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Meehanics of
Wave Forces
on Offshore
Structures
Dvel
COpyMADEON BEHALFOF
NGEEANNPOLYTECHNIC
ON
TurgutSarpkaya
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PURSUANTTOSECTION48
Michael Isaacson
OFCOPYRIGHTACT
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Imi5t VAN NOSTRAND REINHOLD COMPANY
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NEWYORK CINCINNATI ATLANTA DALLAS SAN FRANCISCO
(Froman original by D. Muller, and reproducedwith thepermission ofCanaco Inc.)
LONDON TORONTO MELBOURNE
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VanNostrand ReinholdCompanyRegionalOffices:
New York Cincinnati Atlanta Dallas SanFrancisco
VanNostrandReinholdCompanyInternationalOffices:
London Toronto Melbourne
Copyright 1981 byLittonEducationalPublishing,Inc.
LibraryofCongressCatalogCard Number: 80-20237
ISBN:0-442-25402-4
All rightsreserved. No partofthiswork coveredby thecopyrighthereonmay
bereproducedorused inanyform orbyany electronic,or
mechanical;includingphotocopying,recording,taping,orinformationstorage
andretrievalsystems-withoutpeimissionofthepublisher.
ManufacturedintheUnitedStatesofAmerica
PublishedbyVanNostrandReinholdCompany
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135West50thStreet,New York,N.Y. 10020
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PublishedsimultaneouslyinCanadabyVanNostrand ReinholdLtd.
15 14 13 12 11109 ' 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
LibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationData
Sarpkaya,Turgut,1928-
fi
Mechanicsofwaveforcesonoffshorestructures.
Includesbibliographicalreferencesandindexes.
1. Offshorestructures-Hydrodynamics. 2. Ocean
waves. I. Isaacson,Michael,1949- jointauthor.
II. Title.
TC1650.S26 627' .98 80-20237 ti'
ISBN0-442-25402-4 Ii
Preface
Offshore technology has experienced extremely rapid development since the I
1940s, and a thor_ough understanding of the interaction ofwaves with off-
shore structures has nowbecomeavital factorinthesafeandeconomicaldesign
ofsuch structures. There has been a corresponding increase in research efforts
tomeetthis need,butresults are widelyscatteredthroughoutliterature.
The present text is a modest effort in response totheclearneed toassemble
and organize the wide ranging research efforts pertment to the central topic of I
wave forces on offshore structures. However,theintentionisspecificallynotto
present a compendium ofexperimental data and theoretical results. Rather,
emphasis is placed on describing thevitallyimportantphysicalconceptsandun- I
derlying principles. Observations, laboratory and field experiments and theory
have been keptcontinuallyinmindintheselectionoftopicsandintheirexposi-
tion. This is essential ifthe reader is to dealwithanovel problemwhichmight
not entirely overlap with presently available results. In fact ,in manyinstances
the understanding ofthelimitations ofthe theoretical and experimental results
andasoundjudgmentare thedesigner'smostimportantrecipes.
The textis intended to be bothoffundamentalinteresttoresearchers,scien-
tists and.graduate students,as well as ofimmediate practical value toengineers
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involved in the design and constructionofoffshorestructures. Itmayserveas a
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convenient text for graduate courses relating to wave forces',as well as for self-
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study by engineers interestedin problemsofwave forces onoffshorestructures.
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Agood background in mathematics and fluid dynamicsis assumed. Evenso, '->
for sake ofcompleteness,the fundamental concepts andgoverningequationsof
fluid motion are reviewed in Chapter 2. Subsequent chapters deal intumwith
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vi PREFACE
flow separation and time-dependent flows,wave theories, wave forces on small
bodies, wave forces onlarge bodies ,spectralmethods,dynamic response andhy-
droelastic oscillations, and modelling of offshore structures . Each chapter is
reasonably self-contained and the reader should find noseriousdifficultyinap-
proaching anyonechapterindependentlyoftheothers. Acomprehensivelist of
references is provided at the end ofeach chapter. As such, the bookcanserve
also as areference toolandperhapsas apointofdeparturefor research.
Units ofquantitiesare referred tofairlyinfrequently,butwheneverthisis the
case the British System has been adopted in view ofits widespread use in the
UnitedStates.
Because ofthe wide range oftopicscovered,ithas notbeenpossible tomain-
tain a consistent and distinct set ofnotation throughout thetextwithoutsome
overlap ofsymbols. However , the notation within anysingle chapter shouldbe
reasonablyconsistentandis defined wherever first encountered.
A text ofthis sort, which attempts tohelp bridge the gap betweentheoreti-
cians and practicing engineers,cannot hope to fulfill the needs or expectations
ofall those within this wide spectrum. Indeed, not all topics related to ocean
wave interaction with structures could be or are treated. Morespecifically,the
textdoesnotdeal withsuchtopicsas wave interactionwithbreakwaters,seawalls
andothercoastalstructures,coastal processesandscour,harbordesign,andwave
interaction withships and ship-like vessels. Furthennore,highlyspecializedtop-
ics suchas thediscretevortexmodelarenotdescribedin detail.
The contents ofthe 9 chapters reflect the collective experience in teaching,
research and consulting ofthe authors and their assessment ofthe relevance of
thematerial treated. Althoughmost ofthetextdescribesmaterialthatisavailable
in the technical literature, a number oforiginal results and interpretationshave
beenincluded.
There are manypeopletothankfor aidingus in thiseffort. ProfessorsCharles
Dalton, ofthe University ofHouston;JohnH. Nath,ofOregonStateUniversity;
h.
and Dr. Wayne W. Jamieson, ofthe National Research Council ofCanada,each
read the manuscript and gave helpful criticisms. Many graduate students have
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worked with us on this subject, notably Neil J.Collins,NeilMacKenzie,Farhad
Rajabi, and RayL.Shoaff. Manyothersdevotedcountlesshoursincarryingout
t
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experiments and evaluatingdata. Mr. JackMcKay' singenuitypenneatedthede-
sign and construction ofmany-research equipment which was invaluable inob-
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tainingsomeofthe resultspresentedhere. Sincereappreciationis alsoexpressed
h
herefor theextensiveresearchsupportandwillingcooperationextendedthrough
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the yearsbytherepresentativesofthefederalagencies,particularlytheOffice of
Naval Research, the NationalScience Foundationand the Civil EngineeringLab-
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oratory ofthe Naval Construction Battalion Center (port Hueneme, California)
and the National Science and Engineering Council ofCanada. Specialapprecia- a- I
tionis alsoextendedtoourfamilies for theirsupport.
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PREFACE vii
This book is dedicated to the designers and builders ofoffshore structures
and to researchers in this field. Their concern for the advancement ofthestate
oftheartmotivated Our work. Wesincerelyhopethatourefforts,modestrelative
totheirmonumentalachievements,will meetwiththeirapproval.
T.S. Monterey,California
M.I. Vancouver,Canada
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Contents-
PREFACE
I. INTRODUCTION
1.1. Classes ofOffshoreStructures
1.2. The Role ofOffshoreEngineeringRese.arch
1.3. HistoricalDevelopment
1.4. OuilineoftheText
1.5. References
2. REVIEW OF TIlE FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS AND CONCEPTS
2.1. EquationsofMotion
2.1.1. EquationofContinuity
2.2. RotationalandIrrotationalFlows
2.3. VelocityPotential
2.4. Euler'sEquationsandTheirIntegration
2.5. KineticEnergy
2K StreamFunction
2.7. Basic FlowPatterns
2.8. ForceonaCylinder
2.9.
2.10. AnExample
2.11. References
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