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Topic 3: Strain
MEEM 5150 Spring 2008

One-dimensional strain measures

L A

Take a 1D bar which can only be streched axially. The bar had an initial length L and area A that is stretched to a final length of l and area a. The engineering strain E can be given as

l a

E =

l l L = L L l l L = l l
(l L)

The true strain T can be given as

E =

For both of these measures, if strain is small the small strain quantity is recovered.

= l / l

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For the small strain case, they all converge to small strain definition. As an example, for the Green strain

( L + L) 2 L2 G (l L) 2 L2 (l + l ) 2 l 2 2l 2 0 1 l 2 + l 2 + 2l l l 2 = l2 2 l l

Deformation concept
t=0 X3 u P0

x3 P

t=t

e3 X E3 O E2 E1 X1 X2 x1 b o e1

x e2 spatial coordinates x2

material coordinates

Vector b serves to locate the origin o wrt O. From the figure u=b+xX Very often in continuum mechanics it is possible to consider the coordinate systems OX1X2X3 and ox1x2x3 superimposed so that b = 0. So u=x-X

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Strain concept

Lagrangian Tensor
Position function of a specific point: Displacement gradient tensor with respect to material coordinates

Deformation gradient tensor

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Lagrangian Tensor
The change in the square of the length of the vector dX

Lagrangian strain tensor:

Lagrangian Tensor
Infinitesimal lagrangian strain sensor (Green stain tensor)

Right Cauchy-Green strain tensor

Left Cauchy-Green strain tensor

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Physical stain components


Deformation of an orthogonal triad

Extensional strain components Shear strain components

Physical stain components


Extensional strain components Shear strain components

When

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Volume dilation
Volume dilation is defined as

For the case of infinitesimal stains,

Principal Strains
The values of principal strains are the three roots of the determinant equation:
Where

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Principal Strains
Three principal strain directions are obtained from these equations:

If (x,y,z) are principal strain axes, the three invariants are reduced as

Normal Strain Transformation

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Shear Strain Transformation

Strain-displacement relations for small displacement theory

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Strain-displacement relations for orthogonal curvilinear coordinates


Cylindrical coordinates (3D)

Spherical Coordinates (3D)

Polar Coordinates (2D)

Strain Compatibility
3D

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Strain measurements
Strain gage
Circuit bridges Gage mounting and types

Example 2.8, 2.9, 2.10, 2.11

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