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Basics of Electronic Circuits

Experiment 1 2005-06/I

Familiarisation with Basic Test E uipment


This laboratory session will be devoted to getting reasonably conversant with the features and usages of the multipurpose test equipment called Advanced Techlab ST225, which incorporates i! a "igital #ultimeter "##!, ii! a $athode %ay &scilloscope $%&!, iii! a 'requency $ounter, iv! a "($ )ower Supply and v! a 'unction *enerator '*!+ &f these, all the units e,cept the 'requency $ounter will be e,tensively used in this course+ The $%& is by far the most comple, equipment of all these, and hence deserves very careful attention+

!ain Features of the C"#


A $%& consists of a $athode %ay Tube $%T! and electronic circuits necessary for generating the voltages required for its proper operation+ The electron gun of the $%T generates a focussed electron beam that impinges on the fluorescent screen of the $%T after passing between the hori-ontal and vertical deflecting plates+ This creates a bright spot on the screen, which can be moved both hori-ontally and vertically by means of the voltages applied to the respective deflecting plates+ .f these voltages are periodic functions of time with sufficiently high frequency, the bac/ and forth movement of the spot on the screen appears as lines by virtue of persistence of vision+ .n general, the resulting graph created on the screen will /eep changing with time, and hence the picture will become 0umbled+ 1ut if the voltages applied to the deflecting plates are so synchronised with respect to each other that the spot repetitively draws the same graph on the screen, then the pattern created on the screen would appear to be stationary, enabling one to ma/e suitable observations and measurements+ This is achieved in a $%& in two different ways in the two main modes of operation of a $%&2 $a% &-t mo'e ( This mode enables on to obtain the graph of the input voltage y! applied to the vertical plates plotted as a function of time t! 3 normally referred to as the waveform of the y( input+ This is achieved by ma/ing the spot move with a constant velocity from left to right, and then return very fast from right to left, by applying a sawtooth voltage to the hori-ontal deflecting plates+ The hori-ontal a,is thus forms a Time Base, with the time scale ad0ustable in calibrated steps e,pressed in sec4cm! by suitably setting the slope of the sawtooth voltage+ The y(input is applied to the vertical deflecting plates after amplifying it as necessary by the vertical amplifier+ This amplification decides the Deflection Sensitivity e,pressed in 54cm!, ad0ustable in calibrated steps+ $)% x-& mo'e 3 .n this mode, the graph of the y(input against the ,(input is obtained by applying these voltages to the vertical and hori-ontal deflecting plates, after amplifying them as necessary by vertical and hori-ontal amplifiers respectively+ Their amplifications decide the respective deflection sensitivities, ad0ustable in calibrated steps+ .n order that the waveform displayed in the y(t mode appears stationary, it is necessary to trigger the sawtooth voltage so that the spot starts moving from the left e,tremity of the screen at the same point of the desired display+ All $%&s incorporate trigger control circuitry to achieve this, with provisions for selecting the triggering waveform out of i! the input signal being displayed, ii! an e,ternally applied trigger input or iii! the a(c supply line voltage+ Triggering can be done either in the auto mode where the sawtooth always starts rising at the positive -ero(crossing of the triggering waveform, or in the normal mode where the user can select the voltage level and the slope of the triggering waveform+ .t is possible to display e,actly the desired part of the input waveform by suitably setting the level and slope of the properly chosen trigger input+ An ,(y display will give a stationary display only if the , and y signals are harmonics of the same fundamental frequency+ 6issa0ous7 figures are produced if both the voltages are sinusoidal+ #ost practical $%&s provide a dual-trace option, whereby two signals can be simultaneously displayed on two channels using the same time base+ This is achieved either in the alternate mode by applying the two input waveforms alternately to the vertical deflecting plates in alternate sawtooth cycles, or in the choppe' mode by switching between the two inputs at a very fast rate within every sawtooth cycle+ The hori-ontal amplifier used for the ,(input in the ,(y mode is used as the vertical amplifier for the second signal in the dual display mode+

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Fi*+ 1+1 Brea')oar' ,chematic Experiments to )e performe'


1+ *et familiar with the breadboard schematic given in 'ig+ 8+8+ All interconnections among the different equipment as well as all circuit assembly must be done on the breadboard+ 2+ Set the frequency of the '* to 8/9- and its amplitude to the ma,imum possible value, with no d(c offset+ $onnect the '* output to both the inputs of the $%&, and observe the display using the dual display mode of the $%&+ &bserve and note the effects of all the controls of the $%&, and choose the setting for a display convenient for ma/ing measurements+ -+ #easure the amplitude and frequency of the '* output by the $%&+ &bserve and note the effects of all the control /nobs and switches of the '*+ .+ :sing the trigger controls appropriately, obtain a display of the '* output so that the plot gives one full cycle of the sine wave, starting from half the pea/ value with a positive slope+ 5+ *et familiar with all the features of the "## and use it to measure the values of the resistor and the capacitor given to you+ 6+ Set up the simple %$ circuit given in 'ig+ 8+2, with the '* set for a 8(/9- sine wave output with an amplitude of 85 "isplay the waveforms of v i and vo on two channels, and measure the ratio of their amplitudes and the phase shift between the two waveforms+ /+ &btain a plot of vo vs vi by using the ,(y mode of display+ ;ote the nature of the display and compare the information available from this picture with that obtained in step <+ 0+ $hange the output of the '* to square wave, /eeping the same settings for frequency and amplitudes as in steps < and =+ "isplay and s/etch the waveforms of v i and vo, and measure the rise time tr time ta/en for a waveform to go from 8>? to @>? of its final value! of v o+ 5erify the relationship tr A 2+2%$+ %A 'unction *enerator D vi $ A >+>8
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8>+5/ D vo
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Fi*+ 1+2 1 simple "C circuit for test