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Sy Variable Speed Pump Drives for Industrial

Machinery System Considerations

Jan Komsta, Ph.D. Bosch Rexroth 11.19.2013 Chicago

11.19.2013 | DCUS SET | Bosch Rexroth AG 2013. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights.

Variable Speed Pump Drives for Industrial Machinery

Why speed variable pumps?


Reduced energy consumption Reduced average noise Compact power unit Reduced cooling requirements for oil High robustness Intelligent hydraulic drive

11.19.2013 | DCUS SET | Bosch Rexroth AG 2013. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights.

Energy and the Environment Current Challenges

Policy assumptions for 2020*


USA European Union Russia China India Brazil

23%** 20 % 15 % 40 % 20 % 36 %
share reduction reduction reduction reduction reduction of renewables in electricity generation in greenhouse gas emissions compared with 1990 in greenhouse gas emissions compared with 1990 in CO2 intensity compared with 2005 in CO2 intensity compared with 2005
in greenhouse gas emissions compared with no measures

Energy consumption is the driver


New Policies Scenario, World Energy Outlook 2012 ** By 2035

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Energy and the Environment Current Challenges

Manufacturing systems life cycle costs (TCO)


80...95 %
Initial startup Training Spare parts Maintenance Labor costs Taxes Insurances

Energy costs

~ $5.950 (96%) Cost price ~ $250 (4%)

5...20 %
Machinery & Equipment

Energy
Modernization Disposal ...

Three phase motor 1 kW 5 year running time

Investment costs
4

Operating costs

Example

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Energy and the Environment Current Challenges

Growth in energy costs will continue

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Technology Change drive power transmission


Hydraulic pump control motor / cylinder

Properties
Power density, robustness Controllability Multiple consumers possible Noise Energy efficiency

Constant speed electric motor

classic hydraulics
Hydraulic pump with /without valves motor / cylinder

Variable speed motor drive

variable speed pumps


Force transmission Spindle drive

Power density, robustness Controllability Multiple consumers possible Energy efficiency Noise

Controllability Noise Energy efficiency Multiple consumers not possible (or very difficult) Power density

Variable speed motor drive

Electro-mechanic

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Technology Change

Energy saving potential


Classic Solution

M
Motor losses Pump losses

Full motor speed during part load operation. Pump mechanical losses caused by high rotation speed Lower motor and pump efficiency during part load operation High throttling losses caused by proportional valves

Total energy

Throttling losses

Useful energy

11.19.2013 | DCUS SET | Bosch Rexroth AG 2013. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights.

Technology Change

Energy saving potential


Variable Speed Pump Drives

M
Inverter losses Motor losses

Pump losses

Total energy
Useful energy

No throttling losses from proportional valves 40-70% speed reduction during part load operation Increased pump and motor efficiency during part load operation Reduced pump losses by lowering average motor RPM Additional inverter losses

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System Solutions
Efficiency Dynamics Costs

M M

AC motor + fixed pump AC motor + variable pump VFD + AC motor + fixed pump VFD + AC motor + variable pump VFD + PM motor* + fixed pump VFD + PM motor* + variable pump

(esp. for >60kW)

(esp. for >60kW)

* permanent magnet synchronous motor

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System Considerations: Pump Selection

Which pumps are suitable for variable speed operation?


Speed range Pressure range Direction of rotation Pump efficiency Pump noise Flow and pressure pulsation Pump inertia Quadrants of operation

???

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Pump selection

Pump speed and pressure limitations


lowest speed for continuous operation (i.e. for gear pumps) p [bar] Power Pressure int. Pressure cont.
Noise limit - Motor Fan

Cavitation

Highest efficiency

temporary operation possible (i.e. for gear pumps) n [RPM]

- Pump (high frequency)

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Noise Reduction

Noise reduction
Pump noise depends on: Pump construction Speed and pressure
80 70 60 Axial piston pump
Axial piston pump Internal gear pump 40 0 1000 2000 3000

Pump noise level in dB(A)

80

70

60

50

50 40

p= 50 bar p= 200bar 0 1000 2000 3000

Pump RPM

Pump RPM

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Pump selection

Quadrants of operation
+ Flow
Motor operation Pump operation

pressure

Pump operation

Motor operation

- Flow + Flow
Motor operation Pump operation

Internal gear pump e.g. PGH

Axial piston pumps e.g. A10 VZO

pressure

Pump operation

Motor operation

Axial piston pumps e.g. A10 FZG / VZG (for closed circuits)

- Flow

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Pump selection

Mechanical inertia / dynamics


Distribution of mechanical inertia of the pump drive 100% = total mechanical inertia of system using internal gear pump
Internal gear pump+PM Motor
140% 120%
Mechanical inertia

Axial piston pump+PM Motor Pump


140% 120% 100% 80% 60% 40% 20%

Coupling PM Motor

100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 060 075 100 120 150 190 240 300 Maximum Flow (LPM)

0% 060 075 100 120 150 190 240 300 Maximum Flow (LPM)

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Pump selection

Direct coupling
Reduced mechanical inertia Better dynamics (higher acceleration capabilities) Higher efficiency Less mounting space (no bell-housing) Direct coupling
Internal gear pump+PM Motor
120% 100%

Pump PM Motor Reduced inertia

Mechanical inertia

80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 060 075 100 120 150 190

Sytronix SVP 7000


240 300 Maximum Flow (LPM)

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Pump selection

Fixed or variable displacement?


8 7 Input Power P (kW) 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 50 100 150 Pressure p (bar) 200 250
Variable displacement pump, n=1500 RPM Variable displacement pump + VFD Fixed displacement pump + VFD

M M

Power consumption for pressure holding


Source: Prof. S. Helduser*, Elektrisch-hydraulische Systemtechnik, O&P 1/2006 *IFD, Technical University Dresden, Germany

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Pump selection

Fixed or variable displacement?

M =

p Vp 20 mech M

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Pump selection

Fixed or variable displacement?


Pump displacement is reduced A10 VZO pump with two-point control

Reduced load torque during pressure holding

M =

p Vp ( ) 20 mech M

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Pump selection

Performance curve
VFD + self-ventilated AC motor Fixed displacement internal gear pump- PGH
Pump pressure

Axial piston pump with two-point control - A10VZO-EZ4


Pump Pressure

EZ4

Pump speed

Pump speed

Vgmax max. pump displacement Vgmin min. pump displacement

- Continuous VFD operation

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Energy Saving

Consider overall efficiency


PMMs drive efficiency Pump efficiency

Load Torque

Adapt pump displacement to operate in preferred working points

Speed

Pump pressure

Speed

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Energy Saving by Reducing Motor Speed

Energy saving during stand-by/ idling


4 3.5 Input Power P (kW) 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Motor speed n (rpm) 1200 1400 1600
Sytronix DFEn 5000

Power consumption of electric motor during standby/ idle Pump size 100cc 40 HP AC motor 600 PSI, 0.25 GPM flow (pilot oil)
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Energy Saving by Reducing Motor Speed

Energy saving by reducing motor speed


Variable displacement pump+VFD 12 Input Power P (kW) 10 Efficiency 8 6 4 2 0 0 1000 2000 Pressure p (PSI) 3000 4000 0.70 0.60 0.50 0.40 5 15 25 Q (GPM) 35 45

Efficiency @2200 psi


Variable displacement pump, @ 1800 RPM 0.80

Variable displacement pump+VFD Variable displacement pump, @1800 RPM

Power consumption of electric motor during pressure holding (Q=0 GPM)

= Hydraulic Output Power / Electric Input Power

pump A4 125cc 100 HP AC motor


Sytronix DFEn 5000

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Engineering: System Sizing in SytronixSize Machine load cycle (p/Q/t)

Select the pump type and size

Investigate drive working points, drive utilization factors, RMS power


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Engineering: System Simulation

System simulation verify your ideas


Model of hydraulic actuators, valves, process forces, lines, etc. Closed loop control algorithm

Speed Variable Pump HPU


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Engineering: System Simulation

System simulation verify your ideas


Internal gear pump model, including efficiency (working point dependent) VFD, firmware and p/Q control algorithm Model of PMM Servo Motor with Torque-Speed characteristics

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Engineering: System Simulation

System simulation verify your ideas


Various process variables (speed, position, pressure, power, pump speed etc)

Evaluation of the simulation: Productivity (cycle time) Dynamic behavior Efficiency

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Sytronix: Bosch Rexroths Variable Speed Pump Drives


Sytronix
Preconfigured Sets Sytronix FcP Sytronix SVP Sytronix DFEn

Pressure and flow control

Pressure and flow control Force and velocity control Position control High dynamics Custom Solutions

Pressure and flow control Power control High dynamics & high power

Basic dynamics

Custom system functions Pressure and flow control Force and velocity control Position control

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System Variants- SVP

SvP 7000 High performance


performance
high dynamics high accuracy energy efficient

SvP 7000

sample application injection molding machine

control functions pressure control flow rate control force control speed control position control quadrants
pressure n

system
U P s

Axis control high performance required pressure control flow rate control press brake Axis control high performance required force control speed control position control

SG
3~
flow

2 3
28

1 4

3~

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System Variants- SVP

SvP 7000 High performance


pressure 150bar

10 bar 3000 rpm speed 0s

T95%= 150ms low RPM during pressure hold

-3000 rpm

1.5 s

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System Variants- DFEn

DFEn Advanced performance


performance
advanced dynamics advanced accuracy

DFEn 5000
2 independent hydraulic circuits possible

sample application injection molding machine

energy efficient

control functions pressure control flow rate control force control speed control position control quadrants
pressure U P

system

Axis control advanced performance required pressure control flow rate control paper

nCMD

1
flow

3~ 3~

constant pressure system advanced performance required pressure control

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System Variants- DFEn

Variable speed mode and constant speed mode


constant speed mode speed speed flow flow swivel angle swivel angle variable speed mode

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Solution examples
1 AC motor + 2x fixed pumps

Slide title
n=const 2

n=const

n=var.

n=var.

n=var.

AC motor + variable pump

VFD +AC motor + fixed pump

VFD +AC motor + variable pump (hydr. control)

VFD +AC motor + variable pump (electric control)

n=var.

n=var.

n=var.

n=var.

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n=var.

VFD +AC motor + variable pump + fixed pump

VFD +PMM motor + fixed pump

VFD +PMM motor + fixed pump

2x VFD +2x PMM motor + 2x fixed pump

VFD +PMM motor + variable pump (hydr. control)

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Solution examples: Compact Axis

Compact Hydraulic Axis


The hydraulic circuit completely integrated into the module Max. press force up to 6200 kN (over the entire press stroke) Pressure control 0.3 bar Stroke 450 mm, max. 3000 mm Rapid speed forward and return 1000 mm/s Position accuracy 1 m Safety functions up to Performance Level e, SIL3

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Cross Technology System Integration

HPUs and actuators go smart and efficient


MLC Process control

Process/ Motion Control Integrated automation bus for real time communication IndraDrive MLD Open platform for integration of advanced control and monitoring functions Smart HPU Compact and modular design wide range of sensors Actuators matching different applications

sercos

IAC-R

Electro hydraulic linear cylinder

Smart HPU with Sytronix

Sytronix Compact Axis

Electro Mechanical Actuator

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Application Injection Mould Machine

Increased efficiency
]

New Machine

Former solution: - Standard hydraulic solution DFEC - Asynchronous motor fixed rpm - Installed power: 11 kW -75 kW - operation: 24h/240days
Customer requirements:

Machine size : From 110 up to 430 Ton.

Energy saving

Sytronix solution: Optimal pressure/ flow control Reduced cooling capacity Reduced noise level Energy efficient system for master master double pump configuration
Energy System Design Efficient Components Energy on Demand

Sytronix DFEn 5000

Comparison / Saving:
Energy consumption per year [Mio. kWh 0.028 0.018 10.9

CO2 emission per year [to] 0.7

10,000 kWh 1,000 EUR 3,900 kg CO2

-34%
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Application Injection Mould Machine

Increased Efficiency
Energy consumption per cycle [kWh]
4.9

former solution Rexroth Sytronix solution

Energy consumption per year [Mio. kWh]


0.028 0.018

CO2 emission per year [to]


10.9 0.7

4,9
3.2

3,2

Savings per year:

10,000 kWh, 1,000 EUR ** 3900 kg CO2 ***

- 34 %

base: ** 10ct/kWh

*** 240g / kWh electrical motor power 11kW

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Application Injection Mould Machine

Application Injection Molding Machine


Field tests: Reduced operating power constant vs. variable speed DFE systems
160 ton closing force, 100 cc pump, 30kW motor:
Cycle time 10s: 8% Cycle time 20s: 32% Cycle time 40s: 44%

55 ton closing force, 45 cc pump, 11kW motor:


Cycle time 8s: 10% Cycle time 25s: 20% Cycle time 60s: 45%

140 ton closing force, 71 cc pump, 15kW motor:


Cycle time 27s: 45%

250 ton closing force, 140cc + 64cc (regenerative) pump, 55kW motor with accumulator:
Cycle time 20s: 8%

270 ton closing force, 140cc + 71cc (regenerative) pump, 55kW motor:
Cycle time 45s: 30%

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Summary

Advantages
Energy saving
Depending on the application cycle, variable speed pump drives from Rexroth can reduce energy consumption by 10 to 80 %. Low energy consumption results in reduced energy costs and lowers the users Carbon Footprint.

Noise Level Reduction


Noise is reduced during partial load operation as a result of lower pump RPM. Average noise reductions of up to 20 dBA can be achieved. Installation costs may be reduced if sound insulation designs are not needed

Reduced Cooling
In many applications, cooling may not be required on the hydraulic power unit since high operating efficiency reduces hydraulic system heating

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Summary

Advantages
Less Mounting Space
Eliminating system cooling allows for a more compact design, reduced complexity and lower cost .

Hydraulic and Electric standard components


Variable speed pump drives utilize standard hydraulic components.

Forward Looking Technology


Variable speed pump drives can help customer requirements for energy conservation.

Easy Integration of flexible control functions


Advanced diagnosis and monitoring can help avoid costly machine failures.

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Thank you for your attention!


Jan Komsta Manager, New Technologies & Simulation (DCUS/SET1) Tel: +1 610-694-8547 Mobile: +1 610-216-9034 Jan.Komsta2@boschrexroth-us.com
Sytronix DFEn 5000

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