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Algorithm for the Prediction of

Power at the
Preliminary Design Stage
Resistance & Propulsion (1)
MAR 2010
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Method is appropriate for large ocean going
vessels with modern slow speed direct drive
diesel engines
Method is a basic design tool using chart
series diagrams
Design Scope
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Ship owner require that a ship should achieve an average
speed in service at a certain engine power.
Initial acceptance will be based upon demonstration of a
higher speed on trial at the same power
V
trial
= V
service
+V
(V 1 knot)
Design Scope
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Design Scope
Contract stipulate that the ship should achieve
trial speed with the engine developing 85% of
its maximum continuous power rating (MCR)
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Preliminary Prediction of Power
Estimate resistance and effective power for a range
of speeds using appropriate Methodical Series
Data or Statistical Analysis Data
(Holtrop & Menen)
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Preliminary Prediction of Power
methodical series
or other
P
E
=
P
E trial
=
P
E service
=
(1 +x)P
E
1.2 P
E trial
From BTTP - 65
procedure
Based upon 20%
sea margin
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
10.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 18.0 20.0
Speed (knot)
P
o
w
e
r

(
k
W
)
Pe Trial (kW)
PE Service (kW)
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Preliminary Prediction of Power
20% sea margin
Plot trial and
service conditions
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Preliminary Prediction of Power
Lbp = 135.34m
B = 19.3m
T = 9.16m
Cb = 0.704
Assumed vessel particulars from previous example:
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Optimum RPM, Propeller and Engine Size
Chose maximum permissible propeller diameter with
respect to hull clearances
Determine the optimum engine speeds corresponding to
trial conditions, the required maximum continuous power
and the mean face pitch.
Select an appropriate engine
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Optimum RPM, Propeller and Engine Size
Using the equations provided in the handout determine the
wake fraction and thrust deduction factor
D
B
0.6T
= 5.5m = D
The required diameter behind the hull is given as
This gives:
w = 0.304 t = 0.214
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Optimum RPM, Propeller and Engine Size
As the behind condition allows a smaller propeller
diameter calculate the equivalent open water
diameter
D
B
0.6T
D
o
=
D
B
0.95
Corresponding open water diameter
= (5.79m)
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Optimum RPM, Propeller and Engine Size
B
p

area ratio
For this exercise the B4.55 diagram is to be used
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Optimum RPM, Propeller and Engine Size
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
10.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 18.0 20.0
Speed (knot)
P
o
w
e
r

(
k
W
)
Pe Trial (kW)
PE Service (kW) At TRIAL speed read off from the
plot the effective power at trial
speed
Remember is not known as
it requires knowledge of the
propeller hull interaction.

D
=
(1 t)
(1 w)

o

D
= k
1

o
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Optimum RPM, Propeller and Engine Size
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
10.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 18.0 20.0
Speed (knot)
P
o
w
e
r

(
k
W
)
Pe Trial (kW)
PE Service (kW)
Therefore a value is selected
and an iteration is performed
until convergence

D
= 0.70
Vs (trial) = 16 knots
Pe (trial) = 3550 kW
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Optimum RPM, Propeller and Engine Size
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
10.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 18.0 20.0
Speed (knot)
P
o
w
e
r

(
k
W
)
Pe Trial (kW)
PE Service (kW)
Assume an initial
D
= 0.7
From the graph:
P
D
=
P
E trial

D
P
D
=
3550
0.7
P
D
= 5071 kW
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Optimum RPM, Propeller and Engine Size
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
10.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 18.0 20.0
Speed (knot)
P
o
w
e
r

(
k
W
)
Pe Trial (kW)
PE Service (kW)
Flow through the propeller disc
V
A
= V
trial
(1 w)
V
A
= 16(1 0.304)
V
A
= 11.14 knots
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Optimum RPM, Propeller and Engine Size
Let:
B
p
= k
2
N
B
p
= 1.158
NP
1
2
D
V
2.5
A
B
p
= 1.158
N 5071
1
2
11.14
2.5
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Optimum RPM, Propeller and Engine Size
and
= k
3
N
=
1
J
= 3.2808
ND
o
V
A
= 3.2808
N 5.79
11.14
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Preliminary Prediction of Power
Enter the BP delta values onto the diagram provided
For each RPM calculate the open water efciency from
the diagram
Plot the results
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Preliminary Prediction of Power
For a range of values of N calculate
B
p

N (rpm) Bp
80 15.93 136.4 0.62
90 17.91 153.5 0.624
100 19.91 170.5 0.626
110 21.90 187.6 0.622
120 23.89 204.6 0.605

o
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Preliminary Prediction of Power
0.6
0.605
0.61
0.615
0.62
0.625
0.63
75 85 95 105 115 125

o
= 0.626
N =100
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Preliminary Prediction of Power
0.55
0.56
0.57
0.58
0.59
0.6
0.61
0.62
0.63
0.64
0.65
65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100
N
N

o
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008

D
=
(1 t)
(1 w)

o

R
Preliminary Prediction of Power
More data is now available to update the initial
estimate of
D

D
=
(1 0.214)
(1 0.304)
0.626 1.0

D
= 0.707
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Preliminary Prediction of Power
To test convergence the difference from the original
and new should be less than 0.005
D
Continue until convergence to get
N and
D
0.707 - 0.7 = 0.007
use the new value of and re-calculate the delivered power
and repeat BP d diagram
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Preliminary Prediction of Power
For this exercise the previous calculation is assumed
converged, therefore:

D
= 0.707
N = 100
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Engine Selection
Once the propulsive efciency is known the power
required for sea trials can be calculated
P
B(trial)
=
P
E trial

D

S
P
B(trial)
=
3550
0.707 0.98
P
B(trial)
= 5123.7 kW
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
From this Break Power required to satisfy the trial
speed, the contract specied that the engine should
only be at 85% of its total rating
Engine Selection
P
B(installed)
=
P
B(trial)
0.85
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
This value can now be used to calculate the required
engine size
Engine Selection
P
B(installed)
= 6028 kW
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Finally modify the propeller diameter using the
empirical relationships given previously
Re- calculate (as in example 1 of the numerical example
the new diameter for the same delivered power
B
p
Plot on the diagram and read the
P/D ratio
Engine Selection
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Engine Selection
P
D
= P
B(trial)

s
Calculate the delivered power at the trial condition
P
D
= 5123.7 0.98
P
D
= 5021.23
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Engine Selection
Calculate the delivered power at the trial condition
B
p
= 19.81
= 3.2808
100 5.50
11.14
= 161.97
B
p
= 1.158
100 5021.23
1
2
11.14
2.5
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Engine Selection
B
p
= 19.81
= 161.97
P
D
= 1.0
Enter the nal values onto the diagram
1.0 D
B
= 5.50
mean face pitch:
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Engine Selection
Calculated optimum rpm = 100
Installed power = 6029 kW
Trial power = 5123.7 kW
Calculate the power per cylinder and use suitable engine
diagrams to select an engine
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Engine Selection
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
85% MCR
reducing fuel
consumption
trial power
installed power
Engine RPM
Engine
Power
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Engine Selection
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
Engine RPM
Engine
Power
1. Assume a number of Cylinders
2. Calculate the required number of installed power
per cylinder
3. from range of engines select the appropriate engine
with optimum RPM and power range
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Engine Selection
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
Engine RPM
Engine
Power
4 Cylinders:
5123.7 / 4 (trial) = 1280.92 kW/cyl
6028.0 / 4 (total) = 1509 kW/cyl
Suitable engines could be RTA68 and RTA62 at 4 cyl.
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Prediction of Service Performance
The nal stage is to nd the new ship service speed
and propeller rate of rotation at constant power of:
P
D
= 0.85 P
B

s
i.e with the engines developing 85% of their Brake Power
(including transmission losses)
P
D
= 5123.7 0.98 = 5021.23 kW
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Prediction of Service Performance
Caution:
This method is different than the calculation for the trial
condition.
For the trial condition the propeller was designed to absorb
a particular power
In the service condition the propeller design is xed :
Diameter (behind) = 5.5m Pitch = 1.0
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Prediction of Service Performance
At this new condition there will be a new wake fraction to
allow for hull roughness, wind, waves, etc.
This is dened as:
w = 1.1w
trial
(assume previous values for t & )
R
w = 1.1 0.304 = 0.3344
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Prediction of Service Performance
The propulsive efciency will change for this new
condition therefore another iteration must be
performed
This iteration of follows a different method than
previous to obtain the optimum efciency

D
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Prediction of Service Performance
Assume an initial value of

D
P
E service
= P
D

D
Use the plots of trial and service power to read off
the value. Read from the plot the service
speed this occurred
P
E service
P
E service
= 5021.23 0.7 = 3514.86 kW
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Prediction of Service Performance
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
13 14 15 16 17 18
Speed [kn]
P
o
w
e
r

[
k
W
]
PE (service)
PE (trial)
Vs (service) = 15.25 knots
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Prediction of Service Performance
Re-calculate the advance velocity based on this power
and new wake fraction
V
a
= V
s
(1 w)
V
a
= 15.25 (1 0.3344)
V
a
= 10.15 knots
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Prediction of Service Performance
Let:
B
p
= k
4
N
B
p
= 1.158
NP
1
2
D
V
2.5
A
B
p
= 1.158
N 5021.23
1
2
10.15
2.5
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Prediction of Service Performance
Let:
= k
5
N
= 3.2808
ND
V
A
= 3.2808
N 5.50
10.15
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Prediction of Service Performance
As before use a range of shaft rotations and calculate the
new coefcients B
p

Plot these values directly on the diagram B
p

Where this curve intersects the P/D of the propeller
designed previously is the required value
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Preliminary Prediction of Power
For range of values of N calculate
B
p

N (rpm) Bp
80 19.99 142.16
90 22.49 159.93
100 24.99 177.77
110 27.49 195.47

o
Basic Design - BP delta diagrams
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 26th February 2008

B
P
P
D
B
P
1.0

o
= 0.583
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Preliminary Prediction of Power
As before use the propulsive efciency formula below
and iterate until the difference between successive
iterations is within 0.005

D
=
(1 t)
(1 w)

o

R
On convergence the ship speed in service condition
has been calculated
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Prediction of Service Performance

D
=
(1 0.214)
(1 0.334)
0.583 1.0

D
= 0.688
(
D
)
assumed
(
D
)
previous
= 0.7 0.688 = 0.0011
(no need for iteration)
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Prediction of Service Performance
P
E (service)
= 5021.23 0.688
P
E (service)
= 3454.60 kW
P
E (service)
Read from the power diagram the for
3454.6 kW
V
s (service)
= 15.15 knots
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Prediction of Service Performance
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
13 14 15 16 17 18
Speed [kn]
P
o
w
e
r

[
k
W
]
PE (service)
PE (trial)
Vs (service) = 15.15 knots
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Prediction of Service Performance
At the intersection of the new line with the pitch
line read off from the diagram the Service
values of
B
P

B
P

B
P
= 24.2

B
= 174
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Prediction of Service Performance
Re-calculate the advance velocity for the nal
service speed of 15.15 knots
V
A
= V
S
(1 w)
V
A
= 15.15(1 0.3344)
V
A
= 10.08 knots
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Prediction of Service Performance
Finally at the service condition calculated read off
the and calculate the RPM in service

B
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Prediction of Service Performance
= 3.2808
ND
V
A
N =
V
A
3.2808 D
N =
174 10.08
3.2808 5.50
N
service
= 97.2 rpm
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Prediction of Service Performance
Therefore at 85% MCR:
The vessels service speed is 15.15 knots
The propeller rate of rotation is 97.2 rpm
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Final stage in the design algorithm is to calculate blade
surface area and blade area ratio
This is performed for TRIAL condition
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
T = 9.16m
N = 100 rpm
V
A
= 16 (1 0.3044) = 11.14 knots
D = 5.50m
P
D
= 1.0

o
= 0.626
Using the previous trial conditions:
P
D
= 5021.23 kW
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
h =
D
2
+ 0.2
h = 2.95
shaft immersion at centreline
H = T - h
H = 9.16 - 2.95
H = 6.21m
Text
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
p e = 99629 10179H
p e = 99629 10179 6.21
p e = 162840.59 N/m
2
The static component
Calculation of the cavitation number

r
=
p e
q
t
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
q
t
= (11.66V
A
)
2
+ (0.828 nD)
2
The dynamic component
q
t
= (11.66 11.14)
2
+ (0.828 100 5.50)
2
q
t
= 224261.2 N/m
2
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
The resultant cavitation number becomes:

r
=
162840
224261.2

r
= 0.726
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Entering this value onto the Burrill Diagram:

r
= 0.726

c
= 0.23
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
T
A
P
=
c
q
T
T
A
P
= 0.23 224261.2 = 51580.08
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
T
A
P
= 1941.3
P
D

o
V
A
A
P
A
P
= 10.62 m
2
A
P
=
1941.3 5021.23 0.626
11.14 51580.08
A
P
=
1941.3 P
D

o
V
A

T
A
P
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
A
D
=
A
P
1.067 0.229
P
D
A
D
=
10.62
1.067 0.229 1.0
A
D
= 12.67 m
2
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
BAR =
A
D
D
2
4
BAR =
12.67
5.5
2
4
BAR = 0.533
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
A
e
A
o
Selected was 0.55 A
e
A
D
Assuming
A
e
A
D
= 0.533
Selected area was 0.55, therefore the design will provide
a low risk of cavitation
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Coursework Submission
To satisfy the requirements of the coursework the
following is required:
A typed report covering the 4 stages:

1. Effective power prediction
2. Design of propeller and engine
3. Prediction of performance in service,
4. Blade surface area and BAR
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Coursework Submission
To satisfy the requirements of the coursework the
following is required:
The report should include a detailed hand calculation
for one speed (e.g. service speed)
Include tables from Excel where necessary and
appropriate graphs
If you only present Excel tables and make a mistake,
you cannot collect method marks.
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008
Coursework Submission
Submission date is:
2nd May 2008
Rod Sampson - School of Marine Science and Technology - 4th March 2008