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Applied Mechanics and Materials Vols. 284-287 (2013) pp 1300-1304 Online available since 2013/Jan/25 at www.scientific.

net (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.284-287.1300

Effective Steel Area of Fully Embedded Cold-Formed Steel Frame in Composite Slab System under Pure Bending Yee Ling Lee1,a, Cher Siang Tan1,b, Yeong Huei Lee1,c, Shahrin Mohammad1,d, Mahmood M. Tahir1,e, Poi Ngian Shek1,f
1

Facult of Ci!il "ngineering,#ni!er$iti Teknologi Mala $ia, %1&1' (ohor )ahru, (ohor, Mala $ia. a b c d llee&*li!e.utm.m , tc$iang*utm.m , hlee+*li!e.utm.m , $hahrin*utm.m , f e mahmoodtahir*utm.m , $hek,oingian*utm.m

Keywords: "ffecti!e cro$$ $ectional area, cold-formed $teel, li,,ed channel $ection$, bending re$i$tance, com,o$ite $lab, built-u, hollo. $ection

Abstract In conjunction with the promote of Industrial Building System (IBS) in Malaysia building construction, precast units such as slab, beam and column were widely used. This paper reports on the determination of the effecti e cross sectional area of the proposed cold!formed sections that embedded in precast concrete slab. The cold!formed steel sections are single and double lipped channel section, with "##mm in depth, $# mm width, "% mm lips length and ".$$ mm thic&ness. In order to determine the fle'ural capacity of the composite slab system, it is necessary to identify the effecti e cross sectional area of the section contributes to load!carrying of the slab system. The calculation method was based on the effecti e width method concept from BS () "**+!"!+ and BS () "**+!"!$. ,our types of cold!formed steel frame profiles that embedded in the concrete to form a new type of composite slab system were used to study in this paper. The four types of cold!formed steel section configuration are S"!S-, S%!S., S+!/- and S0!/.. ,rom the analytical calculation, S+!/- has the highest effecti e cross!sectional area, which it only consists of %1 ineffecti e area for load!carry capacity. Besides that, single lipped section S%!S. fully utili2ed the cross sectional in carrying load. It can be concluded that S+!/- is predicted to ha e highest bending resistance than other three types of configuration with condition that the reliability of the prediction need to erify as other factors such as shear bonding and shifted neutral a'is happened due to combination of concrete and cold!formed section which, will also contribute the strength capacity of the composite slab system. Introduction 3ast o er se eral decades, composite structure are mostly used in bridge engineering 4"5 and building construction 4%, +5, where steel beam or girders act compositely with concrete slab. In recent years, the application of cold!formed steel composite concrete floor system has gained popularity in small commercial and residential construction 405. 6on entionally, the slab system construct in residential and small commercial building are using precast concrete slab, the normal con entional reinforced concrete slab system or the composite dec& slab system, which the concrete poured onto the cold!formed steel dec&ing. In this study, the reinforcement bar inside the con entional slab system will be fully replaced by using the cold!formed steel section. There were four types of composite slab configurations studied in this research. The first type of the slab configuration was three single cold!formed 6!channel section placed ertically and form as a steel frame (namely S"!S-) whereas the second type of configurations was three single cold!formed 6!channel section placed hori2ontally and form as a steel frame (namely S%!S.). ,or the third type and fourth type of the slab configuration, both cold!formed 6!channel sections placed together to formed as rectangular section and positioned ertically for third type slab configuration (namely S+!/-) and positioned hori2ontally for the fourth type slab configuration ( namely S0!/.). 7ll types of slab configuration as mentioned are shown in ,ig. ". In order to obtain

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Applied Mechanics and Materials Vols. 284-287

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the fle'ural capacity of the composite slab, the effecti e cross sectional area of the cold!formed section is important as to determine the effecti e area that the cold!formed section will utili2ed to resists the bending action of the slab. The objecti e of this study is to determine the effecti e cross sectional area of the proposed cold!formed sections that embedded in the precast concrete slab from theoretical calculation.
(c) S+!/-

(a) S"!S-

(b) S%!S.

(d) S0!/.

,igure ". The cross sectional iew of the four types of slab configuration Analytical Investigation It is necessary to determine the dimensional properties of the cold!formed section before the calculation of section resistance to bending, compression or other loading 4$5. (ffecti e section properties refer to the fictitious cross section that has been reduced in area. ,rom the effecti e cross!section, a clear model for the ineffecti e location in cross!section in carrying load can be identified and perception of neutral a'is shift in the section due to local!buc&ling can be obtained. The calculation of the effecti e cross!section area is based on the concept of effecti e width method. 7ccording to BS () "**+!"!+ 485, there are three important issues that need to be considered before analytical calculation, which are the core steel thic&ness, mid!line theory and impart of corner radii. In this study, the core steel thic&ness is using standard 2inc coating with %9$ g:m%, where the coating thic&ness is #.#% mm on each surface. The entire dimension in calculating section properties were calculated based on the mid!line method, which each of the element length reduced its nominal alue of either t:% or t. The cold!formed 6!section used in all types of slab configuration is "## mm web depth, $# mm flange width, and "% mm lip length and ".$$ mm thic&ness. ,ig. % shows the mid!line dimension for the lipped 6 section.

(a) ;ross cross sectional

(b) Mid!line dimension iew

(c) (ffecti e properties of flanges and web

,igure %. Mid!line dimension for lipped 6 section and effecti e properties for flanges and web under pure bending ;eometrical properties need to be chec& after determining the mid!line dimension of the 6 section. This steps is essentially need to done to ma&e sure that the geometrical proportions as stated in BS () "**+!"!+ 4<5 clause $.% pass the chec&ing so that the design method in BS () "**+!"!+ 4<5 can be used. Besides that, the influence of round corner radii can be ignore in the calculation with the condition that the internal radius of the cold!formed steel section stated in BS () "**+!"!+ 4<5 clause $." need to be satisfied. 7fter all the geometrical properties chec&ing are chec&ed and satisfied with the applied standard, the effecti e properties of each the elements can be studied by using BS () "**+!"!+4<5 .

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Effective Properties of a Lipped C section under Bending about the Major Axis. There are two types of embedded cold!formed steel sections that bending about the major a'is, which were S"!Sand S+!/-. ,or S"!S-, it is calculated using single lipped section while for S+!/-, the calculation based on using built!up rectangular section. Both the calculation procedure was almost the same. The effecti e cross section for the single lipped 6 section in bending for S"!S- is as shown in ,ig. %. There are three steps on the calculation of effecti e properties of the compression flange and lip. ,or the first step of the calculation, effecti e width of the compression flange and the effecti e width of the edge stiffener were determined. The effecti e width of the compression flange is (") beff =bp" , be" = be% = #.$beff >here the reduction factor, in BS () "**+!"!$ 495 clause 0.0,
= p , h #.#$$(+ + ) p,h
%

(%)

7s for the effecti e width of the edge stiffener calculation, the buc&ling factor is determined based on BS () "**+!"!+485 clause $.$.+.%($a). The effecti e width is gi en by, Ceff =Cp >here the reduction factor, is as (?. +,

p ,c #."88 p ,c
%

(+)

,or the second step, it is used to determine the reduction factor that allowing for the effects of the distortional buc&ling. The elastic critical stress of the distorsional buc&ling for the edge stiffener is calculated as % KEI s cr ,s = (0) 0

Et + " % >here, k = % + 0(" v ) b" h p + b" + #.$b"b% h p k f


7nd effecti e second moment, I s =

b" = b p"
%

be % tbe % : % (be % + ceff )t


%

($)

+ % % c eff c eff c eff be % t + c eff t + + be % t + c t eff "% "% %(be % + c eff ) % %(be % + c eff )

(<)

Thic&ness reduction factor for the edge stiffener is calculated based on the relati e slenderness of the edge stiffener as follow,
d =
f yb

cr , s

(9)

,or the Third step, according to BS () "**+!"!+ 4<5 clause $.$.+.%(+), as the reduction factor for the stiffener is less than ",iterations are re?uired to refine the alue of the reduction factor. The iteration stops when the reduction factor d con erges and hence the calculation of the reduced thic&ness for the stiffener is, tred = t d 7fter obtained the effecti e properties of the compression flange and lip, effecti e properties of the web can be obtained by getting the position of neutral a'is with regard the flange in compression. (?uations % were used to obtain the effecti e web, heff as, heff = hp The effecti e properties of the whole cross section, second moment of the effecti e sectional area and effecti e section modulus can be obtained after effecti e length of compressi e flange, lip and web had been calculated. 7s for the calculation of effecti e cross sectional area for S+!/-, all the steps of calculation are same as S"!S- but the second step and third step of calculation is being ignored as the built!up rectangular section does not ha e the edge stiffener.

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Effective Properties of a Lipped C section under Bending about the Minor Axis. There are two types of embedded cold!formed steel section bending about the minor a'is namely S%!S. and S0!/.. ,or S%!S., it is calculated using single lipped 6!Section while for S0!/., the calculation based on using built!up rectangular section. The effecti e cross section for a single section of S%!S. bending in minor a'is is as shown in ,ig. +. The formulae for the calculation for the effecti e properties bending about minor a'is are not much different as the calculation on bending in major a'is.

,igure +. (ffecti e properties of flanges and web under bending ,or calculating effecti e properties of S%!S., which bending under minor a'is, the calculation steps are simpler. 6alculating on the effecti e properties of the lips by using the (?. % is the first step of the calculation. There is then will be the calculation on the effecti e width of the part of the flange in compression. The position of effecti e neutral a'is with regard the lip in compression is determined. .ence, by using (?. %, the effecti e width of flanges can be obtained. The web is not need to be calculated as the web is in tension 2one and it is fully effecti e. ,rom the obtained effecti e width of lips, flanges and web, the effecti e cross sectional area, effecti e second moment of area and effecti e elastic modulus about minor a'is can be determined. 7s for type S0!/., the calculation procedure is same as S%!S.. Since S0!/. is built!up rectangular section, the only differences in calculation is that S0!/. apply the calculation for the effecti e width of web in compression instead of lips in compression in S%!S. by using (?. % to determine the effecti e width of web in compression. esults and !iscussion ,rom the calculation as abo e analytical method, the effecti e cross sectional area for four types of embedded cold!formed steel section configuration in concrete under pure bending is determined. Table " shows the result of the obtained calculation from the abo e mentioned analytical procedure. Table". @esult of the calculated effecti e cross!sectional area
"ype S"!SS%!S. S+!/S0!/. Effective Cross#sectional Area $%%&' *++ *89 "908 "$9+ (ross Cross#)ectional Area $%%&' *89 *89 "980 "980 Percentage !ifferences $*' $.$1 #1 %1 "".81

,rom Table ", it can be seen that the effecti e area of built!up rectangular section is much higher than single lipped 6 section. S+!/- had the highest effecti e cross sectional area which is "908 mm%. 7s compared with S0!/., only %1 of ineffecti e area in carrying loads in S+!/-. S0!/. has large ineffecti e area, which is "".81 from the gross cross sectional area. This is because in S0!/., the cold!formed steel section was placed hori2ontally and hence the compression is acting on the top web of the section. This resulted in large reduction on the web length as if compare with the flange in compression. .ence, the effecti e area of S0!/. is lower than S+!/-. 7s for the comparison of the single lipped section between S"!S- and S%!S., S%!S. is fully utili2ed the cross sectional area for load carrying capacity. The $.$1 different is due to compression lips of S%!S. is shorter than the compression flange in S"!S-. There is an ineffecti e area happened on compressi e flange hence, reduced the gross cross sectional area of S"!S-.

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Since S+!/. had the highest effecti e cross sectional area among the four types cold!formed steel configuration, so it can be predict that S+!/. will ha e the highest load carrying capacity in the precast concrete if compare to other three types of configuration. Conclusions The effecti e steel area of fully embedded cold!formed steel sections in composite slab system had been obtained from the calculation. ,rom the analytical calculation mentioned as abo e, it can be concluded thatA B It is important to consider the effecti e cross sectional area of the cold!formed steel section as it can identify the ineffecti e area for load carry on the steel section. B S+!/- has the highest effecti e cross sectional area as the cold!formed steel section is in built!up rectangular section and the ineffecti e area on the compressi e flange is lower than the ineffecti e area on the compressi e web of S0!/.. B The effecti e area of S%!S. is fully utili2ed for load!carrying capacity. This is due to the lips and the flange in compression 2one is fully effecti e and compare with the S"!S-, which there is ineffecti e area on the flange in compression. The load carrying capacity for the composite slab in this study only limit the load is fully acting on the effecti e area of cold!formed section. ,urther study on determine the load!carrying capacity of the composite slab need to be study. Cther parameter such as the shear bonding between the concrete and cold!formed steel section, the effect of the shift neutral a'is of the composite system due to the combination of concrete and the cold!formed steel are need to be consider in order to get a more reliable load!carrying capacity of the slab. Ac+no,ledg%ents The reported research is funded by Dni ersiti Te&nologi Malaysia (-ot ##E"#, #"E#* and #$E9<) and Ministry of .igher (ducation, Malaysia (MC.(). The technical and financial supports are gratefully ac&nowledged. eferences 4"5 77S.TC, F@,/ Bridge /esign Specification. +rd ed., 7merican 7ssociation of State .ighway and Transportation Cfficials, >ashington /6, %##$. 4%5 6.(. (&berg, @.M. Schuster, ,loor System with 6omposite from @einforced 6oncrete Slabs. I7BS( ,inal @eport, )ew Gor&, "*<8, pp. +8$!+*0. 4+5 M.F. 3orter, 6.(. (&berg, /esign @ecommendations for Steel /ec& ,loor Slabs. Eournal of Structural /i ision "#%(ST""), ("*9<) %"!+<. 405 B.S. Fa&&a alli and G. Fiu, ('perimental Study of 6omposite 6old!formed Steel 6!Section ,loor Eoists. Eournal of 6onstructional Steel @esearch <% (%##<) **$!"##<. 4$5 7.;.E. >ay and M./. .eywood, /esign of Fight Steel Sections to (urocode + ((/ ##$).The Steel 6onstruction Institute, DH, %#"%. 4<5 BSI. BS () "**+!"!+A%##<A /esign of Steel Structures. ;eneral @ules. Supplementary @ules for 6old!,ormed Members and Sheeting. British Standard Institute, DH, %##<. 495 BSI. BS () "**+!"!$A%##<A /esign of Steel Structures. 3lated Structural (lements. British Standard Institute, DH, %##<.

Innovation for Applied Science and Technology 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.284-287

Effective Steel Area of Fully Embedded Cold-Formed Steel Frame in Composite Slab System under Pure Bending 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.284-287.1300