thatprecedesoverturns, Is not 'being oblivious to the beginner'sspirit'[the same and so forth. as] beingobliviousto the [stateof] mind[thatdevelops]later?The point at which [an actor] achieves success and attains a name [forhimself] in [thelevel of] his acting.Those who are is thefruit of an improvement oblivious to what raises [thelevel of acting]likewisedo not recognize
287 Shoshin jJJL, in the presentcontexthas fouroverlapping meanings,all of whichcome into play and any one of which may be used to translate the Japaneseterm:'the beginner's spirit, mind,heart,or intent'.All refer to the state of openness that a complete beginner would have to an entirely new subjector situation. Because it is new, he is totallyignorant of what it is and must therefore respond to it as it is. As he acquires knowledgeabout a subject, he is apt to use that knowledge to make assumptionsabout a situationprior to to it. responding Zeami's maxim thereforeadmonishes the actor to maintain that openness associated with the beginner's view even after he has gained knowledgeand experience. 288 That is, the maxim is to be openly applied to the work of studentsand not be kept part of the secrettradition. Yokuyoku k4 implies that the maxim be not only 'thoroughly' but also 'carefully' applied. This suggests that the teacher too must exercise his own 'beginner'sspirit' by not reducing the maxim to the level of a

!287 spirit Do notforget thebeginner's

mechanically applied catchphrase, but by finding ways in which it would apply to each studentat the various levels of his particular development. 289 This quotation is probably based on ,Th a passage from Mucha Mondo ('A Discussion of Rapture'): Zenzen no hi o shiru o gogonoi tosu IJf4 O{jC CDI4 ?? t, 'Make the knowledge of your former mistakes the basis of your futurelevel [of achievement]'.Zeami's version substitutes ze forthe original X, 'what exists,what is right', i , 'level [of achievement]'. This permits Zeami to link the quotation more closely to his own maxim which begins withthe phrase zehi PE, 'by all means,rightor wrong'. Hence, his maxim may be paraphrased as, 'Do not forget the beginner's spirit which encouragesthe actor to learn fromhis shortcomingsand mistakes(hi) and to apply that knowledge in futureperforming so that his actingwill be able to be effective (ze).' 290 This admonition to learn from what has preceded appears in several Chinese and Japaneseclassic texts.

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to a to a beginner'sspirit.29'To revert the [stateof] mind that reverts keep Therefore, level of] acting. in be a descent [the will spirit beginner's in mind that to avoid losing sightof the level [attainedat] the present the beginner's spirit. [an actor] should not forget [moment], the principlethat [theactor] should ponder thoroughly To reiterate, to a beginner's he reverts of the spirit, beginner's when he loses sight the later[stateof] spirit, the beginner's spirit.When he does not forget of] mindis correct, his later [state When willbe correct. mind[he attains] [thelevel of hisperforming] [kindofl actingthatimproves theparticular is the le by which[an actor] principle lower then, willnot [that el]. This, and artistically] right[and betweenwhat is [theatrically discriminates and what is not. appropriate] Further,when a young person completelyunderstandshis level of at a given time,he will freelyseek [ways] to apply [this performance In orderthatI spirit. such as, 'This is part of thebeginner's maxim],292 level of my that raises [the of mode performing the recognize significant spiritat the acting]all the more,I mustnot lose sightof the beginner's of spirit the beginner's loses sight actor] [an When present[moment].' his actingdoes not improvebecause he does at the present[moment], a young To thatextent, ofimprovement. moment the not evenrecognize person must not lose sightof the beginner'sspiritat the present[moment]. 'Do notforget thebeginner's bythemaxim], Item,as to whatis [meant stage apgeneral To take care that the moment!' of any [given] spirit at any given pearance [he creates]is in keeping with his performing theyears rise over novice his his through [days] period[inhis life]-from spiritof any [given]time. untilold age-this is the beginner's the particularway he abandons and forgets That is, when [an actor] at various times[in the past], he does not make use of has performed relate to] the except [as they specifically [theseprevious experiences],
291 Shoshine kaeru VJJJL- 6, 'to revert to a beginner's spirit', carries a negative connotationin thispassage. Zeami's idea may thus be paraphrased: If the actor does not and an eagernessto keep an openmindedness learn from the immediateexperience,which derive from the attitude of 'the beginner's spirit',he will automaticallyrevertto a state ignoranceand functional of undiscriminating naivetethat are the negativeaspects of a beginner'sspirit.

Hence, Zeami advocates a middle way between an actor's presumingupon his past experiencethat 'he already knows all that he need know' and his ignoringhis past experwhichwould make it imposience altogether, sible forhim to learn froma new experience. have been 292 While severalinterpretations by scholars for the meaning of nenro offered would be ak;5, the most probable in context that it refersto the Buddhist term IM 'to on the words of a sage'. commentfreely

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a givenrole at the moment.293 particular way he is performing [However,]when he makes use of each of the types[of roles]fromprevious in his present[practiceof his] art and in a wholly ways of performing integrated way, [then]in his mode of performing, [the range of] his overthetentypes294[ofroles],is inexhaustible. performances, extending The stage appearance that [his acting] had in those various periods is 'the beginner'sspiritof any giventime'. To maintainthat [spirit] in his art at [any]one [specific] time,is thatnot [equivalent to] 'not forgettingthebeginner's spiritof any giventime'? [An actor who can achieve do not forget this]will be a versatileactor, indeed. Therefore, the beginner'sspiritof any giventime. Item, as to what is [meantby], 'Do not forgetthe beginner'sspirit is an end to [an actor's]life,thereshouldnot in old age!' Althoughthere his acting.To study be a [fixed] limitto [whathe can achieve through] each and everyrole forall thesevarious timeperiodsand also to study what goes well withthe look of old age is 'the beginner'sspiritin old age'. When [theacting]is [done with]'the beginner'sspiritin old age', [theactor]treatshis previousactingas [partof] thelater[stateof]mind. It is said about thoseage fifty and overthatthereis no means [needed forperforming] Is not the intent to esteemin exceptto 'do nothing'.295 old age whateverhas no [possible]means except 'doing nothing',the when [an actor] passes his whole life beginner'sspirit?To that extent, withoutlosing sightof the beginner'sspirit,he makes his finalstage exit on an ascending[artistic] level, and [thequalityof] his actingdoes not declinein the end. theinnermost Hence, I treat'thepassingof one's lifewithout showing heartof acting'as the most profoundsecretof our school and a secret
293 That is, the actor is admonished to take into considerationthe whole of what he has learned and not to become stereotypic in his performing by using only that past experiencemost like the role he is now playing. 294 The reference to ]utai +{*, 'ten types or styles', is ambiguous. It may mean 'all the various types[of roles]', on the basis that 'ten' can indicatecompleteness, as in Zeami's Second Principle. Or it may be a reference to the nine types of sarugaku roles that Zeami inheritedfrom his father'stradition, discussedin Fshikaden (Shidehara,pp. 219-26): women,old persons, [male roles performed]without masks, deranged characters,priests,vengefulwarriors, deities,demons,and Chinese [i.e., foreigners]. Upon his father'surging,Zeami added the

tenth:the heavenlymaiden. On the other hand, some scholars have suggestedit may referto the 'ten moods or was classified styles'by whichJapanesepoetry , 1162-1241, by Fujiwara Teika although this seems less likely as Zeami's own analysis of such overall 'moods' in his later treatiseswas developed on a systemof fivetypes. 295 As explained in Section 8, pp. 488-90, above, 'doing nothing' does not mean the absence of doing anythingwhatsoever,but refers to an advanced acting technique in which the actor holds his audience through whileappearing thepowerofhis concentration to do nothingexternalthat the audience can identify as the source of thatinterest.

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NEARMAN:

Kakyo

71

transmission offamilial instructions to mydescendants. I treatthetransmissionof this real intentas the [fundamental] artisticidea of the inheritanceof the beginner'sspiritby successivegenerations. When [an the beginner'sspirit[in his own acting],[theidea of] the actor]forgets to his descendants.Without beginner'sspiritcannot be transmitted losing sight of the beginner'sspirit,[the actor] should [pass on] the beginner's spiritto successivegenerations. Besides [whatI have givenabove], therewill also be additionalpoints worthyof note [produced]as the resultof the sagacityof perceptive of latergenerations].296 [students [Colophon] from the[sectionon] thepractices [The treatise] Fuishikaden associated with the various ages [in an actor's career]up throughthe [final]apof theknowledgeof [creative] pended section297 is a secrettransmission which makes manifestthis [our] way [of practicingacting]. flowering consistsof the various itemsthatI gained through That [treatise] study in whichI have put all together in writing [with myfather], [a document] on the art of acting over some twenty years the sundry[observations] by my late father.This [present] volume, 'A Mirrorof the Flower', is what I Ze[ami] bequeath as [my]artisticlegacy [and] in which I have written down in sequence what I have learned fromperforming-six [basic] principlesand twelve[practical]topics-as theyhave occurred to me fromthe age of forty untilold age. The first day of the sixthmonthof Oei 31 [1424] Zea[mi] Zeshi [z-Zeami] transmitted thisvolumeto thefamily ofhis grandson. Althoughit was not to be exposed to outsiders, mydeep respectforthe professionhas providentially gained me [access to] this manuscript. Hence, because it[s teaching]formsthe [very]marrowof our school, I myself have made a copy [of the treatise] forthe sake of our profession and my family[company].Earnestly, I beseech you-Never show it to an outsider! A day in the eighth monthof Eiky6 9 [1437] Kanshi [-Komparu Zenchiku]
296 This statementmay appear to contradict Zeami's earlier remark on p. 65, above, that thereare no subjectsfor practice outside the topics discussed in the present treatise. But 'additional points' is probably intended to refer to insights thatlaterstudents

may gain in the subjectscovered by the treatise,and not to the possibility thatZeami may have completelyoverlooked some topic relevantto the phenomenonof acting. 297 That is, the whole of Fashikaden except fora shortintroduction.

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