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Advance Soil mechanics

Present by Mr. Sieng PEOU


Master science of geotechnical
engineering
Soils particle size
19.5mm>d>4.76mm
.
Gravel
4.76mm>d>0.075mm
Sand
Coarse grained soils
0.075mm>d>0.002mm
Silt
d<0.002mm
Clay
Fine grained soils
Soils
Sieve analysis method
For coarse
grained soils
Retained cumulative

%R=
% 100
.
. .

weight total
cumulative retained weight
Passing cumulative
%P = 100-%R
Logarithm scale
Logd
0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100
a
If 0.001<d<0.01
X=a.Log(1000d)
If 0.01<d<0.1
X=a.Log(100d)
If 0.1<d<1
X=a.Log(10d)
If 1<d<10
X=a.Log(d)
If 10<d<100
X=a.Log(0.1d)
Hydrometer
analysis
For fine
grained soils
Hydrometer analysis
% 100 * %
S
W
R R
a P
+
=
T
L
K D =
P%-passing cumulative
a- soil factor
R-hydrometer reading
R-corrected factor
Ws-weight of dry soil
D-soil diameter
K-hydrometer factor
L-depth of hydrometer in
Solution
time in minute
Soil particle size curve Uniformity coefficient UC=D60/D10
d10 d60
Weight and volume relation ship
V
Va
Vw
Vs
W
Wa=0
Ww
Ws
W=Ws+Ww
V=Va+Vw+Vs
Vv =Va+Vw
V= Vv+Vs
Soils sampling
Disturbed sample for determine properties
physics of soils
Undisturbed sample for determine
properties mechanics of soils, we call
undisturbed when A
R
(%)<10%

A
R
:Area ratio
D
o
: Outside diameter of the sampling tube
D
i
:Inside diameter of the sampling tube

100 (%)
2
2 2
0

=
i
i
R
D
D D
A
Soils unit weight
Natural water content:

Bulk unit weight:=

Dry unit weight:
d
=

Unit weight of particle solid:
s
=
w
s
e
e S G
V
W

|

\
|
+
+
=
1
s
s
V
W
100
1

+
=
V
W
s
% 100 =
s
w
W
W

Another parameter
Void ratio:

Degree of saturation:

Saturated unit weight:

Effective unit weight:

d
d s
s
v
V
V
e


= =
w
s
v
w
e V
V
S

= = % 100
W
s
sat
e
e G

|

\
|
+
+
=
1
w
s
w sat
e
G

|

\
|
+

= =
1
1
'
Another parameters
Specific gravity:

Relative density:

Saturated water content:
w s
s
s
V
W
G

=
% 100
min max
max

=
e e
e e
D
R
% 100
1 1

|
|

\
|
=
w
s d
sat

Typical values of unit weight of soils


Soil type

sat
(KN/M
3
)
d
(KN/M
3
)
Gravel 20 to 22 15 to 17
Sand 18 to 20 13 to 16
Silt 18 to 20 14 to 18
Clay 16 to 22 14 to 21
Description based on Relative density
D
R
(%) Description
0 to 15 Very loose
15 to 35 Loose
35 to 65 Medium dense
65 to 85 Dense
85 to 100 Very dense
Soil consistence
Shrinkage
limit
Ws
Plastic
limit
Wp
Liquid
limit
WL
Atterberg
limit
State of cohesion soils
Plastic index
I
P
=W
L
-W
P


Liquidity index
I
L
=
P
P
I

State of cohesion soils
If 0<W<W
s
: State solid

If W
s
<W<W
p
: State semi-solid

If W
p
<W<W
L
: State Plastic

If W>W
L
: State Liquid
CH
MH
CL
ML
CL-ML
Soil classification
USCS:Unified soil classification system
(ASTM Test Designation D-2487)
ASTM: American Society for Testing
and Materials
Proposed by Casagrande in 1942,this
system was revised in 1952 by U.S
Bureau of Reclamation.
Coarse grained soils
%R(4.76mm)>0.5%R(0.075mm)
Gravel
%R(4.76mm)<0.5%R(0.075mm)
Sand
%R(0.075mm)>50%
Coarse grained soils
Gravel
UC<4
Poorly graded Gravel
GP
UC>4
Well graded Gravel
GW
Clean Gravel
%P(0.075mm)<5%
Gravel
Located CL or CH
Poorly graded
clayey Gravel
GC-GP
Located ML or MH
Poorly graded
silty Gravel
GM-GP
Located CL-ML
Poorly graded clayey
silty Gravel
GC-GM-GP
UC<4
On plastic Chart Casagrand
Located CL or CH
Well graded
clayey Gravel
GC-GW
Located ML or MH
Well graded
silty Gravel
GM-GW
Located CL-ML
Well graded clayey
silty Gravel
GC-GM-GW
UC>4
On plastic Chart Casagrande
Mixed Gravel
5%<%P(0.075mm)<12%
Gravel
Located CL or CH
clayey Gravel
GC
Located ML or MH
silty Gravel
GM
Located CL-ML
clayey silty Gravel
GC-GM
Mixed Gravel
%P(0.075mm)>12%
Sand
UC<6
Poorly graded Sand
SP
UC>6
Well graded Sand
SW
Clean Sand
%P(0.075mm)<5%
Sand
Located CL or CH
Poorly graded
clayey Sand
SC-SP
Located ML or MH
Poorly graded
silty Sand
SM-SP
Located CL-ML
Poorly graded clayey
silty Sand
SC-SM-SP
UC<6
On plastic Chart Casagrand
Located CL or CH
Well graded
clayey Sand
SC-SW
Located ML or MH
Well graded
silty Sand
SM-SW
Located CL-ML
Well graded clayey
silty Sand
SC-SM-SW
UC>6
On plastic Chart Casagrande
Mixed Sand
5%<%P(0.075mm)<12%
Sand
Located CL or CH
clayey Sand
SC
Located ML or MH
silty Sand
SM
Located CL-ML
clayey silty Sand
SC-SM
Mixed Sand
%P(0.075mm)>12%
Fine grained soils
CL CH
For Clay
ML MH
For Silt
CL-ML
For Silty clay
%R(0.075mm)<50%
Fine grained soils
on plastic Chart Casagrande
Lean Clay(CL)
%S>%G
Lean Clay
With sand
%S<%G
Lean Clay
With gravel
15%<%R(0.075mm)<30%
%G<15%
Sandy
lean Clay
%G>15%
Sandy
lean Clay
with gravel
%S>%G
%S<15%
Gravelly
lean Clay
%S>15%
Gravelly
lean Clay
With sand
%S<%G
30%<%R(0.075mm)<50%
If:%R(0.075mm)<15%
Lean clay
If%R(0.075mm)>15%
Look
Fat Clay(CH)
%S>%G
Fat Clay
With sand
%S<%G
Fat Clay
With gravel
15%<%R(0.075mm)<30%
%G<15%
Sandy
Fat Clay
%G>15%
Sandy
Fat Clay
with gravel
%S>%G
%S<15%
Gravelly
Fat Clay
%S>15%
Gravelly
Fat Clay
With sand
%S<%G
30%<%R(0.075mm)<50%
If:%R(0.075mm)<15%
Fat clay
If%R(0.075mm)>15%
Look
Silt (ML)
%S>%G
Silt
With sand
%S<%G
Silt
With gravel
15%<%R(0.075mm)<30%
%G<15%
Sandy
Silt
%G>15%
Sandy
Silt
with gravel
%S>%G
%S<15%
Gravelly
Silt
%S>15%
Gravelly
Silt
With sand
%S<%G
30%<%R(0.075mm)<50%
If:%R(0.075mm)<15%
Silt
If%R(0.075mm)>15%
Look
Elastic Silt (MH)
%S>%G
Elastic Silt
With sand
%S<%G
Elastic Silt
With gravel
15%<%R(0.075mm)<30%
%G<15%
Sandy
Elastic Silt
%G>15%
Sandy
Elastic Silt
with gravel
%S>%G
%S<15%
Gravelly
Elastic Silt
%S>15%
Gravelly
Elastic Silt
With sand
%S<%G
30%<%R(0.075mm)<50%
If:%R(0.075mm)<15%
Elastic Silt
If%R(0.075mm)>15%
Look
Silty clay (CL-ML)
%S>%G
Silty clay
With sand
%S<%G
Silty clay
With gravel
15%<%R(0.075mm)<30%
%G<15%
Sandy
Silty clay
%G>15%
Sandy
Silty clay
with gravel
%S>%G
%S<15%
Gravelly
Silty clay
%S>15%
Gravelly
Silty clay
With sand
%S<%G
30%<%R(0.075mm)<50%
If:%R(0.075mm)<15%
Silty clay
If%R(0.075mm)>15%
Look
Soil classification
AASHTO:Association American for
State Highway and Transportation
official, was developed 1929 and
proposed by the committee on
Materials for sub grades and
Granularity Type Boards of the
Highway Research Road in
1945(ASTM Test designation D-
3282;AASHTO method M145)
Granular Materials %P(0.075mm)<35%
Group
classification
A-1 A-3 A-2
A1-a A1-b

A2-4 A2-5

A2-6

A2-7
%P(2mm)
<50%
%P(0.425mm)
<30% <50% >51%
%P(0.075mm)
<15% <25% <10% <35% <35%

<35%

<35%
W
L
<40 >40 <40 >40
I
P

<6% NP <10 <10 >10 >10
Usual type of
materials
Stone
fragment,
gravel., sand
Fine
sand
Silty or clayey gravel and sand
General sub
grade rating
Excellence to good
Silty - clay material %P(0.075mm)>35%
Group classification A-4 A-5

A-6

A-7
A-7-5
A-7-6
%P(2mm)
%P(0.425mm)
%P(0.075mm)
>35% >35% >35%

>35%

W
L
<40 >40 <40 >40
I
P

<10 <10 >10 >10
Usual type of
materials
Silty soils Clayey soils

General subgrade
rating
Fair to poor
For A-7-5: I
P
<W
L
-30 For A-7-6: I
P
>W
L
-30
Group index GI
GI=(%P(0.075)-35)[0.2+0.005(W
L
-40)]+0.01(%P(0.075)-15)(I
P
-10)
Soil compaction
Standard Proctor test





Modified Proctor test
Specification for standard Proctor test(based on ASTM test designation 698-91)
Item Method A Method B Method C
Diameter of mold 101.6mm 101.6mm 152.4mm
Volume of mold 943.3cm
3
943.3cm
3
2124cm
3

Weight of hammer 24.4 N 24.4 N 24.4 N
Height of hammer drop 304.8mm 304.8mm 304.8mm
Number of hammer blows
per layer
25 25 56
Number of layer of
compaction
3 3 3
Energy of compaction 591.3KNm/m
3
591.3KNm/m
3
591.3KNm/m
3
Soil to be used %R(4.75)<20
%
Used soil
%P(4.75)
%R(4.75)>20%
%R(9.5)<20%
Used soil
%P(9.5)

%R(9.5)>20%
%R(19)<30%
Used soil
%P(19)

Specification for modified Proctor test(based on ASTM test designation 1557-91)
Item Method A Method B Method C
Diameter of mold 101.6mm 101.6mm 152.4mm
Volume of mold 943.3cm
3
943.3cm
3
2124cm
3

Weight of hammer 44.5 N 44.5 N 44.5 N
Height of hammer drop 457.2mm 457.2mm 457.2mm
Number of hammer
blows per layer
25 25 56
Number of layer of
compaction
5 5 5
Energy of compaction 2696KNm/m
3
2696KNm/m
3
2696KNm/m
3
Soil to be used %R(4.75)<20%
Used soil
%P(4.75)
%R(4.75)>20%
%R(9.5)<20%
Used soil
%P(9.5)

%R(9.5)>20%
%R(19)<30%
Used soil
%P(19)

Compaction equipment
Compaction curve
MOISTURE DENSITY RELATIONSHIP CURVE
1.900
2.000
2.100
2.200
0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00 14.00 16.00 18.00 20.00
Moisture content %
D
r
y

D
e
n
s
i
t
y

g
/
m
3
Wopt

dmax

California Bearing Ratio(CBR)
For study the strength of soils after
compacting in optimum state.
1-Recompaction the soil in optimum
state
2-Determine CBR in dry condition
3-Saturated the soil under water 4 days
4-Determine CBR in soaked condition
CBR=
% 100
. . standard
. .

load unit
load unit Test
BEARING RATIO TEST (CBR)
Project: Pochentong Airport Job No.
Location of Project: Pochentong Airport Boring No 2 Sample No.2
Description of Soil:
Tested by: Mr. Men Tharith Date of Testing. 16/05/2002
CBR Test Load Data (soaked)
Mold
Surrcharge
Piston load Load.
Penetration. dial reading kgf/cm
2
mm ( unit )
0.000
0 0
1.00
0.045 2.3077
2.00
0.075 3.8462
3.00
0.11 5.641
4.00
0.145 7.4359
5.00
0.175 8.9744
6.00
0.21 10.769
7.00
0.25 12.821
8.00
0.28 14.359
9.00
0.31 15.897
10.00
0.34 17.436
CBR(2.54)= 7.1429
Acceppted CBR= 7.14
Final water Top 7.9
conten, w% Midle 7.8
(soaked) Bottom 7.99
sample Averagee 7.8967
Wet unit wt. = 2.2952 g/cm
3
Dry unit wt. = 2.13444 g/cm
3
Wet unit wt.(soaked) = 2.303 g/cm
3
Curve CBR Test
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0
Renetration (mm)
L
o
a
d

(
k
g
f
/
c
m
2
)
P2.54
Penetration(mm) Standard unit
load(Mpa)
2.5 6.9
5 10.3
7.5 13
10 16
12.7 18
CBR equipment
CBR equipment
CBR special for field control
Compaction the soils in optimum state
with different energy
1-Compaction 10 blows per layer and
saturated the soil under water during 4
days
2-Compaction 25 blows per layer and
saturated the soil under water during 4
days
3-Compaction 55 blows per layer and
saturated the soil under water during 4
days
4-Determine CBR in soaked condition for
CBR chart
CBR General
rating
Uses Classification system
USCS AASHTO
0-3 Very
poor
Subgrad
e
OH,CH,MH,O
L
A5,A6,A7
3-7 Poor to
fair
Subgrad
e
OH,CH,MH,O
L
A4,A5,A6,A7
7-20 Fair Subbase OL,CL,ML,SC,
SM,SP
A2,A4,A6,A7
20-50 Good Base
subbase
GM,GC,SW,
SM,SP,GP
A1b,A2-5,
A3,A2-6
>50 Excelle
nt
Base GW,GM A1-a,A2-4
A3
Control soils compaction
%Compaction=

Determine field density by
using:
1-Undisturbed sampling
2-Sand cone method
3-Balloon density equipment
4-Nuclear method
max
.
% 100
d
field d

Sand cone method


Control CBR
Field CBR
By using Dynamic cone penetration test DCP

1-Kleyn and Van Heerden(60
0
cone) : Lg.(CBR)=2.632-
1.28Lg.(mm/blow)

2-Smith and Pratt (30
0
cone) : Lg.(CBR)=2.555-
1.145Lg.(mm/blow)

3-VanVuuren (30
0
cone) : Lg.(CBR)=2.503-
1.15Lg.(mm/blow)

4-TRRL Road Note 8(60
0
cone) : Lg.(CBR)=2.48-
1.057Lg(mm/blow)

CBR control
Shear strength of soils
Total Stress Analysis (TSA)
-for clayey soils with permeability very low,
so for short term loading soils and water
work together.
Effective Stress Analysis(ESA)
-for sandy soils with high permeability,so for
short term loading soils work yourself only
For analyze soils stability
problems(bearing capacity,slope
stability,lateral pressure on earth-retaining
structure)
Effective stress in soils mass
Total stress
0
=
sat.
Z
Effective stress
0
=
.
Z
Pore water pressure U=
w
.Z
=
sat-

w

w
unit weight of water

Mohr-Coulomb Criteria
The shear stress on the failure plan
as a linear function of the normal
stress (Coulomb,1776)
= c + tg
A material fails because of a critical
combination of normal stress and
shear stress, and not from either
maximum normal or shear stress
alone (Mohr,1900)
Failure plan

f


= 45+/2
Mohr-Coulomb failure criteria


C

Line Coulombs: = .tg+C
Unconfined compression test
Type TSA test
Undisturbed sample with
h
0
=2d
o
Speed =2%/min
=2%/min=h/h
0
*100%/min

For determine undrained
cohesion Cu, in this case
u=0

q
u
Mohr circle


0
q
u

C
u
Direct shear test
Type undrained
test or drained
test
Undisturbed
sample
For determine
cohesion of
soils C and
internal friction
angle of soils
Build by
Casagrande

Shear box
Porous
stone

Shear force
Shear box
Normal force
Porous
stone

Loading plate


Soil sample
Determine C &
( )
2 2
) (
i i
i i i i
n
n
tg



=
n
tg
C
i i

=


C

0
Triaxial test
UU test: Unconsolidated undrained
test

CU test: Consolidated undrained test

CD test: Consolidated drained test
Triaxial equipment
UU test


0
0
q
u

Cu
General relationship of consistency and
unconfined compression strength of clay
Consistency q
u
(KN/m
2
)
Very soft 0-25
Soft 25-50
Medium stiff 50-100
Stiff 100-200
Very stiff 200-400
hard >400
Empirical equation related to Cu and
0

Reference Relationship Remarks
Skempton
(1957)
Cu=[0.11+0.0037.I
P
].

0
Cu from vane shear
test
For normally
consolidated
clay
Chandler(198
8)
Cu=[0.11+0.0037.I
P
].

c
Cu from vane shear
test

c
preconsolidation
pressure

Can be use for
over
consolidated
clay not valid
for sensitive
clay
Jamiolkowski
et al (1985)
Cu=[0.23 0.04].
c

For lightly over
consolidated

CU & CD test


0

C

1

Typical values of drained Angle of friction for
Sand and Silt
Soil type
(degree)
Sand : Rounded grains
Loose 27-30
Medium dense 30-35
Dense 35-38
Sand : Angular grains
Loose 30-35
Medium dense 35-40
Dense 40-45
Gravel with some sand 34-48
Silts 26-35
Typical values of drained Angle of friction and
Cohesion for Gravel
USCS
(degree)
C(KN/m
2
)
GW 40 5 0
GP 38 6 0
GM 36 4 0
GC 34 4 0
GM-ML 35 5 0
GM-GC 33 3 2 2
GC-CL 29 4 3 3
GC-CH 28 4 4 4



Typical values of drained Angle of friction and
Cohesion for Sand
USCS
(degree)
C(KN/m
2
)
SW 38 5 0
SP 36 6 0
SM 34 3 0
SC 32 4 0
SM-ML 34 3 0
SM-SC 31 3 5 5
SC-CL 28 4 5 5
SC-CH 27 3 10 10



Typical values of drained Angle of friction and
Cohesion for Fine grained soils
USCS
(degree)
C(KN/m
2
)
ML 33 4 0
CL-ML 30 4 15 10
CL 27 4 20 10
CH 22 4 25 10
OL 25 4 10 5
OH 22 4 10 5
MH 24 6 5 5

Stress in soils mass


O
M
Z
M
1
Z
Q
2a=L
2b=B
Determine stress in soils mass
1-Stress at the center of footing

vM
=4.I
2
.q = 4.K.q

BL
Q
q =
(
(

|
|

\
|
+ +
+ +
+
|
|

\
|
+ +
+ +
+ + +
+ +
=
1
1 2
1
2
1
1 2
4
1
2 2 2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2
2
n m n m
n m mn
arctg
n m
n m
n m n m
n m mn
I

Z
B
m
2
=
Z
L
n
2
=
a
Z
=
Determine stress in soils mass
2-Stress at the corner of footing

vM1
=I
2
.q = K.q

BL
Q
q =
(
(

|
|

\
|
+ +
+ +
+
|
|

\
|
+ +
+ +
+ + +
+ +
=
1
1 2
1
2
1
1 2
4
1
2 2 2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2
2
n m n m
n m mn
arctg
n m
n m
n m n m
n m mn
I

Z
B
m =
Z
L
n =
a
Z
2
=
Determine stress in soil mass by using table
b/a

K


0

0.1

0.2

1/3

0.4

0.5

2/3

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

5

10


0
0.000 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250
0.2
0.000 0.137 0.204 0.234 0.240 0.244 0.247 0.249 0.249 0.249 0.249 0.249 0.249 0.249 0.249
0.4
0.000 0.076 0.136 0.187 0.202 0.218 0.231 0.240 0.243 0.244 0.244 0.244 0.244 0.244 0.244
0.5
0.000 0.061 0.113 0.164 0.181 0.200 0.218 0.232 0.238 0.239 0.240 0.240 0.240 0.240 0.240
0.6
0.000 0.051 0.096 0.143 0.161 0.182 0.204 0.223 0.231 0.233 0.234 0.234 0.234 0.234 0.234
0.8
0.000 0.037 0.071 0.111 0.127 0.148 0.173 0.200 0.214 0.218 0.219 0.220 0.220 0.220 0.220
1
0.000 0.028 0.055 0.087 0.101 0.120 0.145 0.175 0.194 0.200 0.202 0.203 0.204 0.205 0.205
1.2
0.000 0.022 0.043 0.069 0.081 0.098 0.121 0.152 0.173 0.182 0.185 0.187 0.189 0.189 0.189
1.4
0.000 0.018 0.035 0.056 0.066 0.080 0.101 0.131 0.154 0.164 0.169 0.171 0.174 0.174 0.174
1.5
0.000 0.016 0.031 0.051 0.060 0.073 0.092 0.121 0.145 0.156 0.161 0.164 0.166 0.167 0.167
1.6
0.000 0.014 0.028 0.046 0.055 0.067 0.085 0.112 0.136 0.148 0.154 0.157 0.160 0.160 0.160
1.8
0.000 0.012 0.024 0.039 0.046 0.056 0.072 0.097 0.121 0.133 0.140 0.143 0.147 0.148 0.148
2
0.000 0.010 0.020 0.033 0.039 0.048 0.061 0.084 0.107 0.120 0.127 0.131 0.136 0.137 0.137
2.5
0.000 0.007 0.013 0.022 0.027 0.033 0.043 0.060 0.080 0.093 0.101 0.106 0.113 0.115 0.115
3
0.000 0.005 0.010 0.016 0.019 0.024 0.031 0.045 0.061 0.073 0.081 0.087 0.096 0.099 0.099
4
0.000 0.003 0.006 0.009 0.011 0.014 0.019 0.027 0.038 0.048 0.055 0.060 0.071 0.076 0.076
5
0.000 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.007 0.009 0.012 0.018 0.026 0.033 0.039 0.043 0.055 0.061 0.062
10
0.000 0.000 0.001 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.005 0.007 0.009 0.011 0.013 0.020 0.028 0.032
15
0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.010 0.016 0.021
20
0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.006 0.010 0.016







50
0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.006

Consolidation
Settlement of soils
hi
S
Ho
S
ho
Before loading
After loading
Consolidation curve
e
Log

1

2

3

4

e
1

e
2

e
3

e
4

Determination parameter of consolidation

Natural void ratio

Void ratio after consolidation

Swell index

Compression index


0
0 0
H
H h
e

=
0
0 0
H
h H h
e
i
i

=
1 2
2 1
log log

=
e e
C
s
3 4
4 3
log log

=
e e
C
c
Determination parameter of consolidation

Modulus of elasticity

e and located between 100 Kpa to 200KPa

Compression index

Swell index




+
=
e
e
m E
k s
0
1
.
Types of soil

..... m
k
.[........ e
o

0.45


0.55

0.65

0.75

0.85

0.95

1.05

Sandy silt

Silt

Clay

4.00

5.00

-


4.00

5.00

-



3.50

4.50

6.00

3.00

4.00

6.00

2.00

3.00

5.50

-

2.50

5.00

-

2.00

4.50

Soil type [....


Sand ,. .,,.
0.30 0.74
Silt .,...
0.35 0.62
Clay ...
0.42 0.40

Elastic parameter of various soils
Type of soils Modulus of
elasticity Es(Mpa)
Poissons ratio

s

Loose sand 10-25 0.20-0.40
Medium dense
sand
15-30 0.25-0.40
Dense sand 35-55 0.30-0.45
Silty sand 10-20 0.20-0.40
Sand and gravel 70-170 0.15-0.35
Soft clay 4-20
0.20-0.50
Medium stiff clay 20-40
Stiff clay 40-100
Coefficient of consolidation
Log t
h
t
1

t
1
/4
t 100
100
0
50
t 50 1min
Determination coefficient of consolidation
Coefficient of consolidation from Casagrande
method C
v
[m
2
/s]

h
0
- initial thickness of sample
Permeability coefficient


Coefficient of compressibility

Coefficient of volume change
50
2
197 . 0
t
H
C
v
=
2
50 0

=
h
H
e
a C
K
w v v
+
=
1
. .

=
e
a
v
0
1 e
a
m
v
v
+
=
Typical values of coefficient of
consolidation C
v
[cm
2
/s]
Liquid limit Lower limit of
recompressio
n
Undisturbe
d virgin
compressio
n
Upper limit
remolded
30 3.5*10
-2

5*10
-3

1.2*10
-3

60 3.5*10
-3

1*10
-3

3*10
-4

100

4*10
-4

2*10
-4

1*10
-4

Source U.S Navy 1962
In situ test
Static cone penetration test
Dynamic cone penetration test DCP
Standard penetration test
Shear vane test
Pocked penetration test

Static cone penetration test
K
c
N
q
Cu
0

=
(

|
|

\
|
+ =
0
'
log 38 . 0 1 . 0

c
q
Arctg
E=2.q
c

q
c
:cone resistance
Nk=20
Dynamic cone penetration test
A
H M
M M e
M
q
d
.
.
) ' .( +
=
q
d
:cone resistance
M:weight of hammer
M:weight of rods
A:cone area
H:height hammer falling
e:penetration for one blow

Standard penetration test
Index SPT
N value is amount of blows for penetration split spoon sampler
in soils 30 cm
N=N
1
+N
2

N
cor
= C
N
.N
field

C
N
= 0.77log
D .
2000

Peck1974
0
'
1
78 . 9

=
N
C Liao & Whihman 1986
0
' 01 . 0 1
2
+
=
N
C Skempton1986
|

\
|
=
6 . 95
'
log 25 . 1 1
0

N
C Seed 1975
For fine sand or silt saturated with N >15
N
cor
=15+0.5 (N
field
-15)
Relationship of SPT and properties
mechanics of soils
20 20 + = N Hatanaka & Uchida 1996
2
00054 . 0 3 . 0 1 . 27 N N + = Wolff 1989
15 18 + = N For road and Bridges design ..
27 36 . 0 + = N For building design ..
20 45 . 0 + = N in general ....
E (KPa) = 766N For sand saturated ,...
E (KPa) = 500(N+15) For dense sand ,.
E (KPa) = 2600N For dense sand ,.
E (KPa) = 600(N+6) For Gravelly sand (N<15) [..,.
E (KPa) = 600(N+6) +2000 For Gravelly sand (N>15) [..,.
E (KPa) = 320(N+15) For Clayey Sand ,. ....
E (KPa) = 300(N+6) For Silt,sandy silt,clayey silt ..,.
Relationship of SPT and properties
mechanics of soils
Undrained cohesion Cu=K.N Stroud(1974)

3.5KPa <K <6KPa in general we take
K=4.4KPa

Cu=29.N
0.72
Hara et al(1971)
Soils type

N
blows

D
R

%


degree


KN/m
3


Very loose

0 4

0 15

< 28

11 16

Loose

4 10

15 35

28 30

14 18

Medium
dense

10 30

35 65

30 36

17 20

Dense

30 50

65 85

36 41

17 22

Very dense

> 50

85 100

> 41

20 23

Soils type

N

q
u
KPa
Very soft

< 2

< 25

Soft

2 4

25 50

Medium

4 8

50 100

Stiff

8 15

100 200

Very stiff

15 30

200 400

Hard

> 30

> 400

Thank you for your attention
Mr. Sieng PEOU
Master science of
geotechnical
engineering