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Ram Concept
1
Introduction
RAM Concept is a program analysis and design using finite element methods for high concrete floor
system, or the foundation system. The system can be floor or the concrete after tensioning (PT),
reinforced concrete (RC), or hybrid (a mixture between PT and RC). Concept is an extremely powerful
program and allows the entire design of a floor model or design strips or each beam.

In this case, the term "design" means:

The user shall determine: geometric structure, load, load combinations, and stress simulation
after (if possible).

Concept program calculates (for any combination of load yet): the amount of reinforcement
required for bending and sliding in a way according to the requirements of the relevant code;
style nail reinforcement (SSR) shear strain for cut, puncture stress measurements for the
bending and deflection.

Models include any items from a beam or a simple sustained for the entire floor. The models are
shown in 3D (even the model is deployed to Strip Wizard).

Concept Program generally does not use the strip method unless the purpose of reproducing the
concrete rules, and Strip Wizard interface.

Note: Do not use the equivalent frame method.

1.1 Compared with the method of "traditional"

Previously, most of the concrete floor is nearly identical to the analysis area as a frame (or strip
design), and then analyzed frame / strip variations of analytical techniques used to allocate frame
torque. However this method has two limitations. First, the structures are not, in fact roughly textured
pattern in a frame may be inaccurate and the design of the analysis results can not even meet the
requirements structural balance in practice. The second drawback is that even if the structure were to
load all, almost frame analysis is the interaction / column and do not provide any information about
the distribution of power throughout the design process range.

RAM Concept allows the design of next-stressed and reinforced concrete using finite element model of
the whole village. Concept program can predict the behavior of the exact elastic than frame model. In
addition, the finite element method analysis to ensure meet balance requirements, whether irregular
textures.

1.2 The selection function in the program RAM Concept

RAM Concept is useful in a variety of
configurations.

Start with one, or both, reinforced concrete regime following:

RAM Concept for The (RC) analysis and system design of reinforced concrete slab foundation
(the nail plate) with any size and any shape.
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RAM Concept for The High (RC) analysis and system design of reinforced concrete with any
size and any shape.

Increased capacity analysis and design of the program RAM Concept by adding functions to its
selection for one or both of the following mode:

The function of RAM Concept PT (following stress functions for the sheets or copies)
Analysis and design of the floor or the ultimate stress with reinforced concrete.

1.3 Strip Wizard

Strip Wizard using the text input mode to create the model, allowing designers can design 2-D fast
preliminary or final design of the structure is not complicated.

Strip Strip Wizard generated from 3D form, but the border automatically in the form of 2-D. The model
will use the finite element method.

You can use the Wizard to design beams Strip or written in a way that does not need a lot of clicks.
With this function, can design the cable bundle and the first cut, but the designer does not need to start
with the estimates.

1.4 System structure

You can use the program to RAM Concept model any combination of the following:

of the system in a way

the two systems in the

beams

Soap

the beam "wide-flat" (behavior similar to the version)

popular cable bundles (ram)

the chess box (cable system in two batches)

version (the nail plate)

the interstices

There may be other steps and changes in the thickness and height for this item.

Concept Program activities are not effective, or you can not use directly on:

deep beams by means of radio systems

The text I

the slope

concrete sections or gaps inside the box
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In most cases, you can create models with many steep steps. We do not
recommend you do this to assess behavior following stress, because this is especially
inappropriate.

1.5 Manipulation skills program RAM Concept

Process Design Concept by RAM program can be considered consists of 5 stages:

Identify concrete formwork (**)

Draw weight (*)

Identify design range (*****)

Identify the cable bundle (if used) (***)

Interpretation of results (****)

The classification (**) shows the relative difficulty or relative time in each stage.

Do not use the program concept to final design without sufficient basis in the design of concrete, or
not enough understanding and knowledge about the program.

This tutorial contains a large amount of information. Therefore, you should read it all, but will
probably not practical. We ask you to follow the instructions and read the important chapters.

1.5.1 Guide

We suggest that you start with the following instructions:

Chapter 39, "Guidelines for simple reinforced concrete panels".

One of the following PT Program Guide: 40,41,42 or 43.

Note: Although you do not have access to the PT function, but you should follow one of these
guidelines as a thicker concrete slabs.
For the (user nail plate): Chapter 44, "Guidelines for the base system". The guide introduces
you to a "philosophy" of the program. You will quickly get
some experience creating basic models and tools used. However, no
be described thoroughly, thoroughly exhaustive, so you should refer to the actual tools described in the
appropriate chapter for more information. This is really useful for you in the real project.

You should be done under the guidance of version 2. In the program folder files available complete
guide, so you do not have to start from scratch. For example, you can open the ACI 318-02 Guide PT,
remove strip design, and start typing the strip design.

1.5.2 The important chapter

We think you should at least read the next chapter, along with the tips in this chapter before beginning
the first design.

Chapter 1, "Introduction".
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Chapter 2, "Working Area".

Chapter 3, "Knowledge of the layers".

Chapter 4, "Using the plan view and perspective"

Chapter 5, "Drawing and Editing objects"

Note: Programs 5presented snap. Almost all problems are caused by the nets are not used to comply
with snap function.

Chapter 16, "Defining Structure"

Chapter 21, "Determination of Design Bands".

Chapter 36, "The general advice"

Chapter 37, "Frequently Asked Questions"

Chapter 38, "Errors and Warnings"

Chapter 56, "is expected deflection".

Note: Not all results are considered deflections and creep fracture. Another important thing that you
must understand what the results are and what the results are not.

The chapter on the relevant rules. See the following: "Understanding the rules of construction".

1.5.3 Knowledge of building codes

RAM Concept program does not replace the rules. The program made a few, but not all, of the rules.
Using this program does not mean that you have knowledge of building codes.

You should see the chapter on the relevant rules:

Chapter 52, "ACI 318-05 Design"

Chapter 53, "Designing AS 3600-2001"

Chapter 54, "Designing BS 8110: 1997"Or

Chapter 55, "Designing IS 456: 2000 / IS 1343: 1980"

This chapter presents the following issues specific to the rule:

load default

the default load combination

reduce work load

assumptions about the behavior of important

selection rules
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implementation rules

Specifically, you should look at the rules being used and how we interpret and implement these rules
look like.

These rules are not considered

Specifically, the program does not consider
Concept:

ACI 318-99, ACI 318-02, ACI 318-05: Rule 13.5.3

AS3600-2001 Rules 9.1.2 (detailing the torque bar to 25% negative) and 9.1.3

BS8110: 1997 Code 3.7.3.1

1.6 New Features in Version 3

RAM Concept Program 3.0 has many new features. It also includes many performance characteristics
Other with the previous version.

We recommend that, before using Concept 3.0 program, you should consider part of the
new features below.

It is important before using the program with a file Concept 3.0 old (before version 3.0), you should
consider the upgrade old files.

1.6.1 The new features new
reinforced Layer
Reinforced Layer allows you to add (or replace) the reinforcement due to design programs by drawing
the actual group stick to the plan view with the different tools.

You can also edit the group of programs designed by, and the structural analysis taking into
consideration the changes you.

Layer reinforcement also facilitate the creation of reinforcement drawings production
quality.

See Chapter 24, "Drawing rebar" and Chapter 49, "The Note on Reinforcement" for more detailed
information about the reinforcement layer.

Details
rhythm

In this new version, more detailed rules to be reinforced in the present pace than in the previous version.
These can also create detailed rules on the use of rhythm.

Deployment length calculations (section anchored)

Concept Program is considering deployment length (the anchor) reinforced by both the program design
and the user-reinforced design.

The group combined load
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Load combination "group" encapsulated by a large number of load combinations, each combined with
a different payload inside.

For example, for model 3 due to wind loads (Wa, Wb and Wc), a group of load combination 1.2 D +
1.6 L + 1 W is equivalent to the envelope of the load combination "are" after here:

1.2 D + 1.6 L + 1 Wa
1.2 D + 1.6 L + 1 Wb
1.2 D + 1.6 L + 1
WC

The group combined load is particularly useful when a large number of the load.

The range boundary (including load bearing capacity of the
soil)

Concept program implementation covering the ranges. This is most useful for the range of deflection
and load-bearing capacity of the soil. For example, in the model of the nail (nail plate), is a set of design
rules, including the planned load of soil, presenting the maximum pressure load and minimum land for
all the load combination used.

ACI 318-05

Concept existing program rules.

Design Wood Armer

The Concept is a look at the torque (MXY) design (optional).

Improved 3D Graphics

The perspective of Concept program presented in more detail (including reinforced and SSR) and
includes all the new options, such as transparency.

Speed improved 2D graphics

The plan view of Concept program immediately displayed as zoom, pan and change text ratio.

The side features new

Load function improved DWG files.

Tools perimeter line load

Improved integrated structural system RAM minimum

Performance improved calculation

No conventional color

Development of the "Frequently Asked Questions"

1.6.2 Upgrading the old files

Most of the improvements in the Concept version 3.0 is fully compatible with 2.x files Concept
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The proposal for the old files

We do not recommend you to upgrade your old files containing the model was fully designed
or close reach to the final design.

We recommend that you upgrade the file containing the incomplete design.

1.7 Technical Support

Bentley Systems always wish you the maximum benefit when buying RAM Concept program. If you
have any questions that are not answered in this guide, please contact us.

Customer support, please contact: North,
Central and South America
RAM International
Bentley Solutions Center 2744
Loker Avenue Carlsbad We toist,
CA 92008
USA
Tel: 1-800-726-7789
Fax: 1-760-431-5214
email: support@bentley.com

Europe

RAM International (Europe) Limited
Bentley Solutions Center
4 Woodside Place,
Glasgow, G3 7QF
UK
Tel: +44 (0) 141 353 5168
Fax: +44 (0) 141 353 5112
email: support@bentley.com

India

Bentley Systems India Private Limited 3rd
Floor, Tower A, DLF IT Park,
No. 8 Major Arterial Road,
Rajarhat, Kolkata - 700 156
Tel: +91 33 4006 2021
Fax: +91 33 4006 2027
email: support@bentley.com

Australia, Asia, Middle East

Bentley Systems,
Adelaide, Australia
Tel: +61 (8) 8362 9013
Fax: +61 (8) 8362 8519
email: support@bentley.com
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2 Workspace

This chapter presents the basic orientation for RAM Concept interface.

2.1 About the work

When you create a new file, RAM Concept will create the layer, the plan view and perspective
designed to get you started. When you open the window in your workspace, RAM Concept will
activate the relevant toolbar.

Workspace with an open plan view:






















Figure 2-1 A. Standard Toolbar for general operations. B. Bar menu includes a menu of the program.
Includes menu File, Edit, Criteria, Layers, the CUS, Process, Report, View, Window, and Help. C. The
impact tool to manipulate the current projection. D. Toolbar snap to set the coordinates for the
projection step is working flat. E. The common tools for editing plan view window is active. F. The
tools for editing separate layer plan view window is active. G. Contents of the report window to
observe, open, and rearrange the report. H. Active window. I. The status bar gives information of the
state program. J. Command line (command prompt) display instructions and tools related to the
current position of the cursor in the projection plane coordinates.

2.2 Creating and
opening files

When RAM Concept startup programs, you can create a new file or open an existing file. You can also
create a new file as a template.

2.2.1 Launch a new file

When creating a new file, you must define your model in the New File dialog box, click the Choose
File> New. Specify the type, code and unit use. You can copy files or template Concept is available by
clicking on the Copy File New File dialog box.

Launch a new file:

1 Run the program RAM Concept and Choose File> New.
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2 Specify options in the New File dialog box and then click OK.

Launch a new file from a template:

1 Run the program RAM Concept, and Select File> New. 2 Click
the Copy File New File dialog box.
3 Select the file or template that you want to copy.

2.2.2 Open a file available

Use File> Open to open the file available RAM Concept. For quick access, Concept always track ten
most recent files you opened and listed them at the end of the File menu.

The file was opened:

1 Choose File> Open.

2 Select the file you want to open RAM Concept.

Note: See the "Upgrading old files" on page 4 To learn more about how to use the files from an old
record.

2.3 Save the file

Regularly back up files. When saving, make sure that the file is stored in your computer even in case
of power failure or system failures.

Save and name the file for the first time:

1 Choose File> Save As (because the file is not saved, so you can also select File> Save). 2
Select the folder that you want to save the file.
3 Enter the file name and click Save. Concept will add the file name extension. CPT otherwise.

Save the file was opened:

1 Choose File> Save (if you have not saved the file, and the Save As dialog box appears, follow the
steps to save the first time).

Save the template file:

1 Choose File> Save Template.

2 Click Continue in the warning box.

3 Enter a name for the template and click Save. Concept will add the file name extension. Cpttmp (if
any) and save the file without the object.

2.3.1 Save the file copied to the new name or location
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Use the Save As command to copy the file and change the file name or location. Original and copy
files completely separate and any actions performed on a file will not affect the remaining files.

2.3.2 Back backup

For version management, Concept program creates a copy of the last saved when you save the file so
you can go back to a previous version if necessary. Concept creation program files with the file name
extension. Cpt.bak1.

If you need to return to an older version of a file, use the backup copy of the program concept.

2.3.3 Restoring a file is saved automatically

For safety, Concept program will automatically save a copy of the file is working in the same category
as the original file with the file name and extension. Autosave. Just about every 2 minutes, Concept
program autosave file will update if you change the original file. Once you save the file, the program
will delete Concept autosave file for your saved version has been updated. We suggest you save often
to avoid losing data.

If the incident occurs computer malfunction or power failure while using program concept, when you
restart the program concept, the program detects the latest autosave file and automatically open the file.
If you open a second copy of a concept while running, the second copy can be detected by the autosave
file and open it first. In this case, just close the autosave file and continue working.

2.4 Template

A template file contains all the things that an ordinary file (such as setting parameters, the projection
plane, etc.) but no objects. You can create a template from RAM Concept any file by selecting File>
Save Template. Concept will backup your files without any object with the file name and extension.
Cpttmp. For more information on how to save a template, see "Save the file as a template". Copy the
existing template file by selecting File> New and click on the Copy File to create a new file based on a
template. For more information on how to start a new file from the template, see "Start a new file".

2.5 Button extensions

Several tools icon button has a small triangle in the bottom right corner (). This symbol indicates that
this button also other similar tools. Left-click on the button a second tool, a menu appears. Select
Tools from the menu. The tool choned Becomes the new tool for that button.

Expand tool button pop-up function:
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Figure 2-2 Left-click the Selection tool in a second pop-up menu appears.

2.6 Rearranging toolbar

You can move the toolbar in the program RAM Concept for easy manipulation of your work. To move
the toolbar, click on the toolbar handle and drag the toolbar to the new location. Handle of the toolbar
are two lines on the right side of the toolbar at the top edge of the horizontal or the vertical toolbar. The
edit toolbar to the edge of the extensive application window or can float in the workspace.

2.7 Use the right mouse
button

RAM Concept Program presents the commands available from the menus and toolbars in a pop-up
menu in the context appears particularly when you click the right mouse button. The contents of the
menu vary depending on the location you click, window activity, and whether or not the current
selection.

2.8 Reverse changes

The program has multiple levels of undo RAM Concept to modify or reverse the errors of your actions.
Concept limit the amount of memory used to record undo information. Therefore, Concept program can
undo many small operations (delete 10 objects) rather than large operations (delete object 1000).
Choose Edit> Undo to reverse the last action. To perform a reverse order was, Choose Edit> Redo.

Note: Undo command can not reverse the Generate Mesh and Calc All command. Any changes you
make will be confirmed once you do one of these activities.
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3 Knowledge of layer

In the program RAM Concept, objects (such as walls, columns, hand written, the dome base, the load,
the cable bundle, strip design, etc.) to create a structural model. Due to the number of objects involved
in the structural model, should Concept uses layers to organize objects.

A layer is a collection of related objects and each object in the Concept program in one and only one
layer. You can handle all objects on a layer as a group or individually.

3.1 How to create an object model with

Due to the form object model structure, so we more than a combination of points and lines. Each
object is an entity with characteristics. For example, the characteristics of the object column including
concrete mix, height, width, depth, and much more.

When drawing objects on the projection plane, RAM Concept program will automatically create
objects when you create the finite element mesh and run the analysis calculations. If you object wall,
column, and layer on the surface Mesh Input, Concept will make the wall object element, column
elements, and the corresponding element in the Element layer when you create the finite element mesh
.

If you want to create or edit objects on a layer, use the flat projection on that layer. When you draw the
column on the Input Mesh layer reference standard, which means you are creating objects on the layer
Mesh Input. These objects will be in the layer and not in the plan view. Can edit them using any flat
projection on Mesh Input layer, rather than the flat projection on any other layer. Each object is an
entity, so you can manipulate objects with individual or other objects on the same layer.

3.2 Manage layer

RAM Concept program automatically perform most management layers. Nearly all the layers that you
need to design structures are available when you activate a new file. Concept added to the appropriate
layer when you create loads, load combinations, and new design rules.

Note: You can create and edit a separate group of subjects lines, dimensions, and notes on each layer.

Drawing Layer
Import

This layer of information is entered into the CAD drawing. Concept program will automatically save
any motifs that are entered on this layer.

Layer Mesh Input

Layer objects are used to determine the geometric structure. Concept program using
objects to create the finite element objects on the layer corresponding Element.

The specific object layer: column, wall, hand copies of copies Clearance, Beams, The pillows, pillow
Road,
The imperial arches, domes Empire Road,
The dome base.

Element Layer

This layer is the finite element object. It is possible to create these objects from the information-based
Concept Mesh Input layer, or can be created manually.
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The specific object layer: column element, wall element, the element, The pillows, pillow Street, The
Empire
arches, domes Empire Road, The
dome base.

The load layer (Static load balancing, static Superman, Temporary Construction (stress at
work), static load, load another activity (can be reduced), Work load (can not be reduced),
Works load (cumulative), Live Load (Tran) and user-defined)

The information layer is used to determine the load on the structure. In Concept program, the load is a
load acting as a group, such as work load. The layer can also load the load analysis results.

The Concept is the layer static load, balancing, and redundancy default and you can not delete them.

You can define an unlimited number of loads and Concept program will create a layer corresponding to
each load.

The specific object layer: point load, line load, surface load.

Note: You can not adjust the load on the Layer object static load, balance, and supercomputing.

Layer Pattern

This layer forms the texture load. The object
layer specific: the payload format. Design Strip
Layer
This layer is the strip design, the design and the test for structural breach.

The layer-specific object: The component range, rhythm Border, Border strips, parts design, puncture
test.

The tendon layer (Latitude and
Longitude)

The composition of this layer tendons stretch and stand behind the structure. Despite two-layer cable
bundle, Latitude and Longitude, but do not require the use of both layers. You can draw on the layer
cable bundle cable bundle in any way you want.

The object layer specific: scorpions holder.

The load combination layer (Fully Static, Static and balance, initial activity, activity, activity
continuously, factored, LT did not crack deflection and defined by the user)

The resulting layer has the load combination analysis.

Note: The load combination is listed for ACI318. AS3600 and BS8110 use different terminology.

The layer design rules (minimum Code, User minimum, initial activity, activity, activity
continuously, Endurance, Flexibility)

The analysis of this layer design rules and design results.
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Note: Design rule for listed are ACI318, AS3600 and BS8110 use different terminology.

Layer design mode

This layer includes a summary of the design results. The program will automatically Concept
summary information when you run the Calc All. You can not create, edit, or delete objects in this
layer, but you can show them.

3.2.1 Identify planar projection of the object

Some icon near the name of a layer in the layer window content dots on "sheet". This indicates that
there is at least one object in that layer. In other words, the dot means there exists at least one object in
the layer. This is different than any tangible object on a projection of the plane of the layers, which
may or may not be part of that layer.

Note: There may be a lag time (like 10 seconds) after the first item on the drawing
layer.

Note: This feature was added to the layer to search for the files to see if they support any items which
do not.

Note: The dots do not appear on the load combination layer because this layer does not have to be
drawn in that category. This does not mean that using a combination of design loads.





Figure 3-1 shows that the layer icon is the object on the layer below: Input Mesh, Element, static load
and load activities (can not be reduced)
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4 Use the plan view and perspective

The plan view window is used to create, view, and edit objects in two dimensions in the perspective
windows can see objects in three dimensions.

4.1 Use the plan view

Ground plane is considered models and geometric results. You can view any object on any flat
projection. You can only create and edit an object on a flat projection of the layer of the object. For
example, static load can be adjusted on a plan view of the other Layer Static Load.

The object is drawn and edited using the tools in the Layer-Specific toolbars, and menu tools. The tools
are available depending on the plan view is active window in the workspace. Once you draw objects on
a flat projection, the objects that belong to that layer of flat projection.

Note: For more information about how to draw and edit objects, see the following
chapters.

4.2 Create new flat projection

Create a new plan view when you need more flat projection with projection even
regul
ation
s.

Create a new plan view:

1 Choose Layers> New
Plan.

2 Enter a name for the plan view. (Concept will automatically create and attach layer name
from "Plan" to). 3 Select the layer that you want to plan view and click OK.
4.3 Watch
perspectives

The perspective in the form of three-dimensional modeling view. You can view the model from any
angle by rotating the perspective that the axes x, y, and z. Model can be viewed as parallel projection or
perspective views can create the model and the block structure or structural wiring.

4.3.1 Arrange slides

You can be the model in parallel projection or perspective views. In parallel projection, parallel lines in
the original model and the parallel drawn in three-dimensional images. In perspective projection,
nearby objects appear larger than distant objects with the same size. The change between the parallel
projection ( ) And perspective projection ( ) Controls the direction in which the image is
shown. One, and only one, of these changes are to be installed.

4.3.2 Choose a model

The change between the wire frame model ( ) And block model ( ) Controls how the image is
shown. Wireframe only the edges of the object is visible in the present block model of the object
surface visible. Block model more realistic, but the picture frame
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often more useful by wire can allow you to see through the model. One, and only one, of these changes
are to be installed.

4.3.3 Rotate the
model

Use around the x-axis and y ( ) And tool around the z axis ( ) Model to rotate around the axis x,
y and z of the screen.

Rotate the
model:

1 Choose tools revolve around the axis x and y ( ) Or tool around the z axis ( ).

2 Click once in the perspective window to start and move the cursor until you identify the location of
the desired pattern.

3 Click on the perspective to see again.

4.4 Creating a new
perspective

Creating a new perspective when you need more perspective to the default perspective.

Create a new
perspective:

1 Choose Layers> New
Perspective.

2 Enter a name for perspective. (RAM Concept will automatically create and attach layer
name from "Perspective"). 3 Select the layer that you want to plan view and click OK.
4.5 Controls the display

You can manipulate the windows and perspective projection to display the browser view or information
that you want. Graft function and smooth zoom allows you to change the model you are viewing. RAM
Concept usually automatically reconstruct the display. However, occasionally need to use Redraw
command ( ) To update the image on the screen.

The plan view and the perspective presented display model only. Control the types of objects and can
see colors, fonts, and line types for each plan view and perspective.

4.5.1 Zoom function to amplify or shrink

Use the zoom function to amplify or miniature projection display flat or perspective. If the mouse
wheel button, rolling wheel to zoom in and zoom at cursor position. Zoom ( ) And Zoom
Rectangle ( ) Amplifier display. Zoom ( ) Thumbnail displayed. You can set the display to
surround the entire model using the Zoom Extent ( ). To go back to previous zoom ratio, using the
Zoom Previous ( ).

Amplification or miniature display with wheel mouse
button:

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1 Set cursor position on the plan view window is active or perspective. There is a focus point
amplifier.

2 Roll the mouse button wheel away from you to zoom in, and towards you to shrink.
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Amplification of a specific range of display:

1 Select the Zoom Rectangle tool ( ).

2 Surrounding the extent that you want to
amplify.

4.5.2 Pairing smooth to reposition
position

Pairing allows you to smooth the position shown in the plan view or perspective window. If your
mouse has a wheel button, pressing down on the wheel and show smooth transplantation. You can also
use the Pan tool ( ) To move the display. In addition, the plan view with the scroll bar at the
bottom and right side window you can use to locate the position display.

Positioning the display position with the wheel
mouse button:

1 Press the wheel mouse button down on the plan view window is active or perspective. 2 Pair
smooth display into position and release the wheel button.
Locate the position shown with the
tool:

1 Select the Pan tool ( ).

2 Click once on the ground plane to start polishing compound, click again when the show was at the
desired location.

4.5.3 Reconstru
ct

Reinvent display are essential when the projector is currently disabled. When you create grid analysis
model or change the settings, open the window can be updated. In most cases, RAM Concept program
will automatically recreate for you. If the display is not updated, click Redraw ( ) To reconstruct the
display window is active.

4.5.4 Set tangible objects

Using Visible Objects dialog box to set the type of object can be seen in a plan view or perspective.
The plan view and perspective can display objects from any layer, but you can only edit objects on a
flat projection of the object layer.

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Figure 4-1 Visible Objects dialog (Input Mesh Tab)

Show or mark objects on a flat projection or perspective:

1 Create a plan view or perspective of the active window. 2 Choose
View> Visible Objects ( ).
3 Click on the tab for that object's layer.

Layers of flat projection or perspective is the first choice.

4 Check the box to display the objects and do not check to mark the object, then click OK.

Note: You can also right-click popup menu to see include Visible Objects command.

4.5.5 Change colors, fonts, and linear

Each plan view and perspective are a form of scheme of color combinations, fonts, and line types are
used for the objects shown. When a plan view or perspective is the active window, you can select and
edit the schema it uses a form of Appearance dialog. If you change the schema declaration form, then
it will affect all plan view and perspective using that scheme. You can create multiple schemas form
that you need to customize the appearance of the plan view and perspective. When you create a plan
view or perspective new window will use the default schema first.







Figure 4-2 Appearance dialog

Setting form schemas for flat projection or perspective: 1 Create a
plan view or perspective of the active window. 2 Choose View>
Appearance ( ).
3 Select a schema from the Schema list on the left and Appearance dialog box, click OK.
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Note: You can also right-click to see the popup menu includes commands Appearance.

Create new schema:

1 Choose View> Appearance (
).

2 Click New under the list of schemas in the Appearance dialog.

3 Enter a name for the new schema and select the schema base. The set of base schema will launch
strategy
new
map.

Delete schema form:

1 Choose View> Appearance (
).

2 Select the schema you want to delete from the list of schemas in the Appearance
dialog. 3 Click Delete below the list of schemas to delete schemas are highlighted.
Set new default schema:

1 Choose View> Appearance (
).

2 Select the schema you want to create a new default schema from the Schema list in the Appearance
dialog.

3 Click Set As Default under the list of schemas to generate schemas are highlighted in the new
default schema. RAM Concept Program will use this scheme to launch the plan view and a new
perspective is created.

You can choose the color of each object is drawn for each form schemas. You can also set the
background, grid and highlight color. If the object type is not selected color ( ), RAM Concept will
use the settings for the color of the object layer. For example, you can set the color of objects that do
not bundle cable color, and then set the layer cable bundle Latitude is red and tendons Layer
Longitude is blue. RAM Concept will be well-used color (foreground color) in the event that you do
not choose the color for the color of the object or the default layer.

Change the color scheme in the form of:

1 Choose View> Appearance (
).

2 Choose schemas form (if the plan view or perspective is the active window, the Summary
map has been selected for that
window).

3 Select a category from the drop-down list (the drop-down list) (if color change paint, then skip this
step).

4 Click on the color box and select a color for items.

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The straight draw objects can choose the solid line, dashed or dotted line. The calibration curve is linear
features and line width parameters independent set of schemas form.

4.5.6 Change text size
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You can change the font size in two ways. In the schema form, you can select font size for all text
outside the text note. The font button, you can temporarily change the font size.

Temporary Change font
size:

Enlarge 1 Click Fonts ( ) Or Shrink Fonts ( ).

Note: Changing the text size only temporarily affect the active window and program RAM Concept
will cancel changes when closing the window.

4.5.7 Change fonts rate

You can choose the rate to change font or font size unchanged when you zoom in and zoom out on a
flat projection.

Set fonts rate:

1 Choose View> Appearance (
).

2 Choose schemas form (if the plan view or perspective is the active window, the Summary
map has been selected for that
window).

3 Enter the rate of fonts and click
OK.

Note: Percentage of zero fonts make the font size remains fixed despite flat rate projection is. The
value other than zero will increase the rate of decrease font size equivalent to when you zoom in and
zoom out.

4.6 Setting up the grid

Maybe set up a grid to help you draw objects precisely by the point snap (snap points) at defined
distances. Plan Grid Setup dialog box allows you to create a grid is visible and change the spacing,
origin, and the angle of the grid. You can instantly change the grid settings for flat projection window is
active or all of the plan view window.





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Figure 4-3 Grid Setup dialog Plan

Create a visible grid for projection TVs:

1 Create the plan view window is active. 2 Choose
View> Grid.
3 Check the Show Grid and click OK.

Note: If you want the grid to be visible on all plan view, the mark for all Plans Set.

Note: You can also right-click popup menu to see including the.

Changing the grid settings for the plan view:

1 Create the plan view window is active. 2 Choose
View> Grid.
3 Enter values in the Grid Setup dialog box and click OK Plan.

Note: If you want to apply these settings to all grid plan view window, then check the Set for all Plans.
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5 Drawing and Editing
Object

Draw objects is an important part of using RAM Concept. There are many tools available to help for
this job is no longer a complex issue can not.

To create or edit objects on a layer, use the flat projection on that layer. You draw and edit objects on
the projection plane using tools from the toolbar-Specific layer.

5.1 Draw accurately with snap

RAM Concept with tools and paint settings to help you work correctly. The tool allows you to snap to
snap the cursor to the correct place on objects or locations on the screen.

Use the snap is the quickest way to determine the exact location on an object without drawing the
horizontal lines or vertical (construction of the line is called) or do not know the exact coordinates .
Whenever you move the cursor over the object, RAM Concept, the program will identify the point
snap on snap to the running. To open the snap feature, click on this button and click the button again to
turn off the snap feature.

Getting stuck on the road ( ) Snap into the road of any two lines which include polygon vertices.

Getting stick to the point ( ) To snap to any given point as the middle column, the end of the line,
or the top of a polygon.

Snap to end point ( ) To snap to the end of the line (including the vertices of polygons).

Getting stuck in the middle point ( ) The snap to the midpoint of the line.

Can snap to snap the nearest ( ) The snap on the object to be painted at least close cursor.

Getting stuck orthogonal ( ) The snap orthogonal axes x or y direction of the local grid. Not
necessarily parallel to the global x and y axes.

Getting stuck in perpendicular ( ) The perpendicular snap since the last click to a
straight line.

Getting stuck at heart ( ) Snap the center of the polygon and
column.

Snap to grid () to snap to the grid.

Getting stuck wide open () does not create snap mode, but can affect the behavior of a few
parameters set another snap.

Generally, the parameters set snap expansion makes the other snap calculations behave as if the line is
extended to show the infinite straight line. The change snap settings are specific:
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Roads: the road between the infinite straight line (as determined by the Joint
straight line can be seen) is the point can snap.

Scores: no effect.

Last point: no effect.

Scores between: not affect.

Last: the endless line side (as determined by the section line can be seen) that can snap.

Orthogonal: no effect.

Perpendicular lines: perpendicular point on the infinite line (as determined by the section line
can be seen) that can snap.

Focus: no effect.

Net framework: no effect.

5.2 Draw objects

To draw objects on the projection plane, we select the first drawing tool by clicking on it and selecting
tools from the Tools menu. The selected tool is a drawing tool for plan view active until you select a
new tool. Follow the command line (Mark phaynd prompt) to the point to enter (see Figure 2-1 inPage
5). For example, the ground plane layer Input Mesh open, and select Column tools, command line
(Mark phaynd prompt) will read "Enter the center column:".

If you're drawing with tools and want to get rid of what you drew, click the right mouse button, or
press the Esc key.

If you need to reposition the location or amplifier shown in the drawing and do not want to get out of
the work you are doing, use the mouse button or wheel to zoom snap. See "Control display "on page
12 for more information on how to use the mouse wheel button.

5.3 Enter the coordinates
of

Each point on the projection plane is a position presented by the coordinates. Many tools require you
to locate one or more points on a flat projection. With the tool selected, you can enter by clicking on
the location in plan view, enter the coordinates in the command line, enter the relative coordinates in
the command line, or using the snap.

Enter the
coordinates:

1 With the appropriate tool selected, enter the coordinates x and y are separated by commas (eg 10,
5).

5.4 Using relative coordinates

The relative coordinates to locate a point on a flat projection reference point by which to enter the
latest. The move and copy objects a set distance is very useful.
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Enter the relative
coordinates:

1 With the appropriate tool selected, enter the letter "r" followed by the x and y coordinates are
separated by commas (eg r10, 5).

5.5 Choose objects

Before you can edit objects on a flat projection, you must select them. Using the Selection Tool ( )
Or Utility tool ( ) To select objects on a flat projection. Choose tangible objects surrounded by
the range in which objects. For example, if you have a gap (on the Mesh Input layer) in the middle
of, surrounded gaps and gaps both because of the rectangle and will run throughout the surrounding
surface gaps. If you just want to pick the gaps, double-click the gap. You can select any object by
double-clicking on the object. To add objects to the currently selected object, hold down the Shift
key while selecting.

Select the object or group of objects:

1 Choose the Selection tool ( ) Or Utility tool ( ).

2 Click in the opposite corner of the rectangle. Choose objects and run smoothly within the scope of a
rectangular selection. (Press and hold the Shift key while clicking the first to add objects to the current
selection.)

Just select an object:

1 Choose the Selection tool ( ) Or Utility tool ( ).

2 Double-click the object you want to select (Press and hold the Shift key when you click to add
objects to the current selection). When selected, the program RAM Concept will be interpreted in a
very small rectangle when the mouse double-click.

5.6 Uncheck objects

You can deselect objects from the current selection by pressing Shift while you select the objects to
deselect.

Uncheck the object or group of objects:

1 Choose the Selection tool ( ) Or Utility tool ( ).

2 Press and hold the Shift key when you surround the object you want to select. Uncheck the selected
object has been running smoothly and within the scope of the rectangle, and select any object within the
rectangle that has not been selected.

To deselect an object:

1 Choose the Selection tool ( ) Or Utility tool ( ).

2 Press and hold the Shift key when you double-click the object you want to select. When unchecked,
the program RAM Concept will be interpreted in a very small rectangle when the mouse double-click.

5.7 Cut, copy, and paste objects
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To cut or copy objects, first select the object, then select the appropriate command from the Edit
menu. RAM Concept will put the object that you cut or copied to the Windows clipboard. The position
coordinates of the object is pasted from the clipboard similar position coordinates from where you
copy or cut them. RAM Concept program to paste the object into the current selection, so you can
reposition their position after pasting.

Cut objects:

1 Select the object or group of objects that you want to cut.

2 Choose Edit> Cut (or right click and select Cut from the popup menu).

Copying objects:

1 Select the object or group of objects that you want to copy.

2 Choose Edit> Copy (or right click and select Copy from the popup menu).

Paste objects from clipboard:

1 Choose Edit> Past (or right click and select from the popup menu Past).

You can also copy and move, rotate, or stretch the image to create symmetrical objects in one step by
pressing the Shift key while you use the Move tool ( ), Stretch ( ), Rotate (
) Or Mirror ( ). See "Move, rotate, stretch, and symmetric imaging objects" for more
information.

5.8 Move, rotate, stretch, and symmetric imaging objects

To select an object or group of objects before using the move tool ( ), Stretch (
), Rotate ( ) Or Mirror ( ) (See "Selecting objects"). If you hold down the Shift key while
clicking the first move, rotate, or imaging symmetry operations will be performed on a copy of the
options is to choose it.

Moving options:

1 Select the object or group of objects to move. 2 Select
the Move tool ( ).
3 Enter from which to move (hold down the Shift key when you click to move the stars for
select
ed).

4 Click on the point where you want the object or group of objects to move.

Stretch options:

1 Select the object or group of objects stretch. 2
Choose Tools Stretch ( ).
3 Getting stick to the point you want to stretch the selection (limited to the control of motor
morni
ng).
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4 Click on the point where you want the object or group of objects to stretch.

Rotation
options:

1 Select the object or group of objects to rotate. 2
Select the Rotate tool ( ).
3 Enter the center rotation (hold the Shift key when you click to rotate the selected copy).

4 Enter the start angle or rotation to the rotation.

5 Click on the end of the rotation or enter new last corner.

Create symmetrical image
options:

1 Select the object or group of objects to create symmetrical
images. 2 Choose Tools Mirror ( ).
3 Enter two points to create straight lines that cross each image you want to create symmetry for (the)
object
selected. (Press and hold the Shift key when you click to create symmetrical images selected
for the copy.)

5.9 Use the Utility to move and stretch

Utility Tool ( ) Is a versatile tool that is used to select, move, and stretch objects. See "Select
objects" for more information on how to select objects with Utility tool. When you select an object or
group of objects, you can move or stretch the holder (grip point) to the point by snap on choice.

Move the object by one of its grip:

1 Select Utility tool ( ).

2 Select an object or group of objects.

3 Getting stuck in the holder and position the cursor in the upper half of the range snap until you see the
cursor appear to move cross ( ) Then click. (Press and hold the Shift key when you click to move
the selected copy.)

4 Click on the point where you want the object or group of objects to move.

Stretch one of the objects in its grip:

1 Select Utility tool ( ).

2 Select an object or group of objects.

3 Getting involved in the handling and cursor position in the bottom half of the range until it snaps
cursor appear stretched ( ) Then click.

4 Click on the point where you want the object or group of objects to be stretched.

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5.10 Actions entire model
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The Model Move tool (), Mirror Model ( ), And Rotate Model ( ) Have features similar
activities Move tool (), Mirror ( ), And Rotate ( ), Except that they affect the entire model (all
layers). You can also determine the rate of the entire model using the tool Scale Model ( ).

Move the whole model:

Model 1 Select the Move tool ( ).
2 Enter a starting point.
3 Enter the move.

Rotate the entire
model:

1 Select the Rotate Tool Model ( ).

2 Enter the center rotation (hold the Shift key when you click to rotate replica model). 3
Enter the starting angle or rotation to the rotation.
4 Click on the end of the rotation or enter new CYA last corner.

Create entire image symmetry
model:

1 Select the Mirror tool Model ( ).

2 Enter two points make a straight line crossing the image you want to create symmetric models (hold
the Shift key when you click to make image copies symmetric model).

Determine the percentage of the
entire model:

1 Choose Tools Scale Model ( ).
2 Enter the heart rate.
3 Scale Model dialog box, enter the factor proportion and click OK.

5.11 Edit object characteristics

The characteristics of an object defined by its characteristics. For example, the characteristics of objects
including line width and line type line. The characteristics of the object can be edited together as a
group. Specifically, can always edit objects of the same type together, and you can usually modify other
objects of the same kind of different but similar characteristics together. For example, you can adjust
the characteristics of concrete mixtures and the height of the column and wall objects together.

Change the characteristics of an object or group of objects:

1 Select the object or group of objects.

2 Choose Edit> Selection Properties, or right click and select Properties Selection. 3
Specify the property value in the Properties dialog box and click OK.
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5.12 Set the default characteristics

The set of default features drawing tools are very useful objects to the use of tools, drawing objects
will have the desired characteristics. This is a very valuable feature when multiple objects with the
same characteristics.

Set the default characteristics for objects Drawing tools:

1 Double-click the drawing tool or the tool selected, choose Tools> Current Tool Properties. 2
Specify the default value of properties in the Properties dialog box and click OK.
Now, when you use the tool, it will draw the object with the default characteristics have been identified
regul
ation
s.

Note: Changing the default characteristics of the object drawing tools do not alter the characteristics
of the objects that have been drawn.

5.13 Add the calibration curve, the size, and the note text

Line Tool ( ), Dimension ( ), And Text ( ) Are used to add information to the plan view.
The object is not part of the structural model and RAM Concept program does not consider them
when creating or grid computing results. As with all objects, line objects, and text size of the layer in
which they are drawn.

Draw a straight
line:

1 Select the Line tool ( ).

2 Click on the start line (or enter the coordinates in the command line). 3
Click at the end of the line (or enter the coordinates in the command line).
Draw a straight line size:
1 Choose Tools Dimension ( ).
2 Click at the beginning.
3 Click at the end.

4 Click at the point where the line size offset will be located.

Draw text:

1 Select the Text tool ().

2 Click at the point (or enter the coordinates in the
command line). 3 Right-click and select Properties
Selection.
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4 Enter the text and its characteristics.
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6 See Objects in text tables

The table shows all the text objects of a particular type on a separate layer. The table displayed as text
can customize every feature of the object. You can access the text table from the Tables list to any
layer.

Open the text:

In Tables 1 lists the types of objects in the layer. 2 Open
the appropriate text from the list.
For example, you can open the document for the Wall Below the Input Mesh layer by choosing
Layers> Mesh Input> Tables> Wall Below.





















Figure 6-1 Input Mesh: Wall Table
Below

6.1 Customize table

You can select the columns and rows can be seen in the table, and column width. You can also sort,
sorting is based on the value of a specific column in ascending or descending order.

6.1.1 Select the row and column
display

Customize columns and rows by clicking the Customize button on the table. In the Customize dialog
box, you can select rows and columns can be seen in the table. Check columns to view and check
mark the column.

Show or column
marks:

1 Click the Customize button on the
table.

2 In the Customize dialog box, display columns, select the check box. To hide columns, select the
check box is not selected.

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3 Click OK.

6.1.2 Resize columns
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You can resize columns by changing the width of the column header.

Adjust the width of the column:

1 Place the cursor on the line between two columns in the table header and left-
click. 2 Drag the table header to the new width and release the left mouse button.
The table will print as displayed on the screen so that your column width settings will appear similar on
paper.

6.1.3 Sorting, classifying

To sort and classify goods according to values in a column, click on the column heading once to sort in
ascending order. Click the column header again to sort and classify according to descending order.
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7 Choose Unit

RAM Concept program allows you to work with three system units: U.S., SI and MKS.

Many designers, the U.S. system of units known as "conventional U.S. unit", and others are called
"unit rule". The SI and MKS metric units, the MKS uses weight rather than volume.

Depending on the system you want to use must comply with the rules, local practices.

The actual selection of the more subjective. For example, after selecting the U.S. system, a designer
can use the unit to load the default scope pounds per minute (feet) square, and others can change
recipes to use on a square feet (1 kip by 453.59 kg).

7.1 Unit

RAM Concept program performs all calculations with the SI system of units. The program will convert
the property values in SI units before calculating equivalent. When finished, the program will convert
the value back to the unit chose to report.

It can combine multiple units (eg, pounds and feet), but should not do so.

7.2 Choose
units

A new file with the default application that you can change at any time.

7.2.1 Select the default unit

Unit depending on how the default file creation. When you use a template or file is available,
The default unit is the unit source.

When you create a file using the New command, you can just select the default unit for ACI 318 (U.S.
or SI). For other rules, the default SI units.

7.2.2 Change units

You can change the system unit or units.

Change units:

1 Choose Criteria>
Unit.

2 Perform one of the following steps:

o Select units by accessing the appropriate drop-down box.

o Choose unit system by clicking on the U.S., SI, MKS or above the window.

Note: Often there is a long list of option units. Scroll drop-down menu to see the options.
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Figure 7-1 Window
Unit

7.3 Specifies the Zero Report

RAM Concept program allows you to filter the results to the choice does not matter as Zero Report. For
example, the column jet components Fr, Fs, Fz, Mr and Ms. Many values, such as Fr and Fs, can be
very small and not so important. The filter value is less flat from the taste makes the results easier to
read.

Note: When using this feature may lead to errors, because when you assume the latter value will be
eliminated exactly zero.

You specify in the window Report as Zero Unit.

Specify Report as Zero:

1 Choose Criteria>
Unit.

2 Enter one or more values as Zero Report.

Note: You can also turn off the value of drawing as Fr and Fs with plot menu. See "Setting up the
draw results "on page 137.
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8 Choose notation
convention

RAM Concept program allows you to choose the sign convention for loads, analysis and feedback.

RAM Concept program using Cartesian coordinate system with the following notation
conventions for the axis:



You can not change the sign of the coordinate axes.

Conventional notation tells you how to enter parameters like RAM Concept program and display the
results happen. For example, conventional symbols of applied load order data entered value is positive
or negative.

It should be noted that the sign change settings without changing the actual value of any data which has
been previously identified. For example, if the load down +10 team is determined when the program
RAM Concept with conventional positive sign down load and then load conventional notation is
changed to positive direction, the load value at This will be reported as -10 kip, but the load will still be
down 10 kip load. Similarly, changing the conventional notation does not affect the true value of the
results.

When you increase the load after changing the conventional notation, you must comply with the new
notation conventions.

8.1 Choose conventional
notation

A new file has a default notation conventions that you can change at any time.

8.1.1 Conventional symbols
default

Conventional symbols depending on how your default file creation. If you use a template or file is
available, the convention will be the default symbol of power.

When you create a file (not from the template), conventionally denoted as
follows:

Positive load



Figure 8-1 From left to right: Fx, Fy, Fz, Mx, My.
Fx The positive x direction (see the four
quadrants). The direction of the positive y Fy (see
quadrants). The negative Fz z direction (see the
four quadrants).
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Mx (torque around the axis X) according to the
rules. My (torque around the y-axis) according to
the rules. Mz (torque around the z axis) according
to the rules.
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Positive Analysis



Figure 8-2 Top row, from left to right: Cutting force element standing, bending element, element axis,
deflection
standing. Bottom row, from left to right: Power cut, twist, side deflection, deflection
angle.

Element vertical shear force on the positive z-cut x and y positive.

Bending stress on the element
underneath.

Element stress axis.

The vertical deflection negative z direction
(downward).

Horizontal shear force in the x-positive cut positive (equivalent to cutting force on the positive x-
positive).

Twisting torque on the positive x-axis x-positive (equivalent to the torque on the y-axis negative-
positive).

Ocean side deflection in the x and y axis
direction.

As a rule deflection angle right around the x and y axes.

The positive
feedback



Figure 8-3 From left to right: Fx, Fy, Fz, coordinate axis, Mx, My,
Mz.

Fx The positive x direction (see the four
quadrants). The direction of the positive y Fy
(see quadrants). The positive Fz z direction
(see the four quadrants).
Mx (torque around the axis X) according to the
rules. My (torque around the y-axis) according to
the rules. Mz (torque around the z axis) according
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to the rules.
Note: The only difference in these parameters between the default and the positive load feedback is
positive Fz. That is because the load usually downward if positive, and the feedback along often
upward if positive.

8.1.2 Changing the sign
convention

You can change the conventional symbols for any load or any results, but each time only one.
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Changing notation
conventions:

1 Choose Criteria>
Signs.

2 Positive change each sign by clicking on the appropriate graphical notation. Direction change.



Figure 8-4 Window signs

8.2 Conventional
drawing symbols

Except for vertical deflection, the line chart showing positive results are plotted on the axes. This
ensures that the chart is not upside down. For the axis parallel to the y axis (and thus no direction "the
backbone"), the line chart for a positive result on the left axis.

Note: The chart lines for positive vertical deflection below the axis.

The perspective is drawn with a positive result on the global z direction (considered positive depends
on the conventions of Value plotted symbols). For example, the perspective of deflection shown
positive upward deflections.

You can not change the sign of the coordinate axes.
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9 Identify the important
characteristics

RAM Concept Program materials used as part of the input data and results. When you specify the
concrete mixture and then strain the system as part of the input data and Concept program will report
the claim as part of enhanced results.

You can use the supplied material or create your own. For example, you may want to re-design with the
durability of concrete floor was poured reality check on the construction site. In this case, you will
create a new concrete mixture is determined with such strength.

You can delete any materials that you find unnecessary.

9.1 View the available
material

Materials window shows the name and characteristics of the concrete mix, the sound system and
enhanced PT.

View materials:

1 Select Criteria> Materials.




































Figure 9-1 Window Materials.

9.2 The important characteristics
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Here is a list of important characteristics:
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9.2.1 Concrete
Mixtures

Name Mixed Use label to identify concrete mixture. Name mixture is not necessarily the
durable concrete. Each columns, walls, and beams are the properties of
concrete mixtures.

The density of the concrete mass density (used to calculate the weight of itself and sometimes the
elastic modulus).

f'ci intensity characteristic cylindrical samples of mixed concrete when prestressing effect (also
known as the initial intensity).

f'c intensity characteristic cylindrical sample of
concrete mixtures.

Note: f'ci and f'c be used for all codes except BS8110.

fcui cube strength characteristics of the concrete mix when prestressing effect (also known as the
initial intensity).

FCU cube strength characteristics of the concrete mix.

Note: fcui and FCU only be used for BS8110.

Negative Poisson's ratio of the rate of deformation across the axial deformation of the axial load
materials. Typically 0.2 to concrete.

Ec Calc method is used to calculate the deformation module (Young's Modulus) (for both initial
strength characteristics and intensity characteristics). It is possible to follow a code of rules are
listed or defined value.

Eci Modulus of deformation used by the user to determine the initial cross-sectional analysis.

Ec of the user module deformed by the user are used to determine the global analysis, section
analysis and design activities intensity.

9.2.2 The PT system

Name Use label system to identify PT system. Often described systems, such as size and fiber
links.

Type Whether or not the system fiber link or links.

Aps area of the fiber cross section. Because usually composed of seven wire strands, so
more complex section DD2 / 4.

Eps deformation of the fiber module at the rate
of 0.

FSE assumed effective stress in the fiber after reduction. Use size to override this assumption.
See "The Size" on page 121 for more information.

FPY elastic stress of the
fiber.

FPU stress limits of the
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fiber.

Width width or diameter pipe tubes reinforced with prestressed adhesion to concrete.
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Maximum number of threads a tube maximum number of fiber reinforced prestressed concrete
can stick with (using 1 strand for prestressed reinforced with concrete does not stick).

Minimum radius minimum radius vertical arrangement allows the cable bundle on the field. You
should consult with a local supplier PT. Non-zero value for the radius test for the PT system.

Stress size / anchor Friction / Friction pendulum / Friction angle / distance off size / long term
loss

Use this feature to reduce friction calculations. They are not affected unless the use of prestressed
reinforced stimulus. See "The size characteristics" on page 121,Chapter 25, "Defining core prestressed
" for more information.

9.2.3 Bracing

Using bar name labels to identify enhanced sound. Typically refers to the diameter of the bar.

As cross-section area of the
bar. Es distortion of sound
module. Fy elastic stress of the
bar.
9.2.4 The SSR system

Names Using SSR label system to identify SSR system (stud type shear reinforcement). Often
described systems, such as the size of the nail.

The area of cross-section area of the nail itself nail is used in the calculations
durability

The area of the nail head nail size, generally about 10 times the surface area compared to the
nails. Concept program parameters used to calculate the diameter of the nail to smooth the gap.

The smallest gap smoothly smallest distance between the nails along the length of the price
help. Design will not be achieved if this value is
too large.

Distance The distance is determined desire to design nails SSR. If the parameter is set to
"none", the program will automatically Concept distance nail designs.

Fy stress of reinforced elastic SSR.

Rounding distance Determine the number of nails in the nail design all are rounded down. For
example, the identification of greater number of larger design had to be the same distance, the
ability to create "groups" designs in different columns.

Number nail at least one bar Determine the number of nails at least Concept design program in
any public bar. This can be useful in some situations. For example, if a column of the small
protrusions that designers do not want to increase SSR, you can increase this number at least
nail designs to avoid the bar on that side.

9.3 Add and delete the
material
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You can add materials to determine the characteristics of the concrete mix, the sound system and
enhanced PT. You can remove the material on the condition that at least one of each type of material.

Additional material:

1 Choose Criteria> Materials.

2 Concrete Mix Click Add or Add PT System, or Add reforcing Bar, or Add SSR System. 3 In
the dialog box that appears, enter a name for the new material and click OK.
There is a new row appears in the bottom right. 4
Enter the property values for each cell in the new row.
Delete the material:
1 Choose Criteria> Materials.

2 Concrete Mix Click Delete, Delete PT System, or reinforcing bar Delete, or Delete SSR System.

A dialog box appears with a list of available materials. 3
Choose the material you want to delete and click OK.
9.4 The tension system after

There are two types of system RAM Concept program.

The system does not stick to the concrete, yarn lubricated sheath inserted in the plastic layer.

The adhesive system for the concrete: bare fiber in the mortar tube.

The seven-wire strands typical coiled together. Generally there are two types of fiber size
used in the construction of the building:

diameter of 0.5 inches (12.7 mm)

diameter of 0.6 inches (15.2 mm)

To know more about the system following stress, see Chapter 25, "Determination of prestressed
reinforced".
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10 Load
Determination

Load a set of points, lines and surface load is applied as a group.

Determine the load characteristics of the load window. Draw the actual load on the load plan view.

You can add loads (eg seismic, snow, earth and wind).

It can remove the load (unless the particular type, as described in section "Payload type"
below).

RAM Concept Program designations can perform load (or ignored) and you determine the coefficient
of the process control in the load window.

10.1 Load default

RAM Concept program loads the default presentation for self-weight, the tensile load following and
load capacity. For a file, the program can add loads Concept default for seismic and wind.

This static load is the weight of the concrete itself. All other static loads are extra.

Load balancing and Tendons anchor tensioned internal impact loads on concrete structures. We
call this combination of load balancing loads for conventional strain designed to balance or offset
after the load acting on the other.

Static loads super super load is static load theory considering the effects of compression on the
rack structure when trying to deform due to the tension after. Many people use the word
"women" instead of "indeterminate". Loads are not necessarily women. Concept program
calculates the impact of ultra-static load for all objects (elements, the dome base, the rack, the
part design, design strips segments and puncture test) as described in section "Download after
significant strain "on page 312.

Temporary construction loads (when the effects of stress) complex this extra load before the
impact of the effects of stress fiber bundles following stretch. Seldom used this kind of load, and
you should not consider it for the reinforced concrete structure.

The static load of the additional static load acting on the structure PT after-effects of stress fiber
bundles following stretch. They are simply additional static load for the reinforced concrete
structure.

Load (Maybe rebate) Work load
(can not rebate) Work load
(cumulative)
Load (ceiling)

The different load combinations. See "Payload type" to learn more.
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North wind load operation due to wind load combination in the north-south direction (only for
default panels).

East wind load operation due to wind load combination in the east-south (only for the default
the plate).

Seismic load limits north complex seismic loads due to the north-south (only for default panels).

Load limits on the east seismic load combination due to earthquake in south-east direction (only
for default panels).

10.2 See loads

Load window lists the different load types as well as the factor pattern.

See loads:

1 Choose Criteria> Loadings.

2 If more loads, scroll down to display all.






Figure 10-1 Window load

10.3 The load characteristics

Load with the following characteristics:

Using load label name to identify the load.

See Load Type "Payload type" for more information.

Analysis type analysis, can be usually in the Super static or SE.

Analysis of redundancy is used only for super static load as described in section "Download The
default key ".

For more information on the SE side, see "Analysis of self-balancing" on page 313,Chapter 46, "The
note analysis".
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Form factor ratio impact loads are positioned in the load pattern when performing load
calculations pattern. See "Load pattern" for more information.

Coefficient of form factor does not affect the load is positioned in the load pattern when
performing load calculations pattern.

Note: Program Concept ignore the factor pattern coefficients if both have the same value. Both
parameters set to 2.0 coefficient similar to setting both parameters to 1.0 coefficient

10.4 Type of load

Each load in RAM Concept programs are a load. Concept of the program used to create the load load
combination from the appropriate load combination is defined, and to reduce the work load
appropriate.

See "Rebuilding the load combinations" on page 35 for more information on how to create the
Concept program load combination.

10.5 The payload types
available

The payload types available
are:

Self weight load of concrete herself textures are created with this kind of load. Always have one
and only one load of this.

Balance As discussed in section "Load default". Always have one and only one load of this.

Super static As shown in the "Load default". Always have one and only one load of this.

static load stress load of this additional load is before the impact of the effects of stress fiber
bundles following stretch.

Seldom used this kind of load and generally not be considered for different load conditions. You do not
need to consider it for the reinforced concrete structure.

Static load this type of fixed static load unless the load from the weight of the body.

Load (Maybe rebate) this kind of work load typical load floor can rebate. See Chapter 48, "notes
down load" for more information on how to down load each rule handle this kind of load.

Load (can not rebate) this kind of work load typical load floor can not rebate (typical payload
assembly - see "Snow load, parking and assembly").

Load (cumulative) load this kind of typical load floor can be reduced when using cumulative
reduction rules in particular. To reduce the work load for all the code, so using this kind of load
on load of parking is appropriate (see section "Snow load, parking and assembly").

Load (ceiling) Load This type ceilings typical load - except snow - maybe rebate. RAM Concept
Program rebate never done this loads (RAM Structural System can reduce the load of this
extract).
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The other load load load of this nature have not been determined. RAM Concept program ever
consider this load unless the load combination is created or edited by hand (or load
combinations created in the previous file). All loads from the Floor version 2.3 and earlier, and
RAM Concept Program version 1.3 and earlier (except static load balancing and redundancy)
are of this type, usually the kind of load changes weight of the load from the previous version of
the program more useful.

Wind load operation of this wind load at the operational level. Assuming wind load operation
N is equivalent to the wind load limit N (if any).

Wind load limit this kind of wind loads in limited supply. Assuming wind load limit N equivalent
wind load operation N (if any).

Seismic activity can load this kind of seismic loads in the operational level. Load Assumptions
seismic activity N equivalent seismic load limit N (if any).

Seismic load limit this kind of seismic loads in limited supply. Assuming seismic load limit equal
to N Load seismic activity N (if any).

Most of the loads are also available in the variants "move". See "Di transfer the load type " for more
information.

Note: All load types except self weight, balance and redundancy can be used for more than one load.

10.5.1 Snow load, assembly and parking

Snow load, parking and deserve special assembly considered
laation

Generally snow load should draw the snow load on the load layer (Can not concessions).

Loads of parking and assembly to the appropriate factor, you should draw the load on the
parking garage layer load (cumulative) load assembly and load layer (not concessions).

See load reduction are listed below for more information on how a particular rule handle this kind of
load:

"ACI318-99 / ASCE-7 / IBC 2003 load factors" on page 355

"ACI318-02 / ASCE-7 / IBC 2003 load factors" on page 371

"AS3600 / AS / NZS 1170.1 load factors" on page 409

"BS 8110 / BS 6399-1 load factors" on page 424

10.5.2 Move the load type

Almost all types of loads presented above are available with variations "move". The variations
described moving loads moving from the level structure considered (by columns or walls). Some loads
are not available with variations movement, or with slightly different variations on the move. That is:

Type Self weight load variations are not moving.
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Balancing mobility variation of this is to load the load generated from the cable bundle on the
structural level review. Unlike the kind of balance does not move: this kind of complex loads
may exist, the load without load generated from the cable bundle, and this kind of load can be
adjusted by the user. This type of load to be considered when calculating the impact of
redundancy.

This type of redundancy load variations not move.

Static load stress load of this type can not be moved variables.

10.6 Change the type of load

You can change any kind of load (except static, static balancing and Ultra) in the load window.

Changes of load:

1 Choose Criteria>
Loadings.

2 Click the name of the load of the
load. Drop-down menu appears.
3 Choose a new load.

10.7 Change Analysis

You can change the analysis of any load (except static, static balancing and Ultra) in the load window.

Change analysis:

1 Choose Criteria>
Loadings.

2 Click on the name of the load
analysis. Drop-down menu
appears.
3 Choose a new
analysis.

10.8 Add and remove load

Sometimes, you may want to add loads such as seismic or snow. Or vice versa, you can remove the
load as temporary construction load (when the effects of stress).

Add loads:

1 Select Criteria> Loadings.
2 Click Add Loading.
3 Enter a name for the new load in the dialog box and click OK Loading
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Add. Load new row appears at the bottom of the table.
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4 Enter the type of load and load analysis for the
new.

5 Enter the form factor and the form factor of the new load.

Delete
payload:

1 Select Criteria> Loadings.
2 Click Delete Loading.
It will show a dialog box with a list of load current. 3 Choose
the weight you want to delete and click OK.
10.9 Load pattern

In building structures, load the sample is usually arranged loads that bypass or reduce the load on the
extraction rate were selected to maximize the torque, shear or feedback. In the analysis of 2D space,
creating an algorithm to identify important patterns is not difficult, but with a 3D program is extremely
difficult, especially for columns and panel layouts are not. For sample processing load, RAM Concept
program uses the concept of load patterns.

Note: load samples while ignoring the
load.

10.9.1 The way the sample load

A sample load creates a sample load (not visible) only was filtered load for each load standard. The
coefficient of the sample and the sample did not control the filtering process.

The inclusion and exclusion in the area of load patterns determine the sample weight. The Concept of
internal load area model with the form factor and the external load area model with no form factor.
Actual sample size depends on the finite element mesh. See Chapter 20, "Creating sample load", To be
explained further.

The area of the sample (dark) for the 6 panels:



















Figure 10-2 Sample loads for maximum positive moment (around YY) at the end of the rhythm
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Figure 10-3 Sample audio load for maximum torque (around YY) in the first column.

For the picture above, if the load is 100 psf, according to the form factor is 0.8 and not the form factor
is 0.1, then the two load patterns generated with a load of 80 psf in the area of the tile ball and the load
10 psf in the rest of the.

Concept program using the sample load for a load - along with a full load - to determine how the design
of the strip segment design, the design and the puncture test.

10.9.2 When using the sample
load

Whether you use it or not, the sample load is still the issue of rules that you are using and assess your
building. Some rules allow you to bypass the load patterns for certain types of structural load and
intensity. Normally you would use the appropriate template loads produce torque, shear forces and the
response is very close to the moment, shear force and the greatest response.

In most cases, you just do the load pattern. There are also cases where you make model for other
loads.

For modeling the load, usually in the form factor is 0.75 and the value-form coefficient value is
usually zero.

For not load modeling, the two-factor should be 1.0. In special cases, the form factor can exceed a
value of 1.0.

When in doubt, the form factor and the sample should be 1.0. This leads to no sample load.

See Chapter 20, "Creating sample load", For more details.

10.9.3 Sample load can move loads how

You can move most of the load using the load model.

Nearly moving loads:

1 Specify the form factor is 10 and the form factor is not zero.

2 Specify the load factor (in the window load combination) to "move" the load by one-tenth of the
actual value.
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3 Identify the sample by moving loads. 4
Draw the load when each sample.
Note: Program Concept still load combination analysis with all loads in the envelope. This is the
reason for the rate coefficient of the form, not the form factor and weight-reducing effects of the "load
all" in the load combination.
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11 Determine the load
combination

A load combination is the linear combination of the load factor. Strictly speaking, we should call "load
combination", but we still use the conventional terminology.

11.1 The default load combination

In general, the rules specify that the load you need to consider when designing structures and
combinations of these loads.

The default load combination of program RAM Concept depending on how you are creating a file.
When you use a template or file is available, then the default load combination is the source.

When you create a file using the New command, the default load combination depending on the
selected rule. The load combination is often appropriate for the selected rules, but you may need to
modify the system of adding loads and loads.

The default load combination for each rule as described in detail in the relevant chapters:

Chapter 50, "ACI 318-99 Design"

Chapter 51, "ACI 318-02 Design"

Chapter 52, "ACI 318-05 Design"

Chapter 53, "Designing AS 3600-2001"

Chapter 54, "Designing BS 8110: 1997"

Chapter 55, "Designing IS 456: 2000 / IS 1343: 1980".

11.2 Watch the load combination

Window load combinations listed different load combinations, the design conditions and the load
factor.

Watch the load combination:

1 Criteria Select> Load Combinations.

2 If more than one load combination, scroll down to display all.
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Figure 11-1 Window load
combination

11.3 Create the load
combination

Sometimes, you may want to create a load combination is including a new load or load editing. For
example, if you change the type of load, then it will affect the load factor and reduce the load process.
You can make these changes by using the create command.

RAM Concept program will not automatically update when the load factor of the load changes. RAM
Concept Program disclosing only the load factor when creating the load combination.

Create the load
combination:

1 Choose Criteria> Rebuild Load
Combos

Dialog box appears asking you to specify whether the load combination for the high or the foundation
system.

2 Choose high or a foundation system
version 3 Select Rebuild
11.4 Add and remove the load
combination

Sometimes, you may want to add to the load combination as seismic plus static load plus snow load or
static. Or vice versa, you can delete the load combination load combination as interim build (the
effects of stress).

Add load combination:
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1 Criteria Select> Load Combinations.
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2 Click the Add Load
Combination.

3 In the dialog box that appears, enter a name for the new load combination
and click OK.

Dialog box appears asking you to specify the plan view that you want to create program RAM
Concept (the stress, deflection and force Japan Version). The plan view appears in the list of new load
combination.

4 Choose the plan view that you want to create and click OK.
Load combination that appears at the end of the window.
5 Choose parameters declared operational
rules.

6 Enter the load factor and the load factor for each alternating loads in load combinations.

Delete
payload:

1 Select Criteria> Load Combinations.
2 Click the Delete Load Combination.
It will show a dialog box with a list of current load combination. 3
Select the load combination you want to delete and click OK.
11.5 The characteristics of the load
combination

Name of load combination using labels to identify the load
combination.

The complex type is
selected:

Application: This is the standard.

Group party: This kind of flooring is used for part of the horizontal bearing system [especially
the foundation system (the nail plate)].

Note: The primary purpose of the load combination of the extracts reduced the number of horizontal
load combination. A secondary purpose is to provide another easy way how to produce the results of
soil bearing pressure.

Type of analysis options are:

Linear: This is the standard.

Stress - zero: the load combination does not have the alternating load factor and not see Review
sample load.

Parameters declared operational rules management rules declare parameters used to calculate
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the design. Can combine up to four parameters declared operational rules for each load
combination. See Chapter 12, "Choosing The design rules" to be explained.

Factor load factor load exerted on a specific load combination.
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Coefficient contours alternating You should only use this if you factor out the relevant principles
throughout. No declaration of zero coefficients that do not understand how to use. If you are
unsure, report by the corresponding load factor. See "The factor which alternating ".

11.6 The group combined load

A combination of the load group load factor for each load level and not on a single horizontal load.

In fact, the result of a combination of load groups envelope of all the results from the single load
combination that can not be N, when N is the number of loads for horizontal loads have to.

Complex linear load group has a number of standard and alternate load for each load level is not, and a
load factor for the standard and alternate horizontal load of choice. No repeat zero stress.

Complex load stress group - with a zero load factor for each load unit is not horizontal, and a single
load factor for horizontal load of choice. Having repeated stress - zero when needed for load
combination may not be visible component (inside), and will be the outline of all the load combination
with a combine. Do not consider load pattern.

Figure 11-2 will present the option of branching load combination.
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Figure 11-2 The type of bifurcation load combination

See "Summary of load combination" for more information.

11.7 The coefficients
which alternate

There may be cases in which the impact of the load is moderate influence on the outcome. For
example,
wall payload compression impact on the floor.

Beam moment load span concession inside.

In this case, the structure should be analyzed with and without full load. But can accomplish this by
creating a different load combinations, RAM Concept program is a much simpler solution - which is
how the alternating factor (AEF).



Figure 11-3 The support beams static load (not shown) and load (shown). Load torque is reduced
when positive rate. With the use of a lower coefficient AEF corresponding load factor, you create a
load combination to load the concession. It should be noted that the AEF system affects the entire
load, not just load on the beam.

Conceptually, the program considers Concept of alternating boundary by analyzing time load
combination 2L (where L is the number of payload) - one for each permutation of the load factor and
alternating coefficient contours for all loads. Then the program will be surrounded Concept design
strip bars, rods and sections designed jet shear puncture for all load combination analysis. Program
Concept Factoring lines used later to design.
You can also draw lines around the bar or display them in the table.

Concept fully consider the impact load model while considering the load factor.

It should be noted that the overall sound analysis program that concept is not used as the sound design -
such as the bending moment and the deflection standards - saved only for the load combination
considered the standard load factor .

As mentioned above, you should only use the envelope system of alternating smoothly if you
understand the principles involved. Do not declare them to zero without knowing how to use them. If
you are unsure, you should declare them with the corresponding load factor.

11.7.1 Examples of alternating load factor

Figure 11-4 suggested using the ratio of intensity to design ACI318-05 is the load combination factors.
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Figure 11-4 is the load combination factor, load factor and the coefficient of alternating boundary.

11.8 Summary of load combination

The impact of the use of different load combinations and the analysis are summarized in Table 11-1.


Linear

Stress - zero


Applic
ation
The load factor for each standard and
alternate load
Do not repeat the zero stress
Considering the sample load
Standard load factor for each load
repeat as needed zero stress
Skip load samples








Group
The load factor for each standard and
alternating horizontal load is not
The load factor for the standard and
alternate horizontal load of selected
Do not repeat the zero stress
Considering the sample load
No results for the base of the arches,
domes base line, the pillow, the
pillow, the wall.
No results "Standard" for any
any number of public
See Figure 11-2 for more information.
Standard load factor for each load
level is not
Standard load factor for selected types
of horizontal load
repeat as needed zero stress
Skip load samples
No results for the base of the arches,
domes base line, the pillow, the
pillow, the wall.
No results "standard" for any
any number of
See Figure 11-2 for more information.

Table 11-1 Summary of load combination

For example, ACI 318-05 11-1 Elevated file load floor with additional horizontal

To simplify the example, four load has been removed from the standard file.
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Figure 11-5 Table ACI 318-05 load for Advanced Flooring - three additional wind loads (static loads
and stresses and three works were removed Tais)

After adding and deleting several loads, load combinations have been recreated. See "Creating the
structure load combination ".

Add load combination "Wind is the coefficient LC: 1.2D + 1.6W + 0.5Lr f1L +", as shown in Figure
11-6.






Figure 11-6 Load combination is made to: The wind is the factor LC: 1.2D + 1.6W + f1L + 0.5Lr
Concept Program expanded this load combination and calculates the load combination: 1 Static load 1.2
+ 1.2 + 1.0 Super Static Static Load + 0.5 Live Load another (possible rebate) + 1.6 Wind
east
2 Static load 1.2 + 1.2 + 1.0 Super Static Static Load + 0.5 Live Load another (possible rebate) - Wind
1.6
east
3 Static load 1.2 + 1.2 + 1.0 Super Static Static Load + 0.5 Live Load another (possible rebate) + 1.6
Wind north
4 Static load 1.2 + 1.2 + 1.0 Super Static Static Load + 0.5 Live Load another (possible rebate) - 1.6
north wind
5 Static load 1.2 + 1.2 + 1.0 Super Static Static Load + 0.5 Live Load another (possible rebate) + 1.6
trade winds
6 Static load 1.2 + 1.2 + 1.0 Super Static Static Load + 0.5 Live Load another (possible rebate) - 1.6
trade winds
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12 Choose the design
standards

You design the concrete floor manually by calculating the total force (and torque, shear and axial force)
of a load combination and application of these rules and the appropriate formula. Choose the type of
composition rules (the reinforced beams after stress, etc.) and the type of load combination. For
example, the standard of the load combination is to design strength and other criteria is to design
durability.

RAM Concept Program also uses the same approach. Sort and classify norm in each group rules and
apply them on the chart how the force of the load combination. Thus, the design criteria of one or more
rules affect how the force diagram of one or more load combinations.

For example, a standard formula for the bending strength and durability cut is a set of standards for
durability. The concept of this standard apply to the diagram how all the load combination "is the
coefficient" (or limit). A durability standards not applied to the load combination operations.

Most of the floor or the component is designed to use one or more of the norm. For example, the floor
is usually stress after stress testing of the initial activity, stress and endurance activities with different
load combinations.

12.1 Use Design Standards

RAM Concept program using the concepts of range designed to link the finite element analysis with
concrete regulations (see Chapter 21, "Defining Strip Design "). The characteristics of each strip design
including system design (beams / written by a local / written by two) and the plan "is considered to be
the force behind". The range is designed for the horizontal design.

Assign each load combination is the standard design of windows operating load combination.

RAM Concept program using the standard design:

1 The load combination which creates the chart for the total force (and torque, cutting force, the axial
force and torque).

2 All charts cover the same load combination with the standard design turn around.
This is how the chart design standards.

3 For each chart include standard design, design strips create the chart how the design capacity
standards.

4 Each strip designed to determine the appropriate rules for each standard design. The range of design
features affects the use of specific rules.

5 The design rules and checks are applied to the chart include standard design section.

6 A design brief surrounds the reinforcement requirements and status sectional chart for all
How sectional design standards.

For
exam
ple:

The following example shows how to select the program RAM Concept design rules for beams ACI
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318-02 after the stress load and wind load.
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Figure 12-1 Examples of load combination and the rules

The process of program RAM Concept is as follows:

Two load combination which creates the chart for the total force.

In standard design activities (design work, the design minimum standards, minimum design by
the user, the design strength and design flexibility) how to create charts from the load
combination important.

Each design chart how to create a standard chart how the design standards section.

The design features the band "System structure: beams" and "be seen as the force behind"
identified
the following rules apply from ACI 318-02:

o Design strength: Rules 18.7.2 (flexural strength) and 11.4 and 11.5 (intensity
shear) is used to beam accounts.

o Design Minimum Rules 18.9.2.

o Design activities: rules 18.3.3 and 18.4.2 (b).

These rules are applied to the chart include standard design section.

The reinforcement requirements and status sectional chart for all sections include design
standards turn around for a design brief.

12.2 The standard design features
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Here is a list of standard design features:

Names Related to the standard design. In most cases, similar to those operating rules, but there
may be exceptions (see Additional design standards - below).

These rules work presents a set of rules applied by these standards.

12.3 Type of operating rules

The operating rules ACI 318-02 is available:

Minimum design standards

The rules for minimum reinforcement (shrinkage, details, etc.) in more geometric stress or torque level.
Do not include shear reinforcement.

Design minimum user

Reinforcement steel reinforcement ratio based on user-defined. View the presentation of the design
features in the range Page 84 the 21.5.

Initial design work

Stress Testing the PT floor only after prestressing effect (if static load is minimal).

Design activities

Check out the stresses due to the load floor PT activities.

The rules for rebar in the stress level of the bar.

Design of continuous
operation

Check the PT floor compressive stress due to sustained loads.

Design intensity

These rules ensure sufficient cross section bending and shear strength for the torque is multiplied by
the coefficient (or limit), and the minimum shear reinforcement.

Design flexibility

The rules of conduct in order to create
software.

Load bearing capacity of
the soil

Used in a nail file (nail plate) to create favorable conditions for how the graph of soil bearing pressure.
Do not use any activity rules.

12.4 Add and delete the standard design

Adding a copy of the standard design allows you to separate the results for different load combinations
with the same operating rules. For example, if the design intensity to three different load combinations
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(1. Static and Dynamic; 2. Static, Dynamic Extraction and Snow is reduced; 3. Seismic)
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then you can keep the results separated by creating two new design standards with names like "Snow"
and "Earthquake" using the rules durability. This way, you can observe the particular requirements of
reinforced durability.

You can delete the design standards do not apply to simplify file. For example, in ACI 318-02, the
original design activity and design activity requires continuous stretch after floor no. Another example
is DL + Design 0.25LL not require UBC data is not used or not.

Add standard design:

1 Select Criteria> Design Rules.
2 Click the Add Rule Set Design.
3 Enter a name for the new design standards in the Add Rule dialog box and click OK Set
Design.

It will show a dialog box asking you to specify the plan view that you want to create (top and bottom
reinforcement, shear reinforcement and Breaches).

4 Choose the plan view that you want to create and click OK.
Design criteria appear at the end of the window.
5 Choose the operating rules.

Delete the standard rules:

1 Select Criteria> Design Rules.
2 Click Delete Rule Set Design.
It will show a dialog box with a list of current design standards. 3
Choose the design criteria you want to delete and click OK.
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13 Using CAD
Drawings

You can quickly determine if the model geometry with CAD files (with file name or open rong.dwg.
Dxf) is available for use as background. You can follow the CAD drawing tools to create objects that
facilitate the creation of the finite element mesh. You can also use CAD drawings to locate objects such
as payload. The tool snaps to help the implementation of the imported CAD drawing easier.

Note: RAM Concept program itself does not know the meaning of real linear motifs.

However, do not necessarily have to use the CAD file. If the floor is not too complicated, or drawings
are not available, you should skip this chapter. For the same model range does not warrant the use of
CAD files, it is better to use Wizard Strip.

13.1 Enter, check and see
drawings

To use the drawing, you enter the drawing, then check to see if the rate is not correct.

13.1.1 Import CAD files

You can enter the drawing at any time. Enter a drawing to override any drawings that were previously
entered. RAM Concept program can work with the files. Dwg or. Dxf. It is best to use the file. Dwg.

Import CAD file:

1 Choose File> Import
Drawing.

2 Choose a CAD drawing file you want to import.

Units File dialog box will appear with a list of units. Units related to CAD files, not the files Concept.

3 Choose the appropriate units and click
OK.

Note: You can import CAD drawings for a set of units in a model with other units.

13.1.2 Check the information entered

When you enter the drawing file, you can see the projection of Layer Standard Drawing Import. You
should check the rate of the plane is correct or not.

Check the data entered is correct drawings or rate:

1 Choose Layers> Import Drawing> Standard Plan.

2 Click the Zoom Extent ( ) To ensure that you observe the entire CAD surface.

3 Select the Dimension tool ( ) And draw a straight line between two points size can snap a
known distance. Appearing as the distance between two points is a size.

If this size is not as expected, the rate of the file can not be imported correctly. Consider enter
drawings for the various units to remedy this error.
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13.1.3 Make drawings can be seen in the other plane

You can enter the drawing can be seen on any flat surface through Visible Objects dialog box. Often
you want to make the drawing visible in the plane Mesh Standard Input (to determine the geometry of
the floor), and possibly in the plane load (for the location of the line and point loads) . You can turn off
some layers if they impede CAD drawings. If you accidentally open an architectural drawing, it can
disable the feature. See "Control the display "on page 12 for more information on how to make objects
visible marks or objects.
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14 Enter the database from RAM Structural
System

Note: In this chapter several places RAM Structural System abbreviated as "RSS".

RAM Concept Program can enter information and concrete structures from the payload RAM
Structural System (9:01 or higher version) into RAM Concept files.

RAM Concept program can also support component of the force back to RSS.

14.1 What can enter from RAM Structural System

RAM Concept Program nghinhap threads selective components of concrete (the version, beams, gaps,
columns and walls), the application loads and loads into the database from a structural system RAM.
Component can load from gravity and / or the horizontal analysis.

14.2 Control components are imported concrete

A layer is defined in the RAM Structural System can have two floors: the basement foundation or
higher. The determination of the components determine the floor concrete floor is entered.

Figure 14-1 and Table 14-1 presents the relationship between the selected layer, and the type of the
imported version. It should be noted that the underlying story is set. For example, the 2nd floor is a
floor stand high on the second floor.

























Figure 14-1 The version shown above (A, B, C, D) will be entered in the selection below.

Floor
Type Date
Mong
high
Nail the

Wedn
esday
1
A C
Mond
ay
B D

Table 14-1 Relationship between selected stories, type of publication, and the imported version.
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Definitions 14.2.1 "enter the
perimeter"

The determination of the perimeter of the selected type. Only with the support of the RAM Structural
System in circumference import will be imported. For example, in Figure 14-1, If you enter the first
floor to the height of the declared parameters "column above," the two farthest right column between
the 1st floor and 2nd floor will not be imported because they are not located within the perimeter of
the floor of the high- 1.

You can enter the following composition:

1 copy

All of the selected type. 2 beams
The concrete floor beams are
selected. 3 gaps and Pile Driving
All gaps in the perimeter and pile type. 4 Column
Any columns (below and / or above) with epicenter located inside the perimeter
enter. 5 Walls
Any public walls (below and / or above) is located in the focal line or cut across the circumference of
any kind whatsoever.

6 Grid

The orthogonal grid and radial.

Note: All structural components are Layer Mesh Import into RAM Concept program. Grid Drawing
Layer Import entered.

14.3 Enter load

RAM Concept program loads enter the force application and component analysis component selected
from the group.

The specific components of the load components are ignored when importing. The components are
ignored depending on the type, whether the part is supported or not, and whether the force component
from gravity loads and horizontal loads.

The following table summarizes the components forces entered the base and the
height.
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The Gravity
Communications
not applicable Fz, Mx, My
The Horizontal
transmission
not applicable Fx, Fy, Fz, Mx, My
Mong high Gravity
Communications
not Fz
Mong high Horizontal
transmission
Fz, Mx, My Fz, Mx, My

Table 14-2 Relationship between the types, types of load components, supporting components, and
components for the power to be imported.

For purposes of the Table 14-2, Concept as any column, or wall bracing will be supported if it is based
on columns or walls.

The wall is converted into power load at each end of the wall. On the wall in the set can be "sponsored"
by the different (because of a possible head against the wall or column and the other end resting on
beams can), in this case, the first human ever to enter Last seen as the front-end support conditions
separately.

The following loads can be entered:

1 Download directly
gravity

The gravity load point, line and area information are directly applicable to imported copies.

Table 14-3 shows how the case load RSS painted the Concept layer payload.
Case load RSS Layer Payload RAM Concept
Static load Static load
Load Skip (entered as a separate load 3)
Works can download rebate Works can download rebate
Works can not download
rebate
Works can not download rebate
Cumulative load Cumulative load
Events at Pearl Events at Pearl
Static load building Static load building
Building load Ignore
Static load volume Ignore

Table 14-3 Draw the case load RSS

2 The gravity load transmission
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Concept Active load power is transmitted from the above components of the RSS. Including weight
loads itself into the force transmitted to the load. Loads are entered as point loads on the separate layer
payload concept.

A layer of load power transmission concept is created for each load case RSS, as in Table 14-3, But
with a string "(transmission)" have names attached. For example, the load transfer from the static load
cases are entered RSS Layer Load "Static load (transmission)" Concept. The load layer
"(transmission)" Concept not be created if the load does not enter power transmission.

3 Load horizontal component

Enter the horizontal force components (such as wind and seismic) from components above and below
to be entered as a point load. Load Layer ingredients into a new load for each load case is analyzed in
RSS. Concept will create a name for the new layer payload from the user's label and loads of RSS.

For example, the name could be "mySeismic
(EQ_UBC97_X_ + E_F)".

Note: The load nails imported from the structural system RAM will always be in entering concession.
For this reason, you should always choose the load reduction rule is "None" in this file.

14.4 Enter the
database

You can import from RAM Structural System at any time. The import will overwrite some or all of the
data has been entered before, and may overwrite information that you enter directly into RAM Concept
Program. See "Reset Database" for more information.

Note: Concept program can not enter data accurately if not through the RSS file operations "test
data" in RAM Modeler module. We recommend that your RSS file not guilty before entering Concept
program.

Enter from RAM Structural
System:

1 Choose File> Import RAM Structural System.

If the file does not open RAM Concept, the dialog box "Open RAM Structural System Database" will
appear. Browse and select the database file RSS (. Rss) and click OK.

When you select a database file RSS valid, the RAM Structural System dialog box in Figure 14-2
will appear.

RSS has been selected file appears after "File" at the top of the
window.

You can click on the "Browse" button at the top of the window to select another file with the file
browser.

Note: If you select the file to the previous version 9.0, will show error and you will be returning to file
browser. Click on the Cancel button to cancel the import.

Note: If you are running version 9 RSS, Select the database files with the extensions RSS. Ram.

2 Choose the floor and
kind.
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3 Choose the composition of the check box under "Structure".







































Figure 14-2 Import dialog RSS

Dialog box unavailable "Below Slab Columns", "Below Slab Walls", "Beams" and "Openings and
Penetrations" for the foundation system.

4 Select the load from the tick box under "Loading".

Dialog box unavailable "Direct Gravity Loads" for the foundation system. 5
Click OK to import the file, or Cancel to cancel the import.
After entering your RSS file, the dialog box enter RAM status, similar to that shown in Figure 14-3,
Will appear with brief messages and any warning.
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For example, Figure 14-3 summarizes the
import alert

The determination of the geometry and load RSS was entered into RAM Concept Program.
Now, you can create the finite element mesh. See Chapter 17, "Creating Grid".
Note: If you are entering, there will be different dialog box appears with the warning.

Note: Enter the horizontal load analysis from the RSS model has a large number of cases of horizontal
loads Concept will make the program create a large number of load combination, resulting in delayed
implementation .

14.5 Enter the database

If the information in the database system RAM structural changes, RAM Concept, the model will not
be updated automatically. However, you can enter the information has changed.

Maybe it will take the composition changes and load the program RAM Concept entering RSS file, so
be careful to avoid loss of information.

14.5.1 Resolving conflicts load

If the file loads Concept is currently incompatible with RSS payload will be imported, a dialog box
similar to the Figure 14-4 will ask you whether you want to keep or delete the current load.
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If you have identified (painted) Load Concept program suggested that clear, then you should keep that
load of Concept program proposed deletions. If you want to export the jet from the pre-load is
available in RSS, you'll need to copy the load from the source to the load corresponding to the load
that RSS will be entered (after you've deleted by Hand loads are not RSS).

Note: If you use the Export Geometry characteristic structural system RAM (the 34.2) Before you
enter, you will always see this warning. Workflow proposal is drawing loads of RSS or drawing loads
of Concept program after entering from the RSS, with this workflow, you can safely remove the load
request.







Figure 14-4 The choice of processor load new

RAM Concept program would also suggest you should determine if you are required to make the load
combinations and design standards, as shown in Figure 14-5.

You have three options:

Recreate: the load combination and the design criteria in the file will be recreated RAM
Concept

Not Reproduce: Load new cases are added to the file RAM Concept, but not in the load
combination.

Cancel: RAM Concept Program Files back to the browser.







Figure 14-5 The choice of processor load new
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Note: When you enter a specific component, such as the beams, the entire group of entities that will be
removed from the file before importing RAM Concept. For example, if you enter the girders, beams,
all in RAM Concept files will be deleted first. Any beams that you added manually in the program
RAM Concept will be lost. If you choose not to enter the beam, the beam of RAM Concept files will not
be affected when the file is imported.

Note: if any group is selected loads, it loads all of the imported layer payload will be deleted. Any
weight that you added manually load the layer will be entered will be lost. You can choose to
reconstruct the load combination or not.

RAM Concept program always ask you to re-enter to confirm, because the information can be lost. The
program will warn you if data is entered will differ significantly from the data has been entered before,
or important information is lost or not. For example, RAM Concept program alerts you when to re-enter
the system after entering the basement the previous high, or vice versa.

Enter from the RAM Structural
System:

1 Choose File> Import
RSS.

A dialog box will open with the file name of the file that you have the latest RSS into RAM Concept
this file.

2 Choose the RSS file and click
OK.

The file can be a different RSS files, which can have significant influence (and possibly negative) to
RAM Concept model.

RAM Structural System Import dialog box will appear with a list of options. The default option will be
the type of floor and the latest entries.

3 Choose floor plates, and structural load and click OK.

Load new confirmation box may appear in the present load RSS file that is not in RAM Concept
existing files. Click Replace, Add, or Cancel.

Confirmation box appears warning about the differences with the data previously entered.





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Figure 14-6 Examples of warning entry operations with the level and type of different textures
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4 Click Replace or Cancel.

Appears RSS Import Status dialog box with the message and warning
summary. 5 Click OK.
14.6 The limitations and Default Assumptions

14.6.1 The limited

Not all the information is stored in a database system RAM structures are can be transmitted to
RAM Concept Program.

Program RAM Concept modeling data RAM Structural System using rules Construction ACI
318-99, ACI 318-02, and BS 8110: 1997. A database system structure RAM using BS 6399 or
Eurocode will be imported using building codes BS 8110: 1997, if not used appropriately ACI
rules.

RAM Concept program does not model the thermal resistance of the beams.

RAM Concept program modeling the fixed columns if column structural system RAM is
arranged along the axis formation or side.

RAM Concept Program only model with fixed height wall. RAM Concept program will create a
wall with the average height of the wall in the RAM Structural System.

Do not enter the horizontal load acting on the structure in RAM frame analysis.

Concept ignore the hole in the wall modeled in RSS version 10.

14.6.2 Default

RAM Concept program uses the following default characteristics are not defined in the RAM Structural
System.

The beam

Surface height is 0.0.

Column

Compressive true.
Roller is not real, except the nail on the.
The column on the foundation are tied at the top despite the declared parameters in the database
RAM.

Walls

Not mounted above or below.
Modeled as a shear wall.
Modeled as compressible.
"Coefficient of section breaks" in the RAM Structural System is ignored.

14.6.3 Assumptions
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All loads are applied to the surface.

The force components are reported as two effective point load at the end of the wall similar to
the wall power and torque.

See Table 14-4 and Table 14-5 to draw the RAM load cases and the load of the power supply and RAM
Concept program.
Load RSS
Wind Wind Activity *
Seismic Seismic * Limit
Other Seismic * Limit
Virtual Ignore


Table 14-4 Assumptions Modeler RAM power
supply Note: * is assumed to be



Wind
The power of stories are
determined by the user

Wind

Activity *
Wind other forces Wind Activity

Seismic
The power of stories are
determined by the user

Seismic

* Limit
Seismic UBC 94 Seismic Activity
Seismic other forces Seismic Limit
Motivation Eigen Solution Ignore

Motivation other forces Seismic * Limit
The power of stories are
determined by the user


Seismic

* Limit
Heart of total hardness

Ignore

virtual work

Ignore


Table 14-5 The case load frame RAM Note: * is
assumed to be
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15 Data transfer from Staad

Program analysis and design Staad can transmit information about geometrical structure and load into
RAM Concept Program.

15.1 Staad Interface

In Staad, you can select the elements, wall elements, columns and beams elements of the program to
RAM Concept. You can also select the load cases and combinations Staad to export them to the
concept of load.

Staad Interface Concept allows you to run immediately to export data or save data to a file for
importing into Concept GCFF later.

If Staad file changes (can load or change the column size), you can update files Concept by exporting
to Staad information.

Please see the instructions Staad for more information about Staad interface.

15.2 The program interface RAM Concept

15.2.1 The data transfer path

RAM Concept Program can enter information Staad by four ways: 7 Concept
was launched by Staad to create new files.
8 Concept was launched by Staad to update previously created files.

9 In the File menu of the Concept, select New from Staad items GCFF file to create a new file.

10 In the File menu of the Concept, selected items from Staad GCFF Updte file to update files Concept
opened.

15.2.2 The choice of a new file in the program RAM Concept

When creating a new file from Staad information - in New from the File menu item or by Staad Staad
GCFF Concept launch, the dialog as shown in Figure 15-1 appearance.
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Figure 15-1 Dialog options file

The first option on the dialog window similar to creating any new files Concept and no matter what
new here.

The box at the bottom of the window allows you to enter one or more layers of the following
information: the version (including beams), walls, columns and load.

15.2.3 Update the selected files in the program RAM Concept

When updating a file with information Staad New Concept - by Category updates from the File menu
or by Staad Staad GCFF Concept launch, the dialog box shown in Figure 15-2 appearance.


















Figure 15-2 Update dialog box options file
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The choice of window similar to the options presented in the "The choice New files in RAM Concept
program ", But is somewhat different behavior by manipulating the "update". For example, if you
select the "Columns", then the current column will be deleted and new columns are determined by
Staad information. If you do not select "Column", the Concept columns in the file will not change
anything.
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16 Structure
Determination

A simplest and easiest to identify concrete structures is to use automated tools nets RAM Concept
program (also known as "Mesher"). This method requires you to specify the bearings, and the
(different thickness), the beam and the gap with the Mesher object used to create finite element
models. Perform this operation on layer Plane Mesh Standard Input.

16.1 Using Input Mesh layer

There is no defined order of objects. Many people choose to draw the bearings first, while others draw
the outline first. You can edit the object after drawing.

If you import CAD drawings, drawings on display Input Mesh surface texture before
painting.

16.2 Columns
and walls

RAM Concept Program for drawing the single layer model determined by which column and on the
bottom and side walls. The no bearing on the slope, only horizontal bearings and bending resistance.

16.3 The column
properties

The characteristics of program RAM Concept columns are divided into two groups: general and
concession load.

16.3.1 The general characteristics
of the column






























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Figure 16-1 The column features: general
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Concrete mix concrete type used (identified in the material parameters).

Height The distance from the central vertical element of the first column
to the remote.

The columns supporting the floor
Determining above or below.

The width is measured along the axis of the column r. Declare to zero for
circular columns.

The depth / diameter s is measured along the axis of
the column.

Angle plane angle is measured counterclockwise from the x-axis global clock. Define r axis of the
column (and usually zero).

Bending stiffness coefficient is used to edit bending stiffness without changing the size or height.
For example, you can expect an edge crack and rotating column of more than one column, and
you can declare the value of this parameter is 0.5. You can use BSF to increase the stiffness of the
column, but not very effective.

Roller at the far end leads to horizontal shear in column zero.

Layout There is a link near the torque (around the x and y axis) between the column and, if not,
be pinned.

There is far arrange a link torque (around the x and y axis) at the far end, if it is not pinned.

Note the column compression to extend the z direction by Hooke's law, otherwise there is no
compression. The column compression usually results in more accurate.

16.3.2 The column features reduce
load

See "Determination of reduced load parameters" on page 124.

16.4 Draw
colum
n

Each column is positioned with x and y coordinates. Two columns can not have the same coordinates
unless a column above and below the column.

Note: Be sure that you work on Mesh Input layer, not the layer element.

Note: See the "Set the default properties" on page 18 to know more relevant information.

Draw
colum
ns:

1 Choose Tools column (
). 2 Click on the
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middle column.
Copy column from bottom to
top:

1 Select a column and choose
Edit> Copy.

2 Choose Edit> Past. Paste the new object in the column at the same position as the original object in
the column
first. The column is selected this paste operation.
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3 Support Changing characteristics Declare parameters from "lower" to "on" in the column properties
dialog box.

Note: If you do not change the set of parameters, the Declare Support columns are not allowed to
copy the model runs correctly. If you have copied a large number, then turn right to delete the second
column in each position (column a).

16.5 The feature wall

The wall characteristics similar to the characteristics of the column but instead of width, depth and
angle, and thickness. The parameters declare the heat somewhat different, and there is no bending
stiffness coefficient.

Here is a list of characteristics of program RAM Concept wall:

Concrete mix concrete type used (identified in the material parameters).

Height The distance from the central vertical element to the wall at the far end.

The wall which defines a floor above or
below.

Thickn
ess

Shear wall "Lock" to the wall horizontally and thus keep the back, if not, could the "slip" through
the wall.

Set near the moment there is a link between the wall and the wall of the r axis; otherwise be
pinned.

Set away from there a link torque axis r of the wall at the far end, if it is not pinned.

Notice pressurized wall to extend the z direction by Hooke's Law, otherwise there is no
compression. The pressurized walls often provide more accurate results.

16.6 Painting
the wall

Tools column wall similar tool unless the tool to use than the straight line. Wall can run through the
column, or other wall cross.

Note: Be sure that you work on Mesh Input layer, not the layer element.

Note: Tools walls ( ), Wall to Tools ( ) Tools & left wall ( ) Have the same button on the
toolbar Specific Layer. See "Extending the tool buttons" on page 6.

Draw
wall:

1 Select the wall tool ( ).

2 Click in the center of the end wall.
Copy the walls from bottom to top: 1
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Select the wall and choose Edit>
Copy.
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2 Choose Edit> Past. Paste the new wall objects in the same position as the original object wall. The
walls are pasted selection activities.

3 Support Changing characteristics Declare parameters from "lower" to "on" in the properties dialog
box wall.

16.7 Pillows on point and on a straight-
line

Results of the determination of the pillow is the pillow single point at the intersection of the finite
element. Results of the determination of pillows on the line is a straight line or multiple pillows on
each knee is positioned at the edge finite elements. RAM Concept program using the thickness of the
element is considered when determining the lowest-dimensional enhanced pillow. For this reason,
should not be positioned on the pillow or pillows on the line in the step.

All bearings are horizontal stiffness should be placed in the middle of the depth can warp or
unforeseen external horizontal stiffness of them (layout depth between parameters by declaring "raise
the level underneath the arches "to a depth of one-half).

Usually do not need to use the horizontal heat resistance at the knee point and a straight line, because
the program automatically RAM Concept stable structure in the x and y (you can turn off the automatic
stabilizers This Calc Options dialog box). One more case where you can use a horizontal bearing
structural bracing against a party but modeled without strut bracing components (possibly other
components against concrete wall bracing ).

Need to be very careful when determining any component other than "fixed z direction" for the pillow
and the "shift towards fixed z" for the knee in a straight line. For knee on the point, the knee fixed in the
direction of r and s can warp / membrane. For the knee in a straight line, the fixed or moving along the
crossing bearings can warp / membrane.

16.8 The pillows on the
characteristics of

Here is a list of properties on the knee of program RAM Concept:

The dome on the underside improve the vertical distance between the knee and the
bottom of the dome.

Angle (r = x, y @ s = 0) allows you to declare the local parameters of
the axis. R is fixed in the direction along the axis Avoid transmitting
local r. S fixed in the direction along the axis Avoiding s transmission
locally. Be fixed in the z direction along the transmission Avoiding
global z axis. Go around the fixed axis r r Avoid turning around local
axis.
S orbit fixed axis rotary axis s Avoid locally.

16.9 Drawing on the
pillow

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Each pillow is positioned on the x and y coordinates. Two pillows on the location coordinates can
not be the same.
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Note: Tools on the pillow ( ) And knee in a straight line ( ) Have the same button on the toolbar
Specific Layer. See "Extending the tool buttons" on page 6.

Drawing on the
pillow:

1 Select tool on the pillow ( ). 2
Click on the pillow in place.
16.10 The pillow features a straight line

Here is a list of characteristics of the pillow on a straight-line program RAM Concept:

The dome on the underside improve the vertical distance between the knee and the bottom line on
the roof.

Moving along the fixed bearing (OFF on the line of symmetry) Prevent transmission along the
shaft.

Shifting cross bearing fixed (ON for the symmetry line) Prevent the transmission cross shaft.

Shifted towards fixed z (OFF on the line of symmetry) Prevent or down in the hammock on
shaft.

Go around the fixed shaft (ON for the line of symmetry) Avoid turning around the longitudinal
axis of the bearing.

Go around to the constant bearing Fixed (OFF to the symmetry line) Avoid turning the horizontal
axis of the bearing.

16.11 Draw a straight line on
the pillow

You can use pillows on the line as the axis of symmetry. This is useful if you want a balanced and floor
model only half of the floor. Be aware that the pillows on the line tension can prevent the following will
affect the floor.

Note: Tools on the pillow ( ) And knee on the straight line tool ( ) Have the same button on the
toolbar Specific Layer. See "Extending the tool buttons" on page 6.

Draw a straight line on a
pillow:

1 Choose Tools knee straight line ( ). 2
Click at the end bearings.
16.12 Way to
surround

Results determined by the sole surround the base of a single dome at the intersection of the finite
element. Results determined that surround the base of one or more base line that arches are positioned
at each street edge finite elements. RAM Concept program using the thickness of the element is
considered when determining the minimum height of the dome base. For this reason, the base should
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not position the dome at the steps.
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The dome has the sole stiffness should be placed horizontally in the middle of the depth can warp or
unexpected side horizontal stiffness of them (layout depth between parameters by declaring "raise the
level under the arch of the "one-half the depth). For the focus of the different height, can be added to an
inertial drag on the substrate using the surround and the horizontal bearings.

Usually do not need to use the horizontal dome base, because the program automatically Concept stable
structure in the x and y (you can disable this automatic stability in Calc Options dialog box). One more
case where you can use the dome base is horizontal structural bracing against the side but modeled
without bracing against the elements (earth may have anti-friction braces).

Need to be very careful when determining any component other than the force constant z. The force
constant r and s can be webbed.

16.13 The characteristics of the arches soles

Here is a list of properties surround the base of the program in RAM Concept:

The dome on the underside improve the vertical distance between the base of the dome and
surround the bottom.

Corner sole surround (r = x, y @ s = 0) the local orientation of the axis. Plane showing the
orientation
surround the
base.

Constant force constant R surround the base by local r-axis
direction. Constant Constant force S in the direction of the
dome's base locally. Constant force constant z empire surround
the global z-axis direction.
R axis constant torque constant axial corner arches soles local r.

Constant Constant torque shaft's axial corner surround s sole locally.

16.14 Draw lines through the canopy
base

Each of the imperial arches are positioned with x and y coordinates. Two arches of the road base can
not have the same coordinates.

Note: Tools of the imperial arches ( ), The soles Surround Tools ( ), Tools surround the base
triangle ( ), And Tools surround the rectangular base ( ) Have the same button on the toolbar
Specific Layer. See "Extending the tool buttons" on page 6.

Drawing lines in the dome
base:

1 Select the tool of imperial arches ( ). 2 Click
the location on the base.
16.15 The sole features the dome
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Here is a list of properties surround the base of the program RAM Concept:
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The dome on the underside improve the vertical distance between the dome and the base under
the arch.

Corner sole Surround (R = X, Y @ S = 0) orientation of the local axes. Plane showing the
orientation
surround the base.

Constant force constant R surround the base in the direction of the local axis
in each of the first r. Constant Constant force S in the direction of the dome's
base locally in each head. Constant force constant z empire surround the z-
axis direction in each of the first globally. Constant torque constant R corner
dome axial base in each of the local r. Constant Constant torque S corner
dome axial base in each of the local s.
Note: If the force constant (or constant torque) does not change, you just need to enter a value. If not
you need to enter two values separated by commas (endpoints 1 and 2). This allows a linear variation
of the force constant (or constant torque).

16.16 Draw a straight line arches soles

Tools similar way to surround the base engine in the dome except it uses straight lines rather than
points.

Note: Tools of the imperial arches ( ), The soles Surround Tools ( ), Tools surround the base
triangle ( ), And Tools surround the rectangular base ( ) Have the same button on the toolbar
Specific Layer. See "Extending the tool buttons" on page 6.

Trails surround base:

1 Choose tools surround the base ( ).

2 Click at the end of the dome base.

16.17 The characteristics of imperial arches

Here is a list of properties surround the base of the program RAM Concept:

The dome on the underside improve the vertical distance between the base of the dome and under
the arch.

Corner sole Surround (R = X, Y @ S = 0) orientation of the local axes. Plane showing the
orientation
surround the base.

Constant force constant R surround the base in the direction of r.

Constant Constant force S in the direction of the dome's base.

Constant force constant z empire surround the global z-axis
direction. Constant torque constant R surround corner sole local r
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axis. Constant Constant torque angle of the base S axis s local
surround.
Note: If the force constant (or constant torque) does not change, you just need to enter a value.
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Note: Constant power (or torque constant) can vary in any linear direction.

Note: If the force constant (or constant torque) different, you need to enter three values, separated by
commas (angles 1, 2 and 3). This allows a linear variation of the force constant (or constant torque) in
two directions. See Figure 16-2.

Note: If you use the tools surround a rectangular base to identify different force constants (or constant
torque), Concept program calculates the value of the angle only Wednesday (three points define a
plane).






Figure 16-2 The roof substrate characteristics vary from 100 to 200 to 300 units in the first three
corners.
For the square cross section, the builder too Concept calculates the angle value
Wednesday.

16.18 Draw a cross section of the
dome base

Use the tools surround a rectangular base ( ) To locate the corner of the base section of
roof.

Note: Tools of the imperial arches ( ), The soles Surround Tools ( ), And Tools surround the
rectangular base ( ) Have the same button on the toolbar Specific Layer. See "Open large tool
buttons "on page 6.

Draw the dome
base:

1 Select a tool substrate dome (
).

2 Click at the top of the dome base (or enter the coordinates in the command
line).

3 Close the polygon by typing the letter "c" in the command line or by clicking on the first
vertex.
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Note: Objects can surround the base larger structures that sustain it.

16.19 The floor and the components

The object of the present, the beam and the identification of gaps and ground components. Typically
these objects are overlapping.
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16.19.1 Preferred Method

At any position of the floor, using only the thickness (depth), and the object has a high priority that
determine the thickness.

No additional thickness of overlapping objects to determine thickness.

For example, you want the overall thickness of a drop panel columns to be placed in priority to the
thickness. By establishing the priority for each object, automatic mesh generation function to
understand how to create the finite element.

The lowest priority is 1. This is so you can continually add beams, the density and the cross section
with a higher priority. There is no limit to the highest priority (unless the computer overflow and your
writing).

Note: The overlapping objects on the map, the beam and the gap to the level
different priorities. These numbers should not be the priority sequence.
Note: The bearings are not the priority.





Figure 16-3 Objects Version, beams and gaps identified in the standard plane Mesh Input
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Figure 16-4 summarizes plane element after generating the mesh from Figure 16-3.

16.20 The characteristics of the

The characteristics of the fall into two categories: general and behavior.

Here is the interpretation of the characteristics of program RAM Concept:






Figure 16-5 The characteristics of the -
general

Concrete mix concrete type used (identified in the material parameters).

You determine the thickness of the thick, like drop cap and drop panel, determined by the
thickness increases.

Typically surface height parameters declared height is typically 0. The height parameter
declarations to a very large value (eg, 100 feet or 30 meters) can lead to rounding errors in the
value analysis. You make the step surface and the underside of the dome by using different
surface heights for different sections.

Priority Generally, the typical thickness is priority No. 1.
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Figure 16-6 The characteristics of the - of
Conduct

R axis determine the orientation. If you are a two-way with the same properties in all directions
("isotropic"), the r-axis is not appropriate, because there is no orientation of the capital.
However, if the non-isotropic, then this axis (defined by the angle counterclockwise from the 3-
hour clock) r axis is determined with the use of the property to determine the behavior. S axis is
90 degrees counterclockwise from the axis r clock.

Conduct Identify the types of behavior. There are four fixed
capabilities:

The two methods The isotropic and behave the same way in every direction.

The method according to one version with conventional bending stiffness along the axis r
and around axis s (Ms). The only minimal bending rigidity perpendicular (Mr). The well
concession twisting rigidity (Mrs). The hardness of the surface is not affected by this parameter.

The two methods do not have to twist The behavior is similar to the two-way, except it
only has minimal torsion rigidity (Mrs).

All Custom stiffness (related to the stiffness of the isotropic) can be defined by the user.
These values are called KMR, KMS, KMrs, KFR, and KFs KVrs. Generally, we do not
recommend using this option.

See "Right behavior" on page 306 for more information about using behavior characteristics.

16.21 Drawing
on the

Use Slab Area ( ) To determine the version by clicking on each point (top) row. To close the
polygon, click on the first point or polygon type "c" and press Return.

Drawing on
the:

1 Slab Area Select tool ( ).
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2 Click a row in each of the peaks.

3 Go to the top of the first stick and click closed polygons (or type "c" and press Return).

Note: You can almost create a series of curves with straight edges.

16.22 The beam

In RAM Concept program, you create the model as a thick beam with beam tool. You can assign
characteristics to distinguish the beams behave behavior.

16.23 The beam characteristics

The beam characteristics fall into two categories: general and behavior.

The following is a paraphrase of the beam characteristics of the program RAM Concept:







Figure 16-7 The beam characteristics -
general

Concrete mix concrete type used (identified in the material parameters).

Thickness similar to beam
depth.

Typically surface height parameters declared height is typically 0. The height to set great value
(like 100 feet or 30 meters) can lead to rounding errors in the analysis. Create the step surface
and the underside of the dome by using different surface heights for different sections.

Width Width beams appeared to automatically determine the
rate.

Priority Generally, the beams have the higher priority level of
the.
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Figure 16-8 The beam characteristics
- Conduct

The characteristics of the beam behaves very similar to the characteristics of the. R-axis beams
automatically be declared
the horizontal beam
axis.

Conduct Identify types of beam behavior. There are
four values:

Standard Beams isotropic and behave the same way in every direction.

No torsion beam behaves like a two-way, except that it has only minimal torsion rigidity
(Mrs).

All Custom stiffness (related to the stiffness of the isotropic) can be defined by the user.
These values are called KMR, KMS, KMrs, KFR, and KFs KVrs. Generally, we do not
recommend using this option.

16.24 Draw the
beam

You painted beams by clicking on the first and last points of the focus by using beam tool ( ). Each
beam has six control points. Four other point is automatically positioned to the end of the beam is
perpendicular to the edge. You can stretch the point to keep the angle to determine the angle.

Draw
beams:

1 Choose tools beams (
).

2 Click on each end of the beam focus.

Identify the right angle on the
beam:

1 Select tool and select Stretch beam ( ).
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2 Getting stuck in the corner to keep the beams and stretch them into
place.

16.25 The gap characteristic map
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Only the characteristic gap:

Priority Generally, the gap is the highest priority on the floor.

16.26 Draw the gap

Slab Opening Tools ( ) Identified a gap in the.

Draw the gap:

1 Choose Slab Opening tool ( ).

2 Click continuity at each vertex the gap.

3 Go to the top of the first stick and click closed polygons (or type the letter "c" and press
Return).

Note: You can almost create a series of curves with straight edges.

16.27 Check the identification of
structural

After you have fully defined the geometry of the structure, you should check out the obvious error,
obviously. RAM Concept Program signaled a model when creating illegal nets. The list of errors is
presented in Chapter 17, "Creating Grid".

Once you have painted the floor and objects bearing the Input Mesh plane, you have to create the
finite element mesh really. The structure does not exist until you create grid.
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17 Creating
nets

There are two ways to create the finite element mesh in the program RAM
Concept:

Using automated tools nets with the mesh object information as shown in Chapter 16,
"Determining the structure".

Use the tools in hand nets.

The first method easier and faster. This is the recommended method for most models.

The second method allows more ability to control the intensity of the net. Mesh size can have different
widths in different floor areas, but the adjustment will be more difficult. The instructions for the
second method (by hand) is presented in Program 18, "Draw the finite element by hand".

17.1 Automatically
generate net

The finite element does not exist (and therefore no structure) until the mesh is created. You need to
identify the object mesh information (using the same method as shown in the previous chapter) before
creating the mesh.

Create nets as soon as possible, although it may draw more objects on other layers (such as weight)
before creating.

17.1.1 Define element mesh size used

When creating the net, you need to determine particle size used. The maximum size is 32.8 feet (10
meters).
To accelerate the analysis, choose coarse mesh for preliminary design and fine grid for the final
design. Coarse mesh size can have a length element of rhythm / 6. The mesh size can have elements
length of span / 12. If you are unsure, you should check the influence of the size
different element mesh.

Automatically generated mesh:

1 Click the Generate Mesh ( ).

Dialog box as shown in Figure 17-1 will appear.
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Figure 17-1 Generate Mesh dialog

2 Determination of particle size in the Generate Mesh dialog. 3
Click Generate.
The time it takes to create mesh depending on the floor size and mesh element size is determined
regulations. For most models, generated net within 15 seconds.

Note: Every time you create a mesh, RAM Concept Program will delete any grilles are available and
create a new sheet.

17.1.2 The limitations of automation nets

The limitations of the woven mesh is automatically a minimum particle size of 50 mm (0164 feet).
Concept program can usually overcome this limitation by adjusting the information objects to create a
mesh grilles. The concept of moving objects mesh information (eg, walls, pillows on the line) to fit the
object (eg, column, above the knee).

Concept program will automatically adjust the mesh object information if:

The two control points closer to the minimum element size.

Control points close to the line than the minimum size element.

Note: Concept program will warn in the nets if it needs adjustment. You can stop and edit nets. If you
continue, you should check whether the grid has been adjusted to meet the requirements yet.

Note: Concept Program will present a warning if two (or beams or gaps) with priority levels similar
overlap. You can stop and edit nets. If you continue, you should check whether the grid is adjusted to
meet the requirements for the selection not of the type (or beams) of the control element is random.

Note: Concept Program moved two columns to the same point that you draw closer to the minimum
element size.

The mesh is created, but the model is incorrect if:

Column or knee on the outside of the face.
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Wall or pillows on the line outside of the part.

Eyes to completely surround the surface.

Two columns or walls along the same support (allowing the intersecting wall).

Avoid the nets warning:

Perform one of the following measures:

1 Adjust the object plane reticles information to a minimum particle size (or more) separate them.

2 Adjust the level of priority to the publication, the beams and gaps with the same priority level are
not overlapping.

17.1.3 View finite element mesh

You can view the finite element mesh on any flat surface, but should use the standard surface layer
element.

View finite element mesh:

1 Open Layers> Element> Standard Plan.

Grids are created at this stage appear somewhat random. This is normal and in fact, for the mesh size
sensitive, giving the designer the results highly satisfactory. However, sometimes such net effects
(adverse) to map the contours drawing.

17.1.4 Improved
grid

You can significantly improve the net once the design has been drawn strips. The following diagram
shows the difference.



Figure 17-2 before drawing the mesh strip
design
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Figure 17-3 after drawing the mesh strip design and Reinvent.

17.2 Improved selective nets

Although there is no parameter declaration to make the mesh finer than the other nets in many areas,
you can use tricks to achieve this.

Using 17.2.1 and above the knee in a straight line to improve grid

You can draw on the pillow or on the line of "false" to ensure that the finer mesh will in specific areas.
You must ensure that the boxes are not heat the mark, as shown in Figure 17-4 and Figure 17-5.

An example mesh is improved as shown in Figure 17-6.





















Figure 17-4 Dialog box with pillows on the heat resistance is not checked.
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Figure 17-5 Dialog knee in line with the heat box is not checked






Figure 17-6 Two identical copies in each direction on the knee unless done to improve the grid lines.
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18 Draw the finite element
manually

Note: In most cases, you do not need to draw the finite element mesh by hand. If you use automated
methods, no need to read this chapter

There are two ways to create the finite element mesh in the program RAM
Concept:

Using automated tools nets, as shown in Chapter 17, "Creating mesh", There information
objects mesh, as shown in Chapter 16, "Determining the structure".

Use hand nets tools presented in this chapter.

The first method easier and faster. This is the recommended method for most models.

The second method allows more ability to control the intensity of the net. Mesh size can have different
widths in different floor areas. However, this method is more likely to create user error and the
correction will be more difficult.

Do not use the manual method to add mesh nets with automated tools. That's because the craft element
will be lost if you use the grid tool. For example, if you add a column element in the layer above
mentioned elements, it will be lost when you re-create it.

18.1 Use Element layer

There is no parameter declaration statement in which you must identify the object. Most people draw
the bearings first.

If you import CAD drawings, showing the standard plane before drawing element
structure.

18.2 Column and wall
elements

Program RAM Concept attention to the single storey model by which you identify columns and walls
below and above the. The bearings have no bearing on the vertical, horizontal and bearing only bending
resistance.

18.3 The characteristic
element column

Here is a list of characteristics of the column element program RAM Concept:

Concrete mix concrete type used (identified in the material parameters).

Height The distance from the central vertical element of the first column
to the remote.

The columns supporting the floor
Determining above or below.

The width is measured along the axis of the column r. Declare to zero for
circular columns.
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The depth / diameter s is measured along the axis of
the column.

Angle plane angle is measured counterclockwise from the x-axis global clock. Define r axis of the
column (and usually zero).
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Bending stiffness coefficient is used to edit bending stiffness without changing the size or height.
For example, you can expect an edge crack and rotating column of more than one column and
therefore you can declare this value to 0.5. You can use BSF to increase the stiffness of the
column, but do not recommend this solution.

Roller at the far end leads to horizontal shear in column zero.

Set There is a link near the torque (around the x and y axis) between the column and, if not, be
pinned.

Set away from there a link torque (around the x and y axis) at the far end, if it is not pinned.

Note the column compression to extend the z direction Hooke's Law, otherwise there is no
compression. The column compression usually results in more accurate.

18.4 Draw element
column

Each column is positioned with x and y coordinates. Two columns can not have the same coordinates
unless a column above and below the column.

Note: If you draw the elements, you need to draw the column element at the intersection of the
element.

Draw element
column:

1 Choose Tools Column Element ( ).
2 Click on the middle column.
Copy column from bottom to
top:

1 Choose the column element and select Edit>
Copy.

2 Choose Edit> Past. Paste the new column element in the same position as the original column
element. The column element is pasted selection activities.

3 Change Support Features Set from "below" to "above" in Column Element Properties dialog box.

Note: If you do not change the set of elements Support Set the same column does not allow the model
to run correctly. If you have copied a large number, you must delete the second column elements in
each position (column a).

18.5 The wall element
characteristics

The wall element characteristics similar to the characteristics of the column element but instead width,
depth and angle, and thickness. The parameters declare the heat somewhat different, and there is no
bending stiffness coefficient.

Here is a list of properties in the wall element program RAM Concept:

Concrete mix concrete type used (identified in the material parameters).
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Height The distance from the central vertical element to the end element away from the
wall.
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The wall element which defines a floor above or
below.

Thickn
ess

Shear wall "key" element to the wall horizontally and thus keep the back, if not, you can "slide"
through the wall.

Set near the moment there is a link between wall elements and the r axis of the wall element,
otherwise it is pinned

There are a fixed distance around the shaft torque link element r of the wall at the far end, if
not,
was pinned.

Note the compression element to the wall extends z Hooke's Law, otherwise there is no
compression. The pressurized walls often provide more accurate results.

18.6 Draw a wall
element

Tools Wall Element column similar tool except that it uses straight lines rather than points. A wall
element can run through the column element, or cut other wall elements.
Note: If you draw the elements, you should paint the wall elements along the edges of the elements.
The end of the wall to put the element in the element nodes. The wall element can not pass through the
finite element.

Drawing on the wall element the element:

1 Choose Tools Wall Element ( ).
2 Click in the center of the end wall.
Draw the wall where there is no element of the
element:

1 Choose Tools Wall Element ( ).
2 Click in the center of the end wall.
3 Specify the number of elements in the Wall Element Tool dialog box and click
OK.

Copy the walls from bottom to
top:

1 Choose the wall element and choose Edit>
Copy.

2 Choose Edit> Past. Paste the new wall elements in the same position as the original object element
wall
first. The walls are pasted element is selected activities.

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3 Change Support Features Set from "below" to "above" Wall Element Properties dialog box.

18.7 Pillows on point and on a straight-
line

Results determined on the pillow is the pillow menu at the intersection of the finite element. Results
determined on a straight-line pillow or multiple pillows on a straight line but each line is positioned at
the edge finite elements. RAM Concept program using the thickness of the element is the lowest
numbered
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Advanced Knee determined way. For this reason, should not be positioned on the pillow or pillows on
the line in the step.

All bearings are horizontal stiffness should be placed in the middle of the depth can warp or
unexpected side horizontal stiffness of them (layout depth between parameters by declaring, "The
Advanced under the arch on the "one-half the depth).

Usually do not need to use the horizontal heat resistance at the knee point and a straight line, because
the program automatically RAM Concept stable structure in the x and y (you can turn off automatic
stability This Calc Options dialog box). One more case where you can use the horizontal bearing
structural bracing against one side but modeled without strut bracing components (possibly other
components outside wall concrete strut bracing).

Need to be very careful when determining any component but "is fixed in the direction of z" on the
pillow and the "shift towards fixed z" for the knee in a straight line. For knee on the point, fixed point
on the pillow in the direction r or s can warp / membrane. For the knee in a straight line, the fixed or
moving along the crossing bearings can warp / membrane.

18.8 The pillows on the
characteristics of

See "The pillows on the properties" on page 53 for more information about the properties on the
pillow
point.

18.9 Drawing on the
pillow

Drawing on the knee by clicking on their location in Point Support tool ( ).

Note: Point Support Tools ( ) And Line Support Tools ( ) Have the same button on the toolbar
Specific Layer.

Note: If you draw the elements, you need to draw on the pillow at the intersection point of
the element.

Drawing on the
pillow:

1 Choose Tools Point Support ( ).
2 Click on the pillow in place.
18.10 The pillow features a straight line

See "The pillow features the line" on page 53 for more information about the properties on the knee
straight.

18.11 Draw a straight line on
the pillow

You can use pillows on the line as the axis of symmetry. This is useful if the floor balance and you just
want to create a model half of it. Be aware that the knee in a straight line can prevent the tension from
the impact on the floor.

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Note: Point Support Tools ( ) And Line Support Tools ( ) Have the same button on the toolbar
Specific Layer.
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Note: If you draw the elements, you need to draw on the knee of the straight line along the edge of the
element. The end point of the knee in a straight line to the intersection located at the element. Pillows
on the line can not pass through the finite element.

Draw a straight line on a pillow on the
elements:

1 Choose Tools Line Support ( ).
2 Click at the end bearings.
18.12 Way to
surround

Results determined by the sole surround the base of a single dome at the intersection of the finite
element. Results determined that surround the base of one or more base line that arches are positioned
at each street edge finite elements. RAM Concept program using the thickness of the element is
considered when determining the minimum height of the dome base. For this reason, the base should
not position the dome at the steps.

The dome has the sole stiffness should be placed horizontally in the middle of the depth can warp or
unexpected side horizontal stiffness of them (layout depth between parameters by declaring "raise the
level under the arch of the "one-half the depth). For the focus of the different height, can be added to an
inertial drag on the substrate using the surround and the horizontal bearings.

Usually do not need to use the horizontal dome base, RAM Concept for automatic program to stabilize
the structure in the x and y (you can disable this automatic stability in Calc Options dialog box). One
more case where you can use the dome base is horizontal structural bracing against one side but
modeled without bracing against the elements (earth may have anti-friction braces).

Need to be very careful when determining any component other than the force constant z. The force
constant r and s can be webbed.

18.13 The characteristics of the arches soles

See "The characteristics of the imperial arches" on page 54 for more information about the properties
of the dome base.

18.14 Draw lines through the canopy
base

Each of the imperial arches are positioned with x and y coordinates. Two arches of the road base can
not have the same coordinates.

Note: Point Spring Tools ( ), Spring Line Tools ( ), Spring Line Tools triangle (
), And Quad-Area Spring Tools ( ) Have the same button on the toolbar Specific
Layer.

Note: If you draw the elements, you need to draw the base of the dome at the intersection point of the
element.

Drawing lines in the dome
base:

1 Choose Spring Point tool ( ).
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2 Click on base position the
dome.

18.15 The sole features the dome

See "The way to surround properties" on page 54 for more information on the base properties
dom
e.

18.16 Draw a straight line arches soles

Tools Line Spring Spring Point tool similar except that it uses straight lines rather than
point.

Note: Point Spring Tools ( ), Spring Line Tools ( ), Tri-Area Spring Tools ( ), And
Quad-Area Spring Tools ( ) Have the same button on the toolbar Specific Layer.

Note: If you draw the elements, you need to draw the line imperial arches along the edge of the
element. The base of the dome by the end of the line must be placed at the intersections of the
elements. Empire arches line can not pass through the finite element.

Trails surround
base:

1 Select the Line tool Spring ( ).

2 Click at the end of the dome base.

18.17 The characteristics of
imperial arches

See "The roof substrate properties" on page 55 for more information about the properties surround the
base.

18.18 Draw a cross section of the
dome base

Use the Tri-Area Spring ( ) Or Quad-Area Spring tools ( ) And locate the corner section of
the dome base.

Note: Point Spring Tools ( ), Spring Line Tools ( ), Tri-Area Spring Tools ( ),
And
Quad-Area Spring Tools (

Draw a way to surround the
triangle:
) Have the same button on the toolbar Specific Layer.

1 Choose Tools Tri-Area Spring ( ).

2 Click at three positions corners of the dome
base.

Draw a rectangular
dome base:

1 Select a tool Quad-Area Spring ( ).

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2 Click on the four corner positions of the dome
base.

Note: Objects can surround the base larger structures that
support it.

18.19 The floor
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You define the slab and beams with hand tools the nets. Drawing elements manually requires more
thinking than in the drawing process. These parameters can be determined incompetent to make a
significant correction and double work.

Drawing elements also requires manually using tools carefully to ensure that each element of the same
length as the adjacent elements. In other words, each element must be the intersection located at the
corner of any element that touches it. The element can not overlap each other.

Modeling the beam element is a dense element by element copy tools like. Modeling the gaps are the
gaps in the mesh.

18.20 The element properties

The characteristics of the fall into two categories: general and
behavior.

Here is the interpretation of the characteristics of program RAM Concept:

Concrete mix concrete type used (identified in the material parameters).

You determine the thickness of the thick, like drop caps and drop panels, determined by the
thickness increases.

Typically surface height parameters declared height is typically 0. The height parameter
declaration to great value (like 100 feet or 30 meters) can lead to rounding errors in the analysis.
You make the step surface and the underside of the dome by using different surface heights for
different sections.

























Figure 18-1 characteristics the elements - of
Conduct

R axis determine the orientation. If you are a two-way with the same properties in all directions
("isotropic"), the r-axis is not appropriate, because there is no orientation of the capital.
However, if the non-isotropic, then this axis (defined by the angle counterclockwise from the 3-
hour clock) r axis is determined with the use of the property to determine the behavior. S axis is
always 90 degrees counterclockwise from the axis r clock.
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KMR, KMS, KMrs, KFR, KFs, KVrs The relative stiffness (compared to the isotropic stiffness).
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See "The right of Conduct" on page 306 for more information about using behavior characteristics.

18.21 Draw the elements

You can draw each time one or more of the elements. Normally you would try to draw as much as
possible in a manipulation tool Rect Mesh Slab Elements ( ) Or tools Poly Mesh Slab Elements (
). Often that is painted plates (with the columns in the corners) with an operation.

Note: Slab Mesh Tools Rect Elements ( ) And Slab Tools Poly Mesh Elements ( ) Have the
same button on the toolbar Element layer.

Note: You can almost create curves by a series of straight edges.

Draw a cross section of square mesh
panels:

1 Choose Tools Rect Mesh Slab Elements ( ).
2 Click at the two opposite corners rectangle.
3 Specify size Rect element in the dialog box and click OK Slab Mesh Elements.

Draw a cross-section polygon
mesh:

1 Choose Tools Poly Mesh Slab Elements ( ).
2 Click the row at each point of the plate.
3 Go to the top of the first stick and click closed polygons (or type the letter "c" and
press Return). 4 Specify the element size Slab Poly Mesh Tool dialog box and click OK.
Draw a single mesh
element:

1 Select an element in the tools menu ( ).
2 Click the row in every three (or four) top plate.
3 Go to the top of the first stick and click closed polygons (or type the letter "c" and
press Return).

18.22 A few last words

Do not click Generate Mesh ( ) After drawing the mesh elements by hand. It will delete all the
elements that you drew.
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19 Load Draw

RAM Concept program enables you to draw the load points, lines and surfaces and the torque on any
surface that load. The load may be under the direction of the axis x, y and z and the global momentum
may be around the global x and y axes.

Each load of the load layer, such as downloading activity. You define each load in the load window,
and drawing on the plane load.

There is no quantity limit load is determined.

Load independent of the finite element mesh and has no effect on automatic mesh generation. This is
satisfactory for most loads. However, for the point or line load is heavy (as in the transmission or
copies) should load correlated with the intersection finite element mesh. You can do this by drawing
the columns and walls are pinned on the floor, and drawing load at this position with the support of the
snap tool. Or, you can improve local grid objects using a "fake". See "Improved selective grid" on
page 62 for more information.

The horizontal loads can generate torque applications depending on the height above the surface of the
load. If the load is positioned at the surface of the step, the program uses RAM Concept thickness of the
elements are numbered to identify the lowest load height. For this reason, the load should not be
positioned at the point or straight line step.

Import CAD drawings can support your weight when
drawing.

19.1 Self weight

RAM Concept program automatically calculates the weight of the floor itself for static loads.

19.2 Pile load

Download key can not be in the same location on the same Layer
payload.

Load line may cross or overlap each other, but can not have the same length and the same position on
Layer payload.

Surface load can overlap each other, but can not have the same shape and the same position on Layer
payload.

The overlapping payload complement each
other.

19.3 The characteristics of the load

Here is a list of key characteristics of the load in RAM Concept Program:

The height above the surface of the vertical distance between the load point and
the surface.

Force Fx x axis points towards global (horizontal
forces). Fy force in the direction of the global y
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axis (horizontal forces). The force Fz z axis points
in the direction of global (axial force).
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The torque Mx global x axis.

My Moment of the global y axis.

Note: Although not need to load set point at the intersection of the finite element, but you should
consider locating the huge load at the intersection. Download key must be positioned on the finite
element; Concept will show warning if you violate this rule.

Note: sign convention is defined in the Criteria> Signs. See Chapter 8, "Choosing convention signed
effect ".

Note: The horizontal force (Fx, Fy) generate torque applications unless the height above the surface
be declared to the load applied at the focus.

19.4 Draw the load

Each load point is positioned with coordinates x
and y.

Draw the load:

1 Select the Load Point tool ( ).

2 Click in load position (or enter the coordinates in the command
line).

19.5 The characteristic load line

Here is a list of properties in line loads the program RAM Concept: The height above the
surface of the vertical distance between the load line and the surface. Force Fx line towards
global x-axis (horizontal forces).
Fy force lines toward the global y-axis in each of the first (horizontal
forces). The force Fz line towards global z-axis in each head (vertical
force). Mx line torque around the x-axis in each of the first globally.
My torque around the axis line in each of the first global
health.

Note: If the line force (or torque) does not change, you just need to enter a value. If not, you need to
enter two values separated by commas (endpoints 1 and 2). This allows a linear variation of the line
force (or torque). See Figure 19-1.

Note: Although the load line does not need to put on the finite element intersection, you should
consider positioning huge loads at the element edges. Load lines must be positioned completely on the
finite element; Concept program will alert if you violate this rule.

Note: sign convention is defined in the Criteria> Signs.

Note: The horizontal force (Fx, Fy) generate torque applications unless the height above the surface
be declared to the load applied at the focus.
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Figure 19-1 The linear load characteristics vary from 10 to 20 units.

19.6 Draw the load line

There are two tools Load Line.

19.6.1 Load line Standards

Load Line Tools Point Load tool similar except that it uses two points rather than one
point.

Draw the load line:

1 Select the Line tool Load ( ).

2 Click at the end of the load (or enter the coordinates in the command line).

19.6.2 Load peripheral line

Perimeter Load Line Tools to facilitate more drawing objects load line around the perimeter, with or
without deviation.

Draw a straight line peripheral load:

1 Select the Line tool Perimeter Load ( ).
2 Click any location on the map.
3 In the dialog box that appears, enter Inset Distrance, and click Apply.

19.7 The load characteristics section

Here is a list of properties in the payload section of program RAM Concept:

The height above the surface of the vertical distance between the payload section and the surface.
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Force Fx section in the direction of the global x-axis
(horizontal forces). The force Fy section towards the
global y-axis (horizontal forces). The force Fz section
towards global z axis (vertical force). Mx torque
around the x-axis cross-section global.
My torque around the y-axis cross-section
global.

Note: If the power section (or torque) does not change, you just need to enter a value for an
axis.

Note: Force section (or torque) can differ in any linear direction. Variations section can be force for
snow or steep slopes.

Note: If the power section (or torque) different, you need to enter three values, separated by commas
(peaks 1, 2 and 3). This allows a linear variation of the line force (or torque) in two directions. See
Figure 19-2.

Note: If you use more than three vertices, Concept program calculates single value at all vertices (three
points determine a plane).

Note: The surface load must be located at least partially on the finite element; Concept program will
alert if you violate this rule. Program Concept ignore any part of the payload section is not on the
finite element.

Note: sign convention is defined in the Criteria> Signs.

Note: The horizontal force (Fx, Fy) generate torque applications unless the height above the surface
be declared to the load applied at the focus.






Figure 19-2 The section features various loads from 10 to 20 to 30 units in the first three peaks. Concept
program calculates the value in the different peaks.

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19.8 Draw a surface load

Use Area Load ( ) To locate the top surface load.
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Although obviously painted to match the load to the floor surface, but should be done for oversized
loads. RAM Concept Program ignore any part of the payload section is not on the real element. The
excessive size increase will affect a lot of scope to zoom in and automatically.

Draw payload
section:

1 Select Area tool Load ( ).

2 Click at the top of the payload section (or enter the coordinates in the command
line).

3 Close the polygon by entering the letter "c" in the command line or by clicking on the first
vertex.

19.9 Copy the load

You can copy from a plane load to load a different plane. This is convenient when done by most of the
loads are the values for more than one load.

Copy the load from a load to a load of other:

1 Choose payload and select Edit>
Copy.

2 Open plane load that you want to paste to.

3 Choose Edit> Past. Paste the new load in the same location as the plane load initially. Load
the paste operation is selected.

4 Edit the properties of the new load.

Note: You can also copy, paste and edit complex loads.
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20 Create a form
load

RAM Concept Program created by the sample weight load patterns that you draw. "Load Model" in
Page 32 presentation load template rules.

20.1 Determine the number of load patterns
using

Mathematically, there may be a large number of load floor samples have different results. In fact, the
number of samples is the biggest load of ten. This allows you to load samples drawn in each direction.

The sample load configuration is typical:



Figure 20-1 The weight of the beam pattern. It should be noted that we do not need to create the
biggest negative moment, but they will create the torque is close to the maximum torque and
presenting practical solutions in most situations.

20.2 Draw the sample
load

Draw the load pattern is part of the process sample loads.

Draw the form load:

1 Choose Layers>
Templates.

2 Open one of the sample plane load (load from Form 1 to Form 10 loads). 3 Double-
click tool Form Load ( ).
4 Specify the template you want to use (the number corresponds to the sample plane load
weight
).

Draw range to form polygons. 5 Click
a row in each of the peaks.
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6 Go to the top of the first stick and click closed polygons (or type the letter "c" and
press Return). 7 Repeat for all patterns.
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Note: Regardless of the load model plane that you are using, then the form will be the last thing
identified. You will need to change this number for each different sample plane.

20.3 Filter sample load

RAM Concept program will solve the load model by defining the beam element and the finite partially
or entirely in the form loads involved. Load on this element (element loads) are multiplied by form
factor. For elements completely outside the model, the payload element with no form factor.

Thus, the scope of the model calculations show that the most RAM Concept range pattern you draw.
You should consider this when drawing the sample load and select mesh size because it will affect the
actual load pattern is created.

20.3.1 Impact of the net sample weight

The nature and intensity of the grid are finite element affecting the process sample loads. The following
example shows the best process.

Sample loads for the four panels



Figure 20-2 To My greatest creation in between beats, you will use this template
loads.

The actual scope form of irregular coarse grid
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Figure 20-3 Loads and loads of additional section in the form load.

The actual scope form to smooth irregular grid



Figure 20-4 The finer mesh screen, will not load, and the load will have little additional section in the
form load.

The actual scope form of coarse grid are
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Figure 20-5 The mesh is created with sample load range similar to the sample load.

The painted strips designed to significantly improve the net. See Chapter 17, "Creating nets" for more
information on network improvements.

Note: The mesh will have more if you created or recreated after drawing the strip design.
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21 Identify design strips

Note: The range of designs is probably the most important tool in program RAM Concept. The
designer should take the time to learn thoroughly the range of design, and how to use them. If you use
the incorrect range of designs, the results would be meaningless.

The finite element analysis often generates high torque and stress concentration factors are not suitable
for rebar calculation and evaluation capacity.

Generally, the rule is for the strip method of calculation assumes an average (or "blur") torque and
shear forces through fixed width, such as column range. RAM Concept program using the range of
designers and designed to link the finite element analysis with the regulations on concrete and
concrete design.

21.1 Definition strip design

Strip design is an object:

a series of cross-sections at separate locations

usually the length of the span, and a rhythm section, but in fact there is any way possible long in
structure

consolidation of synergy (the torque, shear, and axial force, torque) for all load combinations
along each section (and, therefore, cut the width of the strip design)

appropriate to apply the rule to the total force
range of designs similar to the rhythm strip.
21.2 The term strip design

The understanding of the different objects are used to determine the range of the design is very
important.

Segment rhythm section straight-line entity used to indicate the whole rate structure or rate
structures. The characteristic "support" of the rhythm section that position and stop start
rhythm.

One or more rhythm strip sections are linked together to form a single span structure. Nearly all
requests beat a rhythm section.

One or more frame rate are linked together to form a continuous line of rhythm.

The collection spans the band sections are combined with the rhythm. Rhythm section might
have to beat the band bcac (left, middle and right). Known as the range of designs.

See Figure 21-1 to be explained.
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Figure 21-1 The band designed for flat plate in two directions.

21.3 Understanding the way the design
range

RAM Concept program designed to create strips from the Strip. Normal
range is designed in length with a width of a reasonable rate.
Concept program split into segments range designed by the following parameters:

the minimum separation
largest separation distances
bearing width
changes in cross section along the span concrete

Concept Program section located at the top of each strip design ranges from plus section at the end. The
length of each section is equal to the width of the design strip at that location. See Figure 21-2.
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Note: You can specify the minimum separation is zero, with a maximum distance, the number of sites
is zero. This can be useful for helping to make the width of the span.

Program Concept adjusted geometric characteristics of each strip section design parameters declared
Refining and limited cross slope section inside.

The concept of total force integration for each load combination along the length of each strip sectional
design (and thus cut the width of the strip design). See Figure 21-3.

The program uses the concept of individual characteristics to determine the rate applicable rules (or the
beams, or reinforced after stress) for the corresponding design ranges.

Concept Program applies the rules for how the load combination is the integral part of the norm. The
other characteristic rhythm section (rebar sizes, protective layer) to create favorable conditions for the
actual calculation rules. See "The characteristics of the rhythm " for more information.

Program Design Concept divided the strip into two parts: latitude and longitude. The two parts in order
to facilitate and recognize that the concrete floor should be designed in two ways.

Note: With all of the plane, you can rename the strip plane designs plane latitude and longitude range
designed by choosing Layer> Rename.






Figure 21-2 column strips and two mid-range of a rhythm section with visible.
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Figure 21-3 torque around the y-axis (My) is a cross-sectional drawing of the three-strip designs.

21.4 Strip design process

Presented in Figure 21-4.
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Figure 21-4 Flowchart of design process ranges

21.5 The rhythm section features
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The rhythm section features different purposes. RAM Concept Program features used to determine:

design methodology (eg including axial force)
the strip width and cross-sectional design geometry
Design rules appropriate standards (eg beams or copies)
Reinforced
reduce work load

Here is an explanation of the characteristics of the program spans the Concept:






Figure 21-5 The characteristic rhythm section -
General

Declare parameters Define rhythm that belongs to the rhythm: latitude or
longitude.

Declare Environment environment affects the operating rules of the selected concept of the rule.

See chapter presents the relevant rules for more information:

The 51.5.4 inpage 374 and Section 51.6.10 inpage 380 related ACI318-02.
The 53.6.15 inpage 419 related to AS3600.
The 54.5.4 inpage 429 related to BS8110.
The 55.5.4 inpage 452 related to IS 456.

Note: This parameter has a significant effect on the amount of
reinforcement.

Consider the design axial force intensity using net section axial force when designing the
ben
ding
.

This is a very important report related to the effect of axial force general (not necessarily axial load) in
cross section. If you choose this option, the Concept is the interaction of the axial force when
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calculating flexural deformation section, similar
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typical column design with deformed compatibility. Generally we recommend considering the design
axial force in intensity. For the cross section is pure axial compression, which tends to reduce the
requirements for reinforcement in the cross section is pure axial stress, it will increase the required
reinforcement.

Hailed as the force behind Concept Allows programs defined rules are used.

This determines whether the segments have been designed strip design rule check initial operations
(for initial LC activity) and whether to use concrete or PT rules (rules do not differ much too).

Note: If no response is seen as the force behind Concept program will ignore the prestressed
reinforcement in strength computations.

No decrease M and V are incorporated by changing notation purpose of this plan is designed to
pay attention to the safety and preservation, which is the domain of cross-torque (or shear) with
the notation opposite, recorded torque (or shear stress) on the lower section of the side cut
shorter.

If you choose this option, the design capacity is always more secure when not selected plan. Do not
use this option carelessly.

See "Using the plan" is not a concession M and V are incorporated by changing the sign "" in page 317
for more information.






Figure 21-6 The characteristic rhythm section - Create range

Calculate width rhythm Concept Determine how the program calculates the width span.

The choices are:

Automated application logic (sometimes erroneous) to the nearest beat width:
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o The boundary rhythm (with the same parameters latitude / longitude as the rhythm
section)
o the next version
o halfway to the next beat or wall

Instructions: override the automatically calculated and determined by the width of items
rhythm rhythm nearest border (with the same parameters latitude / longitude as the rhythm
section). See "Draw of the strips by hand " for more information.

Note: When using the hand parameters declared in the band segment, all segment boundaries rhythm
strip must be determined. Segment width rhythm strips create zero length segments when there are not
any boundaries defined rhythm.

Calculation Determination column strip width column strip width is determined how. The term
"band width" column is used for multiple columns up there and strip center. The choices are:

Full width: this is typical for the PT is designed for ACI318 and TR43.
Width of column strip width is similar to the
rhythm.

The standard: this is typical of the concrete in two directions, and the PT in two directions are
designed to AS3600. Narrower band width columns:

o span width
o border strip (with the same parameters latitude / longitude as the rhythm section)
o fraction of the distance to the rhythm or the adjacent bearings (for the current standard
now, this fraction of 0.25)
o fractional length spans on each side of the line rate (for current standards, this fraction
of 0.25)

Standard T-beams: strip width narrower column:

o span width
o border strip (with the same parameters latitude / longitude as the rhythm section)
o plate plus 8 times the width of wing thickness on one side beams (ACI standards only)
o 25% of span length (ACI standards only)
o plate with plus length 0:07 time span on one side (only for AS 3600 and BS 8110)

Manual: strip width narrower column:

o span width
o border strip (with the same parameters latitude / longitude as the rhythm section)

Bevel angle between the design and cut strips perpendicular to the rhythm. Typical values are
zero.

Number smallest separation Determine the number of sections designed in a
rhythm.

For compost N N +1 design section. In general, choose N is an even number. The upper part of the
separator is precision designed higher, the ability to find the key location and design of reinforced
length of the program is the amount of RAM Concept separated. The bottom of the separator is the
calculation takes more time, for large models, you can use a small amount of separation (eg, 4) and
then increase the number of design Last (but you should consider the impact of the next feature).

All the bands are not designed with the same amount of separation. If you are designing beam
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transmission in the flat, probably should have separated beams designed to strip.
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Distance separates biggest Overwrite the smallest separation with the upper line of separation
distances.

Automatic detection of edges and bearings (bearings declare the width and below) Searching for:

the bearing at the end of the strip and override the "end is considered bearing" and "bearing
width".

position near the edge the neck pace and "pull back" section closest to the "x", where x is the
position protection layer end of the stick plus 1 inch / 25 mm.

o Do this by declaring parameters bearing width is x.

o If the end of the neck near the edge bearings found, it does not perform edge detection
version (and use the bearing width calculations are).

Come the end of one's bearings tick boxes allow the program Concept determine the
interpretation of "rhythm" in texture. The determination of this rate affect the application of
Concept program rules related to rhythm, including help identify the domain, the domain and
range rate is used to reduce the work load.

Width at end 1 bearing the bearing dimensions parallel to the strip design. Width locate
bearings put the strip section designed first and last. The position of them with a half-width
bearings (measured in the direction of rhythm) from the end of the strip design, create favorable
conditions for the concession of torque to the bearing surface (thus starting and termination of
the strip in the middle of the design is very important bearings). Enter the bearing width is zero.






Figure 21-7 The characteristic rhythm section - Strip column

Tweaking the extract reduced the cross-cut strips geometric design. See "Tweaking section" for
more information.
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Limitations section of the slope in Zhejiang reduce the strip section design based on slope limits.
See "Tweaking limited cross slope inside" for more information.

Use the bar on CS label to identify the top of the bar is used to enhance the design meander.

Using CS bar below the label to identify the underside of the bar is used to enhance the design
meander.

Using CS slider label to identify Bracing is used to slide design in a way.

Label is not necessarily the size of the bar. The label of rebar (and their properties) defined in the
Criteria> Materials. The range of different designs can have different bars.

After the process is finished calculating, RAM Concept Program will require reporting of strip
reinforcement bars are designed to determine the characteristics of the design range. See also the
section of the reinforcement required in the charts and tables.

CS layer on layer of protection to the protection of the vertical
bar above.

CS protected class under protection layer in the vertical bars
underneath.

Chan CS of shear reinforcement Scoping longitudinal reinforcement by multiplying the number
of feet with the slider section.

CS twisted design is used to design twists.

See "Considering twist" on page 330,Chapter 47, "Design Considerations section" to be explained.

CS System design System design (beams / written by a local / written by two) for the design
range.

Reinforced smallest and the rules differ depending on the type of system used in rhythm. For example,
the minimum requirements for the other beams reinforced with a request for the method.

Using detailed system CS rate details. See "Details rhythm" on page 341,Chapter 49, "The Note on
Reinforcement".

The choices are:

Not
Code
As users identify

Location smallest CS reinforcement for reinforcing steel
Determine the smallest. The choices are:
The high: Some rules smallest tensile reinforcement does not consider the curvature stress conditions,
we determine the minimum reinforcement is based on geometry and surface tension "is expected". For
example, ACI 318-99 provisions of Rule 18.9.3.3 minimum reinforcement in columns on the high side.
This parameter is guaranteed RAM Concept program that uses face.
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The foundation system: Similar to above, the minimum reinforcement in the column to the underside.

Hand stress: This parameter for details on the minimum reinforcement tensile or compression surface
with a minimum amount.

Above: The figures indicate the smallest details in the reinforcement on, whether concrete stress.
Below: The figures that reinforced the smallest details at the bottom, even though the concrete
stress. No: There is no minimum reinforcement is presented in detail.
Reinforcement rate on the smallest CS reinforcement ratio defined by the user for the above.
Program Concept will the cross-sectional area has been tweaked to rate this.

Reinforcement ratio in the smallest CS reinforcement ratio determined by the user to the bottom.






Figure 21-8 The characteristic rhythm section - range between

Note: Range is between a range of properties for the column again. The remaining similar
characteristics, but may have different values for the column strip.

Range between range use characteristics Declare column features the band ranges between
columns.
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Figure 21-9 The characteristic rhythm section -
Reduce the load

Reduce maximum load View Chapter 48, "notes down load" for more information on the
implementation of load reduction of Concept program.

The LLR parameters defined by the user View Chapter 48, "notes down load" to
For more information on the implementation of load reduction of Concept
program.

21.6 Create the rhythm

You can make a beat with haih: automatic and manual. For most models, using
automated features to create the rhythm in each orthogonal direction, and then adjusted manually.

21.6.1 Automatically create the
rhythm

Unless you have a concrete floor in a true direction, usually the first to create a rhythm section (and
therefore the range of design) in the plane of rate design latitude, and then the parameters declared
report on the plane orthogonal to the rhythm of the design.

Creating the latitude
rate:

1 Click the Generate tool spans ( ), Or choose Process> Generate spans.
Generate spans dialog box appears.
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2 Declare to Generate spans the
latitudes. 3 Select the option and click
OK.
The sensitive period appears (with the specified direction) in the plane of rate design
latitude. Repeat this process for the longitude direction.
21.6.2 Draw the rhythm section by hand

Sometimes need to draw or manually adjust the rate for non-straight or complex floor.

Draw the single rate:

1 Choose Tools Span Segment ( ).
2 Click at the beginning of the span. 3
Click at the end of the span.
Double-click rate determined spine segments.

Draw multiple rhythm sections:

1 Select Polyline tool Span Segment ( ).
2 Click at the beginning of the first beat. 3 Click
at the end of the first beat.
4 Click at the end of Monday rhythm section.

5 Continue clicking the end point of the segment until you finish painting the sections
concerned. 6 Right-click and select Enter to end the operation.
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Note: The start point and end point is usually the bearings. However, there are exceptions, such as
strips designed to be used for concrete strip to differentiate between the PT and the concrete section,
or be used for the reinforcement rate is determined by the user in the separate location.

21.7 Create the rhythm strip (the strip
design)

Create the rhythm strip from the rhythm section. This can be done for all the bands (on the plane
latitude
and longitude) or only the selected
range.

Create the rhythm
strip

1 Click Tools Genearate Strip ( ), Or choose Process> Genearate Strip.

Note: The command Generate Strip does not make any band that can beat the mark Lock Generated
Strips. This is beneficial when you are satisfied with just a few, but not all, of the design range.

Note: Each rhythm section can create up to 3 range: mid-range ("columns"), the left strip ("between")
and the right strip ("between"). The three band together to create a whole range of rhythms.

Create several bands
rhythm section

1 Choose one or more of the
rhythm

2 Select a tool Generate Selected Strips ( ).

Concept program will recalculate the rate range for the selected pace.

21.8 Determine the width of the strip width and beat by hand

Program Concept widths often create the rhythm and the band requires adjustment. This trend becomes
apparent when you repeatedly create a rhythm section. Always check the strip width to determine if
they can not meet the requirements.

21.8.1 Identify the rhythm by hand boundary

It can determine the width manually calculate the rate when the rhythm width does not automatically
bring satisfactory results.

Declare width rhythm section:

1 Select Polyline tool Span Border. 2 Click
the border at the beginning of the beat.
3 Click the border of the next beat.

4 Continue clicking the rhythm of the border until all beats are identified. 5 Right-click
and select ENTER to end the operation.
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Note: The boundaries have declared rhythm parameters latitude (longitude) only affects the rhythm
strips latitude (longitude).

Example
21-1
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The formation 21-10 to the 21-12 presented using rhythm to control the border width
the rhythm.

Figure 21-13 present an alternative.



Figure 21-10 The band have clips.


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Figure 21-11 range is made up of the rhythm in Figure 21-10. A rhythm strips designed for
unreasonable rate calculated width excessive.






Figure 21-12 Reinvent the design strip width after adjusting beat rhythm with boundary (shown inside
the ellipse).







Figure 21-13 The band with the same rhythm section tends to tilt ninety degrees. This does not require
hand beats the border.

21.8.2 Determining boundary strips by hand

You can manually define the boundary strip "column" when calculating column width strips
provide satisfactory results.

Set border strip:
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1 Select Boundary Polyline tool Strip ( ). 2
Click at the beginning of the border strip.
3 Click the border of the next strip.

4 Continue clicking the border point range until all identified.

The uneven pace makes the column of different width. You can accept that column strip width
calculation program Concept, or make adjustments.

BS8110 Article 3.7.2.9 as follows:

"The middle column of panels are not the same: If the support is usually two plate sizes so that
the range of a plate does not match the range of the other panels, you should remove the plate
separation of the common areas for support will be calculated for plate columns wider range. "

Bands column in the following example is this
adjustment. Example 21-2
The formation 21-14 to the 21-16 presented using the border strip to control the width of the column
strip





Figure 21-14 A with the rhythm section.
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Figure 21-15 range is made up of the rhythm in Figure 21-14.







Figure 21-16 Border strips made the shift column width strips

Note: The short span of the Figure 21-16 Column Width Strip with the declared Calc Manual

Example 21-3

The formation 21-17 to the 21-20 presented using the border strip to control the width of the column
strip.
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Figure 21-17 The rhythm section with






Figure 21-18 range is made up of the rhythm in Figure 21-17. A rhythm (with gloss gray) with a width
of column strip width rhythm and unreasonable.
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Figure 21-19 Border rhythm beats make reasonable width, but the column strip width is still a
problem.






Figure 21-20 Border width strip strip made logical column.

Example 21-4
The rhythm and short beams is the problem because the program design concept creates a narrow
column strips. The standard recommends that the column strips no wider than half the rate. Concept
Author Program
the (often used) that the equivalent length of the beam is 2L. Thus, the strip width
beam column is L. This may be quite narrow for short beams.
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Figure 21-21 The rhythm section with



Figure 21-22 range is created from the rhythm section in Figure 21-21.
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Figure 21-23 Border width strip strip made logical column.

21.9 Tweaking section

RAM Concept program automatically tweak section in the rhythm strip in tweaking parameters in the
combined rate.

21.9.1 Tweaking section

Real shape of the cross-section can be uneven due to the step and the other shape or architectural
issues. While create geometric models of concrete in the shape of a building is built, it should not
always make use of geometric designs. It is usually better to edit the section considering both the
shape of the cross section and the next layer of concrete.

Program Concept refine proposed two sections: single and Tweaks section limits
inner slope section.

Tweaking consider a single cross-section adjustable separately and sections based on the type refine
determined by the user.

The limit on the section of slope tweak section above and / or below the adjacent sections, height, and
spacing between sections.

Limited cross slope inside always tweak after tweak menu section.

21.9.2 Heart
cut

Need to understand the "center cut" section before
tweaking.

Program Concept define the center cut as part of the refining section includes the vertical piece extends
down from the cross section, as shown in Figure 21-24.
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How to calculate a power cut to the program's concept is based on the entire shear force and cutting
center. For example, the T-beams, shear calculations based on cross-sectional area of the wing rib
beams and girders on the side beams.

The cross section may have more individual attention. For example, in the double-T beams, girders and
ribs center two wing sections on the two side beams beams. The concept is similar as heart care unit of
the same width (total).

Note: Centre cutting the pipe tension adjustment as described in the following section "Determination
"Heart" Concrete "on page 330.



































Figure 21-24 Cutting Center (dark) for the different
sections

Many sections do not have the heart shaped cut. In such cases, the program can not calculate the value
Concept capacity (eg power cut). See examples in Figure 21-25.



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Figure 21-25 A cross-cut with a narrow mind and a center section is cut to
zero.

21.9.3 Cut in the center of the

Concept program often report the shear reinforcement in the unforeseen changes to the declarations
section without proper tweaking parameters.

Section is the heart that can shred a large amount of shear reinforcement or even design, even small
shear forces. See a cross section 21.9.5 to declare tweak parameters to edit.









Figure 21-26 shows a section of the concave center cut (right). "The piece" narrow cut interest often
lead to the shear reinforcement and design.

21.9.4 See the section perspective strip design

See the section perspective strip design is a useful measure to check the validity of the declaration
tweak parameters sectional design range.

View the perspective sectional designs range
in degrees:

1 Choose Layers> Design Strips> Latitude Cross Sections Perspective






Figure 21-27 Perspective section strip design. The portion of the center section is not cut each other
color.

21.9.5 Tweak single section

The Concept has six types of single tweak different sections:
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The largest rectangular upper and lower sections of the tune, and the other piece can be
removed to create a cross-section with a uniform height above bottom, and the largest section.
"Rectangle" is made up can actually be the individual rectangles of the same height above the
bottom. See the example in the picture 21-28 and 21-29.









Figure 21-28 The show has not been tweaked section (left) and center cut (right).









Figure 21-29 Tweaking "the largest rectangular" shows cross-sections have been revised. Now, cut
the center section is similar.

The piece along beams of rectangular cross section will be eliminated until the rest of the large
rectangle height possible. This rectangle can be separate rectangles of the same height above the
bottom.

The T-or L-shaped upper and lower sections of the tune, and the other piece can be removed to
create a cross-section with a uniform height above, and only two height below (under fields and
beams underneath). T and L-shaped and is formed that can be linked together (like two tee) or
separately. The rectangle is considered similar to the T-beams without wings. See the example in
the picture 21-30 and 21-31.








Figure 21-30 beams not tweak that section (left) and center cut (right).
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Figure 21-31 tweak "T or L" shows were edited section (left) and center cut (right).

T or L reverse Similarly T or L word, but with wings beams below.

The biggest cut in the center and / or bottom of the section to be tweaked to create a section with
the largest cross-cutting center. See the example in the picture 21-32 and 21-33.








Figure 21-32 beams not tweak that section (left) and center cut (right).







Figure 21-33 Tweaking "the largest cutting center" that were edited section (left) and center cut (right).

No - not done tweaking section (single).

21.9.6 Choose Tweaks section

You must determine what tweaks section is most appropriate, but here are the instructions:

The typical drop the cap (but no drop panel):

Best Tweaks usually the largest rectangle.

The Version drop panel (but no drop cap):
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Tweaking is usually best T or L. Chu

The Version drop panel and drop
cap:

Tweaking is usually best T or L word, but assuming that the cross-sectional area smaller than the drop
cap drop cross-section panel.

The beam goes back down below:

Tweaking is usually best T or L. Chu

The beams overturned on:

Tweaking is usually best T or L word back.

After the Calc-All, you can see the actual sectional perspective. See "View of perspective strip section
design ".

21.9.7 Tweaking limited cross slope within

Once the section has been tweaked, we will tweak related to each other. Tweaking limit slope within
this section refine the effective height below the adjacent section to limit the slope between them.

Need to do this because of the compression and traction forces can not "melt" at the sharp corner from
this one section to the next.

The formation 21-34 to the 21-37 presents two examples to limit the cross section of the slope of
0.25.












Figure 21-34 The comparison of the thickness. Perhaps not the depth of the design using t2 at section
A-A.











Figure 21-35 The thickness of the projector is designed with efficient use of limited slope of 0.25.

Limit slope is 0.0 will not allow any change of height above and below the height of the adjacent
section. Tweaking the effective cross-section of a rhythm strip to the bottom of the same height.

In general, we recommend not to use too limited to 0:25 slope.
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Figure 21-36 hand-shaped projection of the ladder. Maybe not using the full depth to
the cross-sectional
design.













Figure 21-37 The thickness of the projector is designed with efficient use of limited slope of 0.25.

21.10 Improved
grid

The presence of the strip design can significantly improve both the quality of the finite element mesh.
We suggest that once you have completed the design range, you should re-create the mesh. See
Chapter 17, "Creating mesh" for more information.

21.11 Additional information design
strips

RAM Concept program automates much of the design process ranges. To rationalize the layout design
of the bearing strips are aligned not very complicated.

More complex geometries, the more you have to think about the layout and design of the strip to make
changes manually.

If there are repeated geometry on a floor is not necessary to use the strips around the design. You
should only use the amount required to design appropriate flooring. For example, if the floor beams
have the same weight, branching section, rhythm and size, it is not necessary to use the range for each
beam design similar. That's because you do not make calculations by hand for each twenty identical
beams. Although the beams can or similar, ongoing impact and other considerations can have
significant impact and results may vary.

It is better to determine the proper design range in the critical section rather than with the strip flooring
inappropriate.

If in doubt, strip paint design, but keep in mind that the design of the strip affects the computation
time. Always assess building performance.

Always remember that any information that does not strip area will not have the finite element is
improved when you re-create the mesh.
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In general, the design for a range of parameters declared rhythm (latitude and longitude) should not
overlap each other.

For the beam and the system may consider placing the strips parallel design and between the beams.
That's because the only set of beam range torque and shear forces along the width of the strip. If the
beam is not a significantly stiffer, which can be designed for the reinforcement.

The following sections present the case of irregular geometry.

Note: See the "The other advice" for more tips and hints.

21.12 The irregular column
layout

Put the strip layout design for column layout does not require to consider a number of issues.
Includes:
1 The oblique angles: whether the designed range of latitude and
longitude should be orthogonal.

2 If the component prestressed reinforcement from either direction affect the design
range. The following section presents these issues.
21.12.1 The beveled strip design

There is a limited range of bevel design. A reference guide is Eurocode (EC2:
4.3.1.1 P (8)): "For you, the difference between the principal stress directions and main reinforcement
not less than 15 degrees can be ignored."

The up / flat panels should be designed in two directions at intervals from 75 to 105 degrees, meaning
the bevel should not exceed fifteen degrees.

Oblique angle characteristic rhythm section allows you to manipulate the rhythm section that the band
section is designed to return to normal in each direction. This is presented in the form 21-38 to the 21-
41.





















Figure 21-38 The beat 2-2 with a 15-degree angle. Oblique angle is zero, so the cross-section (shown
in Figure) perpendicular to the rhythm.
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Figure 21-39 range design section





















Figure 21-40 The beat 2-2 with a 15-degree angle. Oblique angle is negative fifteen degrees, so the
cross-section (shown in Figure 21-41) Along with the rhythm section of the adjacent
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Figure 21-41 Advanced design of strip adjustment.

21.12.2 The impact of these components on prestressed reinforced the strip cross-
section design

In these examples, the prestressed reinforcement "latitude" and "longitude" can be detailed and built in
a way not orthogonal. Often ignored in the calculation range, but the real problem here is that can affect
the design conditions, such as operation, durability and flexibility.

RAM Concept program to review all the force of prestressed reinforced cross section strip design (or
design section). See example below.









































Figure 21-42 range oblique design with three-section design. The prestressed reinforced latitude is
not orthogonal to the prestressed reinforcement longitude.
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Figure 21-43 Perspective shown in the middle section perpendicular to the prestressed reinforcement
at the lower latitudes. Due to the layout, so bands set components prestressed reinforcement at peak
longitude. This configuration can cause problems in the design.

21.12.3 Examples of irregular grid

The following example shows the strip layout design for grid misalignment. Example
21-5 column and middle strips
The formation 21-44 to the 21-46 column presents the process and create strips between the irregular
grid.

Figure 21-46 presents the design range, the number does not meet requirements. In particular, the bands
rhythm section 3-2 does not consider the columns near the "irregular".

The formation 21-47 to the 21-50 presents a better solution for manual adjustment.





















Figure 21-44 irregular column layout
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Figure 21-45 The rhythm is created from Concept.






















Figure 21-46 The band was created from the design concept. 3-2 rhythm strips are not designed to meet
the requirements.






















Rhythm Figure 2-1 21-47, 3-2 and 4-1 are removed
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Figure 21-48 The rate of hand painted (2-1, 3-1, 4-1 and 5-1) after renumbering






















Figure 21-49 Reinventing the strip design is based on the revised rate.























Figure 21-50 Reinventing the strip after using the design tool "Orient Span Cross Section".
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Example 21-6 The full range of plate designs for an irregular grid (ACI318 and after tensioning design
TR43)





















Figure 21-51 irregular column layout






















Figure 21-52 The rhythm is created from Concept.
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Figure 21-53 The band was created from the design concept. 3-2 rhythm strips are not designed to meet
the requirements.






















Rhythm Figure 2-1 21-54, 3-2 and 4-1 are removed






















Figure 21-55 The rate of hand painted (2-1, 3-1, 4-1 and 5-1) after renumbering
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Figure 21-56 Reinventing the strip design is based on the revised rate.






















Figure 21-57 Reinventing the strip after using the design tool "Orient Span Cross Section".

21.12.4 Draw the design strip near
the wall

There are several points to note when drawing the strip near
the wall design.

Ignore the strip parallel to the wall design

Because a wall is an ongoing support system, so usually there is no need to design on the floor, and
parallel to, the wall to be durable.

However, should pay attention to the minimum reinforcement requirements and therefore need to
ensure that the design range.

Sometimes the range above or below the top of the wall will have no real stress due to the power and
torque are transmitted continuously back and forth between the wall elements and the elements.
Therefore, many designers remove the top and bottom of the wall strip.






Figure 21-58 Column strip between the strip and the wall is ignored.

21.12.5 Changing from PT to reinforced concrete design

Normally the floor is a mixture of PT and RC section. For example, the concrete strip (no cross-linking
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stress after stress after two).
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For most standards, the design criteria for the standard spare parts for concrete. You should use the
design in a rhythm strip.

Figure 21-59 presents two examples of the reinforcement has stopped in the prestressed concrete strip
(in gray).

On the left, the 2-1 rhythm is generated from the system and extend this support to other support
systems. This means that all segments are designed according to the plan "is seen as the force behind".
If this option is checked, the concrete strip design is incorrect.

On the right, the range of 1-1, 1-2 (2) and 1-1 (3) hand painted. The plan "Look terminal x is the
measuring system" is not checked, and the bearing width is zero, if the last "x" in the concrete strip.

The plan "is seen as the force behind" is checked 1-1 and 1-1 (3), but not tested 1-1 (2). Such concrete
strip is designed as prestressed concrete, not after stress. Program Concept design of the PT range for
the dominant operating performance and stress testing initially, but not the concrete section.






Figure 21-59 Many of the beats are used to pour concrete model range.

Note: You can specify the concrete strip to the vertical behavior which is very flexible in the direction
Y. Do this in the information layer mesh. See "The characteristics of the" in Page 56,Chapter 16,
"Determining the structure".

21.13 The other advice

Length Width between systems

Width between system similar length of the strip associated column. If using strips of width between
the different support systems (eg, zero), it is necessary to draw by hand the range for the column and
middle strips, and use rhythm instruments border.

The rhythm section of a width not

Rhythm section with a width equal to zero if the Span Width Calc is "manual" and many long
segments without any boundaries defined rhythm.

The designs range (the range of the block), no cross-

You can specify the minimum number of bands separated by zero designs. Combined with a maximum
distance, the number of sections may be zero.
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This can be beneficial when creating impact on the rate of other bands, without slowing down the
computation. (The overall sections have a significant effect on the calculation time).

An example of this application, see the steps 13th to 15th Page 291 Chapter 44, "System Guide nails
the ".

21.14 One last word about the design
strips

The range of designs is a powerful tool, but the overall achievement, they are just tools. Another
important thing that you must understand the calculations that these tools can be done to determine
what is the appropriate calculation for considering the situation, and to be able to declare the parameters
of the tool be accurate.
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22 Determine the design section

Design cross section corresponding to a cross-strip designs. Hand drawing section designed to
complement the range of designs.

22.1 Using the design section

There are many situations where you can use the cross-over design is the design range, including:

In many areas, you can simply design information in a cross-sectional rather than for the entire
span.

Strip designs may not provide complete information design.

Strip design may not be appropriate. For example, a step you can not directly communicate
with the rhythm (And the strip design) and you want the reinforcement force is perpendicular to
the step design. In this case, the cross section can be drawn parallel to the design steps.

You will find that hard to identify a range of designs for the configuration area learn very
complex.

22.2 The design features section

Structures designed with features similar to the design range. See "The characteristics of the rhythm "on
page 82 to learn about the meaning and interpretation.

The following characteristics are unique to the design section:



Figure 22-1 The design features section - General

Depth ignored in the above layer of concrete is ignored when designing bending and shear in a
way. See "Depth ignore" for more information on this important issue.

Depth ignore underneath the concrete layer beneath is ignored when designing bending and
shear in a way. See "Depth ignore" for more information on this important issue.
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Figure 22-2 The feature section design - The design parameters

Span length is used to calculate:

Minimum Reinforcement for some rules.

Border on the fps for prestressed reinforced with concrete adhesive does not follow the
conditions selected rules (these conditions often includes the length of the rhythm).

Create a branch length of the reinforced area that by design cross section required to be
provided (the length of development, if required, beside this area).

Length area to the right section of the design is less than two values:

Length nhanh/2.0

(Rate ratio - 0.0) * Span length

Length region in the left section of the design is less than two values:

Length nhanh/2.0

(1.0 - Percentage rate) Span length

The purpose of the limit is based on the percentage rate to limit the area of reinforcement rate, either at
the top section of the design or the end of the beat.

Note: You can use Visible Objects dialog box shows the area to be reinforced brick outline and
shadow. The area also displays the percentage of rate review. The area does not display tiles before
calc-all.

Rate ratio Locate the section related to the design of the bearings and the center span. If the ratio
is less than 0:25, the program RAM Concept will apply any rule for the bearings.

22.3 Draw the design
section

When using the design section, to draw a cross section in the plane of rate design latitude, and other
sections in the plane of the rhythm of design.

The design section is positioned by line with a start point and an end point.
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Draw the design
section:

1 Select the Design Tools section ().

2 Click at the beginning of the design
section. 3 Click at the end of the design
section.
Note: You can use the relative coordinates to determine the exact length. Or, you can paint User Lines
to snap points to determine the exact length.

22.4 Depth
ignored

Structures designed using concrete sections fully available unless overwritten by "ignoring depth
above" or "below Depth ignored."

In many instances, the use of cross-sectional characteristics of the full concrete section designed to
bend and slide design as a method is not suitable due to improper concrete.

Note: The parameter declaration "depth ignoring" designers section corresponding to the parameters
declared 'Tweaks section "design strips. See "Tweaking section" on page 91,Chapter 21,
"Determination of design strips" for more information.

22.4.1 When using depth ignore

Sometimes the result is clear when using depth ignored. However, conventional evaluation should be
developed to determine the use of depth ignored.

You should determine whether the concrete is not appropriate based on the rules and evaluate real
scenarios. There are too many permutations concrete formwork to set the rules, and so are presented
below for reference.

22.4.2 Examples of concrete formwork should skip using depth

The following are examples of when the bypass section design a cross section of
concrete:

Examp
le 1

A second method is as thick as the rules do not comply with the building drop panel. That drop cap.
You should ignore the thickness of the drop in output below the cap. RAM Concept Program only use
drop cap to puncture test.











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Figure 22-3 The two methods with the drop cap should be ignored for the bend.
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Example 2

A support beam and the vertical part is not an appropriate part of the concrete section. You should
enter the value "ignore depth in the" appropriate.






Figure 22-4 with upright beams will be ignored.

Example 3

Beams or deepened and the full depth of concrete can not be applied to the bend. You should enter a
value of "Depth ignored under" appropriate.

Figure 22-5 presents the bending moment in the beam perpendicular. For this layout, you need to
determine if it is designed for the bending moment in the beam, and the beam.






Figure 22-5 The bending moment the

If the will is designed for bending moment in the beam, the only problem is the navigation section in
the depth of the design.
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If the will is designed for bending moment in the beam, then you should consider the actual depth that
can be applied to bending.






Figure 22-6 The match has girder bending version.






Figure 22-7 The beams are then not fully consistent with the bending. Depth bypass should be used for
the design section to use a shallower section.

22.4.3 The impact of ignoring the depth of reinforcing steel placement

RAM Concept Programme positioning reinforced by the protective layer and the depth parameter
ignored. You should consider this to ensure that the rebar was designed at the appropriate depth.



















Figure 22-8 Using depth skip to locate rebar at the correct height.

22.5 The last word on the design section

The range of designs is a powerful tool, but the overall achievement, they are just tools. Another
important thing that you must understand the calculations that these tools can be done to determine
what is the appropriate calculation for considering the situation, and to be able to declare the parameters
of the tool be accurate.
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23 Determination of shear puncture test

Shear strain is usually a fun factor important concern when designing the map, especially, after the
stress of the thinner often reinforced copies of them and so the problem even consider important
breakthrough more.

23.1 Check pierced shear

RAM Concept program can not calculate the punctured plane shear stress and strain due to puncture jet
column (Fz, Mx, My).

RAM Concept program may incorrectly identified the critical section. For the special geometry, RAM
Concept program can not check the appropriate section and / or can not check the appropriate section
which is the appropriate rate higher stress. You should see the options section and use critical
assessment of the building RAM Concept program to determine whether the selection and application
of ACI 318 model of program RAM Concept is appropriate or not.

23.2 The features and options poke check shear strain

The following presents selected characteristics and puncture test shear strain specific and general.

23.2.1 General

Radius largest search radius to determine the scope of the search program RAM Concept for
positions not likely. Analysis preserved when you declare a very large radius, but here there are
two disadvantages: Concept program on the need to see the larger and therefore take time to
check over breach position. More importantly, the program will look at the concept clearance
away from the column to determine the critical section which can lead to a smaller critical
section.

Distance CGS layer of protection will be deducted from the depths in each region to determine
"appropriate depth" to calculate the critical section.

As for the column below, usually the distance from the top to the bottom of the top bar. Concept
Program will be deducted from the gap thickness to determine the distance "d".

If depth in any area smaller CGS layer of protection is determined, then the area is considered a loss.

This angle is the angle of the first beam is measured counterclockwise from the x-
axis global clock.

The number of sections in a region A region can be visualized as the outer columns, drop cap,
beams, etc. The connection of a simple column will have only one region. The columns connected
with the drop cap will have more. This feature allows the program to quantify Concept section
that you want to create in each "zone" is.

You can use this feature to remove unwanted sections, but care must be taken to reduce the number of
unwanted information. The section was created based on cross-sectional area minimal importance, and
not really until after the analysis made. With the declaration of value is 1, you seem to only the most
important section in each region, but this can not be guaranteed.

Determine how to handle edge to handle edge and knowledge gaps of RAM Concept program.
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The edges of the handle Void Sector always conserved. However, for the column near the edge, Sector
voids will terminate the critical section before the next version (in the middle column to the next ray of
length equal to the radius search).

The handling of the edge plane defects can produce better results for the critical section at the edge
and corner positions. However, this parameter requires you to review the results carefully to ensure
that the program Concept checked the appropriate section.

The edges of the handle edges Skip generally not preserved. Parameters can try this to see if the
program can find out more concept important area that has been overlooked or not with other
parameters.

Determine the type of affiliate program Concept columns that used to calculate the stresses
allowed. Type angles using rules corner column (after the tension is ignored).
Type column next to use next rules (after the tension is ignored).

Type in the rules used in the column (see section Program Concept is stressed then if P / A exceeds
125 psi).

Type column automatically determine the type of corners, edges or angles within the entire space
around its edges. If the angle is less than 90 degrees, the space is inside the column. If empty corner
from between 90 to 180 degrees, it is the next column. If more than 180 empty corner of the column is
a corner.

See "Link type" column on page 486,Chapter 57, "The design shear note pierced"
for more information.

Using SSR system reinforcement system design nail type, if required. Can calibrate these systems
on Materials.

Aligning with rectangular columns Aligning corner to corner check pierced rectangular columns
in the "calc all".

Create Design designed SSR SSR needed (if possible) where there is not enough strength not
reinforced.

SSR axis aligned with puncture test with SSR Aligning axis puncture test. For example, when
the next version will not be used in parallel with the columns and horizontal bars aligned with
the geometry of the column instead.

Note: This last option is not available for AS3600 for SSR is always aligned with the axis puncture
test.

23.2.2 ACI 318 concrete plans


ACI 421.1R-99 Use My proposed be increased up to the maximum allowed greater use for SSR
design.

Using ACI-421.1R-99 recommendations Vc Allows the user to increase the value vc to use higher
strength calculations for SSR design.

Using ACI-421.1R-99 stud spacing is recommended to increase the maximum allowed distance
maximum spikes higher, depending on the level of stress in the critical
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section.
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Note: Although the ACI 421.1R-99 ACI is a publisher, but not officially recognized by ACI 318
standard. Therefore, use only the opinion of the engineer assessment knowing full knowledge of the
regulations and its recommendations.

23.2.3 AS3600 specific plans

The torsion shaft plugged in the range R / S Use this option if you have the secret button on the
minimum torque range by AS3600. The design concept is not really reinforced this, but the rules
used to calculate the appropriate capacity puncture. You should ensure that this reinforcement
will be provided if using this option.

23.2.4 BS 8110 concrete plans


For reinforcement ratio parameters "" for 6:47 equations. You should enter the values in the
equation 6.4.4, EN 1992-1-1:2004.

Presents Beta coefficient ratio maximum stress on critical section (including cutting force and
torque transmission) for the maximum stress due to shear only. This option allows users to select
"Auto Calc", 1.15 (inside), 1.4 (side), 1.5 (top), or enter any positive value directly to the Beta.

The coefficients for each column is given in terms of 6.4.3 (6), EN 1992-1-1:2004 and meant to be used
only when the horizontal stability does not depend on the influence of the frame and where the adjacent
spans a length not more than 25% different.

"Auto Calc" using models and calculation methods as described in Chapter 57, "The design shear note
pierced".

23.3 Draw the shear test
breakthrough

You can also draw pierced shear test for the column.

Draw shear puncture test:

1 Choose Layers> Design Strips> Punching Checks Plan.
2 Choose Tools Punching Shear Check ( ).
Surrounding the
column 3.

Radius of the circle described appear in each column within the surrounds.

23.4 One last word about pierced shear test

Check pierced shear is a powerful tool, but the overall achievement, they are just tools. Another
important thing that you must understand the calculations that these tools can be done to determine
what is the appropriate calculation for considering the situation, and to be able to declare the
parameters of the tool be accurate.
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24 Draw the
reinforcement bar

Note: No need to draw the reinforcing bar but there is a high level character that you want to use a
program when used.

Reinforcement layer allows
you to:

additional reinforcement program by drawing the actual bar (users) on the surface using
different tools

The program changes the sound reinforcement of the users

Reinforcement layer to facilitate the creation of reinforcement layout
quality.

24.1 The definition sound
reinforcement

24.1.1 Reinforced by the user and program

There are two types of reinforcement bars: program and users. The reinforcement is tagged
(identification) is a type or another.

When performing design calculations, creating programs Concept Strengthening Program in addition
to the reinforcement of existing users. In the following calculations, the program will remove all
Concept reinforcement program before starting calculations.

You can switch focus Reinforcement Reinforcement Program into focus by users rarely know how to
change the card (in the properties window of the object). You can also perform this operation to adjust
the design of the Concept program. When performing the following calculations, the program
reinforced Concept design only required external reinforcement is tagged identify users.

You can also try changing my "users" to strengthen "the program", but not so valuable Concept
program has removed all of the existing reinforced when creating the program reinforced the "Program"
last.

24.1.2 Object type
reinforcement

There are seven types of objects in the
reinforcement layer:

Reinforcement focus - the number of fixed parallelogram section

Reinforcement distribution - the distance sound effects on polygonal cross section.

The bar menu - the menu bar is created from Reinforcing concentration and distribution.

Reinforcing horizontal - the horizontal bar fixed at a constant distance.

The bar menu - the menu bar (rebar belt / link / binding) is generated from Horizontal
Reinforcement

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Reinforced shear stud type (SSR) Callouts - the horizontal bar fixed to the SSR anchored.

The SSR bar - the bar menu is created from SSR Callouts.
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You can directly create (by drawing) Reinforcement Reinforcing concentration and distribution. You
can not directly create any other type of reinforcement.

24.2 The reinforcing properties



Figure 24-1 focusing characteristics rebar - General






Figure 24-2 The distribution characteristics rebar - General

Declare parameters Define rhythm reinforced in latitude or longitude.

Refer height options are:

Absolute height is related to zero data known. Do not suggest this option unless for very
complex geometry.

Hand under the arch above: Height is measured from under the arch height of the middle bar.

surface: Height is measured from the surface to mid height bars. The value is almost always
negative
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Class of protection on: Height is measured from the height to the top surface of the bar. The
value is always positive.

Protected class under: Height is measured from under the arch height of the bottom edge of the
bar.
The value is always positive.

Height Distance is used with reference height.

Finish at the end of the first options are:

Straight:

Hook 90:

Hook 180:

Anchored:

Finish at the end point 2 Similar cuoi1

The hand used to (1) graphics display (2) The design standards. The choices
are:
Per Elev. Reference - declare default and typical

On

Under

Both

Automatically

Note: Special Note - Reinforced set the "Auto" will not appear on the reinforcement plane "above" or
"below". If using reinforced the "Auto", then change the default declaration plane (or more planes) to
make sure that all reinforcement is used can be seen on the surface of report.

Using bars label to identify Bracing. Label is not necessarily the size of the bar. The label of
reinforcing bars (and their properties) defined in the Criteria> Materials.

Drag the slider User oblique bar in the angle range (only for reinforcing focus - see "Extent Tools
Skew Reinforcement" for more information).

Enter the number of options:

Quantity: number of bars

Distance: distance radio

The number of bars can be adjusted only if the declared Type Quantity
Quantity

Distance can be modified only if the Type is declared as Quantity Distance.
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Plane orientation angle reinforcement (reinforced only for distribution - see "Orient
Reinforcement Tool" for more information).

Width The width of the reinforcing focus areas.

Designed By The choices are:

User: The user-drawn bar

Program: The Concept used by the program and the drawing.

Note: See the "Reinforcing concentration and distribution of callouts" for more info on the second
tab (Presentation).

24.3 Draw
reinforce
d

You can draw reinforced by the
way:

A group of one or more reinforcing bars focus on using one of three tools Reinforcement focus.

A group of reinforcing bars distributed using one of three tools Reinforcement distribution

24.3.1 The amount of work
expected

It is expected you will convert reinforced "program" to "User" and revising it. The one exception is
that you can specify the reinforcement underneath. It's not hard if you convert some direct draw
reinforcement and reinforced others.

24.4 Draw reinforced
focus

Reinforcing concentration of one or more bars in the parallelogram.

Original parallelogram rectangle with width by default, but you can use the tool to stretch the width
and adjustable tool to reshape oblique.

24.4.1 Draw reinforced
focus

You can draw rebar focus by identifying and determining the end point and a point between
end.

Draw reinforced focus
# 1:

1 Choose Tools Concentrated Reinforcement ( ).
2 Click at the end.
3 Click at the other end.

Note: See the Example 24-1 "Draw the focus bar at the bottom" for more information.
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Draw reinforced focus
# 2:

1 Choose Tools Concentrated Reinforcement ( ).
2 Click in the middle.
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3 Click at the end.

Note: See the Example 24-2 "Draw the focus bar below the mid-point by defining" to
more information.

24.4.2 Draw reinforced focused in two directions

You can draw rebar focused in two directions by determining the midpoint and endpoint.

Draw reinforced focused in two directions:

1 Select a tool Concentrated Reinforcement Cross (
).
2 Click in the middle.

3 Click at the end.

Note: Create two objects reinforcement: a reinforcement layer objects in an object-latitude and in
longitude reinforcement layer.

Note: See the Example 24-3 "Draw the focus bar at the bottom in both directions" for more information.

24.5 Painting reinforcement distribution

Reinforcement distribution consists of a group of bars located within the polygon.

24.5.1 Drawing distribution reinforcement

Drawing distribution reinforcement of a polygon. Identify polygons by clicking the mouse once or use
the perimeter.

Drawing distribution reinforcement # 1:

1 Choose Tools Distributed Reinf. ( ).
2 Click the row at the top of each
polygon.
3 Go to the top of the first stick and click closed polygons (or type the letter "c" and press Return).

Note: Create two objects: a polygon object and an object layer reinforcement in reinforced latitude or
longitude.

Note: When the file is run you can see the menu bar with Visible Objects dialog box.

Note: See the Example 24-4 "Draw the bar at the bottom of the distribution on the floor" for more
information.

Drawing distribution reinforcement # 2:

1 Select Distributed Reinf. the Perimeter tool ( ). 2
Click a point on the map.
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3 Click in the other to determine the direction of reinforcement.

Note: Create two objects: the object matching the bounding polygon and the object of the
reinforcement in the reinforcement layer latitude or longitude reinforcement layer.

Note: When the file is run you can see the menu bar.

Note: See the Example 24-5 "Draw the bar at the bottom of the distribution over the entire floor" for
more information.

Drawing distribution reinforcement # 3:

1 Choose Distributed Reinf. Cross the Perimeter tool (
).
2 Click a point on the map.

3 Click on another to determine the direction of reinforcement.

Appearing as a polygon shape of the. When the file is run you can see the menu bar.

Note: Create three objects: polygonal objects that match the contour of the object in the reinforcement
layer reinforced latitude and reinforced in the object layer reinforced longitude.

Note: See the Example 24-6 "Drawing on the entire floor below" for more information.

24.6 Examples of reinforcing concentration and distribution

Example 24-1 Draw the focus bar at the bottom
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Figure 24-3 Draw the focus bar by clicking on the points A and B with the first tool Concentrated
Reinforcement.
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Example 24-2 Draw the focus bar below the mid-point determined by






Figure 24-4 Draw the focus bar by clicking on the points A and B with Concentrated Reinforcement
Tools Monday.
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Example 24-3 Draw bars below to focus in two directions






Figure 24-5 Draw bars focused in two directions by clicking on the points A and B with tools
Concentrated Reinforcement Cross.
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Example 24-4 Draw the bar at the bottom of the distribution on the floor






Figure 24-6 bar Draw polygons on the part of the distribution by clicking on the top 5 with Distributed
Reinforcement tool. Enable drawing tiles.






Figure 24-7 The components of the application are presented via Visible Objects dialog. OFF function
drawing tiles.
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Example 24-5 Draw the bar at the bottom of the distribution over the entire floor






Figure 24-8 Draw polygons on the distribution of the sound by clicking on the points A and B for
Distributed Reinforcement of Perimeter tool. Enable drawing tiles.






Figure 24-9 The components of the application are presented via Visible Objects dialog. OFF function
drawing tiles.
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Example 24-6 Drawing on the entire floor below






Figure 24-10 Draw polygons in the distribution below by clicking on the points A and B on the
Distributed Reinforcement Cross in Perimeter tool. Enable drawing tiles.






Figure 24-11 The components of the application are presented via Visible Objects dialog. OFF
function drawing tiles.

24.7 The engine plane reinforced other

There are two special tools in reinforcing layer that you can use to adjust the plane of reinforcement
properties.

24.7.1 Orient Tools Reinforcement

This tool allows you to draw straight line segments to show the desired direction of the sound
application of the selected object reinforcement.
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After drawing the line, Concept program will rotate any object chose reinforced focus and direction for
any distribution that reinforced parallel lines were drawn. Reinforcing bars were selected to create the
same application after calculating orientation.

Change oriented
reinforcement:

1 Select the object
reinforcement.

2 Choose tools Orient Reinforcement ( ). 3
Click on any location on the plane.
4 Click on a place on the plane to create straight lines parallel to the desired direction of
reinforcement.

Note: Use orthogonal snap or snap to perpendicular orientation to assist if possible

Note: Select both objects are created with reinforced Concentrated Rebar Tools Rebar Distributed
Cross or Cross of Perimeter oriented tool for both reinforcing objects.

Note: See the Example 24-7 "Orientation focused reinforcement" for more
information.

24.7.2 Extent Tools Skew Reinforcement

This tool allows you to draw straight line segments to show the direction desired range of subjects
chose reinforced focus. This tool allows you to create domain parallelogram Reinforcement focus. Can
not drag oblique reinforcement distribution.

Drag oblique scope
reinforcement

1 Choose reinforced focus objects.

2 Choose Tools Skew Reinforcement Extent ( ).

3 Click on any location on the plane (but up close objects reinforcement)

4 Click the location in the plane to form a straight line parallel to the desired line.

Note: See the Example 24-8 "Pulling focus oblique reinforcement" for more
information.
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Example 24-7 Orientation reinforced focus





Figure 24-12 Using Reinforcement Orient tool to determine the straight line AB parallel to the desired
direction
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Figure 24-13 Reinforcement focus has been reoriented
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Example 24-8 Drag oblique reinforcing focus





Figure 24-14 Using Skew Reinforcement tool to determine the line AB parallel to the oblique pull the
desired end
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Figure 24-15 Reinforcement focus range is pulled oblique line parallel to the line AB.

Example 24-9
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Stretch reinforced focus

Figure 24-16 Using Tools Stretch Point A to expand reinforced focus parallelogram
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Figure 24-17 Reinforcement concentrate stretch

24.8 The layout and the detailed parameters
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There are five calculated parameters affecting the layout and detailing of reinforced Concept program.
See "Reinforcement layout and the detailed parameters" on page 127,Chapter 27, "Results calculation
".

24.9 Formatting text in reinforced:

Reinforcing concentration and distribution of SSR Reinforcement Callouts are functions defined
format that you can edit to be able to present reinforced by your standards.

24.9.1 Reinforcing concentration and
distribution of callouts





Figure 24-18 The characteristics rebar focus - Presentation





Figure 24-19 The distribution characteristics rebar - Presentation

The formatting functions defined reinforcement distribution focus and use the critical value below
here:

$ Q - Number of bars
$ F - Front bar
$ B - Name bar
$ L - Length of bar
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$ U - Unit length bar
$ U - bar spacing unit
$ S - distance radio
\ N - Start a new line

24.9.2 Examples of text formatting in reinforced
The following example shows the generated text to different standards. 24-10 For
example, ACI 318-05
Determine format for reinforced focus "$ Q $ B x $ L $ U $ F @ $ S $ u" to create text on plan view
such
as:
# 5 x 15 feet 28 inches T@12.1
For similar reinforcement focused, determined format ($ Q) $ Bx $ L $ F "generated text: (28) #
5x15T
Example 24-11 AS 3600-
2001
Determine format for reinforcing concentration x $ Q $ B $ L $ U $ F @ $ S $ u "to create text on a plan
view as: 28 4:57 m T @ N16 x 307 mm
For similar reinforcement concentration, determine the format "($ Q) $ Bx $ L $ F" generated text:
(28) N16x4.57T

24-12 For example, BS 8110: 1997 and
IS456-2000
Determine format for reinforcing concentration x $ Q $ B $ L $ U $ F @ $ S $ u "to create text on a plan
view as: 4:57 m T 28 T16 x 307 mm @
For similar reinforcement concentration, determine the format "($ Q) $ Bx $ L $ F" generated text:
(28) T16x4.57T

24.9.3 SSR Callout

The function defined by SSR Callout format using the following key values:

$ R - number of horizontal bars
$ S - The anchored a bar
$ F - first Distance nails
$ T - typical nail Distance
$ N - name SSR system
$ U - Unit of distance spikes
$ S - Distance nails
\ N - Start a new line

Identification of SSR format Callout "($ R) $ S @ $ T First Spacing = $ F $ U \ n $ N" to create text on
a plan view as:
(12) 8 @ 3 First Spacing = 2.5
inches 3/8 "SSR
For SSR Callout similar, determining the format "$ R $ S rails with studs" create text: 12 bar
with 8 anchor

24.10 SSR SSR callouts and bar:

Concept created SSR SSR Callouts and bar from the results of the calculation of shear strain scrapers.
Reinforcement was created to display only - not used in the calculations and can not be changed to
reinforce the "user".
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25 Determination of prestressed
reinforcement

Note: You should skip this chapter if you design structure with reinforced steel core.

No amount of stretching or following layout designed to create a satisfactory PT. This is especially
true for each design must stress before, where concentrated strength, deflection and crack control than
active stress hypothesis.

In the past, many programs have used 2D strain allows active control algorithms for the solution PT.
Many rules have but do not use active stress (assuming) as a design criteria, and other criteria (such as
ACI 318) made in that direction. Many layout prestressed reinforced by computer-generated designs
are not practical for real.

While the program can generate 2D design prestressed reinforced feasible in the rhythm, and the
payload section, the coincidence of the bearings in 3D design makes this extremely difficult.

Thus, the program RAM Concept, to determine prestressed reinforced by drawing them in the plane
and determine the parameters such as the cut and stick. You should use one of the following
requirements for the first votes:

experience
Preliminary runs with Strip Wizard
reasonable conjecture request before compression (P / A)
random guessing (the strip drawn designs accurately signaling the incorrect guess, and you can
use the "Auditor" to support the repeat)

25.1 Use the prestressed reinforcement layer latitude and
longitude
RAM Concept Program has two layers for the prestressed reinforcement is called latitude and
longitude. By using two layers of prestressed reinforced Concept program, you can separate
the prestressed reinforcement into two groups. Separating prestressed reinforcement allows orthogonal
editing easier and clearer presentation.

It is also possible to separate the PT system (eg, prestressed reinforced with and without adhesion to
concrete) on the second layer.

Note: Latitude and Longitude are just names. You can draw all prestressed reinforcement may be at
different angles on a flat plane.

25.2 The characteristics of reinforced
prestressed

Before you start drawing the prestressed reinforcement, specify the default character (s) will use the
tool. The default value is declared in Default Properties dialog box. Double-click one of the drawing
tools prestressed reinforcement (Half Span Tendon ( ), Full Span Tendon ( ), Half Tendon
Panel Span ( ), Or Full Span Tendon Panel ( )) To adjust the properties.

Note: The declaration of default properties for a drawing tool prestressed reinforcement will declare
characteristics for all the drawing tools prestressed
reinforcement.

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Here is a list of characteristics of prestressed reinforced RAM Concept Program:
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System PT Use label to identify each system PT prestressed reinforcement. Label is not
necessarily the size and type of sound. The material parameters determine the characteristics PT
system. Maybe a combination of the system on a prestressed reinforcement layer.

Number of bars on a prestressed reinforcement bars in the Determination of (the) prestressed
reinforcement is selected. Not necessarily an integer value.

In concept and program of construction following stress, "bar" is a unit of tension reinforcement after,
similar sound is strengthening of reinforced concrete units. In fact, the industry identified PT
prestressed reinforcement bars as a group have the same anchor. "Group" can only be a sound, as it is
the case for most systems do not stick to the concrete, or "a stick".

While the total number of bars in the Concept and program structures must actually fit together, then
the group of bars in the prestressed reinforcement should not be the same in concept as the program on
the actual structure. Normally not necessarily create a model for each real prestressed reinforcement
for prestressed reinforced Concept - a couple of prestressed reinforced Concept (with the larger bars in
a Prestressed Steel Reinforced) is often used . Except for specific rules requiring reduction in pipe size
cross-section. In this case, the pipe should specify exact size and number of bars on a prestressed
reinforcement.

For example, if the six-tube model 4-bar tube with 2 bars each, for three 4-bar tube with 4 bars each
tube, to show Concept will look exactly the bar (12), but only three of six tubes.

Section (at the end of section 1 and section 2 at the end) section prestressed reinforcement is the
vertical distance between the floor and under the arch of the central prestressed rebar. Another
name for the section "cgs" (the center of gravity bar).

Note: cgs not as deep in the middle of prestressed reinforced tube with adhesion to
concrete.

The size of the floor under the arch (in-plane position accuracy) to cgs is the size of the cut. Thus, if a
point is on the cutting surface is made of thick (drop cap, beams, etc.), the need to pay attention to
dense. The concept is not used in pipe size to the next, or protective layer, to determine the cut.

Path of prestressed reinforced with bars identifying the forces that reinforced prestressed concrete
impact. The cross points (usually the high and low points prestressed reinforcement) define this path.
If necessary, start the intermediate section.

The prestressed reinforcement of the segments. For the elevated floor, each segment has a high point
(endpoint 1) and a low point (end point 2). For copies, just the opposite.

Most of the beats are pre-stressed reinforced with two segments. Beams and rhythm of prestressed
reinforced with a segment

When selecting, consider the layers of protection and load balancing. The different sections along the
length span.

Determine the ratio of bending distance, x, from one end to the point where the inflection point
reinforced prestressed change sign. The rate of bending is proportional to the distance x from end
1 to end 2. 0.2 Value 10% inflection point set distance from the end of one span if the span
between the last 2. These values are often used.

Note: Percentage of zero inflection point created the simple
parabolic.
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Identify segments harped prestressing reinforcement when a straight section (as opposed to
parabolic section).

Location of section 2 for load balancing are

If two segments prestressed reinforcement in a rhythm with different values for the last 1 then option 2
point position for sectional balance loads are moving to a low point in the plane to balance the
Advanced analysis of the calculation.

Note: Do not select this option when the end section 1 and 2 at the end of the same height. A segment
with such sections will be increased by zero and so can not formulaic.

25.3 Draw the prestressed reinforcement

It can draw the prestressed reinforced by the way:

Prestressed reinforced single segment at a time of Half Span Tendon tool (used for beams).

Reinforced single span prestressed at using tools Tendon Full Span.

Reinforced prestressed single span multiple Tendon use Polyline tool.

The prestressed reinforced segment at Half Span tool used Tendon Panel.

The prestressed reinforced at a rate instruments used Tendon Full Span Panel.

Use the tools in the different cases. It can draw a reinforced and prestressed after
that copy, faster than using the polyline tool and panel.

25.4 Draw single prestressed reinforcement

The instructions below are associated with the elevated floor, where prestressed reinforced with a high
point in the bearing and a low point near the center span. For them, the opposite.

25.4.1 Draw half prestressed reinforcement rate

You can use tools reinforced prestressed beams and half rate for short spans. Section at the end of the 2
values is typically half the size or thickness of the beam focus.

Draw prestressed reinforcement half rate:

1 Choose Tools Tendon Half Span ( ).
2 Click on the prestressed reinforced
high. 3 Click in the lower prestressing
reinforcement.
Note: The sequence of clicks is very important when drawing the prestressed reinforcement rate half
point bending test tools from the high point (end point 1).

25.4.2 Draw all prestressed reinforcement rate

Use all prestressed reinforcement rate for normal rhythm.
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Draw all prestressed
reinforcement rate:

1 Select a tool Tendon Full Span ( ).

2 Click at the two high points prestressed reinforcement. The low (Endpoint 2) automatic positioning
at the midpoint of the prestressed reinforcement.

Note: You can adjust the low point with Stretch Tool ( ) Or select "Location of section 2
for load balancing are "Tendon Properties dialog box.

25.4.3 Draw prestressed reinforced many step with the prestressed
reinforcement

Tendon Polyline tool ( ) Allows you to draw a series of prestressed reinforced full rhythm with
few clicks.

Draw multi-line prestressed
reinforcement:

1 Choose Tendon Polyline tool ( ).

2 Click a series of high-prestressed reinforcement. The low point (end point 2) automatic positioning
at the midpoint of the high points.

3 Click the mouse to click on points after the last high. 4 Press
Enter
25.5 Draw many prestressed
reinforcement

It is possible to draw a group of prestressed reinforcement in a manipulation tools prestressed
reinforcement plate. Set the layout sheet to prestressed reinforcement, along with distance prestressed
reinforced desire, and RAM Concept program will draw the prestressed reinforcement.

Drawing process requires sequential drawing of the panel in clockwise or counterclockwise
clock to form a quadrilateral.

25.5.1 The choice of layout prestressed reinforcement
plate layout options are Parallel and splayed.
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Figure 25-1 The prestressed reinforced with parallel layout and spacing shall not exceed five feet.



Figure 25-2 The prestressed reinforced with oblique layout and spacing shall not exceed five feet.

Distance prestressed reinforcement options are Fixed, Equal and Auto Connect.

"Fixed" draw the prestressed reinforcement at the spacing determined accurately. Prestressed
reinforced skewers without this feature.
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"Equal (not to exceed the maximum level)" drawing the prestressed reinforcement is equidistant at most
distances.

"Auto connect (based on the last edge)" drawing the prestressed reinforcement is connected to the next
point on the final cross section of prestressed reinforced panels.

Do not start prestressed reinforcement / not end prestressed reinforcement Skip edge of
prestressed reinforcement.



Figure 25-3 The prestressed reinforcement after Auto Connect.



Figure 25-4 The prestressed reinforcement after Auto Connect.
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Draw sheets prestressed reinforcement half rate:

1 Select a tool Tendon Panel Half Span ( ).

2 Click in the high and low points of prestressed reinforced prestressed reinforcement in the first
section of prestressed reinforced panels.

3 Click in the high and low points of prestressed reinforced side panels opposite section prestressed
reinforcement.

Tendon Panel dialog box appears after clicking fourth. 4 Select
the option (see above).
Draw prestressed reinforcement plates full rate:

1 Select a tool Tendon Panel Full Span ( ).

2 Click at the high point of prestressed reinforced prestressed reinforcement in the first section of
prestressed reinforced panels.

3 Click at the high point of prestressed reinforced the opposite side section prestressed reinforced
panels (in the direction of clockwise or counterclockwise clock).

Tendon Panel dialog box appears after clicking fourth. 4 Select
the option (see above).
Note: The low (Endpoint 2) automatically positioned at the midpoint of each prestressed reinforcement.

25.6 Edit the prestressed reinforcement

For any object, can also adjust the prestressed reinforcement after the draw.

25.6.1 Calc Profile Engine
You can adjust the cutting by hand or using tools Calc Profile ( ) To automatically adjust. Too
many walls standing in prestressed reinforcement can bend backwards, cracking copy. For reasons
of
this or other reasons, should have a wall stand or balance of the load somewhat consistent from beat to
beat the other.

Edit prestressed reinforcement based on vertical walls:

1 Choose segmented prestressed reinforcement.

2 Click the Calc Profile tool ( ). Calc dialog appears Tendon Profile and inform equilibrium load
current.

3 Enter the desired load balancing (negative values) in the dialog box and click Calc Calc Tendon
Profile.

Adjust the low point (endpoint 2) for desired cliff
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You can choose two segments in the same rhythm and Concept program calculates points based on a
low cliff average

Generally not necessarily correct balance of equal weight in each beat. But do not have too many
different low points. The rounded cross-section values can manually create a more robust design.

If desired balance load is too high, the program can calculate the cross-section concept is sound,
making the calculation of faulty results.

Note: Concept program does not check range violations

25.6.2 Tools change sections

When the surface layer is considered one of the prestressed reinforcement activities, the program will
add the category Concept Change Profiles on the Tools menu.

This menu item allows you to change the section prestressed reinforced with a given value to a new
value. In many cases, this can be useful things like changing the beam or depth.

Change section of the prestressed
reinforcement:

1 Open the layer plane from prestressed reinforcement layer reinforced Latitude or Longitude
prestressed. 2 Select> Tools> Change Profiles.
Tendon Change dialog box appears Profiles. 3
Enter the section you want to change. 4 Enter
the new section.
5 Do not tick prestressed reinforcement layer that you want to edit. 6 Do not mark
the end but you do not want to edit, and click OK.



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Figure 25-5 Changing the Tools section prestressed
reinforcement

25.7 The size

RAM Concept program calculates the power losses in the prestressed reinforcement if you draw at the
end of the stimulus (stress). If you click on each of the first draw of prestressed reinforcement, it will be
the last with double stress. If a size is just drawing other end of the prestressed reinforcement is static
endpoint. If you draw a single click on the prestressed reinforcement layer, each prestressed reinforced
layer that is attached to at least one stimulus.

Concept program using relevant values FSE (identified in the site conditions
Materials) is the effective stress for any prestressed reinforcement without stimulus.

25.8 The characteristics of
the stimulus

Declare the parameters characteristic of the default size Default Jack Properties dialog box by double-
clicking on the tool Jack ( ). Can ignore the size of the property value Jack Properties dialog box
and instead use the value of the PT system.

Here is a list of properties click:

Stress irritation interest in size when you click on the
bar.

Lost anchor friction coefficient friction stress when anchored. This is no fractional units. You can
enter 2% loss is 0:02. Most of the proposed supplier PT value zero for non prestressed
reinforcement with concrete adhesive. You can also consult with local PT provider of prestressed
reinforced with adhesion to concrete.

The pendulum friction coefficient of friction calculated using characteristics (k) to predict losses
due to curvature random (in the horizontal and vertical planes). It is the product of the coefficient
of friction angle and angle random change per unit length.

Note: Many engineers (especially in Australia) used to shake the determination of the random angle
change per unit length. The engineer can shake that coefficient Concept program used, k, with the
following relationship: k = AngularWobbleCoefficient * mu.

Coefficient of friction losses due to curvature angle intention (in the horizontal and vertical
planes). Most designers know that mu.

Distance Distance remove widgets size wedge anchor paragraph indentation depth. Occurs when
the driver releases the stress in the stimulus.

The long-term losses such as the loss of creep and shrinkage of concrete, and the elongation of
the bar. Also includes losses due to shrinkage of concrete elastic whether short-term losses
agreement.

25.9 Draw the
stimulus

Draw the tool size to Jack ( ) By clicking on the rectangle around the stress of prestressed
reinforced.

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Drawing (s) click prestressed
reinforcement:

1 Choose Tools Jack ( ).
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2 Click in the opposite corner of the rectangle surrounding the activity prestressed reinforcement.

Note: You can delete a single click on the mouse by double-clicking it. To delete multiple size, mark the
unless the stimulus object, then select click and delete.
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26 Using load reduction

RAM Concept program can automatically calculate the reduced load on the column, puncture test, the
strip segment designs and the design range of the required load reduction code is selected.

26.1 Reduce load

Most of the code is designed to allow design elements to support the big section ignore the impact load
on the composition. Be allowed to "load down" because of the possibility of a large cross section of
the material support and full load is low. While each code has its rules, common sense measures that
support greater cross-sectional area, the greater the rebate allowed, up to the limit.

26.2 The choice of load
reduction

RAM Concept program allows the calculation selected six different load reduction activities:

ASCE 7-02 ASCE 7-02 uses concession, part 4.8.
IBC 2003 IBC 2003 Zhejiang reduced use, the
1607.9. Zhejiang reduced by UBC UBC in 1997,
1997, 1607.5 parts.
AS / NZS 1170.1-2002 Zhejiang reduced by AS / NZS 1170.1,
section 3.4.2.
By BS 6399-1:1996 BS 6399 rebate, sections 6.1 to 6.3.
No load performance decrease.

26.3 Setting down load code

You select the code load reduction in Calc Options. Down load code default is "None", no concession
has been used.

Set down load code:

1 Choose Criteria> Calc
Options

2 Select a download code decreased, as shown in Figure 26-1.






Figure 26-1 Calc Window Options

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26.4 Type of load
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RAM Concept program has four different types of load. These cars are affected by the different ways to
reduce work load, depending on the design code. The types are:

Load (Maybe rebate) Implementation standard load
reduction

Load (can not rebate) Failing to reduce work load

Load (cumulative) To reduce the work load "accumulate" particularly if permitted in most code
regul
ation
s.

Load (ceiling) Failing to reduce the load.

The payload type is defined in the load window. See 10.2 to the 10.6 Program 10, "Determining Load"
for more information.

Note: Work load (ceiling) can be reduced when the RAM Structural System, but not in RAM Concept
program.

26.5 The reduced load
parameters

RAM Concept program to six parameters used to determine the coefficients concession allowed:

Type of load - only certain kinds of loads can be reduced when (as described in
abo
ve)

Member Type - Most codes are there special rules for concession of certain components (such as
columns)

Biggest concession is allowed - Users can specify the maximum rebate value for each component.

The level of support - Most codes are considered when calculating the level of rebate allowed. If
you use the scope of the automatic calculation program RAM Concept, the level of support is
assumed to be one.

Scope accessories - Most codes used composition range of accessories such as key parameters
reduced load.

Incidence - RAM Concept Program have two options for code using the incidence of component
parameters such as the load decreased.

RAM Concept program calculates three parameters of the final value. You can see the value in the
plane as shown in the "View Results column element LLR" and "See the LLR results latitude band
design "on page 131.

You can override calculated by determining the values of the parameters. The next section shows how
to adjust these values.

26.6 Identification of load parameters
decrease

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You can specify values for the column load reduction, puncture test, the strip segment designs and the
design range.

To override the value determined for the level, scope accessories, and spheres of
influence:
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1 Open 2 Choose the
appropriate plane (s)
subject
3 Choose Edit> Selection Properties

4 In the Default Properties dialog box (see Figure 26-2):

o Click the tab Live Load Reduction
o Check LLR Use Specified Parameters
o Declare LLR values for Levels, Trib Area, and Influence Area.

5 Click OK.






Figure 26-2 down load characteristics

26.7 Perform load reduction

See Chapter 48, "notes down load" for more information about how to implement load reduction
program RAM Concept.
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27 Calculation
results

Generally you many times the results of the modeling and design process. You can quickly calculate
the element has been created (eg self-weight deflection) or wait until the model created.

It is possible that you will not see the results until you have drawn all prestressed reinforcement, load
range and design. However, you should "run" file in the model to check for errors. This way, you can
avoid repeating the same error model.

27.1 Calculation
results

You can charge all or a few or no results are considered part of the calculation options.

27.1.1 To calculate the
results of the results:
1 Click the Calc All ( ), Or choose Process> All
Calc.

The model error is very common and you may encounter error messages when calculating results. If the
file has run successfully without error, Calc All icons will be grayed out. If errors occur, the computer
is not grayed out. See "Error Analysis" for more information.

27.1.2 Calculate Calculation results
partly a result of:
1 Click Calc Partial ( ), Or choose Process> Partial
Calc. The dialog box is shown in Figure 27-1.





Figure 27-1 Dialog Calc

The slider to the left of the dialog box Calc calculations determining the Concept. The choices are:

Through analysis calculations are made up to and including the global analysis (deflection of the
torque, etc.) and the power strip.

Through Design Concept design performance range, the cross-cutting and anti-puncture test,
besides calculating Through analysis.
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Through Concept layout layout done on Layer reinforcement reinforcement program, in addition
to computing through design.

All Concept detailed implementation program to reinforce the single bar (can be viewed in the
perspective), in addition to computing through layout.

The box to the right of the dialog window Calc nhp have choices on how to implement the program
calculates Concept. The choices are:

Warning ignored warnings do not stop the calculations, but must be added as a note to the Log
Calc. This parameter is disabled by default.

Only overdue items not replace existing calculated results by the new calculations unless
Concept found that the current calculation overdue. This opens the default parameters.

Warning invalidate the calculation Warning calculations were previously considered to
invalidate the results of combine them, so calculating the item will warn. This opens the default
parameters.

27.1.3 The choice of
calculation

You can view and change the selection calculations.

Calc In Options:

1 Select Criteria> Calc Options.
Calc Options dialog box opens.




Figure 27-2 Options dialog Calc

The following presents the calculation
options:

27.1.4 The general selection

Self-stabilizing structure in the X and Y Tu creating a stable small horizontal bracing for
unrestricted structural level. Only suitable for structures without external transverse loads.
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Create static load can view this parameter to control whether the program can generate loads of
RAM Concept can be viewed in the perspective plane and the static load or not. This parameter
has no effect on the actual load calculations. Normally we do not check this section.

Includes bearing on the static load includes the weight of the bearings (columns and walls) as
load. You should consider that the program calculated based Concept shear strain in the column
below provoke a reaction in a total column includes any load is applied directly above.

Includes components of prestressed reinforced reaction puncture test includes vertical
component of prestressing reinforcement in the region punctured (often concession puncture test
reactions). See "From the vertical component of prestressing" on page 484,Chapter 57, "The note
pierced design shear " for more information.

27.1.5 The choice of code

Design Code current design code.

You can convert the code design in the design process. It should be noted that the conversion of the
code will not automatically change the load factor. See "Creating the load combination" on page 35 for
more information about changing the code of the system load certain code.

Reduce load load current code Code.

See Chapter 26, "Using Reduced load", For more information on load code.

27.1.6 The selected repeat zero stress

If the software or the load torque is the sole large dome can resist stress. You can extract this stress by
reducing duplication.

The zero stress factor repeated use "accelerators" to make the convergence faster. Acceleration value 1
is no acceleration, while too large values can cause large fluctuations rather than convergence. The
Concept of Value RAM speeds as follows:

acceleration = (Tj / Ti) power the greatest
acceleration in the
Tj = offset stress repeating force j (j = i +1)

Ti = force offset stress when i
repeat

= force "acceleration force" controlled by the user (typically 1.0)

greatest acceleration acceleration = maximum allowed by the user control (typically 1.5)

Repeat to use the number of iterations used in the calculations. The number of repetitions, the
higher the stress levels as close to zero.

Acceleration force in the formula above, this is
typically 1.

Acceleration Acceleration largest
maximum allowed.
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27.1.7 The selection of appropriate
curvature ratio

RAM Concept program of appropriate curvature ratio (ECR) in each section: ECR =
Ce / Cg
In that

Ce = sectional curvature fit Cg
= sectional curvature
RAM Concept Program in the approximate formulas Ce: Ce = (kc
BSR Cg) + ((1 - BSR) CCCS)
In that

kc = creep coefficient of concrete design (usually 3.35) = tension / stretch the elastic total

Note: According to ACI 209, the 3:35 value is the average value of creep. The Concept RAM files
using default values.

BSR = stress ratio Branson's

CCCS = sectional curvature may consider cracking, creep and
shrinkage.

See Chapter 47, "The cross-sectional design note" to be explained.

Creep coefficient kc as defined above.

Tension shrinkage shrinkage value designed to be used to determine the long-term curvature of
the cross section.

27.1.8 Reinforcement layout and the
detailed parameters
There are five parameters affecting the implementation of the program concept layout and
reinforcement details. Three of these parameters are valuable "waste" of composition affect the priority
of the
Concept program to implement reinforcement layout program. They do not affect the core
steel users. The waste
parameters are:
Waste length bar When this value, the program will offer Concept higher priority to minimize
weight reinforced. Thereby, Concept program also creates a larger number of callouts.

Waste group length bar When this value, Concept Program will give higher priority to minimize
the total length of all combined callouts. Thereby, Concept program also reinforced using more
than necessary in many areas.

Hao callout charge of the bar When this value, Concept Program will provide higher priority to
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minimize the total number callout. Thereby, Concept programs also use reinforced
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than necessary in many areas, and Concept program can provide reinforcement in unnecessary places.

The use of default values for the three parameters are usually generated waste composition reinforced
the program can accept. However, can try to adjust these parameters if you want the program concept
has different layout.

There are two other parameters are
as follows:

Program length round bars Concept reinforcement layout made with the program length is a
multiple of this value. Only in cases where the program does not attempt to use this length is
around both ends of the reinforcing steel callout not straight (we are hook or anchor).

Class of protection of Concept program uses sound values when elaborated both reinforced and
reinforced the use of the program. Always pull back the top bar - except the anchor bar - from
the edge by this value.

27.2 Analysis of
errors

Two types of errors can occur in the calculation: it is fatal and non-fatal (error harmless and harmful).
Program generated RAM Concept Analysis Error message if an error occurs.

If the error occurred fatal error, can not continue analysis. You have error correction, then re-
calculated. For example, if the structure is unstable Concept program can not create a triangular matrix
stiffness.

After the error occurs non-fatal error, you can choose to continue or not analytical calculations. For
example, if the load is not in the structure, you can do one of the following steps:

further analysis and ignores the load

fix and continue calculations

stop analyzing

27.3 Recalculate

Some or all of the information analysis becomes old when calculated calibration model. Click the Calc
All ( ) Function to run new computing analysis. If Calc All become gray ( ), The analysis
results are current.

When you re-calculated, the analysis will start from the point where the information is no longer valid.
For example, if the additional load, it will not affect the stiffness matrix. The calculation will start by
analyzing the load and then continue the design. However, if you edit the concrete element, then the
calculation will start again from the beginning.

27.4 Review the log
calc

After RAM Concept program calculates the result, you can check out the calc log to check for errors.

Open calc
log:

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1 Select Reports> Log Calc.
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27.5 Reduce computation
time

Timing results of Concept Program RAM depending on the number of parameters. You can control
these parameters.

Desired particle size

Time analysis of the stiffness matrix is function of the number of finite element intersection. You can
speed up analysis time using the finite element greater than the start of preliminary. Means defining
element desired size when making large nets.

Designing the band "The smallest separation" and "the biggest gap separating"

Time is calculated function of the number of bands the rhythm section and the design on the range.
Each band rhythm section with "n" to create separation within at least "n +1" design range, more if
most dominant distance. You can speed up analysis time using a small number of separated and a
maximum distance for preliminary design.

Boundarie
s

The form factor of the load and how to create more alternate calculations. The Concept for contour
algorithm is quite effective and thus not slowing down the computation a lot. However, you can,
accelerate computation time by jettisoning the load pattern and set boundaries alternating coefficients
similar to the load factor of the window load combination (Choose Criteria > Load to open the Load
Combo Combination).

SSR Design

Design shear reinforcement style nail increased more significantly the computation time. Maybe
consider obstacles drawing check breached until most of the design is almost complete.

Analysis section details

The analysis of cracked section takes up considerable time. If you are not interested in the results or
are not appropriate, you can turn off the detailed analysis section.

Turn Analysis section details:

1 Choose Criteria> Design
Rules.

2 Uncheck the box Includes detailed analysis section.
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28 View
Results

RAM Concept program creates a large number of results from the analysis model.

If you take the time to learn how to calculate the Concept program results (and the ability to access
them), the Concept program can be a much more powerful tool in your workspace.

28.1 The results of

You can view the results generated through text panels, flat surfaces, and the kind of perspective on the
following layers:

Load
Load combination
The design standards
Status Design

To locate a specific result, you need to know its layer. Only new layer with the plane, the perspective
and the writing table presents the results. For example, find the load: the layer plane load deflection,
but the deflection is in operation, the LC layer Service.

28.2 Regularly used results

Generally, the use of the plane is the most efficient way to see results. Most of the results are related
to:

reinforcement volume
status
deflection
the prop jet
before compression
Load balancing
the bending moment contours
section stress (for some code)
puncture shear strain
pressure load

This section describes how to find such results.

Note: When creating a new file without using a template, the file parameter declaration of the new
default file RAM Concept program. Parameters declared default file new planes are pre-configured to
present some results in an organized manner. You can change this by plane correction tangible
objects and charts. Always remember that the directions below may not be effective or appropriate.

28.2.1 View results
reinforced

RAM Concept program stored envelope of reinforcement required for all design standards Design
Status folder. There are a number of planes available to present various reinforcement. The name of the
plane reinforcement parameters declared in default file new suit visible reinforcement.
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View
reinforced

1 Choose Layers> Design Status> Reinforcement Plan.

If this plane is more information than you require, such as using a plane-plane reinforced bottom
longitude.

See bottom of horizontal
reinforcement

1 Choose Layers> Design Status> Longitude Bottom Reinforcement Plan.

See reinforced draw

1 Select the plane
reinforcement. 2 Choose
View> Plot ( ).
Plot dialog box appears with the Section Design dialog.

3 Highlight Active. 4
Select the radio button
reinforcement.
5 Enter Min and Max Frame # Frame #, and click
OK.

28.2.2 View status

Concrete components may not comply with codes despite reinforcement. For example, how much can
limit cut in the composition. RAM Concept Program will notify the breach to cut excess capacity.

Status messages for code violations. When strips designed to comply with the rules in the code design
criteria, the status is "OK". If a violation occurs, the status is "Failed" or "Exceeded" (according to
rules) and RAM Concept recognition program code rules.

Concept program saved envelope status for all design standards in the directory layer design brief.

View status

1 Choose Layers> Design Status> Status Plan.

Note: Do not consider the deflection limits in the status report.

28.2.3 View
deflection

Maybe you are interested in the different plane deflection. Often it is for deflection
RAM Concept standing but the program and therefore deflection inside viewable.

The intensity chart and use contour deflection results not cracked section (Igross) and do not consider
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cracking (unless increasing the load factor for this purpose).

Note: Access to the intensity graph and contour drawings through tab "Slab".
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Results deflection taking into consideration issues chapped chart available in the Analysis section and
use the tab deflection histograms LT.

This chart is shown by default in the new file in the Rule Set Designs> Design Service
> L.T. Deflection Plan or Rule Set Designs> Max Service Design> LT Deflection Plan (according to
code).

Note: You can change the plane of the parameters are declared drawings do not match the name of
the drawing again. Therefore it is not recommended to change the drawing.

See Chapter 56, "is expected deflection" for more
information.

Note: The chart deflections "copies" (identified by chart tab) is available for loads and load
combinations. The chart deflections "cross section analysis" (identified by chart tab) is available for
the rules.

View live load
deflection

1 Choose Layers> Loadings> live Loading> deflection Plan.

View static load deflection

1 Choose Layers> Load Combinations> All Dead LC> deflection Plan.

View active deflection

1 Choose Layers> Load Combinations> Service LC> deflection Plan.

View the permanent deflection range for ACI318 or
BS8110

1 Choose Layers> Rule Set Designs> Service Design> LT Plan deflection.

View the permanent deflection range for
AS3600

1 Choose Layers> Rule Set Designs> Max Service Design> LT Plan deflection.

28.2.4 View the prop jet

The prop jet plane is always the default for most loads and load combinations.

Filtering can make some invisible jet.

Watch the weight of the jet itself:

1 Choose Layers> Loadings> self-dead Loading> Reaction Plan.

View the jet load:

1 Choose Layers> Loadings> live Loading> Reaction Plan.

View the jet static load:

1 Choose Layers> Load Combinations> All Dead LC> Reaction Plan.
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View the jet's load factor is:

1 Choose Layers> Load Combinations> factored LC> Reaction Plan.

28.2.5 View previous compression
following tension (P / A)

You can see the level of prestressed reinforced and prestressed bearing the impact of the plane limited
by the pre-compression. The default plane in the x and y.

View previous compression
in the x

1 Choose Layers> Loadings> Balance Loading> Fx Precompression Plan.

28.2.6 View the percentage load is balanced

You can see the percentage of the load is balanced by the tension in the strip after design.

View the percentage load is balanced on a flat surface design latitude range

1 Choose Layers> Design Strips> Design Strips Latitude Plan
2 Choose View> Visible Objects ( ).
3 Percentages Check Load Balanced, and click OK.

Note: See the "Calculate the percentage of the load balancing" on page 315 for more information.

28.2.7 View the bending moment
contours

Through the contour plane bending moment, can understand the behavior of complex curved floor.
Bending Moment Distribution Tools ( ) Increases the usefulness of the plane.

View the torque is multiplied by the coefficient of
X axis

1 Choose Layers> Load Combinations> factored LC> Mx Plan.

28.2.8 See section stress

Many codes have limits stress-stressed concrete floor below. You should be aware of this stress for
initial design work and design activities. Typically you will see in the stress range than contoured
design, because the design process is rarely used since the peak stress contours.

Watch the original stress on the
strip

1 Choose Layers> Rule Set Designs> Initial Service Design> Top Stress Plan.

Watch the original stress in the strip

1 Choose Layers> Rule Set Designs> Initial Service Design> Bottom Stress Plan.

See stress in the range of activities

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1 Choose Layers> Rule Set Designs> Service Design> Top Stress Plan.
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See stress in the range of activities

1 Choose Layers> Rule Set Designs> Service Design> Bottom Stress Plan.

Note: If you can see too much information, the corrected drawings. You can check these possibilities,
or limit the range

28.2.9 View results poked shear strain

RAM Concept Program pierced shear test (or both directions) for the appropriate code. Calculate the
stress at the top of each plane is likely to be damaged and comparison with calculated stresses with the
allowable value.

View poked shear strain condition

1 Choose Layers> Design Status> Status Punching Shear Plan.

Note: "USR" is the ratio of non-reinforced stress
Note: "RSR" is the ratio of stress are reinforced
Note: "CTSR" is the ratio of stress buttons closed. This rate is only for AS3600. See "AS 3600
Puncture shear strain model "on page 491,Chapter 57, "Notes on the design shear fun puncture ".

View poked shear strain SSR

1 Choose Layers> Design Status> SSR Plan.

28.2.10 View results reduce load

You can see the results for each load reduction "component" (column, puncture test, the strip segment
designs and the design range) and several load.

View Results column element
LLR

1 Choose Layers> Element> Slab Plan Summary.
2 Choose View> Visible Objects ( ).
3 Check LLR Parameters, and click OK.

View results LLR design latitude
range

1 Choose Layers> Design Strips> Latitude Plan Design Strips.
2 Choose View> Visible Objects ( ).
3 Check LLR Parameters, and click OK.

28.2.11 View of soil bearing
pressure

The files with "nails the system" is unchecked in the New File dialog box is the surface pressure load.
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View under the pressure of the
soil load

1 Choose Layers> Loadings> live Loading> Soil Bearing Pressure Plan.

View works bearing pressure of the
soil

1 Choose Layers> Load Combinations> Service LC> Soil Bearing Pressure Plan.

Note: You can add the flat surface of the soil bearing pressure on the files. See "Creating new plane
results ".

28.3 See more results

Some search results that you can not see on the default planes. Here is how to present these results.

28.3.1 The display changes to objects

When declaring a new default file, certain objects are visible by default. Can edit tangible objects to
show more or less results.

Change tangible objects:

1 Choose View> Visible Objects (
).

2 Choose options in the dialog box and click OK Visible Objects

Note: See the "Control Display" on page 12 for more information.

28.3.2 Changes affecting histograms

These parameters control charts drawing view results on a plane or perspective. Setting the default file
with the declared parameters for the given graph plane or separate perspectives. You can change the
settings to suit your requirements, or make the plane easier to read.

Change the declaration
drawings: 1 Select View>
Plot ( ). Plot dialog box
appears.
2 Make changes and click OK.

Note: The way the plane and the perspective is often named to reflect the declared parameters of the
drawing is used. If you change the drawing parameters declaration, the name of the drawings may not
be precise.

Note: You must first open the front plane or perspective drawings using command.

The following example shows how to draw borders on the design bending moment intensity: Plane
Reinforcement:

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Choose Layers> Rule Set Designs> Strength Design> Reinforcement Plan.
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Choose View> Plot ( ).

In the tab strip, select "Active".

Select "Bending"

Check the "Maximum Moment", and "Minimum Moment".

Click OK.

28.3.3 Create a new plane results

Can make the new plane for the results are not available in the plane of the new default file. See
"Creating a new plane" on page 11 and "Creating a new perspective" on page 11 for more information
on how to make planes and new perspectives.

The following example shows how to create the jet plane LC Service:

Choose Layers> New Plan.

Enter the name as "Reactions".

RAM Concept program automatically attach the word "plan" is not defined in the name and layer
name.

LC Service Choose Layer, and click OK.

Visible Objects dialog box appears.

Click OK.

Choose View> Plot ( ).

Plot dialog box appears.

Reaction tab.

Choose Active.

Choose Standard.

Choose the bearings marked (by Value) for the part you want to see the reaction.

28.4 The distribution curve
section

The distribution curve section of program RAM Concept allows you to see the different value analysis
across any straight line drawn on the structure. The distribution of this chart can help you understand
the behavior of the structure (especially for the torque and deflection), but do not use them to design
quantitative.

28.4.1 The value distribution
curve

The distribution curve is generated by the tool Bending Moment Distribution ( ), Vertical Shear
Distribution tools ( ), Tools Axial Force Distribution ( ) And Distribution Plot Selected tool (
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). The chart presents the predicted values along the line is drawn
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across the. The program predicts RAM Concept is based on the results of the elements.

Calculation Method of Concept program RAM ensure results for segments range of design and design
range with load balancing node. However, the results for the graph cuts through the elements is not
necessarily accurate, and may not be accurate for the coarse mesh and the element with the higher
application rates. Although the method of calculation program RAM Concept ensures elastic stress
energy stored in each element of the energy load acting on the element, the element for the unusual
shape ( as the triangular points), the formation energy can create mutations virtual local stresses. Note
that this restriction does not affect the band segment designs or design range and does not affect the
calculation of reinforced RAM Concept program.

28.4.2 The torque distribution chart

You can create charts using the tool torque distribution Bending Moment Distribution ( ). Drawings
are displayed along a straight line drawn shows the distribution of the bending moment around the
axis line. The value of the 2D graph (if any) Plot dialog control ( ) Does not affect the torque
distribution chart. Integrated torque values are presented below the graph is the sum torque
distribution range chart, but does not include bending moment, which is due to the axial force and the
variation in the focus of the projector (such as bending moment due to the axial force on the plate and
the beam-beam wings caused T). You should use the range of design and the design range to
determine the number of designs when they arrested both components of the bending moment.

Figure 28-1 on page 133 A graphical representation of the distribution of torque to the torque diagram
drawn on U.S. borders for the moment Mx. The chart shows the torque distribution for My line is
drawn in the plane parallel to the y axis. Distribution curve integrated value is -657 kip-ft and peak
value is -73.9 kip (or - 73.9 kip-ft/foot). The value contour graph does not affect the value distribution
curve. If you use tools Selected Distribution Plot ( ) Instead of Bending Moment Distribution tools
( ), The contour diagram and distribution curve displays the same value.
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Figure 28-1 torque graph shows the distribution of torque USA on an outline diagram Mx.

28.4.3 The shear stress distribution
curve

You can create the distribution curve using the tool cutting force Distribution Vertical Shear ( ).
Drawings are displayed along a straight line drawn shows the shear stress distribution across the
vertical line. The value of the 2D graph (if any) Plot dialog control ( ) Does not affect the shear
distribution curve. Integrated shear values are shown below the graph cutting force distribution is
integrated range of drawings. The range and scope of design designed to give accurate values
integrated over.

28.4.4 The chart axial force distribution

You can create charts with axial force distribution tool Axial Force Distribution ( ). Drawings are
displayed along a straight line drawn shows the distribution of the axial force (horizontal) across the
line. The value of the 2D graph (if any) Plot dialog box ( ) Control chart has no effect on axial
force distribution. Value of the axial force integration is presented below chart axial force
distribution is integrated range of drawings. The range and scope of design designed to give
accurate values integrated over.

28.4.5 The distribution curve is
selected

You can create the distribution curve tool selected by Distribution Plot Selected ( ). Drawings are
displayed along a straight line drawn shows the distribution of values is shown in the 2D chart (due
Plot dialog box ( ) Control). Integrated value is shown below the chart is a summary of the
distribution range of the drawing. Integrated value may or may not be useful depending on the number
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of the graph (for example, the integration of the stress diagram is worth force / length that is largely
useless).
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It is important to note when using tools Selected Distribution Plot ( ) With the contour chart axes
'max' and 'min' (such as LC Max Bottom Stress Service Plan). The stress diagram "max" and "min"
presents the largest value or smallest at each point in the village. At each point along the chart is
selected, the distribution of key values, the spindle may vary. Values for integrated distribution
curve mathematical sense, but does not have any meaning any structure.

If you want to see the distribution of stress (or torque, etc.) around a separate axis, you can use the Plot
dialog box ( ) To set the axis contour diagram (plotted using Value Axis) will be the axis of the
results that you want to see. Selected Tools Distribution Plot ( ) Represents value for that axis.

28.4.6 Impact of calculating the average

The chart shows the distribution of the results of the element. at the edge of both elements, RAM
Concept Program calculations using simple average, giving reasonable results in most cases, but can
deform the integration results The average RAM Concept of small particles results with the results of
the major element. The distribution curve selected is influenced more from the average plane of the 2D
chart by Plot dialog box ( ) Control.

The calculation of the average induced strain is one more reason that you should always use the range
and scope of design designed to quantify design.

28.4.7 Summa
ry

The distribution curve section allows you to view the values of variables can analyze any horizontal
lines are drawn on the structure. Through this distribution curve, we will understand the behavior of the
structure, but not to use them to design quantitative. You should always use the range and scope of
design designed to determine the number of design

28.5 The other results
information

The following sections categorize the
results.

28.5.1 Reinforced on the lower vertical

RAM Concept Program presents longitudinal reinforcement in the plane with the following
parameters:

Some bars
bars (defined as the range of design features)
length of the bar
bar spacing

Figure 28-2 and Figure 28-3 presented in the column reinforcement. There are two design callouts for
the band at the end of the column. Reinforced according to different requirements on each side. Need to
rationalize and detailed information on how reasonable the bar. Reinforcement bars left nine # 5, each
bar 6.5 ft long. [Nine 16 mm bars, each 1.8 m long bar].

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Figure 28-2 Design mode: Latitude Top Reinforcement Plan (U.S. Unit)





Figure 28-3 Design mode: Latitude Top Reinforcement Plan (meters)

Figure 28-4 and Figure 28-5 Reinforced presented below. Reinforcement bars of fourteen # 4, each bar
length
9.5 ft. [Fifteen bars 12 mm long, 2.9 meters long and each bar].





Figure 28-4 Design mode: Bottom Reinforcement Plan (U.S. Unit)





Figure 28-5 Design mode: Bottom Reinforcement Plan (meters)

28.5.2 Length of reinforcing
bar

The Concept of reinforcing bar length determined by the stops. The stop is located at the cross-range
segment designs, where the bars do not need to have any design standards.

Length bars are shown on the plane does not include the length and embedded development.

28.5.3 Orientation
reinforced

Concept drawing program reinforced the chart along the axis defined by the cross-sectional design of
the first strip and the final.

The bar on the run "through" axis and parallel to it. The under run bar "below" this axis and parallel to
it. The chart at right angles to the shaft reinforcement.

Figure 28-6 presentation axis, line AB, for mid range. A point at the midpoint of the range between the
first section, and point B at the midpoint of the range between the final cut.

The design and computing capacity is always assumed that the reinforcement (unless the prestressed
reinforcement) cut perpendicular to the surface. If reinforcement perpendicular distance (as shown in
Figure 28-6), The amount of reinforcement can be increased.
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Figure 28-6 Drawing related to reinforcement axes local

28.5.4 Reinforced shear

Program Concept presents the shear reinforcement in the plane with the following parameters:

some distance in the
feet for a number of shear reinforcement
the distance
length region

Figure 28-7 shear reinforcement present.

For U.S. units and bar size, length 2.78 ft area. and distance to 4 feet # 4 at 8:34 central. "

For metric units and bar size, the 0.772 m long and 4 feet distance 12 mm in focal 193 ".

For both systems unit, five shear reinforcement (distance + 1).
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Figure 28-7 Design mode: Shear Reinforcement Plan (U.S. units and meters).

28.5.5 Results poked shear strain

Notes pierced shear design is presented in Chapter 57, "Notes on Design shear pierced ".

The non-standard section: ACI 318
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Occasionally poked shear strain status is "Non-Standard Section". This is a warning, not an error.
"Non-Standard Section" means at least one of the important sections RAM Concept program is to
check that the column does not completely match the ACI one of three cases: inside, edges and
corners.

In the case of "Non-Standard Section", you need to check the important details of Concept program has
identified, and assessment to determine whether they match with ACI puncture model (always check
with your eyes the critical section, even though the program is not notified Concept that we are not
prepared). The Concept is the stress ratio for the non-standard section.

The non-standard section: AS3600, BS8110 and IS 456

Occasionally poked shear strain status is "Non-Standard Section". This is a warning, not an error.
"Non-Standard Section" means at least one of the important sections RAM Concept program is not
checking for that column is consistent with one of three cases: inside, edges and corners.

In the case of "Non-Standard Section", you need to check the important details of Concept program has
identified, and assessment to determine whether they match with ACI puncture model (always check
with your eyes the critical section, even though the program is not notified Concept that we are not
prepared). The Concept is the stress ratio for the non-standard section.

If breached section can be classified according to any rule "standard" does, it will be seen as more of
"standard". The rules for the section "Standard" is:

One side of the square:

must have a uniform thickness
must have 4 sides
center section to coincide with the center column
opposite sides must be parallel and have the same length
adjacent edges perpendicular to
to seamlessly (no gap) 2
perpendicular edges:
shall have a uniform thickness
must have 3 edge
opposite sides must be parallel and have the same length
adjacent edges perpendicular to
can only have two interruptions (in addition to the assumed) 3
square corners:
shall have a uniform thickness
must be 2 next
perpendicular to the edge
can only have two interruptions (assumed at the edges) 4 inner
circle (the circle in a straight line):
shall have a uniform thickness
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center section to coincide with the center column
the first segment must have the same radius from the center column
to continuous (no gaps)

5 Rounded corners or edges (in the circle line):

shall have a uniform thickness
column to round
can only have two interruptions (in addition to the assumed)
can only have two segments with different radii from the center column than all the other
segment (assumed at the edges)
the interruption of the segment is the "outside radius" (in addition to the)

Note: These rules apply to the EC2 section before decorating the corners.
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29 The results plotted

The report parameters see control diagram drawing results on a plane or perspective. Set the default file
with certain parameters for each drawing surface and unique perspective. Can customize these
parameters or create planes and new perspectives to show the chart that you want.

Control chart parameters passed through command dialog Plot Plot ( ).

29.1 Set the draw results

You can change the settings to suit your requirements.

Changing the chart:

1 Open plane or perspective you want to change. 2
Choose View> Plot ( ).
Plot dialog box appears.

3 Select the Active tab and check to make active chart. 4 Make
changes and click OK.
Note: The name of the plane or perspective, often presenting its histogram parameters. If you change
the parameters of the chart, you should rename the plane or perspective.

29.2 The

The Active check the version tab allows you to display and control chart analysis much like the torque,
shear, axial, torsion, deflection, and the jet canopy substrate. For drawing the axial stress or shear
stress on a plane, to draw selected depth values. The plotted value other depending on depth.

We suggest bending the flat contour chart. If not, the borders will be drawn for each element, which can
make it difficult to monitor the results of a larger area (in addition, of the amount drawn, does not show
any function other than the of plane bending). RAM Concept program enables solution to determine the
value of the selected chart. The chart finer solution requires many times enlarged screen.

For the contour diagram, you can control the frequency of the line by definition do not select "Use
default magnitudes" and enter the value desired contour. For color contour diagrams, can declare the
upper and lower limits for the value of the plan by entering the largest value and the smallest.

Available in the chart to layer loads, load combinations and the standard rules.
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Figure 29-1 Plot dialog box with the results chart drawing
operations.

29.2.1 Drawing context

There are three contexts: "Standard", "Max" and "Min". Max and Min context is used to surround the
largest and smallest values for each point on the map.

But the significance of contextual Standard, Max and Min somewhat blatantly clear, Table 29-1
Concept program listing to calculate these values have to consider the weight and form factor standard
and alternating loads.

29.2.2 The limited context diagram of the Max and Min

Program Concept store only a limited number of copies value analysis. For example, the standard value,
the largest and least Mx, My, and MXY are kept, while the value of the torque around the axis (other
than the x-or y-) is calculated by the calculation Mohr's Circle. Similarly the standard value, the largest
and smallest Px, Py, Vxy, Mx, My, and MXY are used to calculate the stress value at the top, in the
middle and below.

Since the largest value and the smallest is not stored for these values, the calculation of the maximum
and minimum value is only relative.

For example, if a form is load deflection deflection x is 10 and y is 0, while the other sample
deflection deflection x is 0 and y is 10, the deflection will be 14.4 Max context, whether maximum
deflection shall never exceed 10.

The value chart context largest and smallest the following should be considered
approximate:

The value for any axis that is not x or y axis.
stress values for any water depth is not deep in the middle.
the deflection values for any depth is not deep in the middle.
deflection value between the parties which is not located at zero height.
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Table 29-1 Calculation of Standard Values, Max and Min
Type
Laye
r

Standard

Max

Min

Load
Value application
with full load (no
load sample)

The maximum value is considered to occur
each load pattern (complete with model
coefficients) and a full load.

The minimum value is considered to occur
each load pattern (complete with the form
factor) and a full load.



Load
combina
tion unit


Linear combination
of the standard load
values using the
standard load factor
Value occurs when the combined load of all,
taking the maximum value of the four values
for each payload below:
Standard load factor * Max
Alternating load factor * Max
Standard load factor * Min
Alternating load factor * Min
Value occurs when the combined load of all,
taking the minimum value of the four values
for each payload below:
Standard load factor * Max
Alternating load factor * Max
Standard load factor * Min
Alternating load factor * Min





Load
combina
tion
group
inside







(Not available)
Value occurs when the combined load of all
the forces, taking the maximum value of the
four values for each payload below:
Standard load factor * Max
Alternating load factor * Max
Standard load factor * Min
Alternating load factor * Min
Plus the single largest value of all the
horizontal load value (of correct type):
Standard horizontal load factor * Max
Coefficient of alternating horizontal
load * Max
Standard horizontal load factor * Min
Coefficient of alternating horizontal
load * Min
Value occurs when the combined load of all
the forces, taking the minimum value of the
four values for each payload below:
Standard load factor * Max
Alternating load factor * Max
Standard load factor * Min
Alternating load factor * Min
Plus the value of the smallest unit of all
horizontal load value (of correct type):
Standard horizontal load factor *
Max
Coefficient of alternating horizontal
load * Max
Standard horizontal load factor * Min
Coefficient of alternating horizontal
load * Min
The rules
norm

(Not available)

All load values combinations relevant biggest

All load values combinations relevant
minimum

29.3 Reaction

Select Active in the Reaction tab allows you to control the display and analysis of responses. Standard
button displays context jet corresponding standard results (More information on the benchmark results
and the existing boundary Chapter 46, "The analysis notes"). For benchmark results, you can display
any number of columns jet for top / bottom, wall above / below, the dome base / prop in the system,
surround soles / systems support with straight lines, and the standard jet is used to puncture test. If the
column above and below in the same position in the plane, and both cell Column Column Above and
Below are selected, the overall reaction is shown in that position. The same applies to the wall above
and below the wall.

The other buttons in the group context for the results to be included. Program Concept displays the jet
column (top / bottom) and puncture test results include the selected context. The wall jet will be
included and can be used to draw in the later version.

Only the value of the response context "Standard" for the layer loads and load combination, in the
context of how the six available for loads, load combinations and layer design standards.
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Figure 29-2 Plot tab dialog reaction





Figure 29-3 Plot tab dialog reaction



Figure 29-4 Plot tab dialog reaction

29.4 Strip
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When selecting Active in the Strip tab, you will show the analysis results for the designed range. Each
chart shows the value of the variant selected value in each section range segment design (along the
axis of each strip is selected). The chart is related to the largest and smallest moments and shear forces
can be displayed, allowing the value surrounded separate chart will be displayed.

Torsion is the twisting of values around the center of the strip segment design, with the power button
element.

Twist is the value of the torque by the torque roll (MXY designed to strip parallel to the x or y axis) is
calculated from the element stresses judgment (and not necessarily equal to the power button e). Not
recommended for use value Twist twisted design.

Absolute synthesis Twist is twisting absolute value along the cross section. This value differs from the
value of "Twist" that it is always positive, and in the calculations, the twisted values of the different
symbols is not canceled.

Do not use the Twist Absolute values of selected design unless design twists Wood-Armer.

Note: Accuracy of the Absolute value Twist and Twist are determined from the judgment element
stress and depending on the quality and fineness of the mesh. Unlike Torsion values, these values are
not guaranteed to be equal to the applied load button.

Can find the definitions of the different values of Chapter 46, "The analysis notes".

Contextual Value range "standards" are only available for loads and load combinations layer, while
the four available contexts is how to load, load combination and layer design standards.





Figure 29-5 Plot dialog tab
strip.

29.5 Analysis of cross-
sectional area

Select Active in the Section Analysis tab allows you to display the results of the analysis and design for
the design range includes torque, shear, stress, crack width, and curvature ratio accordingly. The results
of the analysis are drawn for how results. They can be painted with a design capacity of the final design
of the program RAM Concept. It should be noted that many may not have the amount of power values
are determined.

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The cross section of chart analysis is only available for the standard design layer.
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Figure 29-6 Plot dialog analysis section tab.

29.6 Design section

Select Active in the Design Selection Tab allows you to draw the reinforced top, bottom and shear
relative
to the final design or design for each of the standard rules of Concept program.

The value of "Top Developed" and "Developed Bottom" presentation reinforced top and bottom are
fully developed as required in each position.

The design chart section is only available for the standard design and the design brief layer.





Figure 29-7 Plot dialog design section tab

29.6.1 The chart "context" design section

O group chart Section Design, "Context" has three false context:

It spans Details
No details rhythm, and
Reinforcement provided by users.

Details are presented in the rhythm 49.1 page 341 Chapter 49, "The Note on Reinforcement".
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Impact of Span Detailing Contexts up the charts presented in Table 29-2 and Table 29 - 3.

For Layer design mode, the context of "With Span Detailing" including the impact of reinforcement
calculated assuming development of the reinforcement of the chart was developed.

29.6.2 The chart horizon

When choosing context "With Span Detailing" or "User Provided Reinf" Concept drawing program
reinforced chart "horizon".

In the chart the horizon, each value is calculated for valid rhythm section (as shown by the horizontal
line) instead of the value will be interpolated between the sections. While this is a fundamentally
different nature graphics, detailed presentation of the actual reinforcement bars used in the callout
chart values the horizon.

For the standard design, the impact of Span Detailing Context (except to draw the horizon) as shown
in Table 29-2 following.

For Layer design mode, the impact of Span Detailing Context (for other than drawing the horizon) as
shown in Table 29-3 following.


Value
Not
h
ave more
rhythm

There are more rhythms
Reinforced by providing
users

Over
Und
er
Above and below

At the
Accounting
for
a cross
section
Values are calculated for an extended
section on the detailed rules of rhythm (see
section 49.1 "rate details", Chapter 49,
"The reinforcement Notice").
Vector components of the
radio range of users
intersects with the section


On the
Under
Dev Dev

At the
Accounting
for
a cross
section


When calculating a cross section
Vector component of the
extended range of user bar
intersects with the section
Shear
cutting
force
cutting
force
density
Distance


At the
Accounting
for
a cross
section



When calculating a cross section



(Not)

Table 29-2 Effects of contextual detail on the chart span norm



Value
Not
h
ave more
rhythm

There are more rhythms
Reinforced by
providing users
Over
Und
er
On
an
d
Under

When
calculating a
cross section
Values are calculated for an extended section
on the detailed rules of rhythm (see
49.1 "rate details", Chapter 49, "The
Reinforced Notice ").
Vector components of
the radio range of users
intersects with the
section
On the
Under
Dev Dev
At
calc
ulated for a
The values are plotted as the largest reinforced
calculated for a cross section of the
reinforcement and
Vector components of
the expanded scope
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section was developed from the rebar are not
developed detailed rate (see 49.1 "Details
rhythm",Chapter 49, "The Note on
Reinforcement").
Using these values in the calculation of the
final performance test.
user bar intersects with
the section
Density
shear
cutting
force
cutting
forces
Distanc
e


When
calculating a
cross section




When calculating a cross section




(Not)

Table 29-3 Impact of Context on the detailed rate chart design mode

29.7 Analysis pierced

Select Active in Punching Analysis tab allows you to display information about the breach analysis
includes stress for each section is important for any force which does. Values shown are of (the) critical
sections are selected with the selected power, and that is the worst case for the column. There can
always show the most important case of breach by Max Stress Radio button and select Section 1.

The chart analysis pierced only available for the standard design and the design brief layer.





Figure 29-8 Plot dialog tab punching analysis

29.7.1 Results poked shear strain

Notes pierced shear design is presented in Chapter 57, "Notes on Design shear pierced ".

The "Non-Standard Section" is presented in "The results of shear strain poked" on page 135.
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30 Use Auditor

Sometimes the result designed by the Program RAM Concept can make you confused or surprised. It
may be due to incorrect data entry, report the unusual synergy (eg, negative torque at mid-span), or
interpreted code rules. The Auditor will help you function information display design reviews.

30.1 Auditor can support the design process how

Auditor is a tool used to display the data entered, the parameters, the total force and the results of
certain code sections for strip design, the scope of design and test breakthrough , in the form of text.

Auditor can display useful information to:

1 Check data entered as protection layer reinforcement
bars.

2 Test data were calculated as center reinforcing bar height. 3
Review the design criteria (activity, durability, etc.)
4 Check out the how the total force (moment, shear, axial force, etc.).

5 Reviews of bars of prestressed reinforced to meet the stress limits code.

30.2 Three steps
designed

RAM Concept program design implementation in 3 steps:

Step 1: Once the norm to make a selection reinforced "Pass 1". For most rules, this parameter declaration
is fully designed.

Step 1b: Summary of selected reinforcement of the
rules.

Step 2: Once the norm to make a selection reinforced "Pass 2" was needed in addition to a summary of
the steps 1b. For most rules, this step does not have any objects appear, but for some rules, such as
shear-design and design flexibility, they need to know to be reinforced before step 1 summary
conducting design.

Step 2b: Summary of selected reinforcement of the
rules.

Step 3: Every rule made final inspection (not wired to be added in this step) and final analysis.

Auditor reports the following
three steps:

Pass 1
Pass 2
The final test

30.3 Information displayed by the
Auditor

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Information by Auditor to display sections of a single-band rhythm section or sections designed.
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Auditor display:

1 The range of designs and cross sections, or No. 2
section design components for a concrete section
of concrete blocks
height on the bottom of each concrete block
depth and width of each concrete block
durability and last initial (and cylindrical shapes)
Ec value and last initial (elastic modulus)
density
with or without blocks from the center cut

See "Define" center "Concrete" on page 330 for more details about the center cut.
3 characteristics for each type of reinforcement bars
height
elastic stress
Ec value (modulus)
section bars
diameter bars

4 The reinforcing properties of each type of prestressed reinforced prestressed

cgs height (the center of gravity bar) on data
endurance limit (stress)
elastic stress
effective stress
Ec value (modulus)
section of the bar
adhesion to concrete
R component [component prestressed reinforcement parallel to the cross-sectional design strips
(sq. Wave design with corner strips)]
S component [component prestressed reinforcement perpendicular to the cutting strip design
(parallel design wave band)]
Z component [component prestressed reinforced vertical cross sections (only used for
the calculation of
redundancy)]
length
initial tension concrete
tube width
Some stick a tube
sectional area a bar
the tube

5 Facility design diagrams included (standard design for each):

The torque and power envelope for the largest and smallest cut is shown. They are adjusted, if
appropriate, for torque and axial force design. The outline lists the total force following:

Vr (horizontal cutting force)
Ps (axial stress)
Vz (vertical shear)
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Mr. (bending)
Ts (torque)
Mz (bending film)

6 Reinforced (for each standard design):

Depending on the standard rules, RAM Concept program further reinforced in sections.

In the
At the bottom
Density shear
Distance shear
Cutting force (the density with distance)

The bracket appears after each result code presentation rules are governed. 7 The
power section (Analysis)
Depending on the standard rules, Auditor power display section and other information.

Tension section
o curvature
o tension above, between and below

Power Concrete for concrete blocks

o upper and lower stress
o force
o its height

The force is not expected to reinforce each bar

o height
o tension
o stress
o section bars
o force

The tension after each prestressed reinforcement

o height
o sectional tensions
o sectional tension components (reviewed prestressed reinforced corners)
o Prestressed reinforcement force (force fit on the plane cross-section)

30.4 Use Auditor

Auditor may be used for certain design standards, or to the design brief.

Note: Check the standard rules have significantly less data than the design brief inspection audit.
Thus, the test may be the norm rather useful.

Use Auditor for the standard design:

1 Choose Layers> Rule Set Designs> Design Selected> Selected Plan
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2 Choose Auditor tool ( ).

3 Click on the section plane in strip design, or design section, which you want to check.
Auditor window open.
4 Scroll to find the information you
require.

Note: You may find it convenient to display the range of designs to choose the information you want.

Note: Auditor selection function (i) section closest (of the band spans the visible) to the clicked point,
or (ii) does not select anything, if there is no section within 3 feet [1m ] clicked point. The section itself
does not need to display them.

Note: The Auditor will not work if not done Calc All.

Note: Results may not be current Auditor if the analysis is not applicable. (If Calc All become gray (
), The analysis results are current).

Use Auditor to the design brief:

1 Choose Layers> Design Status> Selected Plan.

2 Follow the instructions for "design standards" above.

30.5 Auditor to use the following guidelines
stress

The code stresses certain limits and design activities must comply with the limits. Auditor will show
hints of tension in the strip bar design then need to add how to meet code regulations.

Can access this information from a variety of planes, but the instructions below are for use Rule Set
Design Service.

Use Auditor to stretch following
guidelines:

1 Choose Layers> Rule Set Designs> Service Design> Status Plan
2 Select Auditor tool ( ).
3 Click on the section plane strips are not designed to meet the performance standards and you need
directions
lead
.

Auditor window
open.

4 Scroll to the text by two asterisks surround (top and bottom) near the test below.

If the maximum tensile stress within the code, the information is not displayed. If the tensile stress of
concrete is calculated beyond the permissible limits, the Auditor will recommend increasing
percentage bar to limit the stress response.
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Figure 30-1 shows text Auditor percentage increase required to comply with the code.

Note: compression before impact and balance of prestressed reinforced not necessarily be limited to
the range (and strip design) with prestressed reinforcement. Due to prestressing is diversion (flow P /
A) ranges from the design, so the percentage increase may suggest incorrect.

Note: If the prestressed reinforced cross section at an angle of ninety degrees outside, the percentage
increases proposal may not be accurate.

30.6 Information displayed by Check Punching Auditor

Information displayed by Check Punching Auditor is to test puncture in a single column.

Auditor display:

1 puncture test 2 position
(coordinates)
3 Geometr
y

axis angle
radius

4 5 layers of
protection to CGS
Concrete Durability
6 Compress
ion ago

7 The envelope synergy

8 The section features important
circumference

important section of the
belt length
depth belt
twisted strip properties (to AS3600)
9 rate is not reinforced stress
10 The horizontal bar features the type of stud shear reinforcement (if required for
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design). 11 Summary
30.7 Using the Punching Check
Auditor
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Auditor can use for design durability standards, or design brief.

Use Auditor Punching Check for durability design criteria:

1 Choose Layers> Rule Set Designs> Strength Design> Selected Plan
2 Select Check tool Punching Auditor ( ).
3 Click on the plane at the position puncture test that you want to check.

Auditor window open.

4 Scroll to find the information you require.

Note: The Auditor will not work if not done Calc All.

Note: Results may not be current Auditor if the analysis is not applicable. (If Calc All become gray (
), The analysis results are current).

Auditor to use the design brief:

1 Choose Layers> Design Status> Selected Plan.

Follow the instructions for "the strength design criteria" above.
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31 Use Estimate

When preparing the design, should understand the amount and cost of materials used in the model.
Estimate window will serve this purpose.

Estimate particularly useful for comparing the preliminary scheme. You can also used to compare the
change of design.

RAM Concept program automatically calculating the volume of material. The unit price is determined
for the calculations of the cost of providing and installing

31.1 See Estimate

Estimate window lists the different material volumes and unit costs of providing and installing them
(workers).

See Estimate:

1 Select Report> Estimate.

31.2 Estimate what the The
volume of material is calculated
as: Concrete
Volume concrete floor does not include bearings.

Formwork

The area under the arch horizontal
formwork.

Stretch
after

The weight of the bar to length plane prestressed reinforcement. Do not include or limit stress tailed
screen allows.

Steel reinforced
soft

Weight-based reinforcement strip design calculations. Excluding the connector plate, bend, or other
bars as "detailed design", systems support prestressed reinforced or otherwise. To be able to calculate
"good" as the band drew the design. Thus, be careful while considering the volume.

31.3 Calibrate the unit
price

The unit can be modified. Estimate will separate unit cost of materials and installation (labor).

Calibrate the unit
price:

1 Choose Report>
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Estimate.

2 Enter costs for each material.
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Note: Cost updated when you press Enter or Tab.

31.4 Unit price

Application rates can vary for many reasons, including:

Region (labor availability and skills).
Floor and the size of the project.
Formwork system (usually the more economical flat beams).
The following costs are not the same strain on different systems. In many countries, the system
did not stick with cheaper concrete, but that may not be true if a large number of prestressed
reinforced with concrete adhesive to be used in the beams.
Rebar diameter generally cheaper than smaller diameter bars for costs materials and labor.
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32 Print
ing

RAM Concept Program with custom printing options to help you create and print professional reports.
Control the information on the printed page and in the report. Every window in the program RAM
Concept can be printed separately one by one or as part of the report. This chapter presents the
properties in which you can use to achieve the desired results and techniques introduced in efficiency.

Note: See the "Determination of the plane fit" for more information on rates set in the window of the
plane.

32.1 The basic instruction
in

You can print the selected window, or the whole report.

In one
window:

1 Click to activate the print
window. 2 Select Report> Print
Window.
3 Choose the desired print options. See "The choice in general" for more information. 4 Click the
Print.
In the report:

1 Choose Report> Print
Report

2 Choose the desired print options. See "The choice in general" below for more information.

3 Click the
Print.

Note: To make sure you get the desired printing results, see the printed page before printing. See
"Review the printed page" for more information.

32.2 The choices in general

Print Parameter declarations for program RAM Concept will know what type of printer is used, the
page will be printed, and the number of copies you need. Update the parameters declared in every
window or report.

32.2.1 Select the
printer

Determine where you want the printer RAM Concept program executing in the Select the printer in the
Print dialog box. Compatible with the latest driver installed, RAM Concept Program can print on any
windows printer or plotter that is connected directly to your computer or network connection. Refer to
the printer documentation for more information on setting the printer settings and select the
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appropriate printer driver.

32.2.2 Scope page

In the Page Range section of the Print dialog box, select the pages to
print:
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Select All to print all the pages in the report, or to print pages active window.

Specify the page range to print. Enter a hyphen between the page numbers to print in the range
(inclusive). You must enter numbers separated by hyphens in ascending order (4-7, not 7-4).

32.2.3 Number
of prints

In the Print dialog box, select the number of copies that the number of copies to be printed. Enter a
value from 1
to 9999.

32.3 The selected print
settings

In the Page Setup dialog box, you can declare parameters printer, page size, and source, the default
orientation, size, and page margins for the printed page. These parameters are stored in the system and
is used by default when printing.

Change the print settings
options:

1 Choose Report> Print
Setup.

2 Choose the option to install the desired
printer. 3 Click OK.
32.3.1 Select the
printer

Click on the printer to select the printer from the Printer's Page Setup dialog. RAM Concept Program
can print on any printer with the appropriate printer driver is installed.

32.3.2 Paper size and source

Select the paper size and paper source, the printer will use from the Paper of the Page Setup dialog box.
The selected printer will order the size and source selection.

32.3.3 Orientation default

In the Orientation section of the Page Setup dialog box, select the default page
orientation:

Portrait Use for vertical orientation.
Set Landscape for horizontal page orientation.

User can also print pages customized for each window in the window Report Content. See "Optimal
print" for more information.

32.3.4 Margin size

Setting margins in the Margins of the Page Setup dialog box. If the size of the page margins left, right,
top, or bottom you select overlapping, or they are outside the page, a warning message will appear.

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32.4 Determination of the plane fit

In the plane according to the Print Area and Print Scale. In all that is in use within the pages required to
print the desired rate.
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Determine the
ratio in:

1 Choose Print Scale tool ( ).

2 Enter the Print dialog box and click OK Scale Print
Scale.

Note: You should check the "Set for all Plans" in the Print dialog box Scale if you print the
report.

Scoping in the plane:

1 Select Print Area tool ( ).

2 Click at the two opposite corners to identify rectangular
boundaries.

Scoping in with the coordinates:

1 Choose View> Print Area or double-click the Print Area tool ( ).

2 Uncheck "Automatically calculate printing area" and enter the coordinates of the left, right, top, and
bottom of the Printing Area Setup dialog box. Highlight "Set Plans for all" if you want the print range
will be used by all planes.

3 Click OK.

32.5 Printing desired angle perspective

Saved angle in determining the perspective window will print. Sometimes the angle on the screen may
look nice, but can not print out the desired page size due. Always check carefully after the installation
angle in order to check the rate and orientation of the model is fit for its intended site.

Use the Set Print Viewpoint ( ) To store in the corner can be seen on the screen. This angle does
not change unless the declaration. You can manipulate the model on the screen without affecting
saved in perspective. To display saved in perspective, using tools Show Print Viewpoint ( ).

Set in perspective:

1 Adjust the screen angle by:

o Set the rate equal to the corresponding coordinate axis Scale tool ( ).
o Rotate the model using the tool revolve around the axis x and y ( ) And tool around the z axis (
).
o Zoom in to show the desired model.
o Set the parallel projection ( ) Or perspective projection ( ) And block model ( ) Or wire
model ( ).

2 Click the Set Print Viewpoint ( ).
Presentation on screen in
perspective: 1 Click Show Print
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Viewpoint ( ).
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32.6 See the printed
page

View the print job before sending information to the printer to make sure the image and text as desired
fit on the selected paper with margins defined in, and declared orientation. See "The selected print
settings" for more information on how to change printer settings page.

Review work in the active window:

1 Choose Report> Preview
Window.

2 Check back as shown in the following section and click Close.

Review of work in the report:

1 Select Report> Report Preview.

2 Check back as shown in the following section and click Close.

32.6.1 Magnification
Function

Elasticity print preview page by declaring the zoom ratio in the preview window in the page. Can select
zoom factor of 500%, 200%, 150%, 100%, 75%, 50%, 25%, 10%, or Fit Page Fit Width, or you can
enter the rate as selected by the I (from 5% to 500%).

32.6.2 View multiple pages at once

You can preview one, two, or four separate printed page. Using One Page ( ) To view in a separate
page. Click Multi Page ( ) And select 2 or more to see two separate pages, or 4 or more to see
four pages at a time.

32.6.3 Page numbers through the printing

Function print preview page to open automatically in the first page. Use Next ( ) To turn in the next
page and Previous ( ) To return to the previous page.

32.7 Optimize
your
printing

To achieve the best results when printing, you can customize the report parameters and orientation in
the form of reports for each category (or windows).

32.7.1 Custom printed page
navigation

You can print each window or items reported in the direction of the program RAM Concept Portrait or
Landscape. Orientation default is declared in the Page Setup dialog box. See "The selected print
settings" for more information about setting the default orientation. You may want to print the items in
the report or in certain windows in the other direction with the remaining items. Orientation columns
used in the Report window to determine the orientation Content category. Choose Default to declare
the Page Setup parameters, or Portrait or Landscape orientation to override the Page Setup.

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Set the orientation of the windows or separate items:

1 Ensure Orientation columns are visible in the window Report Content. Can expand the window or
scroll horizontally.
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2 Click on column values for item Orientation to switch between Default, Portrait and Landscape.
Column Default Value Orientation in orientation to declare default orientation is declared in the Page
Setup dialog box.

32.7.2 Custom printed form of the plane and perspective

You can change the colors, fonts, and line shape of the window and perspective projection on the
screen, can customize their printed form.

Use the Schema tab in the Print dialog box to set the Appearance form parameters for plane or
perspective you want to print. See "Change colors, fonts, and line shape straight "on page 13 for more
information about the scheme and form parameters change form.

If you want to be a plane or perspective parameters in the same form as you can see in the
corresponding window, click Set Screen Same As in the Print tab. In most cases, you will want to:

background color is white when printed (no background in)
smaller print size screen fonts
in larger proportion straight line on the screen

Change in the form of a plane or perspective:

1 Create a perspective plane or active window. 2 Choose
View> Appearance.
3 Specify options in the Print tab of the Appearance Settings dialog box and click OK.

32.8 Changing the contents of
the report

Report content customized to suit requirements. You control the plane category, perspective and text
in the report and order and their orientation. Changing the contents of the report through Report
Content window.


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Figure 32-1 In Report Content window, you can change the order of items to report, setting items are
included in the report or not, and changes in direction or items.

32.8.1 Include items in the report

Any window can also be included in such a report category. Edit the selected plane, the perspective and
the table in the report using Report Content window. Include Converting column values to determine
the items included in the report or not.

For the few items in the report, requested Include the value of it is "Yes" and each item on which the
report is "Yes". For example, if you want the layer plane Latitude Tendon standards in the report, the
plane itself will Include value is "Yes", Latitude Tendon layer is "Yes" and the layer folder is "Yes" .
Similarly, the Include value is "No" for Criteria folders, RAM Concept program does not include any
of the ingredients in folders in the report.

This function is especially useful if you want to skip all the items on a separate layer from the report.
This can be done with just a click, then change the value of each plane Include, perspective, and table
text layer to "No".

Including or excluding a report item:

1 Ensure that the Include column visible in the window Report Content. You can expand the window
or scroll horizontally.

2 Click on the Include column values for items you want to include or not include in order to switch
between Yes and No.. Include Yes value in column includes items printed in the report while it does
not include the value of items.

Note: If you would like to include items in the report, to ensure that each item in the order must
include.

Here is a list of examples of windows that you can include in the report for the high PT method
designed using ACI 318:

The cover report
Unit
Symbols
The material
Load
The load combination
The design standards
Prediction
Element: Normal Plane
Element: A Brief plane
Element: Summary of Structural Perspective
Prestressed reinforced latitude: Plane Standard
Prestressed reinforced Longitude: Plane Standard
Temporary construction loads (when the effects of stress): Every plane load (if use)
Static load: Every plane load
Load (Maybe concession): Every plane load
Load (can not rebate): Every plane load
[The other load (cumulative, Tran) if used]
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LC Activity: Plane deflection
Load combination is the coefficient plane Mx
Load combination coefficients are multiplied: My plane
Load combination coefficients are multiplied: the jet plane
LT did not crack deflection LC: Plane deflection

Design rule performance standards (/ Activities maximum): LT plane deflection
Design Status: The flat state
Design Status: The plane strain condition shear fun
SSR plane
Design mode: Reinforced plane on latitude
Design mode: Plane Reinforced bottom latitude
Design Status: The plane of shear reinforcement latitude
Design Status: The plane of the reinforcement of the
Design Status: The flat bottom reinforced longitude
Design Status: The plane of the shear reinforcement

32.8.2 Rearrange items reported

The order of items in the report Report Content window is the order in which they are printed in the
report. You can rearrange items in the same layer or folder by dragging them to a new location. You
can not move items or folders outside layer. For example, you can move items to a new location within
the Criteria folder but can not move them to the Layers folder.

Change position report items:

1 Report Content window, left-click on the item you want to move the report.

2 Drag the item to a new position reporting and release the left mouse button. (RAM Concept program
does not allow you to move items reported outside of its folder or layer)
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33 Export the table surface and the

There may be any flat surface or table written in RAM Concept program. Concept Program helps you
to export the plane as the files. Dwg or. Dxf in AutoCAD R12 through AutoCAD 2000 format. The
tables exported as text files, which you can open with most of the software.

33.1 Exporting plane

The program can export RAM Concept plane with any information that can be seen separately. Open
plane and make the window active before. To make the plane window active, click on it.

Export operations plane:

1 Choose File> Export
Drawing.

Export Drawing dialog box appears.

2 Select the name and form of AutoCAD files and
click Save. Units File dialog box appears.
3 Choose units for AutoCAD file and click OK.

33.1.1 Choose text size

Text size depending on the size of the text visible on the screen. You can change the text size to fit the
production.

Choose text size:

1 Choose View>
Appearance.

2 In the Font section of the Appearance dialog box, click to select the font AaBbZz.

The size of the text is 72 times the actual size. Thus, 9 is the one-eighth inch.

3 In the Select Font dialog box, select the font size and
click OK.

4 Declaring parameters to zero rate fonts and click OK.

Note: Do not use the Enlarge Fonts ( )OrShrinkFonts ( ) Change the text size before.

33.2 Export
table

The table to the text file of tab-delimited text that you can open with most of the software.

Export a text table:

1 Open the document you want to
export.
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2 Click Export (in the window).

3 Enter a name for the text file and click Save.
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34 Export database in RAM Structural System

Note: In this chapter, RAM Structural System abbreviated as "RSS".

RAM Concept Program functions can have the jet and the geometry of the structural system RAM.

34.1 The jet
production

RAM Concept Program function of the jet wall and column structural system RAM. The export feature
allows use RSS exact load distribution of Concept program to compute gravity walls, columns and
foundations. Export capability also allows RSS examine the impact of prestressed reinforced floors to
columns and walls for the structure to survive.

The only possibility of acting on the higher models are created in RAM Concept program by
importing from the RAM Structural System.

Note: RAM Structural System Concrete RAM requires consideration of the concept of jet.

The function of the power of television program RAM Concept of column and wall jet database to the
RAM Structural System.

The only exported jet declared for the column walls and columns and / or a high wall touches. The
reactions do not affect the power of the force along the shaft of the column on the wall and. Column or
wall structure in determining the axial force.

The only program RAM Concept of jet power from the load imported from RSS RSS backwards. For
example, if you add "Load pool" concept to a file, the export function will not transfer the load from the
jet to the RSS.

Note: The program does not RAM Concept Jet static load of construction, so we no longer use RSS
anymore.

Note: The RAM Concept never made the horizontal load (or imported from other RSS) and RSS.

Note: The "load" in RAM Concept program similar to "load the case" in the RSS.

34.1.1 Special Handling of static load and load balancing, while export

Concept adds jet "static load" on the jet "static" in the production. This ensures that the analysis of
structural concrete RAM consideration of the weight itself.

Note: RAM Structural System provides the option to automatically or manually enter beams and the
weight of the body, as part of the static load cases. Or vice versa, RAM Concept program always
included automatically beams and the weight of the body in its analysis. We suggest that, when used in
conjunction with Concept RSS, RSS auto-load the beam and the version itself. This will eliminate
confusion about the payload itself is included in the analysis, or if need be determined by hand as part
of the static loading case, even if some are designed with RSS and few Concept is designed with.
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RAM Concept program is not the jet load of "Communication" to RSS. When analyzing a building with
the transmission, distribution RSS used inside of the transmission of force rather than the force from the
floor analysis of Concept program. The jet payload "directly" is the show's RSS Concept will be used, if
you use direct. See "Using the jet RAM RAM Concept in Concrete" for more information.

RAM Concept Program The jet load balancing of load cases into "indeterminate" only visible in
concrete RAM. In general, the power balance and the supernatural still not the same, but with no
support system of prestressed reinforcement, the balance of power with the power of redundancy.

Note: See the "Tensile load following" on page 312 to be explained about load balancing and
redundancy.

34.1.2 The jet production process

You can export to the RSS jet any time after the "Calc All" and save the file.

Export to RAM Structural System

Choose File> Export Reactions to RAM Structural System.

A dialog box appears, as shown in Figure 34-1, With the name list of RSS stories that you can export
to the jet. The floor is a concept labeled "power floor". This is the story RSS is entered before to create
this file Concept. Concept Program lists the other stories in the RSS file with the same floor, and
labeled them as "same floor" or "compatibility layer". One is compatible with, but not identical with,
the source layer if floor height, the size of different parts, or (for the upper floors of the same type) on
any column it is different orientations.

Choose any combination of any story, and click "OK". RAM Concept program displays a detailed
record of the results of operations when the export is completed.





Figure 34-1 Reactions to Export dialog RAM Structural System

34.1.3 Accessing the jet production and consistency checks
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RAM Concept Program perform consistency checks before the fact to ensure that the jet can occur
correctly. Concept Program test done before and after the selection of the floor.

34.1.4 To examine before choosing the stories of

The first test is to access RSS files from RAM Concept is entered floor. Can only be carried out if the
RSS file, it does not open in the RSS and you can access and edit it.

Concept program also checks the RSS file changes to source stories since input files Concept. If the
source layer change "big", to re-enter from the RSS and the results before. If the source layer change
"small", the program will suggest Concept in again. Major changes include adding or deleting columns
or walls. Resize columns as small change.

Concept program can not export the file if the column or wall is added after import from RSS, or if the
base of the dome or hard bearing Concept model.

34.1.5 Make check out after selecting the floor

RAM Concept testing program details for each floor of your choice with RSS file. If the program
Concept find any errors, you can cancel or back of pick-floor window to deselect the error floor. If only
warnings Concept program, you can continue to rip off the floor back window selected.

Concept program will alert to any column or wall on the Concept does not match the column or on the
floor of the selected wall. This only happens on the top floor of flooring, where transition to other types
of floor or ceiling.

Concept Programme warned if the height of the storey height select different sources floors.

34.1.6 Use jet RAM RAM Concept in Concrete

Once out of the wall jet and columns to RSS, they will become useful for RAM for concrete analysis
and design, but only on the condition that must inform the RSS know that you want to use them.

Establish concrete RAM to use the jet of RAM Concept

1 Startup RAM Concrete

2 Choose Criteria> Column
Forces

Select the button on the "Use RAM Concept at selected mucs Forces Analysis". Select by ticking the
box in the column "Use".

You can use this dialog box to see the power of RRS Concept Concept and file name of the exported
power. The "Read" show the date of each of the RSS Concept. Column "Saved" displays the date of the
jet components from Concept to that level. The "Source Story" sources said floor of RSS files are used
to import data into files Concept. If the column type "Source Story," "Saved" and "Concept File" empty,
then you can not force out the ingredients on that level. If column enter "Read" drum, it never entered
into the Concept.

Note: use the RSS Concept wall jet in the jet column using Concept.
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Note: After the publication of the RSS Concept Jet, analyzing the concrete structure designed RAM
before any of the components or the power to enter any components from RSS to Concept (as for the
foundation system).

34.1.7 RAM Structural System - RAM Concept affiliate program works like

The key reaction in the production of Concept program to the walls and columns RSS
Import and load capacity are directly imported.

Walls and columns that you have imported from RSS RSS identifier special "tagged awareness" on
them. The identifier allows Concept program makes wall and column elements consistent with the
corresponding elements in the RSS. Concept program will allow even move walls and columns a bit
(up to 50mm or 2 ").

The concept does not allow you to export if you add, delete, or move significantly or columns are
entered (or not entered walls and columns). This is to ensure the transmission of gravitational
equilibrium between Concept and RSS.

Note: If you accidentally delete a support system is entered, or the system can support changes RSS,
can always re-enter the walls and columns.

RSS track combinations of fixed gravity loads through the structure. The load is static, activity may
download rebate, rebate can not be downloaded Works, Works and Works Accumulation download
download Tran (the program RAM Concept and concrete used, and also loads of redundancy follow-
up). To ensure compatibility with RSS, Concept program will not let you remove the power load is
entered.

Concept program allows editing loads and forces RSS imported more payload capacity. Concept
program assumes that you are fully aware that the program only considers the weight load appear in the
RSS is entered in that jet back program of RSS.

34.2 Exporting
geometry

Column and wall geometry can be exported to a database file system structure new or existing RAM.
This geometry can be exported to the new RSS flooring.

Export geometry to RAM Structural
System

1 Choose File> Export Geometry to RAM Structural System.

Note: The menu item can not be opened without operating model.

Appears file browser allows you to select the RSS file. 2
Choose File RSS or enter a new file name.
If you enter a new file name RSS, the new RSS The database will be created along with the units of
the current model Concept. If the code is the design concept model ACI 318-99, ACI 318-02 or
BS8110, the code of the design database corresponding RSS be declared. If not, the code design
database database of RSS new design will be the default code of the user.

After selecting a file, the dialog "Export Geometry to RAM Structural System" appears, as shown in
Figure 34-2.
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Figure 34-2 Geometry Export dialog box to RAM Structural
System

Dialog box lists the types of flooring available in the
RSS file.

3 Enter the name of a new floor within the text "New Floor Type Name".

A popup note that if you enter the name of the floor has been identified or not.

The check box "Columns (below)" and "Walls (below)" select columns and / or walls have been made
or not. The Concept of columns and walls just below the floor, because they are the elements associated
with a floor of RSS.

If you check the "Start RSS after Export", the RSS file after startup of geometry.
This is not affected if the RSS is running.

4 Click "Create New Floor Type" to export the selected elements into new flooring.

Note: columns and wall geometry can be exported to the new RSS flooring.

34.2.1 Error and ambiguity

Errors and ambiguities in the concept model typically detect and adjust the woven mesh model.
Concept program allows models to be made before it is woven mesh, so many errors will be detected
and customize the output geometry.

If more than two overlapping walls, in whole or in part, is only one of the overlapping period will be
made. If more than two columns have the same position, only one column at that location will be
made. In any case, the pop-up dialog box will display the columns and the wall is not included.

If any of the columns or walls that are not made, the user should examine the important characteristics
of the elements have been exported to the RSS. If overlapping columns or walls have different
characteristics, the user can not specify the desired value in the RSS. Users can also knit grid pattern
and troubleshooting of Concept program before.
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Walls have been identified in the RSS can not cross another wall or column or the first beat of the
other wall. Each wall is divided into sections Concept at each position before being exported. Dividing
walls were not reported, but will have an impact as each wall in RSS.
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Using the Wizard Strip
35

Strip Wizard automates the dialog is the initial step in the modeling process in RAM Concept program.
When the model is not complicated or beams, can be used effectively Strip Wizard to import the data
structures that are not drawn in the plane of the window. With the wizard, you can import the rhythm,
the branch, load and strain after the same manner as with conventional 2D program. Due to the
structure of the data entry wizard Strip fast and simple, so useful for the preliminary design, the beams
and joists.

Strip Wizard use the information you provide structures to build a model of a new concept file. You
can edit the file by drawing the gap, the step surface, the load, and use the plane window. Strip simple
Wizard, use it to create the basic structure, and then edit the texture of the surface if necessary.

We believe that the majority Strip Wizard is to evaluate the 2D behavior. The design results
(automatically) only for one direction (X axis). Because Concept is a 3D program, knees straight line
automatically included along the edges of the model allows for the deflection but no go. This behavior
is almost 2D simulation.

35.1 Startup Wizard Strip

When booting Strip Wizard, it will suggest you create a new file RAM Concept. This file is where the
wizard to create a model when you import the data structure. Strip Wizard uses the declarations general
parameters defined in the new file (such as units, materials, load, etc.). Strip Wizard If you want to use
parameters to customize your report, create a new file from the template. For example, if you want the
concrete to be available when determining the overall design parameters, you should create a new file
from the template concept with the concrete mixture.

After selecting the option in the New File dialog box, Strip Wizard dialog box appears. At this point,
you can download the report parameters previously saved Strip Wizard if you want (see section "Load
and save the Wizard declared Strip" for more information). To determine the band started, proceed to
the next page in the wizard by clicking Next.

Strip Startup Wizard:

1 Choose File> Wizard
Strip.

2 Identify options in the New File dialog box and then click OK. Strip Wizard dialog box appears.

3 Click Next to continue or you can download the report parameters Strip Wizard (see section
"Load and save parameter declaration Strip Wizard" for more information).

35.2 Define the general parameters

Specify type of structure, the concrete mixture and beat at General Parameters page of the
wizard. Type of structure
Determination of structure you want to create Wizard Strip and stretch after use or not. Can declare
parameters as floor or reinforced after stress and may be one of the following systems:

The two methods
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The method according to a
Beams
The
thundering
rhythm
Enter the number of beats for the band (not including beams). Determine whether you can use the top
or bottom of the beam is not. Check the "Asymmetric" model that allows different branches on one
side of the column.

The concrete mix

Choose mixed concrete for the beams and the system and one for the support.

Note: The ready mixed concrete is mixed in the new file is created on startup Strip Wizard. If you want
to use certain mixtures, then use the template when creating new files.

35.3 Enter data rate

Span Data Table on page depends on the information entered into the General Parameters page. The
beams and span appearing in the rows in the table. The columns of the data depends on the model you
have created the system in one direction or both directions, beam systems, or system ram or not.

For this table and the next page, the name of the data above is "Typical". The imported data
here will be copied automatically to each below. You can override the copied data.

35.3.1 The system in one direction and two
directions

Span length, width and thickness of the branch to identify this system. They may vary according to the
beat.

Length

Span length from focus to another focus of the support system. Thickness
Depth structure map.
Width start
Width at the top of the beat (or the left end). For asymmetric band width arrested
L is the width of the left start, start R and width is the width to the right start. Width ends
Width at the bottom of the beat. For asymmetric band width is the width L ending left end, and the
width is the width R end right end.

35.3.2 The beam systems

Span length, beam depth, beam width, thickness and width of the branch to identify this system. They
may vary according to the beat.

Length
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Span length from focus to another focus of the support system. W Depth
Depth of plate girder structure (including depth of
girder wing). Width W
Width of plate
girders.

Depth F

The depth (thickness) off beam (a).
Width branch started
Width branch (and thus a) at the top (or left end) of the beats. For asymmetric band width start
branching width L is the left arm began, and started branching width width R is started right arm.

Width of beam ends

Width branch (and thus a) at the end of the beat. For asymmetric bands, arm width is the width L
ending ending left arm, and the width is the width end R end right arm.

35.3.3 The beam system

Span length, plate characteristics (depth, width, spacing and number), the thickness and width
determine the branching system. They may vary according to the beat. This system is not symmetric.

Length

Span length from focus to another focus of the support system. W Depth
Depth of plate girder structure (including depth of
girder wing). Width W
Beam width panels.

Depth F

The depth (thickness) off beam (a).
Reverse bias starts pan
Distance from the start (or end left) beats the pan (or space). Reverse bias pan end
Distance from end of pan (or space) to the end of the beat.
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The other sheet
properties

The following characteristics define the entire width branching pattern. The width can not be different
for each beat.

Distance

The distance from the focus to the center of plate.
Number
Total number
plates.

35.4 Data entry system support

Support Data page to enter the upper and lower support system. You must specify below the support
system they are on.

35.4.1 The support system characteristics
(upper and lower)

Depth, width, height, heat resistance and heat resistance as defined in the support system. They may
vary according to the beat.

Strip Wizard understanding support system with over four times the width times the depth of the wall.
If not, then that column.

Depth

Dimension systems support parallel rate. Width
Dimensions perpendicular to the support system spans (enter zero for
circular columns). Height
The height of the support system from the bottom to a depth
of between floors. Lower thermal resistance
The connector at the bottom torque assist
systems. As the heat
The connection between the torque and the
floor support system.

35.5 Adding a drop cap and drop
panel

Page and Drop cap Drop cap panel is to enter and drop panel drop for the two methods. For a local
version, the beams or joists do not have this page.

Strip Wizard only use drop cap to puncture shear strain, while meandering design, Strip Wizard will
ignore them. Many codes have guidelines on size requirements to be considered a heavy drop panel.
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Strip Wizard does not check these rules.
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35.5.1 The Drop cap and drop feature panel

The thickness, width, length before and after determining the length of the drop. They may vary
according to the beat.

There may be a drop in the cap and drop panel support system. Drop cap thicker.

Thickness

Total thickness (depth texture) of the drop. No increase in thickness.
Width
Dimensions perpendicular to beat the drop.
Length before
Dimensions parallel to the drop rate from the central support system. Length
after
Dimensions parallel to the span from core to end systems support the release.

Enter load 35.6

Page Loads section is to enter and load lines in the z direction for both standard loads.

35.6.1 The load characteristics

Can import section and load lines for two different loads on each span. Static load section
Load the entire rhythm section. Static
load line
Load line from the focus to the first system support system support Monday for the beat. Load section
Load over the entire span.
Load line
Activities focus on system load from the first support system to help focus every second beat.
Load use
Works just as static and appellations. You can specify any load upon load file standard in RAM
Concept.

"Static"

There could be any one of the standard load in RAM Concept files.
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"Work
s"

There could be any one of the standard load files RAM Concept (except when used for "Static").

35.7 Determine the
tension after

Post-Tensioning page is available only if you selected marked "Post-tensioned" Type of Structure in the
General Parameters page.

Most of the data entered into this site relating to minimum compression front, load balancing and
prestressed reinforced protection. Strip Wizard uses this data along with the data for the rate, depth
and weight to create single prestressed reinforcement.

35.7.1 PT General Information

Specify type of reinforced and prestressed information to determine
the number of bars. System PT
Determine the size and type of reinforcing steel bars for prestressed (as defined in the material
parameters of Concept RAM file).

Stress

Determination of stress positions (click). The Concept of friction prestressed reinforcement and other
losses if the stimulus located at one or both ends.

P / A
Minimum

Compression before minimum average required for concrete. According to the code, the minimum
usually does not bring the economic design.

35.7.2 Load balancing

Load balancing is the number of vertical walls reinforced by prestressed offer. According to the
industry's usual percentage load capacity.

Percent minimum load balancing:

Percentage of load balancing is determined by the prestressed reinforcement.
Considering load balancing:
Determine which load balancing based on load. The choice of the weight of the concrete itself, plus the
weight itself, "static", or the total weight.

35.7.3 Section

The plans differ in shape section prestressed reinforcement. Distance straight
section in the help system
Length prestressed reinforcement at horizontal support system. Size is the total distance the plane, not by
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the distance of the support system.
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Rounded to the nearest
section

Up section. Allow rounded high and low points of prestressed reinforcement to the appropriate value.
If this value is too large, can break the protection.

35.8 Identify
reinforced

Page identifying sound reinforcement and reinforced layers of
protection overall.

35.8.1 Rebar

Specify the audio from the audio file is available in RAM Concept.

In the

Name reinforcing bars used in the design of meandering. Below
Name reinforcing bar at the bottom is used for winding design.
Cutting force
Name reinforcing bar used to slide design in a way.

35.8.2 Protection of the entire
reinforced

The layer of protection for sound reinforcement and prestressing. Rounding section prestressed
reinforcement can override prestressed reinforced protection.

In the

Protection of the entire vertical bars above and prestressed
reinforcement. Below
Protection of the entire vertical bars underneath and prestressed
reinforcement.

35.8.3 Check pierced shear

Determine whether the program has made the concept of shear fun of strain
calculations. To examine shear pierced
Checking this box will guide Concept drawing program puncture shear test in each column.

Protection for
CGS

The distance from the top of the rebar to focus on. Often this is the distance from the top of the bar to
the bottom of the. Concept program unless this gap thickness to determine the distance "d".
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35.9 Completing Strip Wizard

Completing Strip Wizard page is the last page in the wizard dialog. At this point, you can save the
information entered into the wizard to download later. See "Download and save the open Report on the
Strip Wizard " for more information.

When you click Finish in the Wizard page Completing Strip, Strip Wizard draw your pattern file RAM
Concept is based on data that you have provided. The left support system model is positioned at the
origin (0,0).

Open the layer plane in Mesh Input, Latitude Tendon, and Design Strip to see the model. However,
you can not see the finite element mesh until you create the net.

Complete the
wizard:

Click Finish in the Completing page 1 Strip Wizard.

35.10 Create mesh and calculate results

After completing the wizard Strip, the net can create and run analyzes on model calculations.

For the finite element mesh best, you need to reconstruct two: one before and one after the calculation.
That's because the band calculation designed to create, in turn can be used to improve the second grid
created. See Chapter 17, "Creating mesh" and Chapter 27, "Calculation results" for more information.
35.11 Load and save the Wizard declared Strip

Input Strip Wizard can be saved as files Strip Settings Wizard (with the file name extension. Cptstrip)
and loaded into the wizard again later. Strip Settings Wizard File only information you enter on the
wizard page. Save your Settings Wizard Strip before clicking Finish on the last page of the dialog.

Download Strip Settings Wizard only declare the value of Strip Wizard dialog box to the value stored
in the Settings file. After loading Strip Settings Wizard, page numbering through the usual dialog box
by clicking Next. You can change the data in the wizard to create another strip. This does not affect
the settings file was downloaded. You must save the new file Strip Settings Wizard if you want the
changes to be saved for later use.

Download the report parameters Strip
Wizard:

1 Click to Strip Load Wizard Welcome page.

2 Select File Strip Settings Wizard (with the file name extension. Cptstrip) and click Open.
Save the parameters declared Strip Wizard:
1 Click Save in the Strip Completing the Wizard page (before clicking Finish).
2 Enter a file name and click Save Settings Wizard Strip.
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36 General Tips

This section will show you tips on how to learn Ram Program Program Concept and the tips are not
present in the other.

Note: You should consult "Ram School Program Concept Program" on page 2,Chapter 1,
"Introduction" before reading this chapter.

36.1 Bea
ms

You should be very careful when creating the beam pattern. If you use the standard finite element, the
torsion stiffness of the beam can be overrated, maybe mistaken concession deflection in the next
version.

In Concept program, there is no difference between the standard and the beam element, and the element
with standard torsion stiffness corresponding to the depth of three of them.

Torsion stiffness of the beam actually corresponds to the value of three methods of depth and width
lower. Therefore, the standard element overestimate stiffness of the torsion beam is deeper than wide
beams.

For this reason, consider using behavior "Do not twist" to the beams, especially deep edge beams. See
"The beam characteristics" on page 57 for more information.





Figure 36-1 Declaring untwisted beams

36.2 Walls

36.2.1 Draw wall links

Suggest drawing intersecting walls, an end wall at the center of the other wall, as shown in 36-2.
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Figure 36-2 Report link

36.2.2 Report on

Report on beam behavior is similar: we do the hard floor. This is particularly relevant in the floor
beams. The moment the floor is NOT the actual bending moment in the wall.

We suggest that if you are not sure about the impact on the wall, it does not model them.





Figure 36-3 Comparison of two identical floors in every aspect except the one with the wall (The two
images have shown the two present form without written).




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Figure 36-4 Effect of wall created in the model: no wall (left) compared with. on the wall (right) - the
drawing of torque around the x axis.

36.2.3 The difference between the wall and the vertical beam of the same

Concept wall processing program on the same beam. Use the "wall-beams" instead of only the elements
which were made with both medium advantages and disadvantages; generally not recommended on the
wall modeled as beams.

These two elements are the main advantages over the wall element ("wall-
beams"):

The horizontal strips of Concept program designed to integrate Automatic power over the elements.
Ignore the wall-beam element in this integration. In addition, Concept program allows you to control
the elements of the results can be displayed as is; wall-beam elements (such as the wall element) can
only draw the reaction force up copies.

However, as discussed in section "Beams", The standard elements of Concept program is torsion
stiffness corresponding to the depth of three of them. This may result in overestimation of anti-torsion
rigidity for an element if it is a very thin near the elements quite thin. The element "Wall-beams" do
not encounter this problem.

Thus, the wall was created as the vertical beam pattern will use beam parameters declared "untwisted"
as described in section "Beams".

When wall-beam model, Concept Program represents the element parameters differently wall. If wall-
mounted non-rotating beams in the wall on the beam will have zero torsion rigidity. If the beam is not
wall-shear wall, it will have zero axial stiffness. Skip vertical compression parameters and spin
assembly at the distal end.

The wall-beam element with an advantage over the elements. The thickness of the elements are
different in the control structure can be drawn automatically to the (correct) the large variation in forces
and elements close to the thick and almost no variation in scope of the plate elements. This does not
usually happen if the wall is modeled as wall-beams.

36.3 Stress

The columns and walls are not floor the axial deformation (strain caused later) unless you create the
column model is the roller and the wall as a wall "slide" (characteristic shear wall untested ).

Not sure that the columns on the floor to prevent the roller on the appropriate normal

Stress often compressed before rebate and thus, increase operational reinforcement. Often reinforced
and intensified.

36.4 Othe
r

There are many tools and capabilities are presented in the previous chapters is useful, but often
overlooked.

36.4.1 Template

We create template (to start a file) may be appropriate or inappropriate for your needs. You can also
create your own template, adding the plan view, the materials and
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declare parameters that you can use when starting a new file. See "Template" in Page 6.

36.4.2 More slideshow flat

You can add the plan view. See"Creating a new plan view" on page 11 and
"Creating the plan view new results" on page 132.

36.4.3 Copying and moving objects

Many users do not like to copy and move the selected object by holding down the shift key
combinations click and scroll commands (or something similar). See "Move, rotate, stretch, and
human objects "on page 17.

You should also familiarize themselves with the use of commands relevant coordinate system. See
"Using the system relevant coordinates "on page 16.

Copying and moving objects in the coordinate system
associated

1 With engine Chonion ( ), Select the object. 2
Select the Move tool ( ).
3 Press and hold down the shift key and click anywhere in the workspace.

4 Enter the letter "r" after the x and y coordinates are separated by commas (eg r10, 5), and
press Return. Remove duplicate units to choose x to y and the unit above.
36.4.4 Extending the tool button

You can extend many tools are more likely to know of them. See "Expand the node tools "on page 6.

36.4.5 Utility Tools

Utility Tool can save a lot of time when you need to move and stretch the object or control many points.
See "Using Utility tool to move and stretch" on page 17.

36.4.6 Wall Tools Left and Right Wall

Wall Tools Left and Right Wall can be very useful. See "Wall Drawing" on page 52.

36.4.7 Change the backbone of prestressed reinforcement

Can search and change the backbone of the same value in one operation. See
"Change axis tool paths" on page 121.

36.4.8 Draw Results

Many users are not aware of the power of the drawn features. It can draw more of the torque results
(range) (required and actual), crack widths and reinforcement, to name just a few moments.
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Many people like to paint rebar on new plan view of the template rather than using the projection flat
bar callout.

36.4.9 Reduce information is shown on the plan view

Can not remove important result as small reaction force in two different ways. See "The report clearly
is zero" on page 21, And "Reaction force" on page 139 and figure page 139.

36.4.10 Load Balancing

You can see the percentage of the load is balanced by the force behind the design of the strip. See
"Show percentage load is balanced" on page 130.

36.4.11 Auditor

This function can be invaluable in unlocking the "black box" of the calculations. See Chapter 30, "Using
Auditor".

Note: Many users complain that there is too much information expressed by the Auditor. Information
extraction can be reduced by checking the rule rather than the design brief.
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37 common questions

This chapter refers to the frequently asked questions. It should be
read with:
"Ram Concept Learning Program": The 1.5 Program 1
Chapter 36, "General Tips", And
Chapter 38, "Errors and Warnings"

37.1 Capabilities and Modeling

Program Concept can design anything?

Concrete floor standing (suspended) and foundation friends (friends). They can be reinforced concrete,
concrete or composite stress after. See "The structural system" on page 1 for more information.

There is no limit on the size of the structure to model?

Only a limited hardware performance computers. Runtime analysis functions corresponding to the
square near the intersection of the model, so the large structure can take a considerable period of time
for analysis. Design time near the strip corresponds to the rhythm segment cross section. See "Reducing
the computation time" on page 128 for more information.

There are no restrictions to the greatest thickness of the model can be made?

The analysis of the elements of Concept program is considered to shear deformation and bending
deformation. This ensures that the program concept for reasonable outcome for both the thick and the
thin.

In general, the rules of the program design concept applicable code requirements for the appropriate
length to span ratio on typical high beams. If the school is outside the normal range, may need to see
whether it is necessary to consider the special design or not.

Program Concept design can turn more than one story or not?

By itself it can not. But can use RAM Structural System to integrate multiple floors in a large model.

I can use the program to design a concept based?

The term "the platform" is often used to present the house. The designer must use the assessment to
determine whether the construction of technical analysis and design sheet is suitable for this structure.
See the FAQ for "The plate (friends)".

Concept Program can run a range of applications designed to run fast without preliminary
modeling the entire building is not?

There. See Chapter 35, "Using Range Wizard" and Chapter 45, "Guidelines band
Wizard".

I can create models strip
down?

There, however, has limitations.
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1 Use the vertical characteristic strip down to that range firmness axis perpendicular to the strips is
significantly reduced. See Figure below shows 16-6 inPage 57

2 Termination of the Prestressed Reinforced side
strip down.

Note: Create the model strips down in this way is not considered temporary situation before the pour
strips
backwards. This can affect the force and deflection.

I can create wall patterns or curved edges like?

Using a series of straight lines. Approximation will have negligible effect.

The program can be used to design Concept by walls as the walls are not painted?

Although the Concept program is not optimized to use for this purpose, but the program can perform
most of the tasks analysis and design as long as you're careful.

Need to really pay attention because Concept program assumes that load in the direction of Z goes
down. Need to declare the static load factor is zero and create your own personal loads. Maybe you
want to apply the load at a depth between the, if not the eccentricity will add myself to the moment.

Although the cross-sectional design of the program through Concept Report torque and all the power to
the cross-sectional design, but not design Concept Program takes into account all the forces and torque.
In particular, the program does not consider Concept Mz values in design, because the program did not
locate Concept of reinforcement, but it is important to design Mz.

The concept does not consider the effect "P-delta".

"Mixed" mean?

Floors mixture of both PT and RC range. Most floors are stressed after a few RC elements as the core
strip down and stand. By selecting the appropriate design rules, these areas can be designed at the same
time as the PT element.

37.2 File

The difference between creating a file ttren the plate (friends) and set ttren the
stand?

Actually there is no difference, the file has the same ability. The default file is installed in a different
way than is usually the case load and adding the projections for flat plate (the horizontal load case, the
load-bearing surface of the earth, etc.). For many operations, you can transfer any files ttren into the
upright slabs files and vice versa.

Can I save data files with no results?

With the current version can not be done - should open the file and recalculate. We plan to add this
feature in future versions (these files "stored with the results" will be great).

I can work from CAD drawings do not?
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There. See Chapter 13, "Using CAD
Drawings".

It should boot model with a DWG or DXF file?

No need. For simple geometric shapes, can be drawn "from workspace" faster. There are physical
the grid and snap to grid use to locate the columns and walls.

I have deleted the drawing entered - can not recover?

There. Sometimes it's necessary to delete entered the drawing because it affects the extent to which the
Program Concept and print display. Any DWG and DXF files can be imported if needed.

If you have moved or structural drawings entered after the first entry, the new entry will not match.
There are new drawings can move if needed.

Program Concept may appear to set ttren drawing outlines to support it?

There. See "Export of reference" on page 155 Program 33.

I can export the results?

There. See "Export table" on page 155 Program 33.

I can change the parameters declared the new default file?

There. See "Template" on page 6.

I can set the default file for RC designed it?

There. You can create template designs suitable for RC, such as removing Initial Load Combination
Use and the initial specified operation, and does not mark as Post-Confirmation canged Consider the
fractional rate characteristics. See "Template" on page 6.

37.3 The plan view and perspective

The difference between the reference and
what is layer?

Layer Concept is an organized program. Layer is a collection of objects and the related results and each
object and the result is one and only one layer. For example, all the elements on the Element layer.

In other words, the plan view display and editing ideas. Each elevation is extracted to see all the layers
of Concept program. A projection surface can be installed to correct a particular layer, but the
reference does not "own" layer. Any change layer using the projector will be able to see all the slides
in the other plane, because the flat projection are considered the same layer.

See Chapter 3, "Understanding layers" and Chapter 4, "Using the flat projection and coordinate scene "
for more information.

How to remove the projection plane does not want to?

1 Choose Layers>
Delete. Dialog box
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appears.
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2 Click OK to confirm the deletion.

I can see all the information on one side of the projector?

Yes, but usually do not do this. This may enable objects from a layer in an active
action, and then repeated for the next layer.

1 Make the projection or perspective becomes the active
window. 2 Choose View> Visible Objects ( ).
3 Click on the tab for the object layer.

Layer or perspective projection of the first selected. 4
Check Show All, and click OK.
Note: You can also right-click popup menu to see a warrant Visible Objects.

How can I tell if an object on the layer?

See "Identification of plan view with objects" on page 10 Chapter 3, "Understanding layers ".

I have two items in the same position, how to be able to choose?

Double-click the selected location and only one object. Press and hold down the shift key and double-
click again and select another object.

Why I do not see anything in the display perspective?

Maybe you're looking in the wrong direction "Camera" perspective. Click the Zoom Extent ( ) Or
Show Print Viewpoint ( ).

Why can not I see the dome of the imperial perspective?

The roof substrate can take the time to create perspective and therefore is not enabled in the default file.
It should enable them to Visible Objects dialog box.

"Opposition" in the selected categories mean?

This means that multiple objects are selected, and they have different values for attributes. For example,
if you select the two objects have different thickness, the thickness will show the "opposition".

Note: In the previous version 3.0, which can leave the field blank in this example.

37.4 The unit

The unit that I can use?

See Chapter 7, "Select Units".

I can convert units after creating file?

See "Changing the unit" on page 21.
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37.5 Code
codes

I can change codes after generating a code file?

There. See "The option code" on page 126.

37.6 Conventional
signs

Sign convention for the moment, shear force and the jet?

See "Choose the sign conventions" on page 23 and "Signs Draw Conventions" on Page 24.

I can change the conventional signs?

There. See "Changing the sign conventions" on page 24.

37.7 Structu
re

37.7.1 Input Layer Mesh
Why are the priorities?
If there is no priority system, the floor model requires two measures:

The subjects for the different thickness, beams, openings etc. can not overlap knee - this can be
very difficult for the floor almost simple, or

The depth will be added. For example, the depth will be deducted from the beam depth. If you
have to change the depth of the beam to change the depth, unless the depth of it is the same
amount of change.

I can copy the column or columns or wall to wall as above?

Th
ere.

1 Select all the columns or walls to copy.

2 Choose Edit> Copy (or right click and select Copy from the popup menu appears). 3
Choose Edit> Paste (or right click and select Paste from the popup menu appears). The
object is pasted current selection.
4 Choose Edit> Selection Properties, or right click and select Properties Selection. 5
Support Set Change from Below to On, and click OK.
Note: It is important not to ignore after pasting process. If not, you will have two support systems
below at different positions, causing
calculation errors.

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Actions nets create a very uneven mesh. This is not satisfactory?

This depends on some factors. See "The decision to use a mesh element size" on page 61 and
"Improved mesh" on page 62.
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I can change the net intensity at different positions?

Can an indirect way. See "Improved selective nets" on page 62.

I should use that value for the force constant dome substrate Z?

A geotechnical engineer typically provides a value called "roadbed modulus" or "modulus jet
roadbed."

Just to guide: the true value changed from 100 pci (nearly 25 MN/m3) for soft clay to 750 pci (200
MN/m3) for very dense gravel layer.

37.7.2 Layer
elements

I can view without grilles like?

Choose Layers> Element> Slab Plan
Summary

The difference between the beam and the element
is what?

No difference unless you adjust their behavior. View the presentation of Conduct
"The characteristics of the region" on page 56 and "The beam
characteristics" on page 57.

How many element intersection or permitted?

There is no limit, beyond the limitations of the computer.

There are many elements that I should use for a beat or a plate?

Can not answer this directly because it depends on the structure and the load. See "Decision using
mesh element size "on page 61.

37.7.3 The
column

The column can not stop
the?

Depending on the heat-determination, the column can be turned stress and horizontal
stress.

If the distal end of the column is defined support system "rolls" (or both ends of the columns are
bolted down), the column does not have any stress on the public level.

The column on the vertical maps are not?

No. The only column prevents rotation and the horizontal
direction.

37.7.4 Walls

Walls can stop the horizontal direction?

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Yes, if the selected wall shear properties. If shear walls are untested, so you may slide freely on the
wall. The hardness of the back wall is independent of the parameters declared shear walls; parameters
declared using heat to control the stiffness of the back wall along its axis.

Photo Effects of clear wall on?
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You can use these elements to create the model wall rigidity and lasting ability of the wall are
connected
to copy. Keep in mind when using them. See "Report on" on page 167.

On the wall with a vertical support it?

No, they act as beams. See "Report on" on page 167.

Stress on the wall is not turning?

No stress at the end of the wall. (Whether you choose to tick "rotationally Fixed at Far End", it is
ignored).

37.7.5 The plate
(friends)

Foundation design friends I like?

Chapter 44, "Guidelines nail friend" will present design ideas to friends.

Concept Program have ignored the ability of the soil tension?

It can reduce resistance by repeated pulling. Drag resistance near zero with increasing number of
iterations.

See "The choice to repeat last zero tolerance" on page 126 for more information.

Concept program is designed to improve ground
surfacing?

Not directly. System can draw almost there to surround support system for
land change.

I need to draw the column on the foundation model no
friends?

No, but it's a good idea. It guarantees the intersection is located at the position is likely to be heavy
point loads.

The design concept for the system can not support poles?

There. Use columns (soft) below, or the dome base. Skin friction is not considered here.

Program Concept can design for impact and sheet piles (friends) are not together?

Yes, but the results can be very susceptible to the variation in geotechnical parameters. For example, if
the soil is hard to overestimate, the actual jet piles can be significantly underestimated. Need to be
careful.

Arch support insole system of nets to match it?

No.

You can change the hardness of
the ground?

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There. You can change the stiffness in two directions. See "The roof substrate properties" on
page 55.

I can select the soil bearing pressure allowed where?
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There are no entries. Need to look at the plan view of the ground bearing pressure (annotated largest /
smallest) to assess the greatest pressure. Also, see the FAQ section "Bearing of the land" (In the
results).

Concept program is repeated to give the tension at the base or dome?

No, only to surround the base.

37.8 The prestressed
reinforcement

Why many prestressed reinforcement is shown in the vertical direction in the wrong perspective
prestressed reinforcement?

Under the dome projection surface at each point is determined backbone while performing the
command Analyze All and All calculations. If not done one of these commands khtoi draw (or move,
etc.) prestressed reinforcement, or the net change, then the projection of prestressed reinforced
inaccurate perspective.

Similar to the arbitrary projection is shown as text on the plan view.

Analysis faster (but do not use "Calculate All") to Process> Analyze All. Avoid handling the design
calculations.

The prestressed reinforced "Latitude" and "Longitude"
mean?

In the United States, Britain and other countries, this is typically prescribed to put the prestressed
reinforcement in one direction in the range of columns focusing on. If designers use different
provisions, we still recommend the use of prestressed reinforcement layer Latitude and Longitude
because it makes editing easier PT. means placing the prestressed reinforcement in a layer in the
direction of X and Y prestressed reinforced on a different layer. Latitude and longitude is the name of
the layer.

I have to draw the prestressed reinforcement for the following non-
stressed?

There. This is not difficult, and should be addressed more issues before they become problems for the
school.

I draw the prestressed reinforced how?

See "Draw the prestressed reinforcement" on page 118,"Draw the prestressed reinforced unit" on page
118
and "Draw the prestressed reinforced many branches" on
page 119.

Double-click tool prestressed reinforcement to change the properties of reinforced and prestressed
default then draw the prestressed reinforced by the beat, or on each plate.

You can choose a segment of reinforced and prestressed concrete right click to change the
characteristics of that segment.

Can search and change the backbone of the same value in one operation. See
"Change axis tool paths" on page 121.
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I can repeat the prestressed
reinforcement?

There. Any fractional prestressed reinforcement may also declare any repeat. Tools prestressed
reinforced "half-rate" of interest to repeat the point (or low point any any) that is not in the center span.
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Maybe put the point repeatedly in any rhythm to using several segments prestressed reinforcement.

Does not matter if I draw "half" of prestressed reinforced?

There. Inflection point is measured from the first click and the backbone is determined by the order of
entry. For compatibility with the prestressed reinforcement is created using tools Full Span Tendon, we
suggest you always start at the high point.

Can I terminate the cable through a column are not?

Can be one of two methods.

1 Prestressed reinforcement may be "ramifications" should reduce the number of cables. As shown in
Figure 37-1If the transition from 15S (15 cable) to 10S (for rhythm near the cable does not require) the
termination of 5S in prestressed reinforcement half rate. Typically the cable termination at a quarter
span and at the center.

Note: Only use this method for prestressed reinforced no size. So click on the attached prestressed
reinforced with different lengths are calculated loss remove incorrect size (material wedge indentation
depth).





Figure 37-1 stop the cable (no click)

2 You can use Monday as stimulus measures are modeled. If the cable is total 15S is a prestressed
reinforced the need to constantly 10S with a prestressed reinforced with additional 5S along. Typically
terminate the prestressed reinforcement at a quarter span and at the center.





Figure 37-2 stop of the cable / the prestressed reinforcement (the stimulus). The combination of the
projection of prestressed reinforcement is subjective.

Concept testing program is to ensure that the cables in the segment prestressed reinforced
connection is appropriate?

There. See 38.3.3 Chapter 38, "Errors and Warnings".

Program Concept calculate friction loss like?

Concept program only calculates loss due to friction if the size is determined.
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Concept program calculates the friction loss due consideration to (vertical view) curvature of the
prestressed reinforcement, (see the reference) the horizontal knotted in place of reinforced and
prestressed size and friction parameters. stress in prestressed reinforcement is assumed to vary linearly
with each segment prestressed reinforcement.

Along with each prestressed reinforced formula used here is: P2 = P1 *
exp-(mu * theta + k * L)
In that

P1 is known stresses in a segment of prestressed reinforcement
P2 is unknown stresses at the other end of the segment prestressed reinforcement
mu is the coefficient of friction angle (in units 1/radians)
theta is the angle of segment changes with prestressed reinforcement
k is the coefficient of shaking (in units long 1/chieu)
L is the segment length prestressed reinforcement

Note: Many engineers (especially in Australia) used to shake the determination of the random angle
change per unit length. The engineer can shake that coefficient Concept program used, k, with the
following relationship: k = AngularWobbleCoefficient * mu.

At the junction between segments prestressed reinforcement, Concept program using the following
formula:

= P3-P4 * exp (mu * angle)
which
P4 is unknown stresses in the core segment next prestressed
P3 is known stresses in the core segments prestressed ago (or stress stimulus)
mu is the coefficient of friction angle similar
angle is the angle at the point of changing the axis prestressed reinforcement (both horizontal
knotted seat and vertical)

Concept program combined loss due to removing stimulus (material loss due to wedge indentation
depth) into the loss of the standard integral tension. The above equation is still used, but the value is not
known and learned swap. Program Concept adjusted repeated stresses prestressed reinforced until the
integration of the change in the tension of prestressed reinforced with removable anchor losses are
determined.

Long-term loss of use due to the size as parameters.

See "Click" and "The stimulus properties" on page 121 for more
information.

I have not determined size?

No. Concept program using FSE corresponding value (defined in the Materials page for conditions) as
the effective stress for any prestressed reinforcement does not click.

Program Concept calculated elongation (extension) does not?

Yes, if the size is determined. Use the dialog box to see Jack Elongation Visible Objects on the
projector.
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The dilation (expansion) have included the effect of removing the gap size (animal wedge deep
indentation) does not?

There. Knitwear reports about removing stimulus
minus.

Road axis of prestressed reinforcement measured
from?

View the presentation on the Parkway "The characteristics of prestressed reinforced" on
page 117.

Get all the cables and put them into a bundle of cables much easier to layout instead. Different
models may not even have distribution in prestressed reinforced branch or not?

This is a matter of building assessment. Definitely do not need a cable layout every so often in the
group of cables cable group larger groups are installed on site. Always remember that the strip cross
section designed to consider only the prestressed reinforcement that we cut across to calculate
intensity etc. There may be many cases where you want to create the cable model are grouped together
in groups (if very wide range).

I have arranged the longitude cable but want to change the cable in a group. I have arranged
them once again?

No. Number of strands in the cable is not necessarily an integer, so we can change.

I can determine the force in the
cable?

There. Use the dialog box to see Tendon Forces Visible Objects on the
projector.

Concept program is to test the prestressed reinforced concrete outside?

There. Views expressed in the section 38.3.4 and 38.3.5 Chapter 38, "Errors and
Warnings".

I need to calculate the load balancing with prestressed reinforcement?

No. There are load balancing tool to help calculate the low point, but not required.

The percentage of load balancing is shown on the projection of unreasonable strip design.
This is how the calculations?

How to calculate the percentage of the load balancing of Concept program assumes that you determine
what is the rate, real rate behaves similar. Sometimes it is not true.

To calculate the effective static load is applied, Concept Program used: D = 8 Md
/ L2
Among
them:

D is the dead load will be
calculated

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Md is the total static moment load rate (calculated from the moment at the cross section of the
beginning, middle and end of the span)

L is the span length (as determined from the fractional rate, conditional support system,
etc.) The calculation for load balancing similar effect:
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B = 8 Mb /
L2

Percentages are balanced is 100. (-B / D)

For example, if the static moment load in the cross section first, middle and last non-negative, positive
and negative, calculating the percentage balance will be useless.

This does not mean that the band is wrong, but can mean the cable layout does not perform as you
think it is done. Looking at deflection DL (or DL + LL) (no load balancing) and try to figure out how
to configure and work from there to locate and remove any additional cables.

37.9 Load

There can load samples?

There. See Chapter 20, "Creating Load
Model".

For wi th i rregul ar texture, take a l ot of ti me to draw the payl oad secti on to
match the texture. There i s no f aster way?

The payload section do not necessarily match the texture. The payload section can be stacked pillows
and they can "overhang" on the floor. This is presented in the tutorial PT.

The payload section is supplemented each other or the most
dominant?

The payload complement
each other.

Load balancing across working order look like?

See "Analysis of self-balancing" on page 313 Chapter 46, "The analysis notes".
However, the best way to understand the level SE could be this simple example:
For example,
horizontal SE 37-1

Consider the two-floor structure is shown in Figure 37-3. Each of 3m high and 10m wide structure.
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Figure 37-3 Example with two floor

Assume the following:

analysis done on the building frame for this 100kN load capacity and the column already know
distribution of power is very simple (for reasonable beam much stiffer than
the columns) The force on the top surface (including the jet column) is:
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Figure 37-4 The force on the top surface

Fx0 = 100kN

FX1 =-50kN FX2 =-
50kN FZ1 =-15kN Fz2 =
15kN
My1 = 75kN-m My2 = 75kN-m

The balance of this force and is applied directly to the SE across the load. Concept program then
calculates the exact force on publication, the design and test strips punctured.

For the middle have more power to review (all of this power comes from the analysis of the frame).
The force applied to the column which is written:
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Figure 37-5 The force on the surface
between

Fx3 = 50kN Fx4 =-
50kN Fx5 = 50kN Fx6
=-50kN FZ3 = 15kN
FZ4 =-45kN FZ5 =-
15kN FZ6 = 45kN
My3 = 75kN-m My4 = 75kN-
m My5 = 75kN-m My6 =
75kN-m
The forces are balanced and are applied directly to the SE across the load.

Because of its "3" and "4" occurred at the same place, so they complement each other and can be
applied as a single load (similar to "5" and "6").

Concept program then calculates the exact force on publication, the design and test strips punctured.

Note: There is an easier way - if you are not interested in the cross beam power, they can ignore the
forces Fx and Fy. This assumes that the forces Fx and Fy and operations in the middle of the faade is
a constant focus. When two incorrect assumptions, the impact of this force is not large, but may need
further evaluation before ignoring them.
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37.10 Analysis

I have to use "self-sustaining structure in the direction of X and Y" in Calc Options?

Just if the structure does not have the horizontal stabilizer, as columns on the floor with the roller, or
plate (friends) no way to surround the X or Y direction Self-stabilization does not work if the horizontal
load.

37.11 The design
problem

Width support system that is used for circular
columns?

The program calculates the width Concept support system for the equivalent square column (the
surface).

Relevance of the box Include Detailed Analysis Section in terms> What is Design Rules?

Concept Cars guidance program analysis section cracked though not required for the condition code.

The only reason to tick the box if you want to see the cracked section stresses even when they are not
being used to check code / design.

The only reason to not select the box is cracked section analysis may be delayed. See "Analysis section
details "on page 128 Chapter 27, "Calculation Results".

37.12 The results

37.12.1 The jet

Concept Program includes the weight of the column and the wall in the weight calculation itself
is not?

Concept program never stand under the weight of the system.

You must decide whether the weight of the support system that includes or not. Can be selected in the
Calculation Options.

I can select the columns and the wall jet is shown not?

Yes - What can change the Concept drawing program. See "Jet" on page 139 and Figure
inpage 139.

If the column (and or wall) above and below the stand, you can choose (in Plot dialog box) that the jet
is shown. The choice is

total on the jet (bottom and top)
jet under
jet on

The jet slides showing many small values Fx and Fy makes the comparison very difficult to read.
I can only look at Fz is not?

Can control this in two ways. The easiest way is to turn off the Fx and Fy parameters declared
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drawings. See "Changes affecting drawings" on page 132.
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Or can filter and jet past the small torque Units window. See "The report is clear zero "on page 21.

The wall jet is represented by a straight wall sections. I could see a part of the wall jet is not?

No. No because there would be too much information is shown.

I create columns at the bottom of the model wall. The huge jet and jet column, the sound wall.
This can not be real?

Mathematically, the result is true, but most can not practice. Try to model columns and walls similar to
vertical compression. This can reduce jet extraction column to more realistic values.

How to determine the jet at the end of the wall?

The jet was reported for the continuous wall, so if you need the individual jet, leaving a gap in the wall
or end wall columns defined.

37.12.2 Draw

Why are shown in the next moment of freedom about an axis parallel to the edge?





Figure 37-6 torque around the axis YY projection surface in the gaps. Show revolves around the
torque is not zero.

The torque curve is drawn is the torque between the plane of the element.

Element at the free edge may have a small moment in between. The values are shown between the
central element are interpolated, but by no element outside edge, so there is no way to reach that value
zero.

For the results may look better (values near zero than at the edges), using smaller elements
edge. Distance from edge to edge key element is the most important parameters.

I have a column on the side of the bolted. Why are shown in the next moment around the axis
parallel to the edge?
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Interpretation is similar to the previous
question.

Why are there two lines for deflection of the strip drawing?

Two different drawings for the largest and smallest if any one of the following
conditions:

Interspersed coefficients envelope unlike the load factor (see "Interspersed systems the
envelope "on page 37 Chapter 11, "Determining the load combination").

o For example, for load combination used, the load factor can load factor is 1.0 and
contours can be interleaved 0.0. This will create the largest value and the smallest
difference.

Load sample

Many load combination using the same set of rules.

The drawing shows the default deflection largest and smallest. There may just be the greatest value
through Plot dialog box, but remember that the absolute minimum rather than maximum possible.
There will be minimum value if you have dominant upward deflection.

Note: Also applies to drawings required for the force as torque or shear.

37.12.3 Road bag

The meaning of what is included in the
audit?

The power envelope is a (set of resources), in which one of its largest value or smallest for an item
(such as cross sections) is considered. All values in a way which forces occur simultaneously.

Audit contours generated from the following
processes:

For each set of rules, which are 6 lines added to a list (Max M, Min M, V Max, Min V, Max P,
Min P)

The duplicate copies are discarded (if Max Max V M and the same, then one of two that will be
discarded)

torque converter is done (this can adjust the torque value, can also create additional envelope)
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The result is a list of the envelope (possibly only one, but it can be up to 12).

Note: Many "switch helix" (as adjusted by twisting bending moment) can double the current
boundaries.

37.12.4 Reinforc
ed

How can I determine distance is not reinforced?

Th
ere.

1 Choose the appropriate reference
reinforcement. 2 Choose View>
Visible Objects ( ).
3 Check the bottom of the column spacings Bar Design and Span Designs
Section.

Note: The number of reinforcement can not be drawn about how the
bar.

Why minimum reinforcement is required on a misplaced?

Sometimes this also happens to design ACI318 or BS8110 / TR43.

The Concept of the smallest reinforced as required by the specific design conditions on the tensile (or
have the lowest amount of compression) usually works well for both the vertical and foundation
friends.

However, in certain cases, at the moment of cross section range is designed signs opposite of what is
expected at the location to be determined. For the stand, this can lead to the reinforcement in the
column is at the bottom of the plate and are reinforced at the top of the center span.

For example, for the TR43 ACI318 or without tension at the position under the conditions used, the
program will put rebar Concept smallest stand on the lowest amount of compression. This may be in
the form of a column.

Can bypass this by selecting Elevated Slab for CS design features range Min. Reinforcement Location.

See "The characteristic rhythm segment", Starting from Page 82. Presented CS Min. Reinforcement
Location Next photo 21-7.

I have more reinforced than expected. Why so?

This can have several reasons. The common reasons are:

1 The floor is then tensioned and you still have not checked Consider as Post-tensioned. Program
Concept ignore the prestressed reinforcement. View the presentation in "The characteristic rhythm
segment" in Page 82.

2 The depth of the cross section range spans segments contribute to the reinforcement of the smallest.
This may be due to the depth of cross section based on the scope of thickening.
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3 The reinforced prestressed concrete can stick with is not in the tensile region.

Why are the results reinforced layer Design Status of different colors?
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Appearance default scheme uses different colors for "Failed Span Design" and "Design Span OK".

37.12.5 The question of reinforced concrete
AS3600

I have more reinforced than expected. Why so?

Declaration on Environment of the Normal range is designed. Changes to Protected can reduce
reinforcement. See "Section 9.4.3.2 Shrinkage and Temperature" on page 419 to learn more.

37.12.6 The question BS8110 reinforced concrete /
steel TR43 Why in the column below?
There are many
possibilities.

1 See "Why minimum reinforcement is required on a misplaced? ".

2 TR43 (revised 1) clause 6.10.5 shows that "non-prestressed reinforcement supplement will be
designed to meet the full traction created by the curved tensile stress is assumed in Concrete "for" the
support on the plane. "

Note TR43 Table 2 below shows that "the support will be considered as any part that is considered
pace of 0.2 x L of the support system, where L is the effective rate."

This usually means that there is less tension on the side near the "edge" of the support, anti-bend far.

By 6.10.5, in such cases, additional reinforcement Concept Program on the underside.

Note: Concept Program can draw the rebar for the column, but drawings can show that just over the
required limit.

Note: Use column and middle strip of the plane PT TR43 tend to increase this situation.

Why are soft-wired operation of the plane near the center span is tensioned after the concrete
tack?

When designing for TR43 (BS8110) with reinforced prestressed concrete can stick with, many
designers were surprised to find reinforcing steel beneath operation.

TR43 (revised 1) clause 6.10.5 shows that ".... no prestressed reinforcement supplement will be
designed to meet the full traction generated by the tensile stress curve Concrete is assumed in the region
.... the flat rate in the use of prestressed reinforcement

not stick to the concrete, where tensile stresses exceed. "

Many designers do not consider that they have not provided prestressed reinforcement if they use the
reinforced prestressed concrete can stick with. However, what they miss is reinforced "will be placed
in the tensile region, close to the external structure."

Concept testing program of position is reinforced prestressed concrete and stick to determine whether
there is not effective. See "Calculation of additional reinforcement for TR 43, 6.10.5" on page 437 for
further examination.
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The following figure shows the location of prestressed reinforced with concrete tack with no cracks
convenient control.





Figure 37-7 Distribution of stress is assumed





Figure 37-8 Example 1: the prestressed reinforcement in the compression zone (ineffective)





Figure 37-9 Example 2: the prestressed reinforcement in tension zone inefficiency: (i) the small cable
(ii) near the zero axis

37.12.7 Puncture shear

The Concept has pierced shear test like?

See Chapter 57, "The design shear note pierced".

Concept testing program have pierced shear wall at the top?

No.

What is the rate of interest?

Ratio of maximum stress to allow stress.

Concept program that uses the torque distribution in the shear test pierced?

No. The two axis torque is the torque coefficient of elasticity.
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Is it not sufficient if the design stress ratio exceeds 1.0?

Puncture shear in columns such as:

1 sufficient if provided with shear reinforcement design puncture, or

2 incomplete (rebar can not solve the problem and concrete formwork should reconsider).

Why is destructive beams pierced at? I think the destructive shear puncture occurs only in the
plane.

The codes provide formulas for calculating shear puncture. Do not apply any logic as to whether
sabotage could breach occurred.

Concept testing program only supports beams pierced the column because the paint used in the
puncture test. Decision nature of potential structural damage and thus determine puncture test is
appropriate or not.

Shallow beams may have breached certain destruction. Deep beams are less destructive than the
puncture, and destructive shear in one direction will likely be structural damage.

For example, column A in Figure 37-10 and 37-11 is satisfactory for shear in a way (with reinforcing
beams) but the code equations that determine the puncture damage. Need to decide whether or not
appropriate.

This is possible, but very rare, for damage caused by breach in column B to be satisfactory as a means
of cutting beams (reinforced).
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Figure 37-10 Mold mixture: the flat with the first column and beam
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()
-
0 ..
I

-


0
A
IH ti fj : ti fj : Aa :
4
(/)

(/)
:: 0









FFTI2 #
4@2.48
#
4@3.24

rn #
4@3.os
#
4@3.24

# 4@3.24 IOL
# 4@3.24 LEJ





0
A
. - ..
J ::
0
J ::
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., .,
il il
nl
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nl nl
0 .. (J) (J)
H H
nl
a2 # 4@7.98 = T = t2 # 4@8.31
....
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E t: t:
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0
I I

c;
I I
t
2 # 4@16.7
(!)

..:.: _J.,
H2 # 4@12.3
p2 # 4@15.9 I I I I
:::: R :: t: TT I I I I I
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Figure 37-11 The resulting
shear

37.12.8 Reinforced shear (in a way)

Why the flat pattern of the results I have shear reinforcement in a way? I expected to breach the
shear dominated, not by a local shear.

[Also: Why is my model of the plane is the destructive shear in one direction?]

When engineers design of the plane by hand, they often ignore the test in a way. They decided that the
most appropriate puncture. (This is determined without considering much - just "seems right").

Concept program without this decision, because that is not where the codes ignore advice checked by a
local shear in the plane or flat. However - you should decide what is structural damage and therefore
capable of what is appropriate. Skip shear results in an appropriate way possible, maybe not. For
example, the column C in Figure 37-10 and 37 - 11 is satisfactory for shear puncture (unreinforced)
but code calculations of shear reinforcement required by a method. Depending on your decision
whether or not appropriate.

Note: In fact, ACI 318-02 11.12.1.1 rules specifically requested by a shear test method in the flat.

The results are more shear reinforcement than
expected.

It seems that this is the core problem cutting. See "The core cut" on Page 91 and "The core cut in the"
in Page 91 Chapter 21, "Determining the range of design".

For beams after stress, the reason may be deducted Program Concept fraction tubes prestressed
reinforced (with adhesion to concrete) from the plate width in the rules appropriate code.

Program Concept calculate tubes prestressed reinforced by dividing the number of fibers in a cable with
the maximum number of fibers in a tube containing prestressed reinforcement (as defined in the
material) and rounded to next integer.

See the following section for an explanation of how to calculate the shear plate of Concept program:

For AS 3600, "The design shear 8.2" on page 415

For BS 8110, "Section 3.4.5 Design of beam shear properties" on page 432.

For the IS 456, "Section 22.4 of the shear design of beams" on page 460.

Note: There are no rules except ACI318 tubes of prestressed reinforcement.

Check this text mean: "Depth" d "is zero - replace with depth effect" column ".
Depth is still zero - to give. "?

It seems that the combination of two problems:

compression force and torque are really small, and so the design flexural reinforcement without
any public

smallest design has been shut down

If so, consider the smallest design turned back.
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37.12.9 The
Hammo
ck

Have a look at the problem of crack
deflection?

Not all the results are always deflection considering creep and cracking problems. One very important
thing that you need to understand what is and what is not. See Chapter 56, "Evaluation of hammock ".

Why are there two lines for deflection LT drawing?

See "Why are there two lines for deflection of the strip drawing?".

Concept Program has warned if the deflection is too high?

No. Deflection allowed is a very subjective matter and Concept program if no warning
deflection beyond conventional
limits.

Note: Program Concept displayed warning that the large deflection analysis itself can not be valid
anymore. This occurs for the structure unstable or nearly unstable. Often the instability is related to
the internal displacement ends not restrained.

37.12.10 As of land bearing

There are many plan view of the ground bearing pressure. There is no
summary?

The Soil Bearing Design rules include maximum pressure load and minimum load combinations.

Choose Layers> Rule Set Designs> Soil Bearing Design> Soil Bearing Pressure Max Plan

37.13
Performance

Computers running the memory of me - I can do?

1 Choose Help> Machine
Settings

2 Changes to Speed Optimization of Memory.





Figure 37-12 Machine Settings dialog
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The requirements of the graphic card?
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Suggested use graphics card is supported by DirectX 9.0. See the graphics card manufacturer to
For more information on the latest DirectX
drivers.

If you can not find graphics card supported by DirectX, the program will attempt to use the concept of
simulation software program Windows XP SP2 and Vista. There should be video RAM at least 128
MB, but 256 MB is better. For optimum performance, color depth can display graphics on the 24-bit
declarations. When using parameters declare the color depth is 16-bit, it should be noted many
inconsistencies.
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38 Error and
Warning

Ram Concept Program has error messages and warnings may appear in the modeling and analysis.
Many very clear message, no need to explain further.

This chapter explains the error messages and warnings often appear more complex.

Most of the errors and warnings are notified of coordinates (x, y) or number of subjects. The program
coordinates Concept presented at the end of the work area (see Figure 2-1 inPage 5). This may enable
the dialog object to Visible Objects ().

Shows the number of
objects:

1 Choose Layers>
Plan.

2 Choose View> Visible Objects ().

Note: You can also right-click popup menu to see a warrant Visible Objects.

3 Numbers check box in the appropriate column of the object, then click
OK.

38.1 Mesh

Concept program can create many different errors and warnings for nets. The nets are limiting the
overall presentation of "The limits of nets automatically" on page 61.

You should heed this warning and error and correction. If not, the program will generate net concept
when done "Calc All".

Note: Almost all problems are caused by the nets are not used to comply with snap function.

38.1.1 Two or more surfaces or the beams have the same priority pillows stacked at (x, y)

The pillow the beams overlap and should have different priorities. This is explained in
"Priority Measures" on page 56.

Error is generated when two or more objects or a pillow beams overlap with the same priority.

Fixing this error:

1 Choose Layers> Layer Mesh Input> Standard
Plan. 2 Choose View> Visible Objects ( ).
Note: You can also right-click popup menu to see a warrant Visible Objects.

3 Check the boxes Priorities in Beams and Slab Areas, then click OK.

4 Use coordinates in the dialog box to locate the fault error, and review the priorities have been set.
Often the need to ensure that the best or thick beams will have a higher priority (lowest priority is 1).
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Note: The highest priority is not always assigned to the thickest element. For example, where the
standard pillow surface overlaps the surface is compressed down.

38.1.2 The line is too short in the (x, y)

The Concept is the smallest particle size of 50 mm (about 2 inches). This is about how to "snap" to be
effective. When an object, such as the surface of the two intersections close this gap, the line between
them is too short. In such cases, the program will combine the two Concept intersection together and
coordinates reporting of this case in the dialog box.

You can see the elements and the intersection of reference results in the standard
element.

38.1.3 Features to be removed in the
(x, y)

This warning is the result of one of the two following cases:

Features are too small to create the model (for example, the surface width 1 "(25mm)), or

Do not use snap, making small pillows on top of each stack.

38.1.4 Recursion too
deep

If you end up with 3 mesh intersection in tight corners, Concept program will recursively several times
to adjust the intersection and make the smallest angle larger. In this case, the standard does not address
recursive tight corners, so the warning message reports that recursive too "deep".

Normally this does not cause problems, but can see that there is an element "point" may affect stroke.
Generally, to avoid this situation. See "Character is remove the (x, y) ".

Note: You should check the nets / model of problem areas to make sure that the elements of Concept
program is reasonable for the area.

Note: This error is usually caused by not using snap while drawing: two straight lines projected in the
same position, instead, is somewhat parallel and intersect.

38.1.5 Found error. Two elements in the same column as the location. Delete column
element or # b # a.

This error occurs when accidentally drew two columns in the same location, or copy and paste the
column and do not change
Support Set (above or
below).

Fixing this error:

1 Choose Layers> Layer Mesh Input> Standard
Plan. 2 Choose View> Visible Objects ( ).
3 Check box
columns.

4 Place the cursor at the appropriate column, double-
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click and delete.

38.1.6 Found error. Element in the column under the no. Review # a column element (under
the)
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This error occurs when the column is outside of the boundaries (or the gap). To fix the problem
should move or edit the column to column within the boundaries.

38.2 The load

38.2.1 Error occurred while loading vector combination. Download the key is not on. Review # a
point load.

Download a special focus on the finite element are rejected. Besides bugs, basically ignoring Concept
program loads.

38.2.2 Error occurred while loading vector combination. Load line is on incomplete copies.
Review # a load line.

Load line is not entirely on the finite element generated this error. Perhaps you repeatedly ignore this
error, as the load line cross gaps. Program Concept overlooked part load cross gaps.

Note: You should check this error. Load line seems to be on the edge, but the fact that outside edge. If
you think you can load straight through the gap and ignore the error, then you may miss a real
problem.

38.3 The prestressed
reinforcement

38.3.1 # Prestressed reinforced with a radius (a) is less than minimum allowed (b).

The prestressed reinforced parabolic shape with a large screen is related to the length of them have a
small radius. Appearing as a warning radius segment prestressed reinforced smaller minimum radius for
systems that prestressed reinforcement.

Radius (along) the smallest of prestressed reinforcement is defined in the Materials. Concept program
does not check the horizontal radius for various segments straight prestressed reinforcement in the
projector.

The radius is shown that the proposal is based on industry standards. You can change them based on
advice from the company prestressed reinforcement.

Note: Warnings can be implied conditions unbalanced (too many face-lift) for prestressed reinforced
parabolic shape.

To remove the warning, you can adjust the axis prestressed reinforcement or change the minimum
radius of the Material.

Edit the smallest radius:

1 Choose Criteria>
Materials.

2 Edit the smallest radius for PT system.

38.3.2 Can not automatically locate the backbone at (x, y) by the value of the axial

This alert occurs when the two following cases are true for two segments prestressed reinforced with
the same backbone point 2:
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11 Many segments are prestressed reinforced mark 2 Point Position Profile for equal balance loads, and

12 One, and only one, of several segments prestressed reinforced flat (ie the point values on the axes 1
and 2 point backbone segments prestressed reinforced flat: this usually happens when two equal
value).

Position Profile Point Selection 2 for equal balance to move the reference position cudiem 2 backbone
to lift the same for both segments prestressed reinforcement. This can not be the only one segment
prestressed reinforced flat (zero screen) because there is no increase in the segment of prestressed
reinforced that.

38.3.3 Error occurred while calculating backbone. The axis is not on the road. Click on the Fix
button to edit the axis at point (x, y).

Occurs when prestressed reinforced expand the far side. To fix this error, stretching the backbone to its
slightly on the edge or in the next version.

Dialog with automatic repair function (Click on the Fix button). If you click on this button, the
program will move the Concept backbone to the nearest concrete elements.

38.3.4 Error occurred while calculating backbone. The way is not in the axis (vertical). Adjust
the axis at (x, y).

Occurs when the backbone is not prestressed reinforcement in the thickness. The value of the axis is
always related to the beams under the vault or at the location of the backbone. One easy way to figure
out this problem is to look at the perspective prestressed reinforcement.

If the backbone is in step surfaces above or below, the Program Concept backbone to move the case
no ambiguity occurs. So check if there is the backbone of the surface is not expected.

38.3.5 Error occurred while calculating the backbone prestressed reinforcement. A prestressed
reinforced outside in the (x, y).

This differs from 38.3.4 that point in the backbone, but prestressed reinforced outside publication,
somewhere between the backbone. This usually occurs when the surface step above or below.

38.3.6 # Prestressed reinforced a repeat, and thus violate the lowest radius allowed (b)

A prestressed reinforcement is repeated with straight segments (vertical). So with a radius equal to
zero in (the) point backbone.

Avoid warning prestressed reinforcement is
repeated:

1 Choose Criteria>
Materials.

2 Create a new PT system (it should be called "repeated").

3 Declare the smallest radius for zero new PT system.

4 Using the new system for the prestressed reinforcement is
repeated.
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38.3.7 Error occurred while calculating the effective stress of prestressed reinforced. A
prestressed reinforced cables have different numbers than the prestressed reinforcement nearby.
Check prestressed reinforcement # a.

You can change the cable with reinforced prestressed continuous, but not recommended. This warning
tells you that the cables in prestressed reinforcement changes.

To avoid the warning, the prestressed reinforcement layer proper (the dialog will indicate prestressed
reinforcement layer is positioned somewhere) and changes in the number of cable-tensioned
reinforcement.

Note: It is best to use the Select Connected tendons.

See "I can terminate the cable through a column?" on page 175 Chapter 37, "Questions normal " for
more information.

38.3.8 Error occurred while calculating the effective stress of prestressed reinforced. A
prestressed reinforcement is not any connection to any size. Check prestressed reinforcement # a.
[If any of prestressed reinforcement are the effects of stress, the prestressed reinforcement to be
effective stress.]

Concept program calculates the loss in prestressed reinforced with one or two click. The concept does
not allow prestressed reinforcement layer (latitude and longitude) are more reinforced with prestressed
reinforced stimulus than the other prestressed no size. There may be a prestressed reinforcement layer
(eg, latitude) with prestressed reinforcement layer is enabled and reinforced prestressed no other
stimulus.

When encountering this error, find prestressed reinforcement (from the given number) and click on the
drawing at least one prestressed reinforcement.

38.4 Othe
r

38.4.1 Error occurred while calculating all. Error occurred while drawing the triangular matrix
stiffness. The structure is not stable at the intersection: a, DOF: Translational axis Y. Review the
structure.

This means that there is no structural level stability. Need to provide more horizontal stability (eg, shear
walls, columns associated with the full torque, the base line horizontal arches, etc.) or a self-sustaining
structure.

Self-stabilizing
structure:

1 Choose Criteria> Calc
Options

2 Check Auto-stabilize structure in X and Y directions. Note: This
function does not work if the horizontal load.
38.4.2 Error occurred: The payload is the horizontal load, but the structure is stabilized
automatically by the directions X and Y.

Can not be stable if the structural horizontal load (in addition to the prestressed reinforcement).
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Yes (1) Auto-check does not stabilize structure in X and Y directions in Calc Options, and
(2) provide more horizontal stability (eg, shear walls, columns with the torque link
full, the arches across the road base,
etc.).
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38.4.3 The rules in the selected code rules "Using Design" is not compatible with the load factor
of the load combination using the rules. Ability to fault here.

Any load combination that uses the Service Rules (and sustained Service / Max Service) should have a
coefficient of 1 load for load balancing (despite the prestressed reinforcement) and the coefficients not
more than 1 load to dead load and live load. Concept program will alert when this violation.

Always alert occurs when additional load combinations and do not forget to enter the Loading Balance
load factor. To avoid warnings, change the load factor for the first load balancing for all load
combination rule using the Service (sustained Service / Max Service).

38.4.4 Load combination "Service" (sustained Service / Max Service) is the equilibrium
coefficient unusual and / or the load factor of redundancy. Ability to fault here.

Any load combination that uses the Service Rules (and sustained Service / Max Service) should have a
coefficient of 1 load for load balancing (despite the prestressed reinforcement) and load factor
important (and alternating boundary coefficient) is zero for static loads super. Concept Program alert
when this violation.

Always alert occurs when you add load combination and do not forget to enter the Loading Balance
load factor. To avoid the warning, change the load factor for the first load balancing for all load
combination rule using the Service (sustained Service / Max Service).

38.4.5 The rule "Strength Design" will be used by the load combination with the load factor for
different purposes. Ability to fault here.

Any load combination that uses the rules of Strength (or ductility) should load factor (and alternating
boundary coefficient) of 1 for redundant load (despite the prestressed reinforcement ). Concept Program
alert when this violation.

Always alert occurs when you add load combination and do not forget to enter the coefficient of static
loads super load. To avoid the warning, change the load factor (and the envelope alternating
coefficients) for the first load of redundancy for all load combination using the rules strenth or ductility.

38.4.6 Sheets / friends likely unstable. There are less than 25% of the exposed
section.

When plate (friends) are more liable to be reduced when significant load, it's likely very high pressure
load and can not be stable.

38.4.7 # Check the breach is not located in a column

This error occurs when the column was repositioned after drawing puncture test and puncture test is no
longer centered in the column. Need to remove and redraw puncture test, which shows the puncture
test.

Show the puncture test (the opposite column):

1 Choose Layers> Design Strips> Punching Checks Plan.
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2 Choose View> Visible Objects ( ).

3 Punching Shear Checks tick numbers.

38.4.8 Found error. Tweaking cross section for ab-c strip makes no concrete at one or more
locations.

This error is reported at the steps of the publication.

Limit slope between the cross sectional area tune the entire cross section in steps. See
"Limit tweak slope between cross-section" on page 93 for more information.

Can avoid problems by declaring limit slope between the cross section for large values of the beats are
big steps. However, consider the following reasons for the error.

38.4.9 Found error. [Strip design] ab-c with the rebar with too many layers of protection
(bottom panel near the top rather than on the side bar).

Cross-sectional area can be tweaked and thickness layers of protection, so the position of the sound
unreasonable.

There is likely to happen with the plate, or steps.
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39 Simple RC Guide

This chapter presents the steps to create a flat plate model in two directions with the unit load
synchro
nization.

The goal of the guide is to help you learn more skills to make the basic model and introduce some of
the tools and methods useful for the actual project.

ID codes are used ACI 318-02, AS3600-2001, BS8110: 1997 and IS 456: 2000.

The guidelines presented "U.S. units" for ACI 318 design, with the values and metric units in brackets
for AS3600, BS8110 and IS 456. The metric values are not exact conversions.

For more information on how to create a new file, see "Create and open file" on page 5.

39.1 Structure
Determination

Start by drawing and creating structural element mesh.

Identify the location and the characteristics
of the column: 1 Choose Layers> Mesh
Input> Standard Plan. 2 Double-click the
Column tool ( ). 3 In the Default Column
Properties dialog:
o Choose Concrete Strength of 5000 psi [32 MPa for AS3600; C32/40 to BS8110, M40
for IS 456].

o Declare the Width is 24 inches [600 mm].

o Declare Depth is 24 inches [600 mm]. 4
Click OK.
Identify the position of a column in the following three measures. We suggest you try all
measures to be able to learn different methods. 5 Enter the
coordinates (x, y) the following and press Return after each
system:
o 0, 0 ft. [0, 0 m]
o 24, 0 ft. [7:25, 0 m]
o 24, 20 feet. [7:25, 6 m]
o 0, 20 ft. [0, 6 m]

Note: The coordinate system will appear in the command line, see Figure 2-
1 inPage 5. Note: Do not enter the actual units (ft., m)
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6 In "Draw the slab area", or select and delete columns and four the next test
measures. 7 Right-click on the slide and select Grid.
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8 Grid Setup dialog box:

o Declare x and y is 1 foot [0:25 meters].
o Click OK.

9 Turn on Snap to Grid ( ).

10 Click the Column tool ( ).

11 Place the cursor near the following coordinates and click (the cursor will snap to the grid and
coordinate system
appear in the command line):

o 0, 0 ft. [0, 0 m]
o 24, 0 ft. [7:25, 0 m]
o 24, 20 feet. [7:25, 6 m]
o 0, 20 ft. [0, 6 m]

12 In "Draw the slab area", or select and delete columns and four the next test measures.

13 Draw two columns at 0, 0 ft. [0, 0 m] and 24, 0 ft. [7:25, 0 m] in one of the two previous
methods. 14 Select the two columns.
15 Click the Move tool ( ).

16 Press and hold down the shift key and click anywhere in the workspace.
Enter r0 17, 20 [r0, 6], and press Return.
Note: Copy the two columns with equal command. See "Use coordinate system related" in Page 16 for
further examination.

Draw the surface:

1 Turn on Snap to Intersection ( ).

2 If you have previously turned on, turn off Snap to Grid ( ).

3 Double-click the tool Slab Area ( ) To adjust the default properties. 4 In the
Default Slab Area Properties dialog box:
o Choose Concrete Strength of 5000 psi [32 MPa for AS3600; C32/40 to BS8110, M40
for IS 456].
o Declare Thickness is 12 inches [300 mm].
o Still to Surface Elevation is 0 and Priority 1.
o Click OK.

5 With Slab Area tool ( ) Selected, determined by the four corners of the snaps at corner "outside"
of each column.

6 Complete the rectangle by clicking in the boot (or type "c" in the command line and press Return).
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Ceramic ball surface road map:

1 Choose View> Visible Objects (
). Visible Objects dialog box appears.
2 Check the "Hatching" under "Slab Area", and then click OK.

Note: You can also right-click popup menu to see a warrant Visible Objects.

Now define the element mesh, but have not yet.





Figure 39-1 After the determination, Mesh Input: Standard Plan showing the surface (the hatch), and
the columns.

Create grilles:

1 Click the Generate Mesh ( ).

2 Generate Mesh dialog box, declare Element size is 2 feet [0.6 m]. 3 Click
Generate.
View grilles:

1 Choose Layers> Element> Standard
Plan.

Now you will see a somewhat random nets, for reasonable results, but are still better mesh. You can
create a mesh improves significantly when determining the design range. This mesh is shown in Figure
39-4.
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Element Figure 39-2: The standard reference (eg the size ACI318).





Element Figure 39-3: The standard reference (eg, AS3600, BS8110 & IS 456).




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Figure 39-4 Element: The reference after creating the standard (for example ACI318, the metric codes
have the same net)

Watch structures:

1 Choose Layers> Element> Summary Structure Perspective.

2 Use around the x-axis and y ( ) To rotate the floor. 3 Click on
the Print Tool Set Viewpoint ( ).
When returning this perspective, can see the scene saved by clicking Show Set Viewpoint
( ).





Figure 39-5 Element: Perspective summarizes structure.

39.2 Draw the load

Ram Concept program automatically loads the concrete itself. There is no limit to the number of loads
than can be determined, but this example only determine Live Load.

Draw the load:

1 Choose Layers> Loadings> Live (reducible) Loading> All Loads Plan.
2 Double-click the Area Load tool ( ).
3 In the Area Load Default Properties dialog box:

o Change Fz to 50 psf [2.5 kN/m2].
o Click OK.

This tool will draw the load of 50 psf section [2.5 kN / m 2].
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4 Determine the load on the entire section by clicking on the four corners of the quadrangle and then
enter the letter "c". This form does not need to match the exact size of the publication, but should the
government.





Figure 39-6 Live (reducible) Load: The load slide all (with the payload section of brick
the ball was out): For example ACI318.





Figure 39-7 Live (reducible) Load: The load slide all (with the payload section of brick
the ball was out): for example, AS3600, BS8110 & IS
456.

39.3 Identify the range of
design

The band design is an essential part of the program because they relate Ram Concept of finite element
analysis to design concrete. The characteristics of these include rebar sizes, protective layer, and the
parameters that Concept program used to determine the code of rules to be applied to the design cross
section. There are two directions called Latitude and Longitude.
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There is a common rule to design the RC plane in two directions with the column and middle strips in
two orthogonal directions, and rules that are used here.

Draw the design latitude bands:

1 Choose Layers> Design Strip> Latitude Design Plan spans.
2 Double-click the tool Span Segment ( ).
3 Default Span Properties dialog box opens for the Generation Strip properties.

o Declare Code Calc Column Width Strip Slab (this is the default template and AS3600
IS 456).
o Click the General tab.
o Consider not mark as Post-tensioned.
o Click the Column tab Strip.
o CS Change Top Bar in # 6 [N20 to AS3600; T20 to BS8110; T20 for
with IS 456].
o Change the # 5 CS Bottom Bar [N16 to AS3600; T16 to BS8110; T16
to U.S. 456].
o Click the tab Middle Strip.
o Highlight Column Strip Middle Strip Properties uses.
o Click OK.

4 Click on the Generate tool spans ( ), Or choose Process> Generate spans.

5 Generate dialog box opens with the declaration spans spans to Generate the Latitude (as described in
Figure 39-8):

o Declare the Minimum Span Length 2 feet [0.6 meters].
o Click OK.





Figure 39-8 Dialog Generate spans

The latitude rhythm appears, as shown in Figure 39-9.

6 Click on the Tools Generate Strips ( ), Or choose Process> Generate Strips.
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The latitude band design appears, as shown in Figure 39-10.





Figure 39-9 The rhythm latitude direction





Figure 39-10 The latitude band-oriented design (with the ball turned brick)

Draw the design strip Longitude:

1 Choose Layers> Strip Design> Design Longitude spans Plan.
2 Double-click the tool Span Segment ( ).
3 Click the Column tab Strip Span Default Properties dialog box.

The default settings in Latitude Design Plan spans remain the same. Due to protection class can not be
the same for both directions, changing the direction of the vertical layers.

o Top Cover Change CS to 2:25 inches [60 mm].
o CS Bottom Cover Change of 1:38 inches [41 mm].
o Click OK.
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4 Click on the Generate tool spans ( ), Or choose Process> Generate spans. 5 In the
dialog box Generate spans:
o Declare to Generate spans the Longitude.
o Click on the navigation buttons "up - down", and click OK.





Figure 39-11 Generate dialog spans

The rate longitude appear, as shown in Figure 39-12.

6 Click on Tools Generate Strips ( ), Or choose Process> Generate Strips. The
design of the strip appears, as shown in Figure 39-13.




Figure 39-12 The longitude direction beats
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Figure 39-13 The longitude ranges oriented design (with the ball turned brick)

Because the range of designs, should be able to create many more nets are.

Recreate the net:

1 Click the Generate Mesh ( ). 2
Click Generate.
3 Now there is a better mesh. View Element mesh panels on the Standard Plan. See
Figure 39-4 to see the new mesh.
39.4 Draw the shear test breakthrough

Draw check puncture very easily.

Draw shear puncture test:

1 Choose Layers> Design Strip> Punching Checks Plan.

2 Double-click the tool Punching Shear Check ( ). 3 In
the dialog box Properties Default Punching Shear Check:
o Cover to Change the 2:25 CGS inches [60 mm] (tchayg layer of protection above the
mean)
o Click OK.

4 sale for Punching Shear Check tool. See Figure
39-14 check to see if punctured.
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Figure 39-14 range designed: The Projector puncture
test

39.5 Calculate and Show Results

It can "run" the file at any time while creating models for analysis and error checking. After drawing
the strip design, Concept program can analyze and design. You can then view the results.

Calculatio
n:

1 Click Calc All ( ).

39.5.1 Status Design

The purpose of the plan view the situation is to know whether there is any violation of the code does
not limit the ability of ductile shear in a way, and pierced shear.

View Status:

1 Choose Layers> Design Status> Status
Plan.

For ACI318, AS3600 and IS 456, the reference condition is OK for the design and test strips shear
puncture. See Figure 39-15.

Front projection shows state BS8110 shear failure puncture. See Figure 39-16.

Note: Status does not indicate excessive deflection.
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Figure 39-15 Design Status: The status of ACI318 projector, AS3600 & IS 456























Figure 39-16 Design Status: The status shown for BS8110

39.5.2 Design of reinforced

View the results can be reinforced as drawing bar.

View reinforcement:

1 Choose Layers> Design Status> Reinforcement Plan.

This shows all the reinforcement is determined by the eight range code for each design. View the
picture 39-17 to 39-20.
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Figure 39-17 Status Design: Front Projection reinforced for ACI318





Figure 39-18 Status Design: Front Projection reinforced for AS3600




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Figure 39-19 Design Status: The reference to BS8110 reinforced





Figure 39-20 Status Design: Front Projection reinforced for IS
456

The plan view so often subject to "information overload" to fit the full results. For this reason, have
access to the plan view of layer Status Design, reinforcing separation: the (over or under), direction
(latitude and longitude), and type (or cut curved). So decide what the plan view brings the best results
without too many obstacles.

See Reinforced
concrete:

1 Choose Layers> Design Status> Latitude Bottom Reinforcement Plan.
View the picture 39-21 to 39-24.
Concept program provides you with the code provisions on control and reinforced the largest in any
cross section designed to strip. Here below using reinforced towards latitude as an example.

View the reinforced control
conditions:

1 Choose Layers> Design Status> Latitude Bottom Reinforcement Plan.
2 Choose View> Visible Objects ( ).
3 In the column design rate (not the design section): Uncheck Bar
Controlling Criteria Descriptions and selected, and click
OK.

View the picture 39-25 to 39-28 for reinforced control conditions below latitude direction.
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Figure 39-21 Status Design: Front Projection reinforced under the direction of ACI318 latitude.





Figure 39-22 Status Design: Front Projection reinforced under the direction of latitude for AS3600.





Figure 39-23 Status Design: Front Projection reinforced under the direction of latitude to BS8110.
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Figure 39-24 Status Design: Front Projection reinforced under the direction of latitude for IS 456.





Figure 39-25 Status Design: Front Projection reinforced under the direction of latitude for ACI318,
not tick and tick Bar Descriptions Controlling Criteria.




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Figure 39-26 Status Design: Front Projection reinforced under the direction of latitude for AS3600,
no tick and tick Bar Descriptions Controlling Criteria.





Figure 39-27 Status Design: Front Projection reinforced underneath with latitude towards BS8110,
no tick Tick Bar Descriptions and Controlling Criteria.





Figure 39-28 Status Design: Front Projection reinforced under the direction of latitude for IS 456, not
Descriptions and tick Tick Bar Controlling Criteria.

39.5.3 Design drawings of reinforced

The Plot Concept is the choice that you can use to view the results in various bands such as torque,
shear, compression front, reinforcement and crack width.

This takes you to step reinforcement drawings declared.

Can skip this section, but there are steps that can help you learn the strengths of the program.
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Create a new drawing surface reinforcement projection towards latitudes below:

1 Choose Layers> New Plan.

2 Enter a name for the projector, such as "Plot: Latitude Bottom Reinforcement". (Concept program
automatically prepend layer name and add the word "Plan").

3 Select the layer "Design Status", and click
OK. Visible Objects dialog box appears.
4 Nothing Show Click and Click OK. 5
Choose View> Plot ( ).
Plot dialog box appears with the Section Design dialog.

6 Highlight Active. 7
Select the radio button
Bottom.
8 Max Frame Number of Changes 2, and click OK. View
the picture 39-29 to 39-32 for reinforcement drawings.




Figure 39-29 Status Design: Drawing: The projection in the direction of the reinforcement underneath
for ACI318 latitude.
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Figure 39-30 Status Design: Drawing: The reinforcement shown below latitude direction for AS3600





Figure 39-31 Status Design: Drawing: Front Projection reinforced underneath with latitude towards
BS8110
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Figure 39-32 Status Design: Drawing: The reinforcement shown below latitude direction for IS
456

39.5.4 Puncture shear

View the results can be pierced shear on the dedicated flat projection.

View puncture resistant
crop:

1 Choose Layers> Design Status> Status Punching Shear
Plan.

It can be seen that, for ACI318, AS3600 and IS 456, the percentage of non-reinforced stress (USR)
smaller
1.0 and thus cut puncture resistance is satisfactory. These results are presented in Figure 39-33,Figure
39-34 and 39-37.

USR to BS8110 is 1:17, as shown in Figure 39-35. Due to the stress ratio exceeds 1.0, the shear
reinforcement is required. Program Concept design style nail reinforcement (SSR) for such situations.

See SSR:

1 Choose Layers> Design Status> SSR
Plan.

Results for BS8110 is shown in Figure 39-36.
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Figure 39-33 Design Status: The status shown for shear ACI318 puncture.





Figure 39-34 Design Status: The status reference shear pierced for AS3600





Figure 39-35 Design Status: The status reference shear pierced for BS8110
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Figure 39-36 Design Status: The SSR reference to BS8110





Figure 39-37 Design Status: The status reference shear pierced for IS 456

39.5.5 Deflection

Often you are interested deflection of Activity (Static load and load plus PT activity if possible) and
long term (the coefficient of variation and cracking is used).

The Concept of inertia using the cross section for the hammock. You can check the effects of creep,
shrinkage and cracking with strips based on deflection LT drawings. See Chapter 56, "Evaluation of
hammock " for more information.

Note: The projection plane deflection following is NOT considered cracking, creep and shrinkage.

View deflection using:

1 Choose Layers> Load Combinations> Service LC> deflection Plan.

Can see the hammock use, as shown in the picture 39-38 to 39-41. Note: This model uses the
pressurized column and thus deflection includes deflection column. Note: Template AS3600
uses 70% load for LC use.
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Using LC Figure 39-38: The reference to ACI318 deflection.






















Figure 39-39 Using LC: The deflection projection for AS3600.
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Figure 39-40 Using LC: The deflection reference to BS8110.





Figure 39-41 Using LC: The deflection reference to IS 456.

View deflection without using color:

1 Choose Layers> Load Combinations> Service LC> deflection Plan.

2 Right click on the slide and select Plot ( ) To change the Plot Type from Color contours
the contours.

Note: As mentioned previously, you should review Chapter 56, "Evaluation of deflection" Concept
program to understand how to look at problems cracking, creep and shrinkage for calculating
deflections how.

39.5.6 The bending
torque

Although not required View the bending torque, but can be useful, especially for irregular structures.
Although the torque is important, the plan view contours defaults for Mx torque (torque x axis) and the
USA. Since most of the detailed design drawings orthogonal reinforcement, and the x-axis direction
and is usually the y-axis. View the torque can be around any axis, including the spindle.

Not easy to evaluate the torque map contours. That is why the Distribution Plot tool useful.

Note: Distribution Plot useful tool for the qualitative results, not the quantitative results. See "The
distribution of cross section drawings" on page 132, And, especially, the "Summary" on page 134

Watch the moment:

1 Choose Layers> Load Combinations> Combination Code Load Specific> Mx Plan.

For ACI318, LC is the system used No.: 1.4D. For the
AS3600, use basic LC: 1.2D + 1.5 L. For BS8110,
using basic LC: 1.4D + 1.6L. For the IS 456, using
basic LC: 1.5D + 1.5 L.
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The road map is the torque per unit length on the x axis and globally. 2 Snap On
orthogonal ( )
3 Click on the Selected Plot Distribution tools ( ).

4 Click at the top of the structure first and again at the bottom.

Shown shape bending moment, around the x axis, with painted lines. View the picture 39-42
to 39-45.

5 Now click from left to right through the structure.

Shows how the different Mx vertical pulsating like. If this is done through the central column, the
column will show the torque band sound big and small positive torque between how close rate. If you
do this in the middle range, just see the positive torque.

See "Signs drawing conventions" on page 24 Chapter 8, "Choosing sign convention" for more
information.





Figure 39-42 is the coefficient LC: 1.4D: The Mx reference to the use of tools for ACI318 Distribution
Plot.




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Figure 39-43 LC Basics: 1.2D +1.5 L: The Mx reference to the use of tools Plot Distribution
for AS3600.





Figure 39-44 LC Basics: 1.4D +1.6 L: The Mx reference to the use of tools Plot Distribution
to BS8110.





Figure 39-45 LC Basics: 1.5D +1.5 L: The Mx reference to the use of tools Plot Distribution
for the IS 456.

39.6 Painting reinforcement

Version 3.0 introduces many innovative tools to draw the rebar.

39.6.1 Draw the reinforcement plate beneath

This section describes how to drawing sheet and reinforced underneath will see the branch.

Draw reinforced below:

1 Choose Layers> Reinforcement> Bottom Bars Plan.

2 Double-click the Distributed Reinf tool. Cross in Perimeter ( ). 3
Default Distributed Reinforcement Properties dialog box opens.
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o Note that the Reference Elevation Bottom Cover is declared.
o Elevation changes of 0.75 inches [25 mm for the AS3600, BS8110 and IS 456].
o Bar Type of Change # 5 [N16 to AS3600; T16 to BS8110; T16 for
IS 456].
o Change Spacing thanh12 inches [225 mm for the AS3600, BS8110 and IS 456]. 4
Snap On orthogonal ( ).
5 Click on the map somewhere.
6 Click on another to the left or to the right to determine the direction of reinforcement (first). A
polygon appears, is of the shape. Once you run the file, one can view each bar
through Visible Objects dialog box.

Note: To create three objects: a polygon match the contours, an object layer reinforcement in
reinforced latitude and direction an object layer reinforcement in the direction of the reinforcement.

7 Using the Stretch tool, you can adjust the bar to clamp coachman appearance
better.

View the picture 39-46 large 39-47 with ACI
318.

View the picture 39-49 to 39-51 for AS3600, BS8110 and IS 456.





ACI 318 Figure 39-46: Reinforcement> Bottom Bars Plan
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Figure 39-47 below plate is determined by clicking at points A and B. AC appears to point C = AB.
The bar is extended to points A and B, but signs indicate continued reinforcement to the next version.





Figure 39-48 below plate is adjusted by stretching clamped at points B and C.
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Figure 39-49 AS3600, BS8110, IS456: Reinforcement> Bottom Bars Plan





Figure 39-50 below plate is determined by clicking at points A and B. AC appears to point C = AB.
The bar is extended to points A and B, but signs indicate continued reinforcement to the next version.
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Figure 39-51 below plate is adjusted by stretching clamped at points B and C.
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41 Guide the plane PT: AS3600-2001

This chapter presents the steps to create a flat pattern after stress in two directions with uniform load.

The goal of this tutorial is to develop skills learned in the program 39 Guide RC and introduced the
new steps, such as using CAD drawings and following stress.

Several tools and methods are presented in the Guidelines RC is not used here. Thus, your proposal
must first study the RC Guidelines.

No specially designed "flexible". After completion of the study guide, you will probably want to make
the thinner branches to check.

Can also use it as a guide reinforced concrete by making a few minor adjustments (eg, thicker version).

For more information about creating a new file, see "Create and open file" on page 5.

41.1 Enter CAD
Drawings

CAD file that you enter in the program folder Ram Concept

Import CAD file:

1 Choose File> Import
Drawing.

2 Choose File flat_plate_metric.dwg CAD drawings.
Units File dialog box appears.
3 Choose Millimeters (the unit used in CAD files) and click OK.

41.2 Structure
Determination

To use the CAD files to display it on the Input Layer Mesh.

Demonstrate drawing on Layer Mesh
Input:

1 Choose Layers> Mesh Input> Standard
Plan. 2 Choose View> Visible Objects (
).
Note: You can also right-click popup menu to see a warrant Visible Objects.

Drawing 3 Click on the Import tab. 4
Click Show All, and then click OK.
Draw the surface:
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1 Turn on Snap to Intersection () and Snap to Point ().
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2 Double-click the tool Slab Area ( ) Toadjust thedefault properties. 3In theDefault SlabAreaProperties dialog
box:
o Choose Concrete Strength of 32 MPa.
o Declare Thickness is 250 mm.
o Still to Surface Elevation is 0 and Priority 1.
o Click OK.

4 With Slab Area tool ( ) Is selected, define the contours of the top 10 by snap
to the corner of the drawing entered.

Note: There are two peaks close together near the B-5 at 26.05, 26.05 and 8.2 m, 8.8 m. The pointer
reference coordinate system
displayed next to the command prompt.

5 Complete the polygon by clicking at the beginning (or type "c" in the command line and press Enter).

























Figure 41-1 on the Mesh Input Path: The standard reference.

Draw the balcony
surface:

1 Double-click the tool Slab Area ( ) Toadjust thedefault properties.2In theDefault Slab Area Propertiesdialog
box:
o Change Thickness of 200 mm.
o Surface Elevation Changes of -50 mm.
o Changing the Priority 2, and click OK.

3 The Slab Area tool ( ) Is chosen, det er mi ne the t op si x of t he ori gi nal li nes by
clicki ng at each vertex, and t hen Click at t he begi nni ng (or t ype "c" in t he command
line and press Enter).
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Figure 41-2 The balcony on the Mesh Input: The standard reference.

Drawing the drop cap:

1 Double-click the tool Slab Area ( ) Toadjust thedefault properties.2In theDefault Slab Area Propertiesdialog
box:
o Change Thickness of 500 mm.
o Surface Elevation Change to 0, and keep a Priority 2.
o Click OK.

3 With Slab Area tool ( ) Is selected, identified four drop cap with the top four or five
when appropriate.

4 In "Draw the opening:", or the next test measures

5 With the Selection tool ( ), Select (by double clicking) and remove the drop cap at B-2.
6 Click Redraw ( ).
Many tools icon button with a small triangle in the bottom right corner (). The icon
to know that there are other similar tools for this node.

7 Place the mouse over tool Slab Area ( ) And hold down the left mouse button for a second. It will show a
popup menu.
8 Select Tools from the menu drop cap.

Tools selected to become the current node. 9 Click on
column B-2.
Appearing Drop Cap Tool dialog box.
Enter angle of 10 degrees.
11 Enter the dimensions are 1.2 m and click OK.

Drawing gap:
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1 Choose Slab Opening tool ( ).

2 Identify gaps in the four corners of clicking at each location, and then Click on
beginning.






















Figure 41-3 gap in Mesh Input: The standard reference.

Brick road surfaces the ball: 1 Select
View> Visible Objects ( ).
Visible Objects dialog box appears.
2 Check the "Hatching" under "Slab Areas".

3 Check the "Hatching" under "Slab Openings", and then click OK.

Note: You can also right-click popup menu to see a warrant Visible Objects.

Identify the location and the characteristics
of the column: 1 Double-click on the
Column tool ( ). 2 In the Default Column
Properties dialog:
o Choose Concrete Strength of 32 MPa.
o Declare the Width is 600 mm.
o Declare Depth / Diameter is 600 mm.

3 Click OK.

4 Click in the center of the column all 13 locations are shown on the drawings entered.

Locate wall and features:

1 Snap On orthogonal ( ).
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2 Double-click the Wall tool ( ). 3 In the
Default Wall Properties dialog box:
o Choose Concrete Strength of 20
MPa. 4 Click OK.
5 Determine the wall by clicking at the beginning and the end, on the centerline:

o Place the cursor near 8,825, 26.3 m and it will start sticking to the wall where the
cutting edge focus of copies, and click.
o Place the cursor in between columns C-2 (it will start sticking
orthogonal) and click. Now define structural element mesh but not yet available.
6 In the "Generate the mesh", or try the next measure.

7 Walls will be highlighted because it is the current selection. If not, select and double-click by
pressing Delete.

8 Click Redraw ( ).

9 Put the mouse on the Wall tool ( ) And hold down the left mouse button for a second. It will
show a popup menu.
10 Select Tools from the menu Left Wall.
11 Click in the far corner near the D-2.
Click on grid 12 C, near C-2.























Figure 41-4 After the determination, Mesh Input: The standard projection shows the surface and the
gap (the hatch), the columns and walls.
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Create grilles:

1 Click the Generate Mesh ( ).

2 In the Generate Mesh dialog is declared Element Size 1 m. 3
Click Generate.
View grilles:

1 Choose Layers> Element> Standard Plan.

Now you will see a somewhat random nets. There will still be the logical result, but will make
significant improvements to the latter.





Element Figure 41-5: The standard reference.

Watch structures:

1 Choose Layers> Element> Summary Structure Perspective.

2 Use around the x-axis and y ( ) To rotate the floor. 3 Click on the
Print Tool Set Viewpoint ( ).
When returning this perspective, looking at the scene could have saved by clicking Show Set Viewpoint
( ).
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Figure 41-6 Element: Perspective summarizes
structure.

41.3 Determine the load

Ram Concept program automatically calculates the weight of the concrete
itself.

Concept program using overlapping nature of the load. One easy way to determine the cross-sectional
area with increasing load is drawing more load area "covered" the entire floor, and then draw the
additional load.

There is no limit to the number of load over load can be determined.

Identify typical load:

1 Choose Layers> Loadings> Live (reducible) Loading> All Loads Plan.
2 Double-click the Area Load tool ( ).
3 In the Area Load Default Properties dialog box:

o Fz in 2 changes kN/m2 and click OK.
This tool will draw the payload section is 2 kN / m 2.
4 Determine the load on the entire section by clicking on the four corners of the quadrangle and then
type "c". This form does not need to match the exact size of the publication, but should the
government.

Determine the load of the
balcony:

1 Turn on Snap to Intersection ().

2 Determine load section by snap six of the top balcony (and then type "c"). In this case, it is best for
the load to match the size of the balcony.

Draw another load of 2 kN/m2. This load will be highlighted because it is the current selection. If not,
select it before proceeding with the mouse by double-click the Selection tool.

3 Choose Edit> Selection Properties, or right click and select Properties Selection. 4 In
the dialog box, change the 3 Fz kN / m 2, and click OK.
Now with a total load on the balcony is 5 kN / m 2.
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Note: You should draw load 3 kN / m2

first by changing the default properties section of the load and
then use the tool.



Figure 41-7 Live (reducible) Load: The load slide all (to load the balcony section).





Figure 41-8 Live (reducible) Load: The load slide all (with the payload section has turned
the tiles).

Identify different static load:

1 Choose Layers> Loadings> Live (reducible) Loading> All Loads Plan.

2 With the Selection tool ( ), Select the payload section (fenced balcony selected load both load).

3 Choose Edit> Copy.

4 Choose Layers> Loadings> Other Dead Loading> All Loads Plan.
5 Choose Edit> Paste.
Paste the static load to load other hand make all loads, ready for editing.
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6 With the Selection tool ( ), Select load "covered" by the entire fenced section. 7 Right-
click on the slide and select Properties from the popup menu Selection.
8 In the Properties dialog box, change the Fz 1 kN / m 2, and click OK.

9 Double-click loads balcony.

Load balcony will be the only load is selected.

10 Right click on the slide and select Properties from the popup menu Selection. 11
In the Properties dialog box, change the -1 Fz kN / m 2, and click OK.
The dead load of the committee, the moment is zero.





Figure 41-9 Static load other hand make all loads (with the payload section of the tiles turned on).

41.4 Determination of
stress after

Stress measures following each different country. In Australia, the columns and engineers use to design
the strip between the flat after stress, and, usually, detailed drawings of prestressed reinforced (with
adhesion to concrete) and the range of the column between.

Note: The program has two layers Ram Concept for prestressed reinforcement called latitude and
longitude. See "The use of prestressed reinforcement layer Latitude and Longitude" on page 117 for
more information.

Note: The instructions in Chapter 45 explanation of how to use the Wizard to predict the Strip cable
required for critical strip.

Identification of prestressed reinforcement in the
direction of latitude:
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1 Choose Layers> Latitude Tendon> Standard
Plan. 2 Choose View> Visible Objects ( ).
3 Drawing Click on the Import tab.

4 Click Show All, and then click OK.

The CAD files can now make the following directions easier.

5 Double-click the tool Tendon Panel Full Span ( ) To adjust the default properties. 6 In the
Properties dialog box defaul Tendon:
o Declare Strand is 4 per tendon.
o Claim this Profile 1 is 212 mm at the top.
o Declare Profile 2 is 38 mm at the top, and click OK.

Note: 25 mm layer of protection for pipes containing prestressed reinforced with 19 mm (fiber
diameter is 12.7 mm) define the axis line.

7 Turn on Snap to Intersection ( ) And Orthogonal Snap ( ).

8 With tools Tendon Panel Full Span ( ) Is selected, draw the prestressed reinforcement at the
bottom left panels:

o Click in the middle of the road grid column A-1.
o Click in the middle column A-2.
o Click in the middle column B-2.
o Click in the middle column B-1.

9 Tendon Panel dialog box:

o Tendon Spacing Equal declaration.
o Declare Spacing is 2 m, and click OK.

10 With tools Tendon Panel Full Span ( ) Is selected, draw the prestressed reinforced in
subsequent panels:

o Click in the column at the junction between B-1 grid.
o Click in the middle column B-2.
o Click in the middle column C-2.
o Click on grid roads C-1.

11 Tendon Panel dialog box:

o Tendon Spacing Equal declaration.
o Declare Spacing is 2 m,
o Skip Tendon Highlight Start, and click OK.

12 With tools Tendon Panel Full Span ( ) Is selected, draw the prestressed reinforcement in the
next two panels:
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o Click in the middle column in the grid road A-2.
o Click in the middle column
A-3. oClick in the middle
column C-3. oClick in the
middle column C-2.

13 Tendon Panel dialog box:

o Declare Auto Connect.
o Skip Uncheck Start Tendon, and click OK.

14 Snap Off Orthogonal ( ).

15 With tools Tendon Panel Full Span ( ) Is selected, draw the prestressed reinforced in
subsequent panels:

o Click in the column at the junction between B-3 grid.
o Click in the middle column
B-5.
o Click in the middle of C-4
column.
o Click in the middle column
C-3.

16 Tendon Panel dialog box:

Declare Auto Connect, and click OK.

17 With tools Tendon Panel Full Span ( ) Is selected, draw the prestressed reinforced in
subsequent panels:

o Click in the middle of the road grid column C-2.
o Click in the middle column
C-3.
o Click in the middle column
D-3.
o Click on grid roads D-2.

18 Tendon Panel dialog box:

o Tendon Spacing Equal declaration.
o Declare Spacing is 2 m.
o Skip Tendon Highlight Start, and click OK.

19 With tools Tendon Panel Full Span ( ) Is selected, draw the prestressed reinforced in
subsequent panels:

o Click in the middle of the road in column C-3 grid.
o Click in the middle of C-4
column.
o Click in the middle column
D-4.
o Click in the middle column
D-3.
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20 Tendon Panel dialog box:

o Declare Auto Connect.
o Skip Uncheck Start Tendon, and click OK.

Note: Auto-connect will ignore the prestressed reinforcement at the first click because there were two
segments prestressed reinforcement is connected at that point.
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21 Connected With the Select tool tendons ( ) Is selected, double-click on the prestressed
reinforcement grid B.

22 Right click on the slide and select Properties from the popup menu Selection. 23
In the Properties dialog box, change the 10 Strand per tendon, and click OK.
24 Connected With the Select tool tendons ( ) Is selected, double-click the prestressed
reinforcement directly on grid B.

25 Press and hold down the shift key and double-click the prestressed reinforcement directly
under the grid B. 26 Right-click on the slide and select Properties from the popup menu
Selection.
27 In the Properties dialog box, change the Strand 5 per tendon, and click OK.

Draw the prestressed reinforcement direction but needs adjustment latitude of the backbone. Any
public at the end of the road axis prestressed reinforcement will be at a depth of between 250mm
version.

28 With the Selection tool ( ), Select all segments prestressed reinforcement is terminated, in addition
to segments on a drop cap or in the balcony:

o Rao segments prestressed reinforced ends on grid 1.
o Hold down the shift key and repeat the process until you have selected all the segments
Last prestressed reinforcement is applied (more segments prestressed reinforced ends
in the grid 2, 3, 4 and 5).

29 Right click on the slide and select Properties from the popup menu Selection. 30
In the Properties dialog box, in the declaration Profile 1 is 125 mm and click OK.
31 With the Selection tool ( ), Double-click the segment on prestressed reinforced B.8-1 terminated 200 mm
in the balcony.

32 Right click on the slide and select Properties from the popup menu Selection. 33
In the Properties dialog box, in the declaration Profile 1 is 100 mm and click OK.
34 With the Selection tool ( ), Select all segments prestressed reinforced end cap on the drop, by:

oDouble-click on a grid road A-1. oHold down the
shift key and double-click the mouse at A-3. oHold
down the shift key and double-click the mouse in
the B-5.

35 Right click on the slide and select Properties from the popup menu Selection. 36
In the Properties dialog box, in the declaration Profile 1 is 375 mm and click OK.
Note: Declaring backbone anchoring prestressed reinforcement to focus the 250mm version, rather
than focus on the drop cap.

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37 With the Selection tool ( ), Double-click the segment prestressed reinforcement at B-2.
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38 Right click on the slide and select Properties from the popup menu Selection. 39
In the Properties dialog box, declare Profile 1 is 462 mm at the top and click OK.
40 With the Selection tool ( ), Double-click the segment prestressed reinforcement at C-2.

41 Press and hold down the shift key and double-click the segment prestressed reinforcement underneath
(the
backbone at (9,15.7)).

42 Right click on the slide and select Properties from the popup menu Selection. 43
In the Properties dialog box, declare Profile 1 is 162 mm at the top and click OK.
Note: As this location by step.
44 With the Selection tool ( ), Select the segment between prestressed reinforced D-2 and
D-3. 45 Click on the Profile tool Calc ( ).
Calc Tendon Profile dialog box appears and reports the current load balancing is -5.67 kN / m.
If not a number, you may choose only one segment prestressed reinforcement. 46
Click Cancel.
47 With the Selection tool ( ), Prestressed reinforced choose between C-3
and C-4. 48 Click on the Profile tool Calc ( ).
49 Enter the desired load balancing is -6 kN / m in the dialog box and click Calc Tendon Profile
Calc.

Low scores (top 2) adjusted to 126 mm.

50 With the Selection tool ( ), Select all of the prestressed reinforcement rate between 3 and 5 grid.

51 Right click on the slide and select Properties from the popup menu Selection. 52
In the Properties dialog box, in the Profile report is 125 mm 2, and click OK.
Note: The first steps Calc tool used to determine the low profile create a face lift at the same average
rate as a rate close to the side, and then change the low point manually to make more realistic.

Finally, adjust the prestressed reinforcement passing through the gap.

53 Snap On Snapable Nearest Point ( ) And Orthogonal Snap ( ).

54 With the Selection tool ( ), Selected segments prestressed reinforcement passing
through the gap. 55 Right-click on the slide and select Properties from the popup menu
Selection.
56 In the Properties dialog box, in the declaration Profile 1 is 125 mm and click OK.
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57 Choose Stretch tool ( ).

58 With a segmented prestressed reinforcement is selected, the backbone stretch in Grid 3
to the other side of the gap.

Note: Snapable Nearest Point Snap snap the cursor to the edge of the gap.





Figure 41-10 Reinforced by Prestressed latitude direction: The
standard reference.

Identify cable Longitude:

1 Choose Layers> Longitude Tendon> Standard Plan.

Note: The default setting in the prestressing reinforcement projection towards constant latitude.
Strictly speaking, the backbone should be adjusted in the first 1 column (to avoid collisions with
prestressed reinforcement in the direction of latitude), but can be ignored these instructions.

2 Turn on Snap to Intersection ().

3 With tools Tendon Panel Full Span ( ) Is selected, draw the prestressed reinforcement at the
bottom left panels:

o Click in the middle of the road grid column A-1.
o Click in the middle column
B-1. oClick in the middle
column B-2. oClick in the
middle column A-2.

4 Tendon Panel dialog box:

o Tendon Spacing Equal declaration.
o Declare Spacing is 2 m, and click OK.

5 With tools Tendon Panel Full Span ( ) Is selected, draw the prestressed reinforced in subsequent
panels:
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o Click in the column at the junction between B-1 grid.
o Click B.8-1 in the middle
column. o Click in the middle
column C-2. o Click in the
middle column B-2.

6 Tendon Panel dialog box:

o Declare Auto Connect, and click OK.

7 Snap On Snapable Nearest Point ( ) And Orthogonal Snap ( ).

8 With tools Tendon Half Panel Span ( ) Is selected, draw the prestressed reinforcement at the
balcony:

o Click in the middle column in the grid roads B.8-1.
o Click on the edge of 0, 17.8 m.
o Click the backbone of prestressed reinforcement at 7.2, 17.1 m.

Note: Orthogonal Snap snap the cursor to 7.2, 17.8 m.

o Click the backbone of prestressed reinforcement at 7.2, 17.1 m. 9
Tendon Panel dialog box:
o Declare Auto Connect, and click OK.

10 Right click on the slide and select Properties from the popup menu Selection.

11 In the Properties dialog box, in the Profile report is 150 mm and 1 at the Parkway is 100 mm 2, and
click OK.

12 With the Selection tool ( ), Select two segments prestressed reinforced shortest span of half
(cantilever).

13 Right click on the slide and select Properties from the popup menu Selection. 14
In the Properties dialog box, in the declaration Profile 1 is 100 mm, and click OK.
Note: This makes the segment short prestressed reinforcement is flat.
15 With tools Tendon Panel Full Span ( ) Is selected, draw the prestressed reinforced in
subsequent panels:

o Click in the middle column in the grid road A-2.
o Click in the middle column B-2.
o Click in the middle column B-3.
o Click in the middle column A-3.

16 Tendon Panel dialog box:

o Tendon Spacing Equal declaration.
o Declare Spacing is 2 m.
o Skip Tendon Highlight Start, and click OK.
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17 With tools Tendon Panel Full Span ( ) Is selected, draw the prestressed reinforced in
subsequent panels:

o Click in the column at the junction between B-2 grid.
o Click in the middle column C-2.
o Click in the middle column C-3.
o Click in the middle column B-3.

18 Tendon Panel dialog box, click OK to agree to the last option. Or, you can choose
Auto Connect, but not tick Skip Start Tendon.

19 With tools Tendon Panel Full Span ( ) Is selected, draw the prestressed reinforced in
subsequent panels:

Note: This operation made lake counterclockwise.

o Click in the middle of the road in column C-3 grid.
o Click in the middle column D-3.
o Enter 9.25 26, and press Enter.
o Snap Off Orthogonal ( ).
o Click in the middle column C-2.

20 Tendon Panel dialog box:

o Declare Auto Connect.
o Skip Uncheck Start Tendon, and click OK.

21 With tools Tendon Panel Full Span ( ) Is selected, draw the prestressed reinforced in
subsequent panels:

o Click in the column at the junction between B-3 grid.
o Click in the middle column C-3.
o Click in the middle of C-4 column.
o Click in the middle column B-5.

22 Tendon Panel dialog box:

o Declaring Layout is splayed.
o Tendon Spacing Equal declaration.
o Declare Spacing is 1.8 m.
o Skip Tendon Highlight Start, and click OK.

23 With tools Tendon Panel Full Span ( ) Is selected, draw the prestressed reinforced in
subsequent panels:

o Click in the middle of the road in column C-3 grid.
o Click in the middle column D-3.
o Click in the middle column D-4.
o Click in the middle of C-4 column.

24 Tendon Panel dialog box:

o Declare Auto Connect.
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o Skip Uncheck Start Tendon, and click OK.

Note: Auto-connect will ignore the prestressed reinforcement at the first click because there were two
segments prestressed reinforcement is connected at that point.

Panels on the right side too much prestressed and reinforced a few plates to be cleared away. 25
With the Selection tool ( ), Select prestressed reinforced second plate.
26 Press and hold down the shift key and select prestressed reinforced Thursday, and click Delete.

27 With tools Tendon Half Panel Span ( ) Is selected, draw the prestressed reinforcement panels
terminated:

o Snap On orthogonal ( ).
o Click on the backbone at 19, 17.5 m.
o Enter r0, 2.1.

o Click the backbone of prestressed reinforced last at 22, 17.5 m.

Note: Orthogonal Snap snap the cursor to 22, 19.6 m.

o Click the backbone of prestressed reinforced last at 22, 17.5 m. 28 Tendon
Panel dialog box:
o Declare Auto Connect, and click OK.

29 Right-click on the slide and select Properties from the popup menu Selection. 30 In
the Properties dialog box, in the Profile report is 125 mm 2, and click OK.
31 Connected With the Select tool tendons ( ) Is selected, double-click on the prestressed
reinforcement grid 2.

32 Right click on the slide and select Properties from the popup menu Selection. 33
In the Properties dialog box, change the 10 Strand per tendon, and click OK.
34 Connected With the Select tool tendons ( ) Is selected, double-click the prestressed
reinforcement directly to the left of the grid 2.

35 Press and hold down the shift key and double-click the prestressed reinforcement directly to the
right of the grid 2.

36 Right click on the slide and select Properties from the popup menu Selection. 37
In the Properties dialog box, change the Strand 5 per tendon, and click OK.
Draw the cable business, but need to adjust the point of the backbone. Any point on any backbone
Last prestressed reinforcement will be at a depth of between 250mm version.
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38 With the Selection tool ( ), Select all segments prestressed reinforcement is terminated, in addition
to segments on a drop cap or in the balcony:

o Rao segments prestressed reinforced ends on grid A.
o Hold down the shift key and repeat the process until you have selected all the segments
Last prestressed reinforcement is applied (more segments prestressed reinforced ends
in the grid B and D).

39 Right click on the slide and select Properties from the popup menu Selection. 40
In the Properties dialog box, in the declaration Profile 1 is 125 mm and click OK.
41 With the Selection tool ( ), Select all segments prestressed reinforcement on the drop cable is
terminated by:

oDouble-click on a grid road A-1. oHold down the
shift key and double-click the mouse at A-3. oHold
down the shift key and double-click the mouse in
the B-5.

42 Right click on the slide and select Properties from the popup menu Selection. 43
In the Properties dialog box, in the declaration Profile 1 is 375 mm, and click OK.
Note: This declaration backbone anchoring prestressed reinforcement to focus the 250mm version,
rather than focus on the drop cap.

44 With the Selection tool ( ), Double-click the segment prestressed reinforcement at B-
2. 45 Right-click on the slide and select Properties from the popup menu Selection.
46 In the Properties dialog box, declare Profile 1 is 462 mm at the top and click
OK. Finally, the need to move away prestressed reinforced through the gaps.
47 With the Selection tool ( ), Selected segments prestressed reinforcement passing
through the gap. 48 Select the Move tool ( ).
49 Click anywhere on the slide, and enter r-.5, 0.

50 With the Selection tool ( ), Selected segments on prestressed reinforced prestressed reinforced the move.

51 Choose Stretch tool ().

52 Segment stretching the prestressed reinforced to meet the prestressed reinforcement is moved.
Repeat for 53 segments prestressed reinforcement in prestressed reinforcement is moved.
Note: You can reduce the number of steps when moving from prestressed reinforced gaps using Utility
tool. This tool combines the Selection tool to move and stretch. See "Extending the tool buttons" on
page 6 and "Using Utility tool to move and stretch" in Page 17 for more information.
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Figure 41-11 Reinforced by Prestressed longitude direction: The
standard reference.

41.5 Create the design
range

The band design is an essential part of the program because they relate Ram Concept of finite element
analysis to design concrete. Their characteristics include rebar sizes, protective layer, and the Concept
program parameters that used to define the code of rules to be applied to the design. There are two
directions called Latitude and Longitude.

Create the latitude
rate:

1 Choose Layers> Design Strips> Latitude Design Plan spans.
2 Double-click the tool Span Segment ( ).
Default Span Properties dialog box opens for the Generation Strip properties.
3 Click the General tab.
4 Changing Environment is Protected.

Note: This declaration is usually a significant impact on the amount of
reinforcement.

Note: Consider as Post-tensioned box was checked in the template AS3600.

5 Click the Column tab
Strip.

6 Trimming is declared Max Rectangle Cross Section. 7
Top Cover Change CS to 25 mm.
8 Click the tab Middle
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Strip.

9 Highlight Column Strip Middle Strip Properties uses. 10
Click OK.
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11 Click on Generate tool spans ( ), Or choose Process> Generate spans. Generate
dialog open spans with spans to be declared as General Latitude.
Agreed Minimum Span Length is 0.5 meters.
12 Click OK.
The fractional rate appears towards latitude.





Figure 41-12 range design: The projection of rhythm-oriented design
latitude.

Draw two segments oblique rhythms. The oblique band you handle this is how often the problem is
subjective, but in this guide we suggest a drag strip is straight and the other strip is calibrated in a
manner different.

Create the
latitude range:

1 Click on the Generate tool Strips ( ), Or choose Process> Generate Strips. The
band appeared in the direction of design latitude.
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Figure 41-13 The range of design latitude (with the tiles turned on). Now need to adjust a lot.

Concept program using the complete algorithm that always did not span segments and segments of the
rhythm strip is acceptable, as shown in the picture 41-14 to 41-17. Can edit the tool.

This manipulation can be seen more easily if the ball out tile
range.

Ceramic ball of the band:

1 Choose View> Visible Objects ( ).
Visible Objects dialog box appears.
2 Highlight Span Segment Strips Latitude Hatching below, and click OK.

Note: You can also right-click popup menu to see a warrant Visible Objects.





Figure 41-14 oblique segment snap rhythm is drawn to the wall

Straightening a rhythm segment:

1 Choose between wall segments and beat grid D3 (as described in Figure 41-14).
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2 Turn on Snap to Intersection ( ).
3 Select the Rotate tool ( ).
4 Click on a rhythm in the grid segment D3.

5 Click on a rhythm early in the wall segment.

Enter the command line prompt end rotation
angle. 6 Enter 180 and press Enter.
Segment spans the horizontal pick this time.





Figure 41-15 range for the cross guarantee improved by hand.

Adjust the direction of the cross-section rate:

1 Select a range of cross-rhythm as described in Figure 41-
15. 2 Choose Tools Orient Span Cross Section ( ).
3 Snap On orthogonal ( ).

4 Click close range cross rhythms and then click again at the top or bottom of the first click.

User halfway along the straight rhythm strip at this time is "vertical".
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Figure 41-16 range designed with excessive width.

Draw the boundaries of multi-rate feature:

1 Choose Span Boundary Polyline tool ( ).

2 Click at the intersection of grid designs strips B and C Grid near grid 3 (point A in Figure 41-16).

3 Click the right edge (point B). 4 Right-
click, and click enter.
Recreate latitude rhythm strip:

1 Click on the Generate tool Strips ( ).

Three beats were edited to create improved rhythm strip. There is one more rhythm to adjust.





Figure 41-17 beats Segment C-2 to C-3.
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Draw the boundaries of multi-rate feature:

1 Choose Span Boundary Polyline tool ( ).

2 Click at the intersection of grid designs strips B and C close Grid Grid 2 (point A in Figure 41-17).

3 Click at point B.

4 Right click, and click enter. 5
Click in the C.
6 Click at point D.

7 Right click, and click enter.

8 Choose Strip Boundary Polyline tool ( ).

9 Click at point E as shown in Figure 41-17. 10 Click in the F,
to the right of the openings.
11 Right click, and click enter.

12 Choose fractional rate (between C2 and C3 grid).

13 Right click on the slide and select Properties from the popup menu Selection. 14
In the Properties dialog box, change the Manual Span Width Calc.
15 Uncheck Automatically Detect Support.

16 Support Change Width at End 2 from 600 to 610 mm, and click OK.

This ensures that the cross sectional area (strip design) first ran across the gap, and so
which uses fewer parts than concrete.

17 Click on the Tools Generate Selected Strips ( ).

The rate is adjusted to create the rhythm strip is improved, as shown in Figure 41-18.
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Figure 41-18 range design: The design reference ranges after the direction of latitude recreate.

Create longitude rate:

1 Choose Layers> Design Strips> Longitude spans Design Plan.
2 Double-click the tool Span Segment ( ).
3 Click the Column tab Strip.

The default settings in Latitude Design Plan spans remain the same. Due to protection class can not be
the same for both directions, changing the direction of the vertical layers.

o CS Top Cover Change in 41 mm.
o CS Bottom Cover Change into 37 mm.
o Click OK.

4 Click on the Generate tool spans ( ), Or choose Process> Generate spans. 5 In the
dialog box Generate spans:
o Declare to Generate spans the Longitude.
o Click on the button tool-oriented "up - down" ( ).
o Click OK.

The rhythm appears longitude direction.
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Figure 41-19 range design: The design reference rate towards the
longitude.

A segment on the grid spans 2 slightly slanted walls so detailed in column C2. Other segments span
covering the wall and put unnecessary sponsored by the continuous (see "Draw near strip design
report "on page 98 for more information).

Straightening a rhythm segment:

1 Select a grid segment spans between B2 and C2 (highlighted in Figure 41-19). 2 Turn
on the Snap to Intersection ( ).
3 Choose the Rotate tool (
).

4 Click on a rhythm in the grid segment B2. 5 Click in a
rhythm early in the wall segment.
Enter the command line prompt end rotation
angle. 6 Enter 90 and press Enter.
Segments are selected at this rate in the longitudinal
direction.

Remove wall segment rate:

1 Select the rhythm set segments covered
wall. 2 Click Delete.
Created under the direction of
the strips:

1 Click on the Generate tool Strips ( ), Or choose Process> Generate Strips. The
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band appeared designed longitude direction.
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Figure 41-20 range design: The design shown towards the rhythm of the band after creation.

Sectional area left open accounts without strip design. You can use the tool to locate the middle range
of this section.





Figure 41-21 beats segment of the grid and the range B3-C3.

Calibrate span segments with Span Boundaries and Boundaries Strip

1 Choose a grid segment spans between B3 and C3 (line highlighted in Figure 41 - 20th).

2 Right click on the slide and select Properties from the popup menu Selection. 3
Change the Manual Span Calc Width, and click OK.
4 Choose Span Boundary Polyline tool ( ).

5 Click at point A as shown in Figure 41-21.
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6 Click at point B.

7 Right click, and click enter. 8
Click in the C and D.
9 Right click, and click enter.

10 Choose Strip Boundary Polyline tool ( ).

11 Click at point E as shown in Figure 41-21. 12 Click in the F
(corner gaps) and the G (another angle). 13 Right-click, and click
enter.
14 Choose a grid segment spans between B3 and C3.

15 Click on the Tools Generate Selected Strips ( ).

Adjust the direction of the cross-section rate:

1 Select a range of cross-rhythms B-5 and C-4.

2 Choose tools Orient Span Cross Section ( ). 3
Snap On orthogonal ( ).
4 Click close range cross rhythms and then click again to the left or right clicks
The first mouse.

Guide lines along the strip half at this rate "horizontal". 5 Click on
Generate Selected tools Strips ( ).
The range of new designs appear, as shown in Figure 41-22.
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Figure 41-22 range design: The design reference spans longitude direction after calibration.

Note: The designs range in latitude and longitude direction (the rhythm strip segments) with different
widths on the surface of the column. Can rational of the strips so that they have the same width in the
column, especially cantilever. View the presentation in "Defining Boundaries Strip manually" on page
88 Chapter 21, "Defining The designs range". In particular, Example 21-2 inPage 88 and Example
21-4 inPage 90.

Check shear breached:

1 Choose Layers> Design Strip> Punching Checks Plan.

2 Double-click the tool Punching Shear Check ( ). 3 In
the dialog box Properties Default Punching Shear Check:
o Cover to CGS Change to 41 mm (negative reinforcement to focus on).

o Click OK.

4 sale for Punching Shear Check tool.
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Figure 41-23 range designed: The Projector puncture test.

41.6 Creating the mesh

The presence of the strip design can significantly improve the regularity of the finite element mesh.
We suggest that you complete the design range, you should make the film.

Recreate the net:

1 Click the Generate Mesh ( ).

2 Enter Element Size is 0.75 m and click Generate.

Now there is a better mesh. View on mesh elements: The standard reference.



Figure 41-24 Element: The standard reference after creating it.
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41.7 Calculate and Show Results

After running the model, can be seen the results of the analysis and design calculations.

Calc Review Options:

1 Choose> Criteria> Calc Options

2 Review the options, and click OK.

Note: See the "Calculation results" on page 125 Program 27 for more information.

Calculation:

1 Click the Calc All ( ), Or choose Process> All Calc.

Error message appears twice for problems with prestressed reinforced outside of the range 6C-2. 2
Click Continue to delete the error twice.
Error sources prestressed reinforcement should be
checked. Two more errors appear on the reinforcement
details.
3 Click Continue twice removed reinforcement error.

View the range designed with prestressed reinforcement:

1 Choose Layers> Design Strips> Longitude Cross Sections Perspective.
2 Choose View> Visible Objects ( ).
3 Click on the tab tendons.

4 Select the layer Longitude tendons, tendons checked, and click OK.

5 Use the X and Y axis rotation ( ) And Zoom Rectangle tool ( ) To see the location of the
problem is shown in Figure 41-25 and Figure 41-26.





Figure 41-25 Perspective Longitude Cross Sections with prestressed reinforcement in the direction of
the
visible.
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Figure 41-26 Rotate and zoom position of the problems in Figure 41-25.

The difficult issue is the cross-section be tweaked with Max Rectangle parameter declaration. For
spans 6-2 segments, declare parameters that cause problems because the drop cap and the thinner the
balcony.

Calibrate span 6-2 segments:

1 Choose Layers> Design Strips> Longitude spans Design Plan.
2 Choose View> Visible Objects ( ).
3 Check the boxes below Longitude Span Numbers Segments, and click
OK.

4 Choose spans 6-2
segments.

5 Right click on the slide and select Properties from the popup menu Selection. 6
Click the Column tab Strip.
7 CS Cross Section Change Trimming the Inverted T or L, and click OK.

Calibrate span 2-3 segments:

1 Choose Layers> Design Strips> Latitude Design Plan spans.
2 Choose View> Visible Objects ( ).
3 Check the box below Numbers Span Latitude Segments, and click OK.

4 Choose spans 2-3
segments.

5 Right click on the slide and select Properties from the popup menu Selection. 6
Click the Column tab Strip.
7 Changes to CS Cross Section Trimming None.

8 Change CS Inter Cross Section Slope Limit to 0. 9
Click the tab Middle Strip.
10 Do not tick uses Column Strip Middle Strip Properties.
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11 MS Top Cover Change in 25 mm.

12 Change the MS Span Detailer None, and click OK.

The changes to remove warnings reinforced. In properly designed, should check out more on this.

Recalculate:

1 Click the Calc All ( ), Or choose Process> All Calc.
Concept Program completed the calculations without error.
Note: See the "Refining cross section" on page 91 to check for refining cross section.

41.7.1 Looking at the design
condition status of design:
1 Choose Layers> Design Status> Status
Plan.



Figure 41-27 Design Status: The status projector.

This shows OK to strip design. This means that there is no violation of the code limits the ability or
ductile shear in a way. Note that the condition does not indicate excessive deflection.

Having the results of pierced shear condition in each column. We can see this more easily on the
dedicated projector puncture.

2 Choose Layers> Design Status> Status Punching Shear Plan.

It was found that the rate of ten columns with reinforced stress not (USR) is less than 1.0. The two
columns report "OK with SSR" means the type of reinforcement required nails. A column can not be
breached. SSR does not solve the problem. It should be reinvigorated.
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Program Concept note "Non-Standard Section" column in five positions. "Non-Standard Section" is a
warning, not an error. Meaning of note that at least one of the important parts that are checking Concept
Program for columns that are not perfectly suited to one of three cases: interior, edge and corner. The
Concept is the stress ratio for non-standard parts. See "These are not the standards: AS3600, BS8110
and IS 456" on page 136 Program 28 for more information.

If the interest rate is not reinforced (USR) is less than 1.0, the breakthrough of the column shear is
satisfactory without any reinforcement that (according to the commentary on the "Non-Standard
Section)).

There must be reinforced if the program type concept report "OK with SSR".

Note: Select> layers> Design Status> SSR Plan to see the type of nail
reinforcement.





Figure 41-28 Design Status: The status reference shear puncture.

41.7.2 Looking at the
design of reinforced steel
core design:
1 Choose Layers> Design Status> Reinforcement Plan.
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Figure 41-29 Status Design: Front Projection
reinforced.

This shows all the reinforcement is determined according to code each strip design. You can see the
design of reinforced on a projection surface, or be able to access the plan view of the separation layer
reinforced Status Design by: side (above or below) and direction (latitude and longitude).

2 Choose the plan view provides the best results without too many obstacles.





Figure 41-30 Status Design: Front Projection reinforced under the direction of latitude.

41.7.3 Deflection
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Often you are interested in the short-term and long-term deflection. Max Service LC (dead load and
live load plus stress after if possible) and LT LC Uncracked deflection (the load factor is used to
simulate the creep and shrinkage) is the projection map contours for the hammock.

Ram Concept program using inertia for the cross section of the ring road.

You can check the effects of creep, shrinkage and cracking the "ECR" and drawings as long strip
deflection. See Chapter 56, "Evaluation of deflection" for more information.

View deflection using:

1 Choose Layers> Load Combinations> Max Service LC> Max deflection Plan.





Figure 41-31 Service LC Max: The maximum deflection projection.

2 Right click on the slide and select Plot ( ) Tochangethe Plot TypefromColor Contour Contour

Similarly, the deflection can be seen not long crack deflection from Uncracked LT LC layer.

View the permanent deflection range:

1 Choose Layers> Rule Set Designs> Max Service Design> LT Plan deflection. 2
Right-click on the slide and select Plot ( ).
3 No Minimum Demand mark.

4 Change the Max Frame Number 4, and click OK
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Figure 41-32 Service Code Max: L.T. Plan deflection.

41.7.4 The bending
torque

Although not necessary see the bending torque, but can still be useful, especially for irregular
structures. Although the torque is important, the plan view contours torque defaults for Mx (torque x
axis) and the USA. Since most of the detailed design drawings orthogonal reinforcement, and the x-axis
direction and is usually the y-axis. You can see the torque around any axis, including the spindle.

Not easily evaluate the torque map contours. That is why the Distribution Plot tool useful.

Watch The LC is the torque coefficient:

1 Choose Layers> Load Combinations> Ultimate LC: 1.2D + 1.5L> Mx Plan.
Visible contours map Mx.
2 Snap On Orthogonal ()

3 Click on the Selected Plot Distribution tools ( ).

4 Click first on the grid roads B-3, and then Click on grid roads D-3.

This suggests that the shape of the bending moment along the line was
drawn.

5 While pressing the shift key, click on grid roads B-1, and then Click on
Road B-3 grid.

This suggests different Mx through panels, and highlight the range torque between different columns
and how.

See "The distribution of cross section drawings" on page 132 for more
information.
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Figure 41-33 LC Basics: 1.2D + 1.5L Mx represents the projection surface using Plot Distribution
tool.

View the percentage load is balanced:

1 Choose Layers> Design Strips> Design Strips Latitude
Plan 2 Choose View> Visible Objects ( ).
3 Select "Load Balanced Percentages" Visible Objects dialog box and click OK.

See "Calculate the percentage of the load balancing" on page 315 for more information.
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42 Guide the plane PT: BS8110 / TR43

This chapter presents the steps to create a flat pattern after stress in two directions with uniform load.

The goal of this tutorial is to develop skills learned in the program 39 Guide RC and introduced the
new steps, such as using CAD drawings and following stress.

Several tools and methods are presented in the Guidelines RC is not used here. Thus, your proposal
must first study the RC Guidelines.

No specially designed "flexible". After completing the tutorial, you will probably want to make the
thinner branches to check.

Can also use it as a guide reinforced concrete by making a few minor adjustments (eg, thicker version).

BS8110 does not have the flat after stress, and designers see the "experts". Concrete Society Technical
Report 43 set up for this purpose. Ram Concept program is used first edition TR43.

For more information about creating a new file, see "Create and open file" on page 5.

42.1 Enter CAD
Drawings

CAD file that you enter in the program folder Ram Concept

Import CAD file:

1 Choose File> Import
Drawing.

2 Choose File flat_plate_metric.dwg CAD drawings.
Units File dialog box appears.
3 Choose Millimeters (the unit used in CAD files) and click OK.

42.2 Structure
Determination

To use the CAD file to display it on the Input Layer Mesh.

Demonstrate drawing on Layer Mesh
Input:

1 Choose Layers> Mesh Input> Standard
Plan. 2 Choose View> Visible Objects (
).
Note: You can also right-click popup menu to see a warrant Visible Objects.

Drawing 3 Click on the Import tab. 4
Click Show All, and then click OK.
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Draw the surface:

1 Turn on Snap to Intersection ( ) And Snap to Point ( ).

2 Double-click the tool Slab Area ( ) Toadjust thedefault properties. 3In theDefault SlabAreaProperties dialog
box:
o Choose Strength Concrete C32/40.
o Declare Thickness is 250 mm.
o Still to Surface Elevation is 0 and Priority 1.
o Click OK.

4 With Slab Area tool ( ) Is selected, define the contours of the top 10 by snap
to the corner of the drawing entered.

Note: There are two peaks close together near the B-5 at 26.05, 26.05 and 8.2 m, 8.8 m. The pointer
reference coordinate system
displayed next to the command prompt.

5 Complete the polygon by clicking at the beginning (or type "c" in the command line and press
Return).

























Figure 42-1 on the Mesh Input Path: The standard reference.

Draw the balcony surface:

1 Double-click the tool Slab Area ( ) Toadjust thedefault properties.2In theDefault Slab Area Propertiesdialog
box:
o Change Thickness of 200 mm.
o Surface Elevation Changes of -50 mm.
o Changing the Priority 2, and click OK.
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3 The Slab Area tool ( ) Is chosen, det er mi ne the t op si x of t he ori gi nal li nes by
clicki ng at each vertex, and t hen Click at t he begi nni ng (or t ype "c" in t he command
line and press Return).
















Figure 42-2 The balcony on the Mesh Input: The standard reference.

Drawing the drop cap:

1 Double-click the tool Slab Area ( ) Toadjust thedefault properties.2In theDefault Slab Area Propertiesdialog
box:
o Change Thickness of 500 mm.
o Surface Elevation Change to 0, and keep a Priority 2.
o Click OK.

3 With Slab Area tool ( ) Is selected, identified four drop cap with the top four or five
when appropriate.

4 In "Draw the opening:", or the next test measures

5 With the Selection tool ( ), Select (by double clicking) and remove the drop cap at B-2.
6 Click Redraw ( ).
Many tools icon button with a small triangle in the bottom right corner (). The icon
to know that there are other similar tools for this node.

7 Put the mouse over tool Slab Area ( ) And holddown theleft mousebuttonfor a second. It will show a popup
menu.
8 Select Tools from the menu drop cap.

Tools selected to become the current node. 9 Click on
column B-2.
Appearing Drop Cap Tool dialog box.
Enter angle of 10 degrees.
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11 Enter the dimensions are 1.2 m and click OK.

Drawing gap:

1 Choose Slab Opening tool ( ).

2 Identify gaps in the four corners of clicking at each location, and then Click on
beginning.






















Figure 42-3 gap in Mesh Input: The standard reference.

Brick road surfaces the ball: 1 Select
View> Visible Objects ( ).
Visible Objects dialog box appears.
2 Check the "Hatching" under "Slab Areas".

3 Check the "Hatching" under "Slab Openings", and click OK.

Note: You can also right-click popup menu to see a warrant Visible Objects.

Identify the location and the characteristics
of the column: 1 Double-click on the
Column tool ( ). 2 In the Default Column
Properties dialog:
o Choose Strength Concrete C32/40.
o Declare the Width is 600 mm.

o Declare Depth / Diameter is 600 mm.
3 Click OK.
4 Click in the middle column all 13 locations are shown on the drawings entered.
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Locate wall and features:

1 Snap On orthogonal ( ).

2 Double-click the Wall tool ( ). 3 In the
Default Wall Properties dialog box:
o Choose Strength Concrete C20/25.
4 Click OK.
5 Determine the wall by clicking at the beginning and the end, in the middle of the road.

o Place the cursor near 8,825, 26.3 m and it will start sticking to the wall where the
cutting edge focus of copies, and click.
o Place the cursor in between columns C-2 (it will start sticking
orthogonal) and click. Now define structural element mesh but not yet available.
6 In the "Generate the mesh", or try the next measure.

7 Walls will be highlighted because it is the current selection. If not, select and double-click by
pressing Delete.

8 Click Redraw ( ).

9 Put the mouse on the Wall tool ( ) And hold down the left mouse button for a second. It will
show a popup menu.
10 Select Tools from the menu Left Wall.
11 Click in the far corner near the D-2.
Click on grid 12 C, near C-2.
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Figure 42-4 After the determination, Mesh Input: The standard projection shows the surface and the
gap (the hatch), the columns and walls.

Create grilles:

1 Click the Generate Mesh ( ).

2 In the Generate Mesh dialog is declared Element Size 1 m. 3
Click Generate.
View grilles:

1 Choose Layers> Element> Standard Plan.

Now you will see a somewhat random nets. There will still be the logical result, but will make
significant improvements to the latter.


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Element Figure 42-5: The standard reference.

Watch structures:

1 Choose Layers> Element> Summary Structure Perspective.

2 Use around the x-axis and y ( ) To rotate the floor. 3 Click on the
Print Tool Set Viewpoint ( ).
When returning this perspective, looking at the scene could have saved by clicking Show Set Viewpoint
( ).












Figure 42-6 Element: Perspective summarizes
structure.

42.3 Determine the load

Ram Concept program automatically calculates the weight of the concrete
itself.

Concept program using overlapping nature of the load. One easy way to determine the cross-sectional
area with increasing load is drawing more load area "covered" the entire floor, and then draw the
additional load.

There is no limit to the number of load over load can be determined.

Identify typical load:

1 Choose Layers> Loadings> Live (reducible) Loading> All Loads Plan.
2 Double-click the Area Load tool ( ).
3 In the Area Load Default Properties dialog box:

o Fz in 2 changes kN/m2 and click OK.
This tool will draw the payload section is 2 kN / m 2.
4 Determine the load on the entire section by clicking on the four corners of the quadrangle and then
type "c". This form does not need to match the exact size of the publication, but should the
government.

Determine the load of the
balcony:

1 Turn on Snap to Intersection ().
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2 Determine load section by snap six of the top balcony (and then type "c"). In this case, it is best for
the load to match the size of the balcony.

Draw another load of 2 kN/m2. This load will be highlighted because it is the current selection. If not,
select it before proceeding with the mouse by double-click the Selection tool.

3 Choose Edit> Selection Properties, or right click and select Properties Selection. 4 In
the dialog box, change the 3 Fz kN / m 2, and click OK.
Now with a total load on the balcony is 5 kN / m 2.

Note: You should draw load 3 kN / m2

first by changing the default properties section of the load and
then use the tool.





Figure 42-7 Live (reducible) Load: The load slide all (to load the balcony section).





Figure 42-8 Live (reducible) Load: The load slide all (with the payload section has turned
the tiles).

Identify different static load:
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1 Choose Layers> Loadings> Live (reducible) Loading> All Loads Plan.

2 With the Selection tool ( ), Select both the payload section (fenced balcony selected load both load).

3 Choose Edit> Copy.

4 Choose Layers> Loadings> Other Dead Loading> All Loads Plan.
5 Choose Edit> Paste.
Paste the static load to load other hand make all loads, ready for editing.

6 With the Selection tool ( ), Select load "covered" by the entire fenced section. 7 Right-
click on the slide and select Properties from the popup menu Selection.
8 In the Properties dialog box, change the Fz 1 kN / m 2, and click OK.

9 Double-click loads balcony.

Load balcony will be the only load is selected.

10 Right click on the slide and select Properties from the popup menu Selection. 11
In the Properties dialog box, change the -1 Fz kN / m 2, and click OK.
The dead load of the committee, the moment is zero.





Figure 42-9 Static load other hand make all loads (with the payload section of the tiles turned on).

42.4 Determination of stress after
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Stress measures following each different country. In the United States using conventional techniques
"set range" to draw details of prestressed reinforcement in the two directions. Gather the strips that are
focused on prestressed reinforced the supporting point in one direction, and they distributed
synchronous orthogonal direction. This method is often used in conjunction with the original design
sheet strips. This means that the column and middle strips are not used.

In the UK, the engineers were instructed to Technical Report 43 (BS8110 does not cover the flat the
following stress) and records the band encouraged to use materials designed for digital sheet sets
range. This measure, with reinforced prestressed concrete can stick with, is used in this tutorial.

Note: The program has two layers Ram Concept for prestressed reinforcement called latitude and
longitude. See "The use of prestressed reinforcement layer Latitude and Longitude" on page 117 for
more information.

Note: The instructions in Chapter 45 explanation of how to use the Wizard to predict the Strip cable
required for critical strip.

Identification of prestressed reinforcement in the
direction of latitude:

1 Choose Layers> Latitude Tendon> Standard
Plan. 2 Choose View> Visible Objects ( ).
3 Drawing Click on the Import tab.

4 Click Show All, and then click OK.

The CAD files can now make the following directions easier.

5 Double-click the Polyline tool Tendon ( ) To adjust the default properties. 6 In the Properties dialog
box defaul Tendon:
o System PT Declare a 12.9mm There adhesion to concrete.
o Declare Strand is 9 per tendon.
o Claim this Profile 1 is 212 mm at the top.
o Declare Profile 2 is 38 mm at the top, and click OK.

Note: 25 mm layer of protection for pipes containing prestressed reinforced with 19 mm (fiber
diameter is 12.9 mm) define the axis line.

7 Turn on Snap to Intersection ().

8 With Tendon Polyline tool ( ) Is selected, draw prestressed reinforced with a grid:

o Click in the middle of the road grid column A-1.
o Click in the middle column A-2.
o Click in the middle column A-3.
o Right click, and then click enter.

9 Snap On Orthogonal ().

10 With Tendon Polyline tool ( ) Is selected, draw prestressed reinforced with grid D:
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o Click in the middle column in the grid roads D-4.
o Click in the middle column
D-3.
o Click on the corner near the D-2.
o Right click, and then click enter.

11 Snap Off Orthogonal ( ).

12 Double-click the Polyline tool Tendon ( ) To adjust the default properties. 13
In the Properties dialog box defaul Tendon:
o Declare Strand is 20 per tendon, and click OK.

14 With Tendon Polyline tool ( ) Is selected, draw prestressed reinforced with grid B:

o Click in the column at the junction between B-1 grid.
o Click in the middle column
B-2. oClick in the middle
column B-3. oClick in the
middle column B-5.
o Right click, and then click enter.

15 With Tendon Polyline tool ( ) Is selected, draw prestressed reinforced with grid C:

o Click in the middle column in the grid roads B.8-1.
o Click in the middle column
C-2. oClick in the middle
column C-3. oClick in the
middle of C-4 column.
o Right click, and then click enter.

16 Connected With the Select tool tendons ( ) Is selected, double-click on the prestressed
reinforcement grid B.

17 Right click on the slide and select Properties from the popup menu Selection. 18
In the Properties dialog box, change the Strand per tendon 25, and click OK.
Draw the prestressed reinforcement direction but needs adjustment latitude of the backbone. Any
public at the end of the road axis prestressed reinforcement will be at a depth of between 250mm
version.

19 With the Selection tool ( ), Select all segments prestressed reinforcement is terminated, other than
those in drop cable segment, by:

o Double-click on a grid road B-1. o Hold
down the shift key and double-click the mouse in
B.8-1. o Hold down the shift key and double-click
the mouse in C-4. o Hold down the shift key
and double-click the D-2. o Hold down the shift key
and double-click the D-4.

20 Right click on the slide and select Properties from the popup menu Selection. 21
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In the Properties dialog box, in the declaration Profile 1 is 125 mm and click OK.
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22 With the Selection tool ( ), Select all segments prestressed reinforcement on the drop cable is
terminated by:

oDouble-click on a grid road A-1. oHold down the
shift key and double-click the mouse at A-3. oHold
down the shift key and double-click the mouse in
the B-5.

23 Right click on the slide and select Properties from the popup menu Selection. 24
In the Properties dialog box, in the declaration Profile 1 is 375 mm and click OK.
Note: This declaration backbone anchoring prestressed reinforcement to focus the 250mm version,
rather than focus on the drop cap.

25 With the Selection tool ( ), Double-click the segment prestressed reinforcement at B-
2. 26 Right-click on the slide and select Properties from the popup menu Selection.
27 In the Properties dialog box, declare Profile 1 is 462 mm at the top and click OK.

28 With the Selection tool ( ), Double-click the segment prestressed reinforcement at C-
2. 29 Right-click on the slide and select Properties from the popup menu Selection.
30 In the Properties dialog box, in the Profile report is 1 162 mm and click OK.

Note: As this location by step.

31 With the Selection tool ( ), Selected segments prestressed reinforcement between C-
2 and C-3. 32 Click on the Profile tool Calc ( ).
Calc Tendon Profile dialog box appears and reports the current load balancing is -32.4 kN / m.
If not a number, you may choose only one segment prestressed reinforcement. 33
Click Cancel.
34 With the Selection tool ( ), Prestressed reinforced choose between C-3
and C-4. 35 Click on the Profile tool Calc ( ).
36 Enter the desired load balancing is -30 kN / m in the dialog box and click Calc Tendon Profile
Calc.

Low scores (top 2) adjusted to 126 mm.

37 With the Selection tool ( ), Select all of the prestressed reinforcement rate between 3 and 5 grid.

38 Right click on the slide and select Properties from the popup menu Selection. 39
In the Properties dialog box, in the Profile report is 125 mm 2, and click OK.
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Note: The first steps Calc tool used to determine the low profile create a face lift at the same average
rate as a rate close to the side, and then change the low point manually to make more realistic.





Figure 42-10 Reinforced by Prestressed latitude direction: The
standard reference

Identify cable Longitude:

1 Choose Layers> Longitude Tendon> Standard Plan.

Note: The default setting in the prestressing reinforcement projection towards constant latitude.
Strictly speaking, the backbone should be adjusted in the first 1 column (to avoid collisions with
prestressed reinforcement in the direction of latitude), but can be ignored these instructions.

2 Turn on Snap to Intersection ().

3 Double-click the tool Tendon Panel Full Span ( ) To adjust the default properties. 4 In the
Properties dialog box defaul Tendon:
o Strand declared per tendon is 4, and click OK.

5 With tools Tendon Panel Full Span ( ) Is selected, draw the prestressed reinforcement at the
bottom left panels:

o Click in the middle of the road grid column A-1.
o Click in the middle column B-1.
o Click in the middle column B-2.
o Click in the middle column A-2.

6 Tendon Panel dialog box:

o Tendon Spacing Equal declaration.
o Declare Spacing is 2 m, and click OK.
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7 With tools Tendon Panel Full Span ( ) Is selected, draw the prestressed reinforced in subsequent
panels:

o Click in the column at the junction between B-1 grid.
o Click B.8-1 in the middle
column.
o Click in the middle column
C-2.
o Click in the middle column
B-2.

8 Tendon Panel dialog box:

o Declare Auto Connect, and click OK.

9 Snap On Snapable Nearest Point ( ) And Orthogonal Snap ( ).

10 With tools Tendon Half Panel Span ( ) Is selected, draw the prestressed reinforcement at the
balcony:

o Click in the middle column in the grid roads B.8-1.
o Click on the edge of 0, 17.8 m.
o Click the backbone of prestressed reinforcement at 7.2, 17.1 m.

Note: Orthogonal Snap snap the cursor to 7.2, 17.8 m.

o Click the backbone of prestressed reinforcement at 7.2, 17.1 m. 11
Tendon Panel dialog box:
o Declare Auto Connect, and click OK.

12 Right click on the slide and select Properties from the popup menu Selection.

13 In the Properties dialog box, in the Profile report is 150 mm and 1 at the Parkway is 100 mm 2, and
click OK.

14 With the Selection tool ( ), Select two segments prestressed reinforced shortest span of half
(cantilever).

15 Right click on the slide and select Properties from the popup menu Selection. 16
In the Properties dialog box, in the declaration Profile 1 is 100 mm, and click OK.
Note: This makes the segment short prestressed reinforcement is flat.
17 With tools Tendon Panel Full Span ( ) Is selected, draw the prestressed reinforced in
subsequent panels:

o Click in the middle column in the grid road A-2.
o Click in the middle column
B-2. oClick in the middle
column B-3. oClick in the
middle column A-3.

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18 Tendon Panel dialog box:

o Tendon Spacing Equal declaration.
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o Declare Spacing is 2 m.
o Skip Tendon Highlight Start, and click OK.

19 With tools Tendon Panel Full Span ( ) Is selected, draw the prestressed reinforced in
subsequent panels:

o Click in the column at the junction between B-2 grid.
o Click in the middle column C-2.
o Click in the middle column C-3.
o Click in the middle column B-3.

20 Tendon Panel dialog box, click OK to agree to the last option. Or, you can choose
Auto Connect, but not tick Skip Start Tendon.

21 With tools Tendon Panel Full Span ( ) Is selected, draw the prestressed reinforced in
subsequent panels:

Note: This operation made lake counterclockwise.

o Click in the middle of the road in column C-3 grid.
o Click in the middle column D-3.
o Enter 9.25 26, and press Enter.
o Snap Off Orthogonal ( ).
o Click in the middle column C-2.

22 Tendon Panel dialog box:

o Declare Auto Connect.
o Skip Uncheck Start Tendon, and click OK.

23 With tools Tendon Panel Full Span ( ) Is selected, draw the prestressed reinforced in
subsequent panels:

o Click in the column at the junction between B-3 grid.
o Click in the middle column C-3.
o Click in the middle of C-4 column.
o Click in the middle column B-5.

24 Tendon Panel dialog box:

o Declaring Layout is splayed.
o Tendon Spacing Equal declaration.
o Declare Spacing is 1.8 m.
o Skip Tendon Highlight Start, and click OK.

25 With tools Tendon Panel Full Span ( ) Is selected, draw the prestressed reinforced in
subsequent panels:

o Click in the middle of the road in column C-3 grid.
o Click in the middle column D-3.
o Click in the middle column D-4.
o Click in the middle of C-4 column.
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26 Tendon Panel dialog box:

o Declare Auto Connect.
o Skip Uncheck Start Tendon, and click OK.

Note: Auto-connect will ignore the prestressed reinforcement at the first click because there were two
segments prestressed reinforcement is connected at that point.

Panels on the right side too much prestressed and reinforced a few plates to be cleared away. 27
With the Selection tool ( ), Select prestressed reinforced second plate.
28 Press and hold down the shift key and select prestressed reinforced Thursday, and click Delete.

29 With tools Tendon Half Panel Span ( ) Is selected, draw the prestressed reinforcement panels
terminated:

o Snap On orthogonal ( ).
o Click on the backbone at 19, 17.5 m.
o Enter r0, 2.1.
o Click the backbone of prestressed reinforced last at 22, 17.5 m.

Note: Orthogonal Snap snap the cursor to 22, 19.6 m.

o Click the backbone of prestressed reinforced last at 22, 17.5 m. 30 Tendon
Panel dialog box:
o Declare Auto Connect, and click OK.

31 Right-click on the slide and select Properties from the popup menu Selection. 32 In
the Properties dialog box, in the Profile report is 125 mm 2, and click OK.
33 Connected With the Select tool tendons ( ) Is selected, double-click on the prestressed
reinforcement grid 2.

34 Right click on the slide and select Properties from the popup menu Selection. 35
In the Properties dialog box, change the 10 Strand per tendon, and click OK.
36 Connected With the Select tool tendons ( ) Is selected, double-click the prestressed
reinforcement directly to the left of the grid 2.

37 Press and hold down the shift key and double-click the prestressed reinforcement directly to the
right of the grid 2.

38 Right click on the slide and select Properties from the popup menu Selection. 39
In the Properties dialog box, change the Strand 5 per tendon, and click OK.
Draw the cable business, but need to adjust the point of the backbone. Any point on any backbone
Last prestressed reinforcement will be at a depth of between 250mm version.
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40 With the Selection tool ( ), Select all segments prestressed reinforcement is terminated, in addition
to segments on a drop cap or in the balcony:

o Rao segments prestressed reinforced ends on grid A.
o Hold down the shift key and repeat the process until you have selected all the segments
Last prestressed reinforcement is applied (more segments prestressed reinforced ends
in the grid B and D).

41 Right click on the slide and select Properties from the popup menu Selection. 42
In the Properties dialog box, in the declaration Profile 1 is 125 mm and click OK.
43 With the Selection tool ( ), Select all segments prestressed reinforcement on the drop cable is
terminated by:

oDouble-click on a grid road A-1. oHold down the
shift key and double-click the mouse at A-3. oHold
down the shift key and double-click the mouse in
the B-5.

44 Right click on the slide and select Properties from the popup menu Selection. 45
In the Properties dialog box, in the declaration Profile 1 is 375 mm, and click OK.
Note: This declaration backbone anchoring prestressed reinforcement to focus the 250mm version,
rather than focus on the drop cap.

46 With the Selection tool ( ), Double-click the segment prestressed reinforcement at B-
2. 47 Right-click on the slide and select Properties from the popup menu Selection.
48 In the Properties dialog box, declare Profile 1 is 462 mm at the top and click
OK. Finally, the need to move away prestressed reinforced through the gaps.
49 With the Selection tool ( ), Selected segments prestressed reinforcement passing
through the gap. 50 Select the Move tool ( ).
51 Click anywhere on the slide, and enter r-.5, 0.

52 With the Selection tool ( ), Selected segments on prestressed reinforced prestressed reinforced the move.

53 Choose Stretch tool ().

54 Segment stretching the prestressed reinforced to meet the prestressed reinforcement is moved.
Repeat for 55 segments prestressed reinforcement in prestressed reinforcement is moved.
Note: You can reduce the number of steps when moving from prestressed reinforced gaps using Utility
tool. This tool combines the Selection tool to move and stretch. See "Extending the tool buttons" on
page 6 and "Using Utility tool to move and stretch" in Page 17 for more information.
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Figure 42-11 Reinforced by Prestressed longitude direction: The
standard reference.

42.5 Create the design
range

The band design is an essential part of the program because they relate Ram Concept of finite element
analysis to design concrete. Their characteristics include rebar sizes, protective layer, and the Concept
program parameters that used to define the code of rules to be applied to the design. There are two
directions called Latitude and Longitude.

Create the latitude
rate:

1 Double-click the tool Span Segment ().

Default Span Properties dialog box opens for the Generation Strip properties.

Note: Column Width Calc Strip was declared as Full Width.

2 Click the General tab.

Note: Environment has been declared as Class 3 - 0.1 mm.

Note: Conmatr as Post-tensioned box was checked in the template BS8110.

3 Click the Column tab
Strip.

4 Trimming is declared Max Rectangle Cross Section.
Top 5 Cover Change CS to 25 mm.
Changes Code CS 6 Min. Location of Elevated Slab Reinforcement. 7
Click OK.
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8 Click on the Generate tool spans ( ), Or choose Process> Generate spans.
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Generate dialog open spans with spans to be declared as General Latitude.

Agreed Minimum Span Length is 0.5 meters.
9 Click OK.
The fractional rate appears towards latitude.





Figure 42-12 range design: The projection of rhythm-oriented design
latitude.

Draw two segments oblique rhythms. The oblique band you handle this is how often the problem is
subjective, but in this guide we suggest a drag strip is straight and the other strip is calibrated in a
manner different.

Create the
latitude range:

1 Click on the Generate tool Strips ( ), Or choose Process> Generate Strips. The
band appeared in the direction of design latitude.
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Figure 42-13 The range of design latitude (with the tiles turned on). Now need to adjust a lot.

Concept program using the complete algorithm that always did not span segments and segments of the
rhythm strip is acceptable, as shown in the picture 42-14 to 42-16. Can edit with tools

This manipulation can be seen more easily if the ball out tile
range.

Ceramic ball of the band:

1 Choose View> Visible Objects ( ).
Visible Objects dialog box appears.
2 Highlight Span Segment Strips Latitude Hatching below, and click OK.

Note: You can also right-click popup menu to see a warrant Visible Objects.





Figure 42-14 oblique segment snap rhythm is drawn to the wall

Straightening a rhythm segment:

1 Choose between wall segments and beat grid D3 (as described in Figure 42-14).
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2 Turn on Snap to Intersection ( ).
3 Select the Rotate tool ( ).
4 Click on a rhythm in the grid segment D3.

5 Click on a rhythm early in the wall segment.

Enter the command line prompt end rotation
angle. 6 Enter 180 and press Return.
Segment spans the horizontal pick this time.





Figure 42-15 range for the cross guarantee improved by hand.

Adjust the direction of the cross-section rate:

1 Select a range of cross-rhythm as described in Figure 42-
15. 2 Choose Tools Orient Span Cross Section ( ).
3 Snap On orthogonal ( ).

4 Click close range cross rhythms and then click again at the top or bottom of the first click.

User halfway along the straight rhythm strip at this time is "vertical".
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Figure 42-16 range designed with excessive width.

Draw the boundaries of multi-rate feature:

1 Choose Span Boundary Polyline tool ( ).

2 Click at the intersection of grid designs strips B and C Grid near grid 3 (point A in Figure 42-16).

3 Click the right edge (point B). 4 Right-
click, and click enter.
Recreate latitude rhythm strip:

1 Click on the Generate tool Strips ( ).

Two calibrated rhythm generated rhythm strips is improved, as shown in Figure 42-17.


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Figure 42-17 range design: The design reference ranges after the direction of latitude recreate.

Create longitude rate:

1 Choose Layers> Design Strips> Longitude spans Design Plan.
2 Double-click the tool Span Segment ( ).
3 Click the Column tab Strip.

The default settings in Latitude Design Plan spans remain the same. Due to protection class can not be
the same for both directions, changing the direction of the vertical layers.

o CS Top Cover Change in 41 mm.
o CS Bottom Cover Change into 37 mm.
o Click OK.

4 Click on the Generate tool spans ( ), Or choose Process> Generate spans. 5 In the
dialog box Generate spans:
o Declare to Generate spans the Longitude.
o Click on the button tool-oriented "up - down" ( ).
o Click OK.

The rhythm appears longitude direction.





Figure 42-18 range design: The design reference rate towards the
longitude.

A segment on the grid spans 2 slightly slanted walls so detailed in column C2. Other segments span
covering the wall and put unnecessary sponsored by the continuous (see "Draw near strip design
report "on page 98 for more information).

Straightening a rhythm segment:
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1 Select a grid segment spans between B2 and C2 (highlighted in Figure 42-18). 2 Turn
on the Snap to Intersection ( ).
3 Choose the Rotate tool ( ).

4 Click on a rhythm in the grid segment B2. 5 Click in a
rhythm early in the wall segment.
Enter the command line prompt end rotation
angle. 6 Enter 90 and press Return.
Segments are selected at this rate in the longitudinal direction.

Remove wall segment rate:

1 Select the rhythm set segments covered wall, and press Delete.

Adjust the direction of the cross-section rate:

1 Choose between the B segment crossover rate and C-4-5.

2 Choose tools Orient Span Cross Section ( ). 3
Snap On orthogonal ( ).
4 Click near the cross rhythm strips and then click again to the left or right clicks
The first mouse.

5 Guide lines along the strip half at this rate "horizontal".

Created under the direction of the strips:

1 Click on the Generate tool Strips ( ), Or choose Process> Generate Strips. The
band appeared designed longitude direction.
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Figure 42-19 range design: The design reference rate towards the longitude.

Check shear breached:

1 Choose Layers> Design Strip> Punching Checks Plan.

2 Double-click the tool Punching Shear Check ( ). 3 In
the dialog box Properties Default Punching Shear Check:
o Cover to CGS Change to 41 mm (negative reinforcement to focus on).
o Click OK.

4 sale for Punching Shear Check tool.























Figure 42-20 range designed: The Projector puncture test.
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42.6 Creating the mesh

The presence of the strip design can significantly improve the regularity of the finite element mesh.
We suggest that you complete the design range, you should make the film.

Recreate the net:

1 Click the Generate Mesh ( ).

2 Enter Element Size is 0.75 m and click Generate.

Now there is a better mesh. View on mesh elements: The standard reference.





Figure 42-21 Element: The standard reference after creating it.

42.7 Calculate and Show Results

After running the model, can be seen the results of the analysis and design calculations.

Calc Review Options:

1 Choose> Criteria> Calc Options

2 Review the options, and click OK.

Note: See the "Calculation results" on page 125 Program 27 for more information.

Calculation:

1 Click the Calc All ( ), Or choose Process> All Calc.

Error message appears on the problems with prestressed reinforced outside of the range 6C-2. 2
Click Continue three times to clear the error.
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Error sources must be checked.

View the range designed with prestressed reinforcement:

1 Choose Layers> Design Strips> Longitude Cross Sections Perspective.
2 Choose View> Visible Objects ( ).
3 Click on the tab tendons.

4 Select the layer Longitude tendons, tendons checked, and click OK.

5 Use the X and Y axis rotation ( ) And Zoom Rectangle tool ( ) To see the location of
the problem is shown in Figure 42-22 and Figure 42-23.





Figure 42-22 Perspective Longitude Cross Sections with prestressed reinforcement in the direction of
the
visible.





Figure 42-23 Rotate and zoom position of the problems in Figure 42-22.

The difficult issue is the cross-section be tweaked with Max Rectangle parameter declaration. For
spans 6-2 segments, declare parameters that cause problems because the drop cap and the thinner the
balcony.

Calibrate span 6-2 segments:

1 Choose Layers> Design Strips> Longitude spans Design Plan.
2 Choose View> Visible Objects ( ).
3 Check the boxes below Longitude Span Numbers Segments, and click
OK.

4 Choose spans 6-2
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segments.
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5 Right click on the slide and select Properties from the popup menu Selection. 6
Click the Column tab Strip.
7 CS Cross Section Change Trimming the Inverted T or L, and click OK.

Recalculate:

1 Click the Calc All ( ), Or choose Process> All Calc.
Concept program completed with no errors calculations.
See "Refining cross section" on page 91 to thoroughly check Tweaks cross section.

42.7.1 Looking at the design
condition status of design:
1 Choose Layers> Design Status> Status Plan.





Figure 42-24 Design Status: The status projector.

This shows "OK" for almost a strip design. "OK" means that there is no violation of the code limits the
ability to easily bend, bend and shear stress in a way. Note that the condition does not indicate
excessive deflection.

Terms failure is shown for the range of 2C-3 design is "TR43 6.10.2". Can search terms in the TR43 to
see that this is "conditional" switch. known as the initial specified operation of Concept program.

Do not be surprised to see problems in this rhythm because cable 25 in a half sheet. The solution is to
terminate the cable at 3 grid.

In each column is the result of shear condition breached. We can see this more easily on the dedicated
projector puncture.

2 Choose Layers> Design Status> Status Punching Shear Plan.
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Program Concept note "Non-Standard Section" column in six locations and "OK with SSR" in eight
columns.

"Non-Standard Section" is a warning, not an error. Meaning of note is at least one important concept is
that the program does not check for the appropriate column perfectly with one of three cases: interior,
edge and corner. The Concept is the stress ratio for non-standard parts. See "These are not the
standards: AS3600, BS8110 and IS 456 "on page 136 Program 28 for more information.

If the interest rate is not reinforced (USR) is less than 1.0, the column shear puncture is satisfactory
without any reinforcement that (according to the commentary on the "Non-Standard Section)).

There must be reinforced if the program type concept report "OK with SSR".

Note: Select> layers> Design Status> SSR Plan to see the type of nail
reinforcement.





Figure 42-25 Design Status: The status reference shear puncture.

42.7.2 Looking at the
design of reinforced steel
core design:
1 Choose Layers> Design Status> Reinforcement Plan.
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Figure 42-26 Status Design: Front Projection
reinforced.

This shows all the reinforcement is determined according to code each strip design. Due to the stress
that follows, there is not much reinforced. You can see the design of reinforced on a projection
surface, or be able to access the plan view of the separation layer reinforced Status Design by: side
(above or below) and direction (latitude and longitude).

2 Choose the plan view provides the best results without too many obstacles.







Figure 42-27 Status Design: Front Projection reinforced under the direction of latitude.

The plan view shows the reinforcement layer reinforcement details. In particular, the sidebar on
be rational for some of the match each side of the column.
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Looking at the above reinforcement details:

Choose Layers> Reinforcement> Top Bars Plan.





Reinforced Figure 42-28: The bars shown in the

42.7.3 The concrete stress

TR43 is the limit for the hypothetical stress due to bending and axial load. The rules of the code based on
the value of "average" rather than the highest value.

Drawing contours of the stress strain curve is finally in the Concept program. Most designers will not
be drawing attention to this because, following code, the program does not use the concept map
contours directly in design.

This may be a concern that the plan view shows the concrete stresses are plotted along with the range
of designs. This is the average stress in the wide range of designs.

View the slide on stress:

1 Choose Layers> Rule Set Designs> Service Design> Top Stress Plan.
2 Right-click on the slide and select Plot ( ).
3 In the Plot Settings dialog
box:

o Change the Max Frame # 4.
o Click OK
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Figure 42-29 Use Design: The stress on the projector.

To see Max Demand an easier way, can not tick the option trongn Max Capacity Plot.

Similarly, the projection can be viewed under stress in the layer> Rule Set Designs> Service Design>
Bottom Stress Plan.

42.7.4 Deflecti
on

Often you are interested in the short-term and long-term deflection. Using LC (dead load and live load
plus stress after if possible) and LT LC Uncracked deflection (the load factor is used to simulate the
creep and shrinkage) is the projection map contours for the hammock.

Ram Concept program using inertia for the cross section of the ring road.

You can check the effects of creep, shrinkage and cracking the "ECR" and drawings as long strip
deflection. See Chapter 56, "Evaluation of deflection" for more information.

Note: The drawings range deflection long as not too much useful for the plane stress following two
methods are designed for TR43. It is because of measures designed assuming no buttons section.

View deflection using:

1 Choose Layers> Load Combinations> Service LC> deflection Plan.
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Figure 42-30 Using LC: The deflection projection.

2 Right click on the slide and select Plot ( ) Tochangethe Plot TypefromColor Contour Contour.

View deflection not long cracks:

1 Choose Layers> Load Combinations> Uncracked deflection LT LC> deflection Plan.





Figure 42-31 LT LC Uncracked deflection: The deflection projection.

42.7.5 The bending torque
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Although not necessary see the bending torque, but can still be useful, especially for irregular
structures. Although the torque is important, the plan view contours torque defaults for Mx (torque x
axis) and the USA. Since most of the detailed design drawings orthogonal reinforcement, and the x-axis
direction and is usually the y-axis. You can see the torque around any axis, including the spindle.

Not easily evaluate the torque map contours. That is why the Distribution Plot tool useful.

Watch The LC is the torque coefficient:

1 Choose Layers> Load Combinations> Ultimate LC: 1.4D + 1.6L> Mx Plan.
Visible contours map Mx.
2 Snap On Orthogonal ()

3 Click on the Selected Plot Distribution tools ( ).

4 Click first on the grid roads B-3, and then Click on grid roads D-3.

This suggests that the shape of the bending moment along the line was
drawn.

5 While pressing the shift key, click on grid roads B-1, and then Click on
Road B-3 grid.

This suggests different Mx through panels, how to highlight the nature and approximate measures
designed to power after TR43.

See "The distribution of cross section drawings" on page 132 for more
information.





Figure 42-32 LC Basics: 1.4D + 1.6 Mx represents the projection surface using Plot Distribution tool.

View the percentage load is balanced:
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1 Choose Layers> Design Strips> Design Strips Latitude
Plan 2 Choose View> Visible Objects ( ).
3 Select "Load Balanced Percentages" Visible Objects dialog box and click OK.

See "Calculate the percentage of the load balancing" on page 315 for more information.
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44 Nail the Guide

This program will work with you to take steps to create the foundation model, otherwise known as
friends. The unit values and other metrics are presented in square brackets [] next to the U.S. unit. The
metric values are not exact conversions. The codes used are ACI 318-05.

For more information about creating a new file, see "Create and open file" on page 5. So make sure
you choose "the foundation" in the new file dialog.

Most of the support for the columns and walls. It is possible to model the columns and walls, but
should be aware that this can affect the behavior sheet. Especially, if the horizontal load should be
very careful in determining the support system in the absence of horizontal stress. If not, help on the
outside layer of the earth system (the dome base line) below can resist the torque and power cut.

You do not necessarily have the columns and walls are created in the model. Reason to model columns
and walls in the shape of the improvements of the model, and have the snap point for point and line
loads. Additionally, the wall panels will harden in the most beneficial way.

44.1 Enter CAD
Drawings

CAD file that you enter in the program folder Ram Concept.

Import CAD file:

1 Choose File> Import
Drawing.

2 Choose File ttrong CAD drawings mat_tutorial.dwg
[mat_tutorial_metric.dwg]. Units File dialog box appears.
3 Choose Inches [Millimeters] (the unit used in CAD files) and click OK.

44.2 Structure
Determination

To use the CAD file to display it on the Input Layer Mesh.

Demonstrate drawing on Layer Mesh
Input:

1 Choose Layers> Mesh Input> Standard
Plan. 2 Choose View> Visible Objects ( ).
Note: You can also right-click popup menu to see a warrant Visible Objects.

Drawing 3 Click on the Import tab. 4
Click Show All, and then click OK.
Draw the surface:
1 Turn on Snap to Intersection ( ) And Snap to Point (
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).

2 Double-click the tool Slab Area ( ) To adjust the default properties.
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3 In Default Slab Area Properties dialog box:

o Choose Concrete Strength 4000 psi [25 MPa for AS3600; C25/30 to BS8110].
o Declare Thickness is 30 inches [750 mm].
o Still to Surface Elevation is 0 and Priority 1.
o Click OK.

4 With Slab Area tool ( ) Is selected, determined by the four corners of the snap to the corner of
the drawing entered.

Note: You can enter "c" to close the polygon instead enter the final point.

Identify the location and the characteristics of the column:

1 Turn on Snap to Center ( ).

2 Double-click on the Column tool ( ). 3 In
the Default Column Properties dialog:
o Choose Concrete Strength of 5000 psi [32 MPa for AS3600; C32/40 to BS8110].
o Declare Height to 10 feet [3 m].
o Declare Support Set the "Above".
o Declare the Width is 30 inches [750 mm].
o Declare Diameter is 30 inches [750 mm].
o Check the "Roller at Far End".
o Uncheck "Fixed Near" and "Far Fixed".

4 Click OK.

5 Click the location in the middle of the column 11 is shown on the drawings entered.

Locate wall and features:

1 Snap On orthogonal ( ).

2 Double-click the Wall tool ( ). 3 In
the Default Wall Properties dialog box:
o Choose Concrete Strength 3000 psi [20 MPa for AS3600; C20/25 to BS8110].
o Declare Height to 10 feet [3 m].
o Declare Support Set the "Above".
o Declare Thickness is 12 inches [300 mm].
o Uncheck "Shear Wall".
o Uncheck "Fixed Near" and "Far Fixed".

4 Click OK.

5 Define each wall by the first snap to the end of the road and between walls
is shown on the CAD drawing.
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Locate the dome and the base features:

1 Double-click the tool Quad-Area Spring ( ). 2 In
the Properties dialog box Default Area Spring:
o Declare the force constant of 0.1 pci r [0.00001 N/mm3].
o Declare the force constant of 0.1 s pci [0.00001 N/mm3].
o Declare z force constant of 250 pci [0:07 N/mm3], and click OK.

Note: The horizontal lines surround Empire (r and s) should have very little stiffness due to the
horizontal load.

3 Determine the dome over the entire substrate by clicking on the four corners of the quadrangle. This
form does not need to match the exact size of the publication, but should cover the whole.

Now define structural element mesh but not yet available.

Create grilles:

1 Click the Generate Mesh ( ).

2 In the dialog box Generate Element Mesh Size declaration is 2 feet [0.7
m]. 3 Click Generate.
View grilles:

1 Choose Layers> Element> Standard Plan.

Now you will see a somewhat random nets. There will still be the logical result, but will make
significant improvements to the latter.

Watch structures:

1 Choose Layers> Element> Summary Structure Perspective.

2 Use around the x-axis and y ( ) To rotate the floor.
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Figure 44-1 Input Mesh: The standard reference




























Element Figure 44-2: The standard reference

44.3 Determine the load
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The payload can include a load point, line and area information on a number of loads (such as load,
other dead load, seismic north, east seismic, wind north and east wind). For simplicity, this guide will
not use the payload section (except for automatic calculation of the load itself) and will apply only
under static load another load, live load, and seismic load after the east.

Identify different static
load:

1 Choose Layers> Loadings> Other Dead Loading> All Loads Plan.
2 Choose View> Visible Objects ( ).
3 Drawing Click on the Import tab.

4 Click Show All, and then click OK.

Demonstrate CAD files make the following instructions easier. 5 Turn
on the Snap to Intersection ( ).
6 Double-click the Load Point tool ( ).
7 In the Default Point Load Properties dialog box:
o Change the 40 Kips Fz [180 kN], and click OK.

8 Identify key download 40 Kip [180 kN] by snap to the column focus in the following positions:

o A-1
o A-3
o D-1
o D-3

9 Identify the remaining load as shown in the picture 44-3 and 44-4. 10 Double-click
the Load Line tool ( ).
11 In Line Load Default Properties dialog box:

o Declare Fz is 8 kips / ft [120 kN / m], and click OK.

12 With Load Line tool ( ) Is selected, load line drawn along the center line of the wall on
grid 2.

13 Repeat for grid wall at "2.5" with a load of 5.5 kip / ft [80 kN / m].

Note: Draw this load to the outside of the wall intersect.

Copy layer to load (maybe rebate):

For simplicity, use the same static load for different load and live load (maybe rebate)

1 With the Selection tool ( ), Select all the other dead load by the entire fence.
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2 Choose Edit> Copy.

3 Choose Layers> Loadings> Live (reducible) Loading> All Loads Plan. 4
Choose Edit> Paste.
Paste the other dead load on Live Load (Maybe rebate): The loads shown all.





Figure 44-3 Static load other hand make all load


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Figure 44-4 Static load other hand make all loads [Metric]

Determine the final seismic loads east:

1 Choose Layers> Loadings> Ultimate East Seismic Loading> All Loads Plan.
2 Choose View> Visible Objects ( ).
3 Drawing Click on the Import tab.

4 Click Show All, and then click OK. 5
Turn on the Snap to Intersection ( ).
6 Double-click the Load Line tool ( ) And in the Default Line Load Properties dialog box:

o Declare the surface elevation is 360 inches [9000 mm].
o Declare Fx is 4.1 kip / ft [60 kN / m].
o Declare other items in the dialog box is 0.
o Click OK.

7 Draw a straight line by loading snap to the intersection on the wall, as shown in Figure 44-5 and
Figure 44-6.





Figure 44-5 Seismic east: The loads shown all


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Figure 44-6 Seismic east: hand make all loads [Metric]

8 Double-click the Load Line tool ( ) And in the Default Line Load Properties dialog box:

o Declare Fy is -12.8 kip / ft [-174 kN / m].
o Click OK.

9 Draw a straight line by loading snap to the intersection on the wall, as shown in Figure 44-7 and
Figure 44-8.

10 Double-click the Load Line tool ( ), And the Load Line Default Properties dialog box:

o Declaring that Fy (+) 12.8 kip / ft [(+) 174 kN / m].
o Click OK.

11 Draw a straight line by loading snap to the intersection on the wall, as shown in Figure 44-7 and
Figure 44-8.





Figure 44-7 Seismic east: hand make all load (parameters declared Monday)





Figure 44-8 Seismic east: hand make all loads (Monday declared parameters) [Metric]
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Note: The seismic load is the approximation for the five-story building. Front load projection is
average elevation of the floor (third
floor).

Note: The load in the y direction cancel key pair orbiting plate.

44.4 Create the design
range

The band design is an essential part of the program because they relate Ram Concept of finite element
analysis to design concrete. Their characteristics include rebar sizes, protective layer, and the Concept
program parameters that used to define the code of rules to be applied to the design. There are two
directions called Latitude and Longitude.

Draw the design latitude
bands:

1 Choose Layers> Design Strip> Latitude Design Plan spans.
2 Double-click the tool Span Segment ( ).
3 Default Span Properties dialog box opens for the Generation Strip properties.

o Declare Code Calc Column Width Strip Slab (this is the default template AS3600).
o Click the General tab.
o Consider not mark as Post-tensioned.
o Click the Column tab Strip.
o Change the Top Bar and CS CS bottom bar is # 8 [N25 to AS3600; T25 for
BS8110].
o Change CS and CS Top Cover Bottom Cover 2 inches in [50 mm].
o Declare Min. Location is Tension Reinforcement Face.
o Click the tab Middle Strip.
o Highlight Column Strip Middle Strip Properties uses.
o Click OK.

4 Click on the Generate tool spans ( ), Or choose Process> Generate spans.

5 Generate dialog open spans with spans to be declared as General Latitude (as described in Figure
44-9).

6 Click OK.
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Figure 44-9 Dialog Generate spans

The fractional rate appears towards latitude.





Figure 44-10 range design: The projection of rhythm-oriented design
latitude.

Choose the rhythm of the segment is a subjective matter. Concept program using the complete
algorithm that always did not span segments and segments of the rhythm strip is unacceptable. Suggest
delete a segment of rhythm in this guidance.

7 With the Selection tool ( ), Selected seven segment spans are highlighted in red Figure 44 - 10
and click Delete.

Create the
latitude range:

1 Click on the Generate tool Strips ( ), Or choose Process> Generate Strips.
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The band appeared in the direction of design
latitude.

Ceramic ball of the band:

1 Choose View> Visible Objects ( ).
Visible Objects dialog box appears.
2 Highlight Span Segment Strips Latitude Hatching below, and click OK.

Note: You can also right-click popup menu to see a warrant Visible Objects.



Figure 44-11 The range of design latitude (with the tiles turned on). Now need to adjust a lot.

Two segments slightly oblique rhythms. The oblique band you handle it how it is a subjective matter,
but in this guide we suggest that the cross sectional area of the strip segment was driven by hand span.

Adjust the direction cross section:

1 With the Selection tool ( ), Select the span segments 5-2 and 6-2 as shown in Figure 44-11.

2 Click on the Orient tool Span Cross Section ( ). 3 Snap
On orthogonal ( ).
4 Click one of the segments near the pace, and then click again at the top or bottom
click the first time.

User halfway along the straight rhythm strip at this time is
"vertical".
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Recreate latitude rhythm
strip:

1 Click on the Generate tool Strips ( ), Or choose Process> Generate Strips.



Figure 44-12 The designs range after adjustment latitude and
recreate.

Draw the design strip
Longitude:

1 Choose Layers> Design Strips> Longitude spans Design Plan.
2 Choose View> Visible Objects ( ).
3 Drawing Click on the Import tab.

4 Click Show All, and then click OK.

5 Double-click the tool Span Segment ( ).
6 Click the Column tab Strip.
Top 7 Changes CS and CS Bottom Cover to Cover 3 inches [75 mm], and click OK. 8
Click on the Generate tool spans ( ), Or choose Process> Generate spans. 9 In the
dialog box Generate spans:
o Declare to Generate spans the Longitude.
o Click on the button tool-oriented "up - down" ( ).
o Click OK.

10 The pace in the direction of longitude appear, as shown in Figure 44-13. Similar
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latitude direction, to perform calibration span segments.
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Figure 44-13 range design: The design reference rate towards the
longitude.

11 With the Selection tool ( ), Select the rhythm on the wall segments (highlighted red
in Figure 44-13) And click Delete.
12 Turn on Snap to Intersection ( ).
13 With Span Segment tool (), draw rate segment by clicking on the road
wall at point A and B in Figure 44-14.

14 Choose Edit> Selection Properties, or right click and select Properties Selection. 15 In
the dialog box, change:
Min Number of Divisions is 0.
Max Division Spacing is 30 feet [10 m], and click OK.

Draw a segment to support this rate to calculate the rate of fractional bandwidth Concept program.

16 Snap On Orthogonal () and Nearest Snap Snapable point ().

17 With Span Segment tool (), draw span segments by clicking the roads in the wall at point B and
then C in Figure 44-14 (Snap to grid lines visible).

18 Choose Edit> Selection Properties, or right click and select Properties Selection. 19 In
the dialog box:
Uncheck Automatically Detect Support.
Consider End mark No 2 as Support.
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Support Change Width at End 1 is 12 inches [300 mm], and click OK.





Figure 44-14 The rhythm segment is drawn by hand

Created under the direction of the strips:

1 Click on the Generate tool Strips ( ), Or choose Process> Generate Strips. The
band appeared designed longitude direction.
Two segments slightly oblique rhythms. We suggest that the cross sectional area of the strip segment
spans
be driven by hand.
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Figure 44-15 The design of the band (with the tiles turned on). Now need to adjust a lot.

Adjust the direction cross section:

1 With the Selection tool ( ), Select the span segments 9-3 and 12-1 as shown in Figure 44-15.

2 Click on the Orient tool Span Cross Section ( ).

3 Click near a segment of the rhythm, and then click again to the left or right of the first click.

Guide lines along the strip half at this rate "horizontal".

Create the rhythm strip Longitude:

1 Click on the Generate tool Strips ( ), Or choose Process> Generate Strips.
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Figure 44-16 The design of the strip after editing and re-create

Note: Many of the design range of latitude and longitude (the rhythm strip segments) with different
widths on the surface of the column. Can rational of the strips so that they have the same width in
columns, especially the cantilever. View the presentation in "Determination of the border strip
manually" on page 88 Chapter 21, "Determination of design strips". In particular, Example 21-2
inPage 88 and Example 21-4 inPage 90.

Check shear breached:

1 Choose Layers> Design Strip> Punching Checks Plan.

2 Double-click the tool Punching Shear Check ( ). 3 In
the dialog box Properties Default Punching Shear Check:
o Cover to CGS Change to 3 inches [60 mm] (negative reinforcement to focus on
above).
o Click OK.

4 sale for Punching Shear Check tool.
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Figure 44-17 range designed: The Projector puncture test.

44.5 Creating the mesh

The presence of the strip design can significantly improve the regularity of the finite element mesh.
We suggest that you complete the design range, you should make the film.

Recreate the net:

1 Click the Generate Mesh ( ).

2 Enter Element Size is 2 feet [0.7m] and click Generate.

Now there is a better mesh. View on mesh elements: The standard reference.
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Figure 44-18 Element: The standard reference after creating it.

44.6 Calculate and Show Results

After running the model, can view the results of the analysis and design calculations.

Calc Review Options:

1 Select> Criteria> Options Calc 2
Review the options.
3 Do not check "Auto-stabilize structure in x-and y-directions", and click OK. Note: See the
"The general options" on page 126 Program 27 for more information. Calculation:
Click the Calc All ( ), Or choose Process> All Calc.

Looking at the state and reinforced design:

1 Choose Layers> Design Status> Total Status Plan.

This shows OK on the design and test strips punctured. This means that there is no violation of the
code limits the possibility of ductile shear in a way, and pierced shear. Note that the condition does not
indicate excessive deflection.
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Figure 44-19 Design Status: The status projector.

In each column is the result of shear condition breached. We can see this more easily on the dedicated
projector puncture.

2 Choose Layers> Design Status> Status Punching Shear Plan.

Program Concept note "Non-Standard Section" column at the corner
position.

"Non-Standard Section" is a warning, not an error. Meaning of note is at least one important concept is
that the program does not check for the appropriate column perfectly with one of the three walls of ACI
318-02: interior, edge and corner. The Concept is the stress ratio for non-standard parts. See "The non-
standard parts: ACI 318 "on page 135 Program 28 for more information.
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Figure 44-20 Design Status: The status reference shear puncture.

3 Choose Layers> Design Status> Total Reinforcement Plan.

This shows all the reinforcement is determined according to code each strip design. However, the
results too much. You can access the plan view of the separation layer reinforced Status Design by:
side (above or below), direction (latitude and longitude), and type (bend or shear). So decide what the
best plan view brings the results are not too many obstacles.

See Reinforced
concrete:

1 Choose Layers> Design Status> Latitude Bottom Reinforcement Plan.
2 Choose View> Visible Objects ( ).
Visible Objects dialog box appears.

3 Highlight Span Designs Latitude Bar spacings below, and click OK.
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Figure 44-21 Status Design: Front Projection reinforced under the direction of
latitude.

44.6.1 The pressure load

The biggest pressure load is important issue to consider when designing a. Drawing contours of the
pressure map is loaded in RAM Concept program. The drawings will change according to load
combination. Note that the maximum load value and the smallest common for different load
combinations.

The design rules of soil bearing pressure load including the largest and smallest of the load
combination. Front projection biggest pressure load is probably most useful for your design.

View the slideshow flat load pressure:

1 Choose Layers> Load Combinations> Service LC> Soil Bearing Pressure Plan.
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Figure 44-22 Using LC: The projection of the ground bearing pressure.

2 Choose Layers> Rule Set Designs> Soil Bearing Design> Soil Bearing Pressure Max Plan.





Figure 44-23 Design of Reinforced earth: Front Projection largest bearing pressure of the soil
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45 Strip Wizard Guide

This chapter, along with how you make use Wizard Strip to provide for the preliminary design (grid B)
in the plane PT Guide.

The unit values and other metrics are presented in square brackets [] next to the U.S. unit. The metric
values are not exact conversions.

ID codes are used ACI 318-02, AS3600-2001 and BS8110: 1997.

For more information, see "Using Strip Wizard" on page 161.

45.1 Strip Startup Wizard

When you choose File> Wizard Strip, New File dialog box opens automatically before Strip Wizard
dialog box opens. After creating a new file Ram Concept, Strip Wizard dialog box appears.

Strip Startup Wizard:

1 Choose File> Wizard Strip.

2 In the New File dialog box, type the Elevated Structure declarations and code
selection. 3 Click OK.
4 Strip Wizard dialog box appears, click Next to go to the General Parameters page.

45.2 Declare the general parameters

In the General Parameters page, specify the type of structure, the number and kind of rhythm, and the
concrete mixture.

Declare the following general parameters:

1 Choose Two-Way is the structural
system. 2 Check the "Post-tensioned".
3 Declare the rate is 3.

4 Check the "Asymmetric strip".

5 Declare mixed concrete for the beam and is 5000 psi [32 MPa for AS3600; C32/40
to BS8110].

6 Declare concrete for support systems is 5000 psi [32 MPa for AS3600; C32/40 to BS8110].

7 Click Next to go to the Data Span.

45.3 Enter data rate

Enter the size and data rate in Span Data page. (Type of data to be entered depending on the structural
system that you select General Parameters page.)
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Declare data rate as follows:

1 Declare 1 and 2 span length of 30 ft [9 m].

2 3 Declare beat length is 25 ft [7.75 m].

3 Declare thickness of all three spans of 10 inches [250
mm].

Note: To simultaneously declare all the values in a column, enter a value in the "Typical" (first row)
of the column. For example, in the above steps, can simply enter 10 [250] in the "Typical" column of
the "Thickness" to declare the thickness of all three spans of 10 inches [250 mm].

4 Declare the left width of 11.5 ft span 1 [3.5 m].

5 Declare the left width of 2 and 3 span is 15 ft [4.5 m].

6 Declare the right width of span 1 and 2 is 14 ft [4:25 m]. 7 Declare
the right width of 3 rate is 1 ft [0.3 m].
8 Declare width on the left end of span 1, 2 and 3 is 15 ft [4.5 m]. 9
Declare width on the right end of span 1 and 2 is 14 ft [4:25 m].
10 Declare width on the right end of span 3 is 1 ft [0.3 m].





Figure 45-1 Data Span page.

11 Click Next to go to Support Data.

45.4 Create a
support system
under

Add four systems in support of the Below Support Support Data
page.

Declaring support system
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under the following:

1 Declare the depth of support in all four systems is 24 inches
[600 mm].
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2 Declare the width of the four systems are supported under 24
inches [600 mm]. 3 Declare the height of all four systems are
supported under the 10 ft [3 m].
4 Keep the heat below and above the bottom of the support system is
"Fixed". 5 Click Next to go to the Drop Caps and Drop Panels.
45.5 Additional drop cap

Enter the size of the drop cap in support System 2 and 4 in Table Drop Caps (the above) at page
Panels and Drop Drop Cap.

Declare the drop cap data as
follows:

1 For factor 2 in the Drop Caps support, declared the following values:

o Declare thickness is 20 inches [500 mm].
o Declare left width is 22.5 inches [600 mm]. o
Declare the right width is 22.5 inches [600 mm]. o
Declare length is 22.5 inches before [600 mm]. o
Declare the following length is 22.5 inches [600
mm].

2 For assistance system 4 in Table Drop Caps, declare the following
values:

o Declare thickness is 20 inches [500 mm].
o Declare left width is 33 inches [900 mm].
o Declare the right width is 12 inches [300 mm].
o Declare length is 33 inches before [900 mm].
o Declare the following length is 0 inches [0 mm].

3 Click Next to go to Page Loads.

45.6 Determine the load

Enter the page load section of Loads

Declare the load as follows:

Declare Area 1 Dead Load of 20 psf typical [1 kN/m2]. 2
Declare Area Live Load of 40 psf typical [2 kN/m2]. 3
Click Next to go to the Post-Tensioning.
Note: There may be blank Dead Line Live Line Load and Load (no need to enter
zero).

45.7 Determination of
stress after

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Enter the following parameters on page tensioned Post-
tensioning.

Declare the following resources
as follows:

1 Uncheck "Start" and "End".
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2 Declaring P / A minimum of 140 psi [1
MPa].

3 Declare percentage smallest load balance is 65%. 4 Click
Next to go to Reinforcement.
45.8 Define the parameters of
reinforced

Enter parameters on Reinforcement rebar.

Declare reinforced as
follows:

1 Declare rebar on the # 5 [N16 to AS3600; T16 for BS8110].

2 Declare rebar underneath is # 4 [N12 to AS3600; T12 for BS8110]. 3 Declare fully
reinforced coating above and below the 1 inch [25 mm].
Note: Strip Wizard did not differ between the protective layer of reinforced and prestressed rebar.

4 Perform Check Punching Shear Checks. 5
Declare Cover to CGS as 1625 inch [41 mm]. 6
Click Next to go to Completion.
45.9 Complete the Wizard
Strip

Complete Strip Wizard is the last page of the Wizard dialog Strip. It can save data entered in the Strip
file by clicking Save Settings Wizard. When you click Finish, Strip Wizard creates your strip in Ram
Concept open files.

Complete
range:

1 Click Save and the file name in the Save dialog box appears Strip Wizard File
As. 2 Click Finish.
45.10 Made with Ram Concept Program

After completing the wizard Strip, can be done with Ram Concept Program. After you have created
your band, create mesh (with mesh 2.5-foot [0.75 m]) and calculated analysis. See the relevant
operational program, or one of the three flat PT Guide for more information.

View your range:

1 Choose Layers> Mesh Input> Standard
Plan.
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Figure 45-2 finish in Mesh Input Range: The standard reference.





Element Figure 45-3: The standard projection shows complete range after the net has been created.





Element Figure 45-4: The standard reference when calculating and creating the mesh.





Figure 45-5 range finish on prestressed reinforced latitude direction: The standard reference.

45.11 Compared with the flat PT Guide

The results of the analysis Strip Wizard similar but not the same as the flat PT Guide. The reason for
the different results include:

Strip Wizard does not automatically consider the continuous horizontal impact.
Strip Wizard does not consider the increased load balcony.
Strip Wizard automatically adjusts the screen in rhythm 2 and 3 (can be changed if desired).
Strip Wizard does not consider the prestressed reinforcement in the direction of longitude.
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45.12 Conclusi
on

Strip Wizard allows you to perform preliminary design and final strip of the floor. The results are
similar to results generated by any band program, but not exactly like Ram Concept model is to
consider all the characteristics of uneven floor.
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46 The analysis noted

This chapter provides general information about the finite element methods (FEM) analysis as well as
the specific information about how the program calculates Ram Concept analysis of how results.

46.1 Conduct a Review

In Ram Concept program, the section was originally created as a model. Previously, engineers used to
measure approximate the design, approximate measures assume that the behavior in such a manner the
beam in two perpendicular directions. Because engineers use approximate measures in a long time, so
the results of the analysis of the elastic to the program RAM Concept can sometimes very
embarrassing. This section will review the theoretical analysis, so engineers can learn about the results
of the program RAM Concept is a better way.

46.1.1 Conduct internal and external
surfaces

These depend on both the internal and external forces plane.

The in-plane force and cutting the stretch, but does not deviate from the plane defined by the center. For
the horizontal (similar to the concept of Ram program), the in-plane force causes stretching,
compression and cutting plane only focus when watching the show.

The external force plane bending and the torsion, it moves perpendicular to the plane defined by the
center. For the horizontal (similar in concept program), the external force plane is the vertical deflection
from the original focal plane.

In the horizontal projection surface with a continuous focus, the equilibrium equation of forces inside
and outside surfaces completely separated. However, if there is a shift in focus, two pairs of force
become correlated due consideration to the issue of balance and must be solved simultaneously; Ram
Concept Program correlations handle a automatically.

For copies are not made from elastomeric materials - linear, the tension force due to the internal and
external surfaces no longer overlap linearly, so the two balance equations of power system becomes
should have an indirectly related to the tension of them.

This correlation of the tensor of two power systems for nonlinear elastic material properties can be
seen in the simple example of flat concrete slab under the load of external forces causing horizontal
plane and deflection. If the in-plane compressive force is applied synchronized to the same
publication, the less cracking than external mechanical force will be smaller plane and out-plane force
model with different parts.

The global structural analysis program Concept assumption that concrete behaves as elastic materials -
linear. However, following the presentation of the internal and external forces plane purely based on
the consideration to balancing problems, and so appropriate for any material.

Note: do not consider the influence "P-delta".

46.1.2 Conduct in-plane

The forces in the plane can be determined as the amount of axial stresses in two perpendicular
directions, and the shear stress. For different elements (no load applied) stresses are shown as follows:
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From consideration of balance issues, the variation of the force in the plane can be expressed as:

Fx / x + Vxy /
y =-Px
Fy / y + Vxy /
x =-Py

if Px and Py is the load applied.

If a different coordinate axes are used for reference, the power of this new axis circulation Mohr
relationship with the principal axes of power:



Fr = Fx cos2

+ Fy sin2

+ 2Fxy sine cos

Fs = Fx sin2

+ Fy cos2

- 2Fxy sine cos

VRS = Vxy (Cos2

-Sin2

) + (Fy - Fx) sin
cos

The relationship is based on periodic Mohr considering balance issues, should have the effect of
materials.

For each point on the map, there will be a second "main axis" perpendicular if the shear stress is zero
and the forces in two perpendicular directions at large V values nhata smallest of them. The angle
between the major axis and the x-axis and y-axis will vary on the point.
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46.1.3 Conduct outside the
plane

The external force plane can be defined as the amount of bending moment around two perpendicular
axes, an anti-twist torque and shear forces along the perpendicular sides. For different elements, the
torque and shear stress is expressed as follows:




From the review of the balance issues, the variation of the external force plane can be expressed as:

Vxz / x + Vyz / y
=-Pz
Mx / y + Txy / x
=-Vyz
My / x + Txy / y
=-Vxz

if Pz is the load applied.

If a different coordinate axes are used for reference, the shaft torque of this new relationship with the
human circulatory Mohr of the original shaft, cutting force vector relationship as simple:

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Mr = Mx cos2

+ My sin2

- 2Txy sine cos
Ms = Mx sin2

+ My cos2

+ 2Txy sine cos
Trs = Txy (Cos2

-Sin2

) + (Mx - USA) sin
cos

Vrz = Vxz cos + Vyz sine
Vsz =-Vxz sine + Vyz cos

Again, the relationship is based on consideration of balance issues, so they are valid for the material.

For each point on the two there will be a "major axis" perpendicular if the torque is zero and the
bending moment around two perpendicular directions at large V values nhata smallest of them. The
angle between the major axis and the x-axis and y-axis will vary on the point.







46.1.4 The interaction of behavior in and out of plane

If the plane of focus of the projection surface changes, then the interaction of the forces inside and
outside the plane. The interaction of two pairs of simple force and is determined purely by the force
and torque balance. Simple steps to be able to focus when viewing the slide below:



Fx '= Fx
Vxy '=
Vxy
Vxz '=
Vxz
My '= My - Fx d
MXY '= MXY - Vxy d

46.1.5 Draw axes and related programs Ram Concept

Ram Concept Program can draw the results related to the x-axis, y-axis, an axis-specific (identified with
an angle) or a maximum or minimum axis. Axis is defined as the smallest
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axis at each and every point with the smallest value for the volume will be drawn, the angle of the shaft
to be used will vary with each point in the drawing. Similarly, the largest shaft axis is defined at each
and every point with the maximum value of the volume will be drawn, the angle of the axis will use the
variation in the drawing.

46.2 Finite Element Analysis

Program Concept Ram recipe using linear finite element-based elastic properties section to the global
analysis.

46.2.1 Finite Element Analysis

Finite element analysis (also known as finite element methods) is the standard way of engineers to
analyze complex structures. Although the theoretical interpretation of finite element methods is
beyond the scope of this chapter, but engineers use Ram Concept program should understand the
parameters that define them affect the analysis of the program How.

46.2.2 Formula finite element program used in Ram Concept

The Ram Concept model of the structure of the elements with a triangular or quadrangular. The element
is based on the formula of Robert Cook ["Two mixes elements to the plate analysis, and multiple
layers", International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, Volume 5, pages 277-288, 1972] .
Consider both elements in plane deformation and bending deformation. Five degrees of freedom used
for the intersection.

46.2.3 The general characteristics of the
elements

The elements used in the Ram Concept program has the following general characteristics:

The human element to consider both internal and external surfaces.

The element can be (optionally) have different stiffness in two orthogonal directions.

Elements to consider the cross-sectional deformation.

The elements considered relevant elevations of the adjacent elements.

46.3 Conduct vertical

Ram Concept program allows us to identify six stiffness coefficients adjust the behavior of the element
(see section presents the declaration of conduct in the vertical "The characteristics of the area" in Page
56 and "The beam characteristics" on page 57,Chapter 16, "Determining the structure"). When all the
coefficients are reported as 1.0, the element behaves as a vertical material (the same material
properties in all directions). When the different coefficients, the element behaves as a vertical material
(material properties vary with three perpendicular axes.)

Need to be careful when declaring the hardness factor. With certain combinations of coefficients, the
structure may become unstable and the results can be unreliable. In addition, the interaction of these
factors can be complex stiffness than the first test. This section on how to avoid this problem.

46.3.1 The coefficients K and instability
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When the other K 1 is used (either directly, or indirectly, by the declaration of conduct or beams), the
structure may become unstable or nearly unstable. Normally this is not a problem except when using
the Custom option.

The interaction of the stiffness coefficient and KMR and
KMS KMrs

If using other parameters declared goods, and or KMrs KMrs and KMR and KMS are concessions,
these elements can become unstable and can analyze results suspicious. For this reason we suggest that
these parameters are always kept within limits:

KMR / KMS> 0.5 or KMrs / KMS> 0.5
KMS / KMR> 0.5 or KMrs / KMR> 0.5

Stability same could happen with KVrs and KFR / KFs.

46.3.2 The interaction of surface hardness and flat

In that case the focus of the projector is not in sync, the hardness in and out of the plane of the
elements of Concept program will interact. For example, the T-beams, the axial stiffness of the plate
and the edge will interact with their bending stiffness (creating stiffer section is only the bending
stiffness and the edge of the plate is added ).

In this case, you may need to adjust the plane of conduct to regulate behavior outside the plane. For
example, if you want to extract halved T-beam bending stiffness, to declare that the KMS 0.5 and
KFR.

46.4 Deep
Beams

46.4.1 Analysis of the elements and beams

Ram Concept program assumes that the beam element and the element behaves the same, except when
the "conduct" of them defined for finite element.

Assuming that the first analysis done Program Concept for the element is "the linear section is linear",
similar to "the plane sections remain plane is always" in the beam theory .








Figure 46-6 Linear Structures Prior Deformation


Figure 46-7 Linear Structures After Deformation

Second analysis assumed that Ram Concept Program implemented for the form element is the human
element and the stress in the typical position. The following table shows the human element is the
ability and the interest to follow.
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Table 46-4 Relationship between force and stress
Symbols Force related stress
Fx Axial force on the x

stress axis synchronization x
Fy Luc direction of axis on the
face y
stress axis synchronization y
Vxy Cutting force in the plane stresses cutting force synchronous xy
Vxz Cutting force horizontal on
the face x
stresses cutting force parabolic (same with axis z)
xz
Vyz Cutting force horizontal on
the face y
stresses cutting force parabolic (same with axis z)
yz
Mx Torque bending around axis
x
stresses direction axis linear (same with axis z) y
My Torque bending around y
axis
stresses direction axis linear (same with axis z) x
Txy Torque anti twisted stresses cutting force linear (same with axis z) xy









Figure 46-8 The impact in the plane (View face
projector)


Figure 46-9 The impact outside the face flat (View
face projector)

46.4.2 Analysis and design girder deep for bending moment and
cutting force

Because Program Ram Concept assuming that girder deep Behaving like the copies, should Program
Concept would assume the distribution linear of bending stress on the girder deep, although stresses
actual distribution do not must is linear.



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Figure 46-10 Program Ram Concept analysis the bending stress


Figure 46-11 The bending stress "Actually"

The simplify analysis usually negligible and be omitted.

In design, program Concept will not perform any calculate capacity any special only suitable for girder
deep and Program Concept will not have any detailed information girder deep-any. The calculate the
girder agricultural of program Concept conventional is moderates respect with girder deep.

The engineers need ensure that girder deep stable horizontal. Persons engineers also need have the
details appropriate
respect with
girder deep.

46.4.3 Analysis and design girder deep with the Torque bending
horizontal

Because Program Ram Concept assuming that girder deep Behaving like the copies, should Program
Concept will evaluate too high hardness of girder deep according to these Torque transverse bending.
The analysis of program Concept will assuming that entire girder have ability bear torque horizontal
have effective.




Figure 46-12 Program Ram Concept analysis the bending stress / direction axis
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Figure 46-13 The bending stress / direction axis "carried"

The evaluation too high hardness this conventional negligible and be omitted.

In designing, a important thing is the sectional area designed of program Concept have parameters
declare depth ignore appropriate, should only have part girder is real effectiveness be used in calculate
capacity.



Figure 46-14 Prior depth ignore


Figure 46-15 After when Depth
ignore
46.4.4 Analysis girder deep have
twisted

Because Program Ram Concept assuming that girder deep Behaving like the copies, should program
Concept will evaluate too high hardness anti twisted of girder deep. In worst case, assumptions of
program Concept lead to job hardness anti twisted at girder deep corresponding with BH3, although
degrees
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hard anti twisted really corresponding with b3h. The evaluation too high of program Concept not large
because the element Version Show hardness cutting force horizontal do for girder softer. Number
element via girder deeply as large,, then the evaluation too high hardness anti twisted increasingly
small.



Figure 46-16 Program Ram Concept analysis the shearing stress anti twisted


Figure 46-17 The shearing stress anti twisted "carried"




Twists in girder can necessary for driveline textures complete - because this reason should do not can
skip. There can extracts reduced hardness anti twisted of girder (this will adjusted driveline textures
come the road less dependent into capacity girder anti twisted more than). Program Concept have four
choice have consideration come the torsion of this in design. See "The problem about twisted" in page
330 for more information.

Note: When hardness anti twisted of girder has be extracts reduced use "coefficient of K", informed
usually recommends have level reinforced belt anti twisted smallest to ensure that girder have can
cracked due to twisted which not have expected failure.

46.4.5 Analysis and design torque transmitted over girder
that are orders of

Because Program Ram Concept assuming that girder deep Behaving like the copies, should program
Concept will not have considered to girder that are orders of have can bending around axis along.
Assumptions of program Concept is "the sectional area linear still is linear" prevent kind bending this
and will do for program Concept assessment too high hardness of girder that are orders of respect with
torque transmit.
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Figure 46-18 Program Ram Concept the bending stress girder that are
orders of


Figure 46-19 The bending stress girder that are orders of "carried"

The evaluation too high hardness this conventional negligible and be omitted. However, depending
according person engineers ensure that girder that are orders of has a capacity and detailed to transmit
torque be analyzed.

46.5 the Conduct
wall

46.5.1 Tuong on copies

Program Ram Concept have consider to wall on the copies such as beams. This analysis reasonable the
influence of the wall on the copies this, but not report the forces girder-wall, or not design girder-wall.
The strips design and the sectional area cut design horizontal wall ignore both capacity of girder-wall in
cross section cut horizontal and the forces on the girder-wall. Girdles of-wall able currently the
characteristics wall a different ways more than is wall under copies:

Fixed Near = wall have hardness anti twisted
Fixed Far = (quit through)
Shear Wall = girder have hardness axis
direction compressible = (quit through)
Note that although job forecasting behaves flexural of copies and girder is accurate, but the division
cutting force between wall and copies not been forecasts good. respect with girder-wall / details
presence copies combine, part cutting force along of copies will is between two extremes:
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As / Atotal,
and Is
/ Itotal

If

As = scope cross section cut horizontal of copies in
cross section

Atotal = scope cross section cut horizontal of copies and wall the
same with each other Is = torque inertia of copies
Itotal = torque inertia of copies and wall the same with
each other

46.6 The payload tensioning
follows

46.6.1 Download
importance super static

Program Ram Concept calculate impact of payload super static respect with the objects (the elements,
the the road soles surround, Us support, the sectional area design, the cross section cut horizontal
segments strips design and check scrapers perforation) by using relationship vector follows here:

Fh = Fb - Fp if
Fh = the forces and the torque super
static

Fb = the forces and these torque payload balance (Luc reinforcing steel prestressed on
textures fact)

Fp = the forces and the torque "main" in the object (the forces in the object due PT if the object not
been hampered, but still have the steel rod prestressed - if have)

For with the objects not have the steel rod prestressed (wall, the columns, the the road soles surround,
Us support hard, the sectional area designed not have the steel rod prestressed and these strips
designed not have the Reinforced steel prestressed), Fp equal to zero, should:

Fh =
Fb

For with the element copies, not implement calculate Fp for each element, because Fp not have clearly
defined respect with any any existing objects except cross section cut horizontal. The analysis of
copies of program Concept assumptions Fp = Fb (Fh = 0), but those value be this drawing NOT be
used when designing and check. Program Concept calculate the forces sectional area design and cross
section cut horizontal strips designs (not have assumptions Fp = Fb) as follows:

Fh = Fb -
Fp

Calculate the Fp of program Concept based on the steel rod prestressed at each cross section cut
horizontal.

Note: Because this problem, using the drawings analysis copies of program Concept respect with the
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design value cross section cut horizontal in the the textures PT is not exact. (No suggest using the
drawings analysis copies both in the copies RC, but that is because these strips design and the
sectional area designed have high accuracy more than).
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Note: To been explain details more than, watch part "Hoan all the influence additives (Sieu static)"
due A. Bommer; PTI Journal, January 2004, the Vol 2 Number 1).

46.7 Analysis self-
balancing equal

Program Ram Concept can analyze payload equal to analysis self balance.

46.7.1 Analysis self-
balancing equal

Any static load any above textures, when combined with the jet textures Us support (be regarded such
as is the payload supplement), is payload self-leveling. In this payload total the download important on
texture is balance force and torque. However, the payload balance still have the torque and the forces in
texture.

In many certain cases, need analysis payload self balance according floor systems although ignore
impact of Us support floor systems. We I call kinds analysis this is analysis self balance.

46.7.2 The purpose of analysis self-
balancing equal

The driveline compatible with job analysis Full buildings according transverse
direction

The purpose most usual of the analysis self balance is to make sure that driveline in program Concept
is consistent with driveline in analysis horizontal be done by a separate program.

If perform analysis according transverse direction of the building (is probably use RAM Frame), and
job this analysis have consider to copies is a part of driveline horizontal, copies - consists the links
copies-column - need been designed to withstand the forces and the torque be determined in analysis
according transverse direction. Design this can is done by analysis self balance. The forces / the jet
from all Us support (on and under copies) into copies be regarded such as is these payload up copies,
any the certain force be applied directly up copies (as force stories in analysis seismic ) also be
included.

Results of work analysis self this balance is driveline copies entirely suitable with analysis according
transverse direction of entire buildings. Classification announced the forces (and the di transfer) in
copies may not joints with the choices in analysis buildings according transverse direction, but
distribution of the forces copies in program Concept near such as always always exact more than those
force be projected Forecast analysis entire buildings.

The purpose
other

Tuy analysis self balance have the purposes other, but them less when and not be threads referring to in
this booklet.

46.7.3 Use Analysis self balance
Declare kinds the analysis of load
To program Concept analysis payload use analysis self balance, kinds analysis payload must be
changed into "lateral SE" (self-balance horizontal). Type analysis payload can be change in window
payload. See "Change analysis" in page 31 Chapter 10, "Dinh clearly Download important ".
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Note: Thuat Languages "lateral SE" be used instead because "Self-Equilibrium" to Ngac remind
person use is kinds this analysis mainly is spend for the horizontal load.
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Determine the load

There is no limit respect with kind or number amount of of the payload can be applied in payload self-
leveling. However, the download important be applied must near such as is self-leveling. If the
payload not balanced, then Program Concept will apply the stresses up copies to make sure that
balance can be maintain. There can watch the jet stresses in Calc Log.

Note: See the "Enter database" in page 45,Chapter 14, "Enter Database from System textures RAM "
to know more information about way enter automatic the payload self balance horizontal.

Note: The nails copies / friends not suitable respect with analysis self balance because the jet land
without
be know before when analysis.

46.7.4 Details analysis self-balancing
equal to Ma battle hardness "Di
dynamic"
If you use payload self-balancing equal, program Concept will create matrix hardness inner di
extrapancreatic action matrix hardness evenly. Ma battle hardness mobile have consider to copies, but
not must Us support on the or under copies. Program Concept also supplement add many Us support
small into matrix to do for it's stable.

System
support
small

System support small which Program Concept supplement add into matrix hardness mobile is placed
at positions Us support fact, but not must at each position Us support fact. Typically is, program
Concept supplement add three Us support to provide degrees stable full of enough, but not provide any
stresses any.

Note: Program Concept warning if not have at least two positions Us support if Us support small can
be supplement.

Ly due to add Us support small in the same position such as Us support fact is those this position have
the ability is those position where the payload self balance be applied, then any jet any at those this
position can be regarded is "the calibrate" for the payload self-leveling.

The jet check scrapers perforation

Checking poked perforation have consideration come these payload be applied at check position
poked perforation in the calculate jet. Checking poked perforation only is "Us support" have the jet
from analysis self balance.

The di
transfer

Program Concept report every move respect with payload self balance into zero. Download important
self balance not have influence up the di transferred be counted respect with the load combination or the
rule sets.

Load sample

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Download importance sample can use in analysis self balance, but near such as have never be used.
When be used, the sample should have a sets the payload self-leveling.

Note: For with for example, watch part For example 37-1 inpage 177,Chuong 37, "These questions
conventional".

46.8 The forces strips design and weather
Design Layout
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46.8.1 The axis sectional area design and convention
signs

The verbose Layout Design have system local coordinates sets of, with
the axis r, s and z:

Shafts r co gland with sectional area design and have sunflower from the beginning 1 to early 2.
User This also be watch is "horizontal".

Shafts rotary 90 degrees vice dimensional kim clock with axis r (still in the plane xy) and go
through "focus designs" (watch part under). User This also be watch is "Shafts"

Shafts z parallel with axis z wikis The and go through "focus designs". User This also be watch
is "verticals"

The forces for sectional area designs be regarded such as is the forces which textures in the region s
yang applied for textures in the region s negative.

Tiet Layout Design be drawing from point B to point A will have the forces such as sectional area
designs be drawing from point A come point B except two force follows here will have the signs vice
each other:

Vz (cutting force along on the face s)

Mz (torque around axis z)

46.8.2 The axis segments strips design and convention signs

The segments strips designed have system local coordinates sets of for each cross section cut horizontal
inside. Tiet presence cut horizontal inside square corner of with waves segments strips design and
expand from the road marginal branching left side to the sugar marginal right-hand arm. Each cross
section cut horizontal inner been handling exact such as Tiet Layout Design with the axis r, s and z
(watch part on the).

All the cross section cut horizontal of DSS will have the system coordinates parallel each other, but for
with the geometry textures certain, the axis s of each cross section cut horizontal will not co gland.
That is due each cross section cut horizontal determine "focus designs" of main it (watch part under).

46.8.3 The the focus designs

Each cross section cut horizontal segments strips designs (strips segments rhythm) and weather Design
Layout determine position of their center designed of it. Position be determined as follows:

1 Tiet presence cut horizontal final be determined equal to way consider (i) cross section cut horizontal
been tweaked respect with the segments strips design, and (ii) these depth "ignore" sides under and in
on for the weather Design Layout.

2 Hand projector focus z of cross section cut horizontal finally this is coordinates z of focus
designed.

3 Tiet presence cut horizontal "core" be determined (watch part "Determine Concrete "core" "in page
330). For with sectional area shaped T, part core is part relatives from under cross section to early
cross section. For with sectional area rectangular, core will is entire cross section.

4 System coordinates importance mind x and y of core is system coordinates x
and y of focus designed.
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5 There can view focus cross section cut horizontal segments strips designed in first page audit You.
See
Chuong 30, "Using Auditor" for more information.
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46.8.4 Calculate the forces on cross section cut
horizontal

Program Ram Concept calculate the forces cross section cut horizontal around focus designed of cross
section cut horizontal (follows when considered problems tweak).

For with each element copies alike formation should cross section cut horizontal Concrete initial
(before when considering come problems tweak), the forces buttons of the elements (respect with the
intersections of the the elements on the a surface of sectional area design) be changed into focus of
sectional area Concrete finally and be supplemented into the forces designed. For with the element
Version Show head sectional area design, only have feces number (corresponding with length
sectional area designed in element be feces divided by dimensional long through element along with
straight line co gland with sectional area designs ) of the forces button be included.

The forces button be used instead because integration with the applications productivity copies because
the results stresses copies can have these pulse locally due these element have shape else strange. The
pulse locally this can significant change total value be integrated. The forces button be used by Program
Concept do not be affected by the pulse applications local refractive and always for the results
equilibrium with the load of button.

46.8.5 Calculate ratio part hundred download important
are balanced

Program Ram Concept calculate percentage payload are balanced by applicants force after in these
strips designed. See "Show percentage load is balanced" on page 130 to be guided about way access
information this.

Each segments strips report designer two values:
xx% DL Being balance
xx% DL + RLL Being balance

The value report valid respect with Calc All latest (reinforcing steel prestressed change follows when
not
be reflected).

The values be counted based on the total torque static respect with rhythm, download important are
balanced and static download and works download.

For with rhythm girder proffer, actual
payload is:



in which:

M = torque at Item presence cut horizontal
first L = rhythm informed shui
For with rhythm are (with Us support at both ends), actual
payload is:


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if

M = (M1 + M2) / 2 -
M3

M1 = torque at Item presence cut horizontal
first
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M2 = torque at Item presence cut horizontal
final

M3 = torque at Item presence cut horizontal nearest with between the cross section cut horizontal
first and finally L = rhythm informed shui
Percentage be determined is:

% = -100 Wb /
Wl

if

Wb = actual payload due balance and transmission payload
balance Wl = actual payload due load combination are
considering
("DL" or "DL + RLL")

Not can calculate for the segments strips designed not must is a part of rhythm. There a ratio part
hundred payload balance "not determine".

Calculate balance can have the differences with existing calculation in the the shape projector flat
reinforcing steel prestressed. The Differences is:

degrees disparity of the influence PT

rhythm informed shui compared with total rhythm

torque grab at the sectional area first and finally, not must the center line Us support

In the calculations, "DL" based on the load types "static download", and
means is:

Trong amount of copies relatives + Tinh download + Tinh download (transmission) but
not have static load pull stretch In the calculations, "RLL" based on the load types new,
and means is:
Works download (have can extracts reduce) + Works load (can not extracts reduce) + Works
download (cumulative) + Works download (ceiling)
+ Works download (have can extracts reduce) (transmission) + Works load (can not extracts reduce)
(transmission) + Works download (cumulative) (transmission) + Works download (ceiling)
(transmission)

All the this payload are be extracts reduce according code code extracts reduce operation download
before when add into total the download important.

46.8.6 Use choice "Do not Reduce Integrated M v V v to Sign Change"

The cross section design and the segments rhythm have part choice (box select) with brands is "Do not
gim Intergrated M v V v to Sign Change". If select ty this, program Concept will perform years
integrated of the forces cross section cut horizontal for each download important and sample payload:
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1. Tich standard conformity - such as be presented in "Calculate the forces on cross section
cut horizontal".

2. Integrate Torque largest - such as items 1, except work only consider the element do increase value
bending moment be integrated.
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3. Integrate Torque smallest - such as items 1, except work only consider the element do reduce value
bending moment be integrated.

4. Integrate cutting force largest - such as items 1, except work only consider the element do reduce
value cutting force along be integrated.

5. Integrate cutting force smallest - such as items 1, except work only consider the element do reduce
value cutting force along be integrated.

The purpose of this selection is for allows the safety design and moderates if the cross section cut
horizontal have the area torque (or force cut) with the signs vice each other, recorded receive torque
(or force cut) respect with cross section cut horizontal smaller respect with cross section cut horizontal
additives shorter.

The values from the integrated on may not be considered in a number certain cases:

Tich standard conformity - the values always always be reviewed.

Integrate Torque largest - value bending moment be considered if torque bending is signs
similar such as bending moment in Tich standard conformity.

Built-in torque minimum - worth bending moment be considered if the bending moment is a
sign similar to the bending moment in the integration standard.

Integrated shear largest - the value of shear along to be considered if the shear forces along the
same sign as the shear vertical integration standard.

Integrated shear smallest - the value of shear along to be considered if the shear forces along the
same sign as the shear vertical integration standard.

When you select "Do not Reduce Integrated M and V Due to Sign Change", the design capacity are
more moderate when not selected option. Do not use this option without considering properly.

Note: The built-in selection is carried out independently for each load. The power section cut the load
combination so there may be (and without) the power of the different elements in each load. This
added to the peaceful option.

46.9 These kinds of results in program Ram Concept

The Ram Concept track two kinds of results: "Standard" and "envelope".

46.9.1 The benchmark results
Results standards - load
The standard result for a load is the result of applying the load of the load no templates are considered.
These results include the results in tab Slab, the results of context "Standard" in the tab Reaction and
the resulting context "Standard" for the tab Strip.

The results of the standard - the load
combination

The benchmark results for load combination is the resulting standard load combination linear using the
load factor standard. These results include the results in tab Slab, the results of context "Standard" in the
tab Reaction and the resulting context "Standard" for the tab Strip.
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Note: The benchmark results also have all the results for items outside of segment strip design, the
details of the design and test puncture. Items such as the bending moment map, the jet column and the
jet land in the benchmark results (not included).

Note: For the layer of rules, not the benchmark results, only the results envelope
were
calculated.

46.9.2 The resulting envelope

The resulting envelope is maintained only for 3 types of objects - the fractional strip design, the details
of the design and test puncture. The resulting envelope full consideration of load patterns and the
coefficient contours alternating (as well as the benchmark).

For fractional strip design and the details of the design, all the resources section cross section is
calculated, and there are six outcomes envelope is maintained:

Max M (the forces in place in time M largest) Min M
(the forces in place in time M smallest) Max V (the
forces in place in time V maximum) Min V (the force
in place at the time V minimum) Max P (the forces in
place in time P maximum) Min P (the forces in place
in time P smallest)
Note: The "Min" are considered valuable "signs" the smallest, is not worth quite minimal.

For testing punctured, all jets are and have 6 results envelope is maintained: Max Fz (jet on time jet Fz
largest)
Min Fz (jet on time jet Fz smallest) Max Mx (jet on time
jet Mx largest) Min Mx (jet on time jet Mx smallest)
Max USA (jet on time Jet My greatest) Min USA (jet on
time jet My smallest)
46.9.3 The Ram Concept calculated results outline how the results envelope - Load
The results outline the load is determined by comparing the results to load fully and the results of all
load patterns (taking into consideration the factor model). The results line includes a collection over the
results coincided with the smallest value and the largest of the synergy certain.
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For example, for the section of the design, all sample results will be compared with reference and
sample results are bending moment most will be the result Max M section that design, the results of
Max M of the cross section design that can be identified in other samples.

If the load is not modeled, then all the results envelope will be similar to the benchmark results.

The resulting envelope - The load combination

The results envelope for a load combination is determined by comparing all permutations of the load
factor standard and alternate personnel with envelope for each load in the load combination . for each
location and type of boundary, the load factor was chosen as the coefficients generated contour farthest.

In math problem:

There results 2n (p +1) for n load and p samples.

The results 2n (p +1) are included together.

The calculated actual program Ram Concept uses not consider the load combination 2n (p +1), but the
results of the calculation of program RAM Concept is similar to the program implemented.

The resulting envelope - the set of rules

The results envelope to the rules determined by comparing the envelope for all load combination using
the rules. For each location and class boundaries, the selected value is the value coincides with the
boundary farthest.

The resulting envelope of load, load combination or set of rules is the result of the tab Reaction and tab
Strip unless the results are context "Standard". Context Standard for the drawings are sometimes
viewed as "envelope standard", but technically it is not a boundary.

Note: The cover of the program RAM Concept find the important data in the model steadily least and
most complex. However, with six boundaries can ignore this data. If you make sure that the set of
forces is not in the envelope may be important for the design, you can manually create additional load
(not modeling) and / or the load combination supplement (not the load factor interleaved) and / or the
additional rules (using a load combination) to make sure that the combination of forces to be
considered in the design.
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47 The note design section

This chapter explains the method to analyze and design the cross-section of program RAM Concept.
The specific handling requirements of each code are presented in detail in the following chapters.

47.1 Method of universal design

47.1.1 Design range and cross section - a process 3
steps

The Ram Concept design implementation in 3 steps:

Step 1: Each of the rules to make a selection reinforced "Phase 1". For most of the rules,
Here is the entire
design.

Step 1b: Summary of reinforcement was selected by the
rules.

Step 2: Each of the rules to make a selection reinforced "Phase 2" needed in addition to the
reinforcement are summarized in step 1b. For most of the rules, nothing happens in this step, but for
some set of rules-such as cutting force design and design flexural, need to know the reinforcement are
summarized in step 1 before design.

Step 2b: Summary of reinforcement was selected by the
rules.

Step 3: Each of the rules implemented last test (not wired to be added in this step) and final analysis.

47.1.2 The curve of stress - strain reinforced non prestressed

The Ram Concept as reinforced soft material is elastic / plastic perfect for identified
by elastic modulus and elastic stress.

47.1.3 The curve of stress - strain material stress after

The Ram Concept uses curve stress - strain-stressed steel then based on a "recipe stronger" standard to
be used with many different forms in 25 years:

fp =p [A + B / {1 + (C p) D} 1 /
D] FPU

where A, B, C and D are coefficients chosen to fit data curve stress - deformation experiments.

The Ram Concept using the coefficients A, B, C and D based on the analysis of the general stress -
deformation of reinforced prestressed by Develapura and Tadros [Develapura, R. K. and Tadros, M. K.,
"Assessing the importance ACI 318 Eq. (18-3) for the stress of reinforced prestressed in flexure final,"
ACI Structural Journal, V. 89, No. 5, January 9-10 1992, pp. 538-546]. The value of program RAM
Concept is:

A = 0.0311 Ep
B = Ep - A
C = 0958 Ep /
FPY D = 7:36
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These values have corresponding exactly with the parameters proposed for fiber 270 ksi (1860 MPa)
with FPY 0.9 FPU. For materials reinforced prestressed other, there may be little difference (only a few
percent) in comparison with curve theory in the region between the elastic and strength eventually.





47.1.4 Relationship of deformation stress following bond with concrete to deform section section

The deformation of the cross section cross section can be determined by assuming "the section plane is
always the plane." However, due to the impact of reinforced prestressed and coordination of
construction, deformation stress later in section section is not equal to the strain in the concrete nearby.

Conceptually, in order to calculate deformation of reinforced prestressed with adhesion to concrete at
the corresponding deformation due to shrinkage of concrete near the very simple:

p =c + (pi -
ci)

In that

p = Deformation of reinforced
prestressed
c = Strain in concrete near the reinforcement prestressed
pi = Deformation of reinforced prestressed in time adhesion to concrete
ci = Strain in concrete close to the time adhesion to concrete (typically negative)

The Ram Concept uses processes and following assumptions when calculating the value pi and ci
for each reinforced prestressed in each cross-section design:

The "loss" of reinforced prestressed long (self loose, elastic shortening, creep strength and
shrinkage) occur before adhesion to concrete.

Formwork apply an upward force on the concrete like the weight of the concrete. Only the force
in concrete is the force due to load balancing.

The deformation of concrete can be determined by the characteristics section materials and
modular concrete "original".

47.1.5 The curve of stress - strain to survive without bond to concrete-general theory
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The treatment effect of deformation section section on stress reinforced prestressed not stick to the
concrete end of program RAM Concept is based on material loosely of Naaman, Burns, French, Gable
and Mattock [Naaman, A. E. et. al, "stresses in unbonded Prestressing tendons at Ultimate:
Recommendation nghiation", ACI Structural Journal, V. 99, No. 4, July-August 2002, pp. 518-529]. In
the document, the author, a member of the Committee stresses in unbonded tendons of the Joint
ASCE-ACI Committee 423, Prestressed Concrete, proposed adjustment code for ACI 318.

Document also provides an equation to evaluate the stress reinforced prestressed in flexural final
section section. The proposed works are shown correlation with the test results better than 2.5 times
compared with the equations ACI 18-4 and 18-5. The equation is:

fps = FSE +u Ep cu (dp / c - 1) (L1/L2)
0.80fpu which
fps = stress reinforced prestressed in flexural strength after
the FSE = the stress effect in reinforced prestressed
Ep = elastic modulus of reinforced
prestressed
cu = Deformation of concrete (assumed typical 0.003)
dp = distance from grain compression outer core focus of reinforced prestressed.
c = depth of neutral axis in intensity after the
L = span is
considering
L1 = total length of the span loading
L2 = total length of reinforced prestressed between the anchor
u = K (dp / L) if K = 3 for load sync point or the third and 1.5 for load rate between
FPU = strength tensile strength is determined by the reinforced
prestressed and:


In that

p = Change deformation of concrete near the reinforcement prestressed from the stress of entry to
the
curling final

Instead of equation (and one for u) we have:
fps = FSE + K (dp / L) Ep p (L1/L2)
0.80fpu
It can be assumed L by L1 because it is likely that for two beats to simultaneously strain
inelastic large. Simplifying the equation, we have:

fps = FSE + Ep (KDP / L2) p
0.80fpu

In the above equation, (KDP / L2) is the coefficient of concession deformation allows distributed
deformation is localized on the length of reinforced prestressed. The numerator is the length of the
elastic (high distortion), while the denominator is the length on the deformation is distributed.

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47.1.6 The curve of stress - strain to survive without bond to concrete - Implementation of the
program
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The Ram Concept assumes that the stress strain after no adhesion to concrete is not affected by the load
use.

For intensity after the program Ram Concept handle reinforced prestressed not stick to the concrete as
part of reinforced prestressed have stick to concrete:

fps = F (pse + K p) flimit
which
fps = stress reinforced prestressed in flexural strength after
the

F () = curve stress-strain material stress following (presented above)

pse = Deformation of reinforced prestressed at the stress effect

p = Change deformation of concrete near the reinforcement prestressed from the stress effect to
flexural final

k = coefficient concession deformation, is said
to be 0.1

flimit = limit stress as defined by the code efficiency

For ACI 318-99, flimit is determined by the equations 18-4 and 18-5. When calculating the p in the
equation ACI program Ram Concept assumes reinforced prestressed be placed on the more profitable
of the central core prestressed (values stress limit equally be used for the calculation computing
capacity torque positive and negative in each section of the cut).

For AS 3600-2001, flimit defined by section 8.1.6. When calculating befdp in the equation AS,
program Ram Concept assumes reinforced prestressed be placed on the more profitable of the central
core prestressed (values stress limits equally be used for the calculation of capacity torque positive and
negative in each section of the cut).

47.1.7 The reinforced prestressed - Load out or force in?

The reinforced prestressed should be considered as external load for several purposes and the capacity
of for other purposes. Another important thing is the handling of reinforced prestressed match during
calculations.

The Ram Concept considers the reinforced prestressed is the driving force in the calculation of the
intensity. The whole force of reinforced prestressed is power in, while the impact of redundancy created
by the reinforced prestressed be considered as force out. Load balancing is never included in the load
combination is used to calculate the intensity, but loads of redundancy is always included (the external
load) when calculating intensity.

Program Concept always considered prestressed initially in reinforced prestressed as a force outside the
computing operations. The change in the stress of reinforced prestressed (from the stresses effective) -
if any - are seen as the driving force in. For example, if reinforced prestressed with adhesion to the
concrete effects of stress with the effective interest finally 175 ksi (1207 N/mm2), but applied loads
used in the result structure when increased stress of 185 ksi (1276 N/mm2), the Program Concept will
consider changes to the rate of 10 ksi (69 N/mm2) is the power in, while the initial capacity 175 ksi
(1207 N/mm2) assumptions will be considered in the load applied. For this reason, to load balance
should always be included in the load combination is used to calculate operations, payload redundancy
should not be included in performance calculations.
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47.1.8 The reinforced prestressed - including force vector on the cross-sectional

The reinforced prestressed be excluded from section section if they cross section at angles less than 15
degrees (ie, if they are nearly parallel to the cross-section).

47.1.9 The reinforced prestressed - calculate the number of tubes reinforced prestressed

The calculation of the number of tubes reinforced prestressed against the rules about how the bar code
to use:

integer tubes reinforced prestressed calculated from the range of reinforced prestressed and Aps
/ tubes reinforced prestressed identified

then adjust the number of vector components of reinforced prestressed

This is true even if the angle of reinforced prestressed to cross-section, the condition is reinforced
prestressed be considered in cross-section (see 47.1.8).

47.1.10 The curve of stress - deformation of concrete

The Ram Concept uses curve stress - plastic deformation of parabolic concrete based on the general
stress - deformation of parabolic of the Portlanh Cement Association [see Note PCA on ACI 318-99
requirements set building code for structural concrete, Figure 6-8]. This curve is used for both the
intensity and analyze cross-sectional use. The curve is determined total by two parameters:

f'c = Intensity form cylindrical concrete
Ec = elastic modulus of concrete (tangent line at deformation zero)

Parameter third deformation in the behavior of concrete changes from parabolic to linear, are:

0 = 2 (0.85 f'c) / Ec
for c <0
(deformation) fc = 0
For 0 < c <0 (Range parabolic)
fc = 0.85 f'c [2 (c/0) - (c/0) 2]
for (Range plasticity)
fc = 0.85 f'c
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47.1.11 Influence creep and
shrinkage

The Ram Concept consideration of creep and shrinkage in any cross-section by adjusting the curve
deformation stress concrete into:

= F (( -cs) / kc)
in which:
= Stress in concrete

kc = coefficient of creep of concrete (typically 3:35 = 2.35
+ 1.0)

= Deformation in section section

cs = Deformation due to
shrinkage

f () = curve stress - strain term concrete materials

Curves of stress - strain concrete adjustments are used only in ECR calcs.
Never been used to predict the performance section of the same or section is cracked.

Note: ACI 209 to report the value of 3:35 is the values average. File Ram Concept applications this
value is the default value.

47.1.12 Analysis section cracked

The Ram Concept performance analysis section cracked by repeatedly solving the deformed cross-
section (deformation above and below) leads to the bending moment cross-section and its axial
direction by the torque and power Axial apply.

In the analysis section is cracked, the program concept as concrete no tensile strength. Because
concrete Obviously some tensile strength, assuming the program's concept is considered concrete
previously cracked by the load conditions other. The assumption of program Concept is peaceful.
Assuming cracked before it is used to determine the stress section section cracked and the moment of
inertia is cracked. This assumption does not affect the calculation ECR by formula Branson does not
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consider moment of inertia cracked unless the stress cross-section beyond modulus destroyed.
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When cross-sections without concrete, the strain tensile analyzed with analysis section cracked,
measures analysis of program Concept resulting analysis section are converted.

The parameters considered in the analysis section cracked the code of the

For ECR (ratio curvature effect) calcs Only - coefficient of variation as defined in the door
Window Calc Options. This coefficient is the value of (total deformation under stress invariant)
/ (strain initially with stress); typical value is 3:35 (1.0 for the initial deformation and 2:35 for
deformation creep)

For ECR calcs Only - Deformation due to shrinkage as defined in the window Calc Options.

Curves of stress - strain concrete instantaneous standard as defined above.

The reinforced soft (from the rules) in each section of the cut - this is the value obtained from
the scope of the Design Status of the painted steel, this value is slightly smaller than the value of
the reinforcement details (number of bars and length).

Do not consider the movement of the concrete due to reinforcement.

Curve stress deformation of reinforced prestressed for type rules (see section "The core
prestressed - external load or force in? "). The analysis section is not cracked against the rules
- such as Minimum Design - that which does not have that kind of stress strain curve
prestressed reinforcement attached.

47.1.13 Stress ratio Branson

The most common methods for determining the effective moment of inertia of the concrete park is
Branson formula:

Ie = (Mcr / Ma) 4

Ig + [1 - (Mcr /
Ma) 4] ICR In that
Ie = effective moment of
inertia
Ig = moment of inertia of the concrete
ICR = moment of inertia of cracked
concrete
Mcr = cracking moment of the cross
section
Ma = torque applied

Because Branson formula does not consider the axial force can be (especially in the structure after
stress), we proceed to adjust the formula to consider axial forces:

Ie = (FCR / fa) 4

Ig + [1 - (FCR /
fa) 4] ICR In that
FCR = tensile strength of concrete
curved
fa = tensile stress in the fiber cross-sectional area (based on the characteristics of the
cross section)

If there is no axial force, the formula is the same formula Branson. If the axial force, this formula is a
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reasonable extrapolation (theoretically but not identical) formula of Branson.
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We call this value (FCR / fa) 4 is the "Branson stress ratio". Its value is always limited to less than or
equal to 1.0.

Note that the usual formula Branson is used to force a 3 instead of 4. Force 3 Proper torque peak rate
used to determine the effective moment of inertia for the entire span. Force 4 to determine the
appropriate moment of inertia of the effective local force local section [Branson, Dan E.,
"Instantaneous deflection over time and reinforced concrete beams of Simple and Continuous" Report
# 7, Part 1, Alabama Caoway Research Department, Bureau of Public Roads, August 1963, pp.1-78].

47.1.14 Calculate the effective rate of
curvature

The Ram Concept calculate "effective rate curve" in each cross section: ECR = Ce / Cg
In that

ECR = effective rate of
curvature
Ce = cross-sectional curvature effect (see below calc) Cg = the
sectional curvature

Ce is calculated by approximate
formula: Ce = (kc BSR Cg) + ((1 -
BSR) CCCS)
In that

kc = creep coefficient of concrete materials (usually 3:35) = total deformation / BSR = elastic
deformation Branson stress ratio (see "Branson stress ratio")
CCCS = sectional curvature may consider cracking, creep and shrinkage (see "Analysis of cracked
section")

Note that if the stresses remain below the cut surface tensile strength of concrete, the rate of
curve will be equal to the effective creep coefficient of
concrete materials (kc).

If after the stress is considered to be in force (not external load) for practical design rules, the
calculation of the cutting is done with the main force behind the force added to the count of its cross
section.

ECR value possible, though unusual, smaller creep coefficient of concrete materials (kc). These cases
happen if heavily reinforced that cracked stiffness (including concrete creep strength) greater than the
total hardness (including creep strength concrete).

47.1.15 The purpose of the
ECR

The ECR value is determined on the curvature of the cross-sectional area - need to convert them to the
rhythm of the deflection design facilities.

Span deflection corresponding to elastic energy in the rhythm. Just consider the bending energy of the
entire cross-section:


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ECR is considered "softening" of the entire hardware section, this equation would
be:
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From these two equations, we can create the beat for ease of deflection design:
Number of deflection = ecr /g
Number of deflection =

Number of deflection =

Note that some people have the ability to moderate the amorphous structure due to the bending
moment in the structure will be rearranged (sections harder to attract more torque) concession ecr.

Note: The number of deflection will always smaller than the largest value in the
ECR rate.

Note: Drawings deflection L.T. use of this material. See "Using the drawing deflection by the term "on
page 475.

47.1.16 The predicted crack
widths

Unless the code is designed to use calculations to determine the width of crack assessment, Ram
Concept program will predict crack widths based on documents Frosch [Frosch, R. J., "Another Look
at Cracking and Crack Control in Reinforced Concrete," ACI Structural Journal, V. 96, No. 3, May-
June, 1999, pp. 437-442].

In cracked concrete, the concrete is assumed to be only a small bending tensile stresses, crack widths can
be calculated as:

wc =c sc in
which:
wc = width of
crack
c = Cross-sectional deformation at the crack sc =
projection distance cracked

Cross-sectional deformation (c) at the crack projection can be calculated easily cracked section
analysis by assuming "the section plane is always the plane."

Distance cracked (sc) less predictable.

For no adhesive reinforced with concrete, cracked distance can be expressed as: h sc 2 h
in which:

h = height of the tensile zone

For reinforced "non-slip" with concrete, cracked distance can be expressed as: d * sc
2 d *
in which:
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d * = distance from crack to the center of the nearest
reinforcement

= for single layer of reinforcement
including:

c = perpendicular distance (shortest) from the center of reinforced
concrete to sb = spacing of reinforcement

For deformed bars do not have the special coating (such as epoxy), Frosch said: sc = 2 d *
leads to the prediction largest crack width reasonable. Ram Concept program using this assumption,
but Hans d * to the maximum value of h (height cracked) only limited value in the control case without
adhesion to the reinforcing steel. The last equation Ram Concept program used to calculate the crack
width can be:

wc = 2 c d *

(D *

h)

For bars and the reinforcement layer, the reinforcement can be set so
that:

d * = reinforcement for i w
=
in which:

ci = perpendicular distance (shortest) from the concrete to the reinforcement key i si
= length along the surface of the concrete tensile specified for reinforced iw = width
of the concrete tensile

Ram Concept Program for the treatment consecutive d * (in 1 mm), with reinforced concrete adhesive
with which they have been reviewed to minimize the value of d *. When using the rear power stick with
concrete, each tube containing prestressed reinforcement is considered equivalent rebar. Skip tensioned
after the concrete from sticking and then stressed out. The prestressed reinforcement at less than 45
degree angle to the cross section are also ignored.

47.1.17 "Torque crack" is used in the design calculations

Many design codes require cross-sectional area must have a capacity of at least minimal torque
multiplied factor (usually 1.2) compared to the load of the cracked cross section. Cracking load from:

FCR = (ML + MB) / S - (PL + PB) / A

in which:

FCR = stress cracking
ML = bending moment due to the load applied to the crack time
MB = bending moment due to load balancing (similar notation ML)
S = section modulus for bending direction (in many places is Z)
PL = axial compression load applied by the time crack
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PB = axial compression load
balancing by A = cross-sectional
area

ML Solutions, we have:

ML = (FCR + (PL + PB) / A) S - MB

Suppose PL zero: ML =
(FCR + PB / A) S - MB
Replace MB with MP + MH and PB with PP
+ PH: ML = (FCR + (PP + PH) / A) S - (MP
+ MH)
in which:

MP = bending moment stress after
"core" MH = bending moment stress
after redundancy PP = axial
compression stress after the "core"
PH = axial compression stress after redundancy (typically negative)

Multiplying by 1.2 is "1.2 times the cracking load":

1.2 ML = 1.2 (FCR + (PP + PH) / A) S - 1.2 (MP + MH)

For the design bending moment, bending moment of redundancy added:

MD = 1.2 ML + MH = 1.2 (FCR + (PP + PH) / A) S - 1.2 (MP + MH) + MH

Simplified:

MD = 1.2 (FCR + (PP + PH) / A) S - 1.2 MP - 0.2 MH

Typically the assumption that zero PH: MD =
1.2 (FCR + PP / A) S - 1.2 MP - 0.2 MH
Typically (but technically incorrect) 0.2 MH ignored, torque equation final design:

MD = 1.2 (FCR + PP / A) S - 1.2 MP

47.1.18 Identify concrete "core"

"Core" of the cross section is used in many different calculations.

See "Core Cutting" on page 91 Chapter 21, "Defining The designs range" to interpret the the
core.

Test tubes containing prestressed reinforcement in the cores.

o tubes containing prestressed reinforcement is assumed to be at the same height and
width assumed to be rectangular. For tubes containing standard prestressed
reinforcement, the This assumption allows approximation moderate overlap knee.
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o tubes containing prestressed reinforcement is assumed to lie between prestressed
reinforced that we have (this is not true in the real structure, but this assumption rarely
affect the computation results).

o Any horizontal line through the core that will be tested to determine the overall width of
the tube containing the largest prestressed reinforced through cutting range. Width tubes
reinforced with prestressed concrete adhesion with wide tubes and reinforced
prestressed no adhesion to the concrete with different coefficients for each code. For
example, in 8110 BS, considering 2/3 of the width of the tube is prestressed reinforced
with concrete adhesive, and full width of the tube reinforced prestressed no adhesion to
concrete. For ACI, the coefficient is zero, so the width of the tube reinforced prestressed
not included.

Width equal to the width of the core sheet and the total width of the largest pre-stressed
reinforced tubes Power cut through the scope.

47.1.19 The problem of torque

Ram Concept Program may consider twist on the cross sectional area in four different ways, depending
on the characteristics of the design range segment or section design. The four ways are:

Measures to be considered are:

Beams

o Considered in the design twist with torsion beam equation code.

As the cutting force

o Assumptions must be fully twist by changing the shear length L through "core" cross
section.
o Cutting force on a unit length of the v = 6 T / L2
o Shear design is Vd = V + / - 6 T / L

As flexure

o Considering twist by adding torque to bending moment and flexural design for total
combined Md = M + / - T.

Wood-Armer

o See "Twist Design Wood-Armer".

Not

o Do not look at the roll in any way.

47.1.20 Twist Design Wood-Armer

Force selected this new twist design allows designers to use methods "Wood-Armer" to handle the
torque of the publication.

To have this twisted design options, a new cross-sectional analysis of, Absolute Twist,
were calculated.
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Absolute Twist can draw, as shown in Figure 29-5,Chapter 29, "Drawing Results".

When selecting Twisted Wood-Armer design, each group of design capacity is converted into two
groups of design capacity, similar to the original except for the torque group design was changed to:

Md = M + AT, and
Md = M - AT
In that AT = Absolute Twist

Wood-Armer Measures (previously developed by Wood and Armer) will be applied at each point on
the; methodology of Concept program is to extrapolate the measures used in the cross-sectional area.

Measures Wood-Armer NOT apply for girders, and not recommended to apply strips beams.

References

Wood, R. H., "The Reinforcement of Slabs in Accordance with a Pre-Determined Field of
Moments," Concrete, vol. 2, pp. 69-76, February 1968.

Armer, G. S. T., "Discussion," Concrete, vol. 2, pp. 319-320, August 1968.
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48 Notes concession load

This chapter details how to implement rebate programs load of RAM Concept.

48.1 Zhejiang reduce load on the load, the load combination and the rules

Ram Concept Program rebate applied load for each load of each column, puncture test, strip segment
designs and design section. For example, the system can be reduced when the other column for Live
Load (Maybe rebate) compared to the activity load (cumulative).

48.1.1 Load

But Ram Concept Program rebate calculation load for a load (and a component), but the concession
does not affect the analysis of load. The analytical results show that Concept program to load is not
reduced by reducing load extraction methods.

48.1.2 The load combination and the rules

When Ram Concept program combined load on the load combination, the program takes into account
the issue of concession load each load is added to the load combination. The analytical results show
that Concept program for the load combination is always a concession by concession load method.

Similarly the Concept program covering the load combination of the rules, taking into account the
extraction trinhit load reduction due to all the load combination which has been adjusted by the
discount factor reduced. The analytical results show that Concept program for the rule is always a
concession by concession load method.

Note: Keep in mind that the only concession Concept program load on the column, puncture test, the
strip segment designs and design section.

Note: See the "Watch see the results concession load" on page 131 for more information.

48.2 The calculated branching
section

When the load on the structure, it is usually assigned to each structural parts a "cross-arm" that the
prop department (alone). The determination is made by analyzing the simple to the naked eye. Fixed
cross-sectional area is not really supported by only one department which it is assigned. The impact of
load synchronous (real) parts similar to the effect that the entire load of the branch section shall apply
to the department. Most designers use code branch section as the main parameter when calculating
load concession.

Ram Concept program calculates the branch section by applying the load to the unit and analyze the
entire flow of the vertical force. The branch section for the following parts from the unit load as
follows:

Columns - vertical jet, but not less than zero.

Walls - (currently no
concession).

Check breakthrough - vertical jet, but not less than zero.
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The designs range segment - the absolute value of the difference between the longitudinal force
at both ends. When the distribution
forming the rhythm, then the calculation, using the combined segments of branching section.

The design section - absolute value of shear.

With the above calculations, the total cross-sectional area of the arm and the column wall as possible
(but not common) exceeds the total cross section of the floor. This occurs when one or more of the
moisture jet.

48.3 The affected section calculations

ASCE-7 and IBC 2003 uses "section affected" instead of branching section when calculating load
concession. Impact cross sections are defined as "more of the floor surface effects to influence other
structural zero".

None of the affected section when using BS 6399 or AS / NZ 1170.1.

Ram Concept program using manual methods seek to calculate the effects section. These measures tend
to identify the same section as the section that engineers can see, but these measures are not calculated
cross section is identical to measures that engineers calculate by hand. The affected section of Concept
program can be shown on the plan view should be able to check the details of the program concept
using the rebate calculation load.

According to ASCE-7 and IBC 2003, the Concept section limits the impact larger multiples of the
section following branches:


Branch cross-
sectional area


Multip
les

The column

4

Check pierced

4


The band beam
design


2

The range of the
design

1

Figure 48-1 deficit was the largest number of branches
affected section

48.3.1 For example, the affected
section

Figure 48-2 to Figure 48-6 section shows the impact of program RAM Concept and the effect section
engineers often use the conditions for a few.

Many engineers can recommend (mistakenly) that branch of the cross section of the column Figure 48-
2 is 600 square feet, but the obvious effect continuously increasing values. From these results suggest
that the fact that section 952 branch square feet.
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Figure 48-2 The layout with dimensions in feet from the center line between the column wall. The
engineer will affect that section of 2400 square feet.





Figure 48-3 The affected section of the column and puncture test as calculated by Ram Concept
Program
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Figure 48-4 The segmented design strips





Figure 48-5 The affected section segments are designed to strip by Ram Concept Program
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Figure 48-6 The affected section of the column and puncture test for uneven floors.

48.4 Concession ASCE-7 load

Concession ASCE-7 load is defined in section 4.8 code. The load on the affected parts with smaller
cross-sectional area affected 400 square feet is not adjusted by reducing load extraction methods.

ASCE-7 requirements that exceed 100 psf live load and the load from the garage will not be a
concession, except for parts of two or more floor support may be reduced to 20% discount on code
sections 4.8.2 and 4.8.3. Two types of loads must be drawn on a load of "Works loads (cumulative)" to
be considered appropriate.

ASCE-7 requires that the load is less than 100 psf in the public sector can not use the rebate under
section 4.8.4. The load must be drawn on a load of "Works loads (not concessions)" to be considered
appropriate.

Sectional area of the branch as a method is not limited by section 4.8.5. However, if the bandwidth
limits designed to span 1.5 times the length, and behave in a way that's written, it will meet the
requirements of this code.

Note: In practice, ASCE-7 define "factor applies" not "rebate factor" (factor rebate = 1 - factor
applied).

48.5 Concession load IBC 2003

IBC 2003 rebate load is defined in the code section 1607.9. The load on the affected parts with smaller
cross-sectional area affected 400 square feet is not adjusted by reducing load extraction methods.

IBC 2003 requirements that exceed 100 psf live load and the load from the garage will not be a
concession, except that the department supports two or more floors can be a concession to 20%
according to the code section 1607.9.1.1 and 1607.9.1.2. Two types of loads must be drawn on load
"Works loads (cumulative)" to be considered appropriate.
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IBC 2003 requires that the load is less than 100 psf in the public sector can not use the rebate under
section 1607.9.1.3. The load must be drawn on load "Works loads (not concessions)" to be considered
appropriate.

Do not allow the load concession to a local copy on the 1607.9.1.4. Ram Concept program never loads
the concession as a means if chosen IBC 2003.

Note: In fact, IBC 2003 determining "factor applies" not "rebate factor" (rebate coefficient = 1 -
factor applied).

48.6 Concession load UBC 1997

UBC 1997 rebate load is defined in code section 1607.5. The load on the affected parts with sections
150 square feet smaller branches are not adjusted by reducing load extraction methods.

Do not consider equation (7-2) [R = 23.1 (1 + D / L)] when calculating load concession. The user
should calculate and report placed the value of the largest concession.

1997 UBC requires that the cumulative load exceeds 100 psf will not be a concession, except that the
load on the column can be reduced to 20% discount. The load must be drawn on the load weight
(cumulative) to be considered appropriate.

1997 UBC requires that the other load exceeds 100 psf or in public places can not use the rebate. The
load must be drawn on Live Load weight (can not concession) to be considered appropriate.

UBC may use 1997 as alternate IBC 2003 by IBC concession load of 09/02/1607. For small loads of
parking in UBC 1997 higher loads smallest parking IBC 2003, the application of the provisions of the
parking concessions load UBC IBC 1997 to 2003 is probably not appropriate. For this reason, the load
garage will be painted on the load weight (cumulative) and would therefore be a maximum of 20%
rebate on the rebate column and load up the other parts.

48.7 Concession load AS / NZS 1170.1-2002

Concession load AS / NZS 1170.1 defined in section 3.4.2 code.

When using the AS / NZS 1170.1 to make concessions load, load only the category "Works loads
(Maybe rebate)" new concessions. Load load (cumulative) is assumed to have the bigger load of 5 kPa
and therefore can not rebate under 3.4.2 (ii).

No concession to the influence of the load on an under 3.4.2 (v).

For the other parts, a concession was calculated using the formula in 3.4.2 (b).

Note: In fact, the 3.4.2 define "factor applies" not "rebate factor" (factor rebate = 1 - factor applied).

48.8 BS 6399-1:1996 concession load

Concession load is defined in BS 6399 code sections 6.1 to 6.3. Only load the
category "Works loads (Maybe rebate)" new concessions.
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For columns, the values from Table 2 and Table 3 codes and two concessions are larger are used. For
other parts, the value of Table 3 are used.

For the column, the moment and shear values are concession by concession as the coefficient value of
axial force, which is different from what has been identified in the note in section 6.2 BS 6399. This
does not affect any of the programs designed to Ram Concept (or structural system RAM), but it
affects the jet column values are reported.

Do not use the rebate to the load in a way and two-way.

48.9 Concession load IS 875 (part 2) - 1987

IS 875 rebate load is defined in section 3.2 code.

For the column, just load the category "Works loads (Maybe rebate)" are concessions. For beams, the
load "Works loads (Maybe rebate)" and "Works loads (Cumulative)" are concessions.

For columns, tables in section 3.2.1 is implemented. The 5 kN/m2 specified in section 3.2.1.1 is not
done.

For the column, the moment and shear values are concession by concession coefficient values as axial
force.

For beams, the concession in section 3.2.2 is implemented. The limitations of the "a" to "d" is not done
because the load on the load layer "Works loads (Maybe rebate)" or "Works loads (Cumulative)" can
be assumed rebate .

Concession load is not used for a local copy, the two methods and the puncture test.

48.10 Nail the

In support of the foundation design column (and / or wall) supporting the upper deck, concession
should apply load to the load instead of the power department. The load should be reduced when the
force instead of division for two reasons: 1) have a clear understanding of the branch section for the
load though (rong most cases) there is no clear understanding of branch section for the design range,
and 2) the need to perform repetitive reaction of ground zero tensile load with the rebate.

For the foundation, rebate code load is always reported as "None". If the load can not be reduced when
twice.

The base load is entered from the structural system RAM will be automatically reduced when
appropriate (by RAM Structural System). The user loads due to the rebate drawing by hand.

48.11 The department issues special interest

48.11.1 The column on
the

The column on the branch section will be zero and zero impact section assigned to them in the cross
section calculations automatically. If you want to apply to the concession load on the column, you need
to define sections manually.

48.11.2 The column above and
below the
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When the jet on the top and bottom of the column are reported together, the rebate under the column
load to be used.

Because of this, the reaction should be reported as separate columns and columns will not necessarily
sum to the reported jet upper and lower columns.
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49 The reinforced
Note

This chapter provides information on the Ram Concept Program details using rhythm, calculate the
length of the reinforcement and development of layout and details of how reinforcement.

49.1 Details
rhythm

"Details rhythm" is the process of determining the maximum required reinforcement area (usually
between metric or rhythm) and then reinforced by expanded codes or rules defined by the user .

Details on the code rate of the rules by the current building code regulations. Reinforcement details for
this rhythm may be asymmetric, depending on whether continuous rhythm. Selection rate code details
rules using the current code for the rate constant and finally (as well as the cantilever), if possible.
Details of the program code rhythm Concept generally done a few, but not all, of the detailed rules for
determining code. See detailed rate code for more information (Sections 49.1.3,49.1.4,49.1.5 and 49.1.6
inpage 342).

The detailed rules of rhythm defined by the user is controlled through the following screen by Criteria>
Detailing The TACS.





Figure 49-1 The detailed parameters rhythm (Criteria> Detailing The
TACS)

A, B, and C are the different reinforcement details used to support local rebar. E, F, and G are the
different reinforcement is used to rate the details of the rebar. Each set comes with reinforced
"fraction" of reinforcing steel is fixed to the top of it. Total three fractions always between 0 and 1.
The value of R1, R2 is the coefficient multiplied by the length of span to achieve the desired length of
the bar.

The detailed rules on the use of rhythm is always symmetric in a rhythm (but not in the cantilever).
Value "R1" is applied to the cantilever to cantilever assumed as part of a full rhythm to resist bending
point, is assumed to be 20% of the length of a continuous rhythm (hence application of the Luke 5).

Details rhythms are controlled by rhythm dialog segments. See 21.5,Chapter 21, "Defining The designs
range ".
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Figure 49-2 Dialog segment nhipi

49.1.1 The detailed calculation of Concept Program

Two sets of results are included in the Design Concept program - there are no more details rhythm and
beat.

No more simple beats review the results have not extended any more reinforcement for rhythm. Call the
raw reinforced.

There are details to consider rate results, as the reinforcement details as a minimum
requirement.

Much has been edited for profile chart "rate details". Inside the zone does not require development
assistance (the reinforcement has been developed to assist in the system). Also, for the cantilever,
require detailed rhythm section was removed from the final cut to the beat. In addition, the reinforced
profile, at the end of each pass, the reinforcement of development were calculated from assumed
AsRaw and length requirements is to develop and apply the most AsDenho as required in each cross-
sectional area.

49.1.2 Details rate
assumption

Here are the common assumption when performing
detailed rate:

Reinforced peak in each region is determined by taking the largest reinforcement required in
each cross section in the following areas:

Support system - from generation to 0.15L help in rhythm

Rhythm - from 0.35L to 0.65L

For the cantilever, the whole rhythm is considered to be located in that area, and there is no
rhythm to be considered in the rhythm
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For systems not supporting rate is determined, the whole rhythm is considered to be located in
the rhythm, and the rhythm does not have to be considered in the support

The calculations consider gauge length interest rate to help us, or stride rate, depending on the
rules of code (see the code for more specific details: the section 49.1.3,49.1.4,49.1.5 and
49.1.6).

The bar length is calculated considering the width needed support system (see code for more
specific details)

In support system, spans the length of the bar close to be considered to keep the bar in the middle
of details can help us. If the rate is close to the other fractions with fractions will be discussed in
detail, the length of the bar for this rate is determined by selecting a fraction longer than the
length of the following:

o beat length and the fraction length of the bar corresponds to the

o beat length and the fraction length of any bar that spans close with fractions Knee
overlap fraction of the bar

Details beats are made in excess 0 before the start of the design stage. The following outlines the
process exceeds 0:

1 The reinforcement determined by the user are canceled from the cross-sectional area of
rhythm.

2 The first pass is usually designed in rhythm (with the reinforcement determined by the user are
canceled).

3 From designs created, reinforced peak in each area (system support and rhythm) are detailed
according to user defined rules or more rate codes.

4 The reinforcement determined by the user's request from step 3, resulting in the required "rate
details" beyond the last 0. Design creates the excess 0 can be approximated if the reinforcement
determined by the user is drawn not have the same characteristics as reinforced by the design program
at that location. Reinforced the final design for each cross-section, which will be determined later in
the over, always accurate.

The detailed design requirements exceed the rate 0 is used as the starting point for the detailed design
spans beyond 2.

49.1.3 The rules detailed rate code ACI 318-99, ACI 318-02 and ACI 318-05

RC beams and in a way the Rule 12.12.3 be done in that area. For this regulation, the inflection
point is assumed to be 30% rate from the system navigation support. ACI 12.11.1 done in the
rhythm.

The way the two RC Figure 13.3.8 (no drop panel) was carried out in the region and help us
beat.

Beams PT, according to a local copies, and the two-way rule 18.9.4.2 is done in that area. Rule
18.9.4.1 is done in the rhythm.

49.1.4 The rules detailed rate code AS 3600 - 2001
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RC beams and PT Rule 8.1.8.6 (a) and (b) is performed in the rhythm generation
and support.

The version in an RC and PT Figure 9.1.3.2 are supported and implemented in the regions
pace.

The two copies in Figure 9.1.3.4 RC and PT are supported and implemented in the areas of
rhythm.

49.1.5 The rules detailed rate code BS 8110 - 1997

And the RC beams, beams PT and in a way the Figures 3:24 and 3:25 are supported and
implemented in the areas of rhythm.

The way the two PT TR-43 6.10.6 rules are implemented in the region and support the rhythm.

49.1.6 The rules detailed rate code IS 456 - 2000

RC beams and PT and in a way the rule 26.2.3.4 is done in that area. For this regulation, the
inflection point is assumed to be 30% rate from the system navigation support. Rules
26.2.3.3 is done in the rhythm.

The two copies in the RC and PT Figure 16 (without drop panel) was carried out in the region
and help us beat.

49.2 Length development / anchoring
the

Note: The term length is used in the development of this program. In many countries, the term is used to
keep the anchor length is more developed.

This section presents an overview of the development length calculation is done in Ram Concept
program.

The calculated length of program development concept can be processed according to the rules of code,
or length can develop user-defined for special rebar as multiples of the diameter bar.

General Principles used to calculate the developed length is:

Distance of not more than twice as loud protection smallest class. It is the responsibility of the
user, not Concept and implementation of program control.

Each ID code is desired length expansion outside the limits of reinforcement theory.

Expand the desired length of ACI 318, BS 8110, IS 456 and is the largest length d (effective
depth) or 12 times the diameter of the bar. This is required primarily for demolition drag curve
cross-sections without horizontal shear reinforcement can move the location of the tensile stress
is calculated at the bar near d (effective depth) to the zero moment point . See section 12.10.3
ACI 318, BS 8110 3.12.9.1, and IS 456 26.2.3.1.

For AS 3600, expand the desired length, D, is used to meet regulations
8.1.8.1 required torque chart is used to convert the design. But it does not have to comply with
strict regulations code is near the head of the department, but still meet the design goals is far
from the end.
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For audio user-defined, the effective development of any point along the bar are the following
chart. Do not apply this method to AS 3600 - see 49.2.2 page page 344 for more details.

o First used by the user to identify close to the edge can not be used to expand the length
desired expansion is zero.

o For any length less than the length of any extension, the development is effectively
zero.

o For any length greater than or equal to the length desired expansion, but the length is
less than fully developed, the percentage of development is effective (provided length)
/ (length play fully developed) x 100%. Then consider the fraction of each bar to be
developed.

o For any length greater than the length of full development, the development is 100%
effective.





Figure 49-3 The development effectively at any point along the bar. (Not applicable to AS3600 - see
Figure 49-4)

When the bar layout designed by the program, the program will use the concept of choice First
on the list match the following:

o Head straight to the bar length fully developed and fully extended length.

o Head straight to the bar length fully developed and extended length part (or none)

o the bar with a length of hook 90 hook 90 degrees Development

o hook the bar with a length of 180 degrees 180 degrees hook development

o First bar length anchored no development

If the bar near the edges than the topcoat is determined, the radio will automatically be labeled
"neoed" Concept of the program and is considered to be fully developed.

Do not consider the length of audio compression development. Tensile development length used
in
all positions if required reinforcement development regardless of the actual stress on the rebar.

49.2.1 Length development ACI 318-99, 318-02, 318-05
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Tensile development length straight base is calculated by Equation 12-1. The following coefficients
used in this equation:

= Coefficient Position Reinforced

"Concrete under" a depth of between rebar and concrete under section
1.3 for concrete under> 12 inches
1.0 for concrete under <12 inches

= Coefficient of government

1.5 for epoxy-coated bars with protective layer (the middle bar) less than 3dB (distance not
included)
1.2 bar for other epoxy
1.0 for non-stick coated

Note: Products not be greater than 1.7.

= Reinforcement size factor

For less than 0.8 bar # 6
Greater than 1.0 for bar # 7

= Coefficient of lightweight aggregate concrete

1.3 for concrete density < 120 pcf
1.0 for concrete density> 120 pcf

c = protection class size, the vertical distance from the middle bar to the nearest concrete surface
(distance not considered)

(C + KTR) / db is not greater than 2.5
KTR = is assumed to be equal to zero
For the development of standard equipment, tensile development length are essentially the following
equation:





The following factors are used to adjust the length of the base:

The coefficient of elasticity of the bar strength = fy / 60 if the ksi fy (12.5.3.1)

Coefficient of lightweight aggregate concrete: (12.5.3.5)

o 1.3 for concrete density < 120 pcf
o 1.0 for concrete density> 120 pcf

Reinforced epoxy coefficient = 1.2 (12.5.3.6)

The coefficients / not following rules are used:
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o Concrete protection (12.5.3.2) and reinforcement belt (12.5.3.3)

According to ACI 318 12.10.3, extended length is used for this code is 12 db or effective depth of the
section, is the largest vertical distance between the rebar from the concrete surface to farthest.

49.2.2 Length develop AS 3600 2001

For audio user-defined, the effective development of any point along theothanh are Figure 49-
4.

o First bars defined by the user closer to the edge so that it can not be expanded will be
used to expand the desired length is zero. In other cases, dimensional expand the
desired length is D, the overall depth of the section

o For any length that is less than desired length D expansion, the development of
effective zero.

o For any length greater than or equal to the extension length, but the length is less than
fully developed, the percentage is the effective development (provided length - the
desired length expansion) / (full grown length) x 100%. Then consider the fraction of
each bar to be developed.

o For programs designed by the bar, the bar is presented in detail, the development
length of the bar is fully extended length plus the desired extension. If the bar can not
extend the full length of this desire, the program will attempt to expand the concept just
straight development length of the bar, then the length of the 90 development
equipment, and machinery development length of 180 degrees . If there is not enough
space to expand to meet any of the conditions, "anchor" will be placed at the end of the
bar and will be treated as if they were fully developed from that point.





Figure 49-4 The development effectively at any point along the bar to the torque chart can not be
moved (for AS3600 ONLY)

Length straight tensile development are fundamental equation 13.1.2.1 (a). The following factors
it is used in this equation: k1 = coefficient
Position Reinforced
o "Concrete under" the depth of the middle bar to the bottom section of concrete
o 1:25 to concrete under> 300 mm o
1.0 for concrete under < 300 mm o
k2 = 2.4 (moderate)
o fsy = elastic stress of the bar
o Ab = cross-sectional range of rebar
o 2a + db = double vertical distance from the concrete surface closest to the middle bar
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In addition, the following coefficients (from ACI 318) is
applied:

system of government

o 1.5 for epoxy-coated bars with protective layer (the middle bar) less than 3dB (distance
not included)
o 1.2 bar for other epoxy
o 1.0 for non-stick coated

coefficient of lightweight aggregate concrete:

o 1.3 for concrete density < 1900 kg/m3
o 1.0 for concrete density> 1900 kg/m3

For the development of standard equipment, tensile development length is basically half the length of
the straight tensile developed under Article 13.1.2.4.

According to 8.1.8.1, extended length is used for this code is the overall depth of the section. This
expansion is applied in addition to the length of the development as required. Concept Program length
extended to apply to meet code requirements prescribed displacement boundary bending moment by the
distance D. There are many differences between the methods of Concept program code and regulations:

In most cases, the bars extend the distance D exceeds the length of the development as required
to meet the purposes of the code.

Near the top part, where the torque graph will move designed to increase torque, the program
will design Concept to torque chart is not adjusted, but will still ensure it meets the proper
development.

49.2.3 Length development BS 8110-1997

Tensile development length straight base is calculated by equations 48 and 49 combined.



The equation is:

in which:

elastic stress fy = db = bar
diameter of the bar
= Coefficient of material concessions intensity
= 0.5 (assuming a 2 bar type with the smallest link in the beam)

Note: If using the outside bar type 2 deformed bars or if no such smallest links in Table 3.7, the length
of the development will need to be determined by hand with the aid of Table 3:27.

In addition, the following coefficients (from ACI 318) is
applied:

system of government
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o 1.5 for epoxy-coated bars with protective layer (the middle bar) less than 3dB (distance
not included)
o 1.2 bar for other epoxy
o 1.0 for non-stick coated

coefficient of lightweight aggregate concrete:

o 1.3 for concrete density < 1900 kg/m3
o 1.0 for concrete density> 1900 kg/m3

For the development of machinery, inside bend radius is assumed to be 2 dB for the bar diameter less
than or equal to 18mm and 3.5dB for bars larger than 18mm in diameter.

For the 90-degree hook, the hook anchoring effect of 4 times the radius of curvature of not exceeding
12db in 3.12.8.23 (b)

For the hook 180 degrees, the effect of mechanical anchoring 8 times the radius of curvature of the
parties does not exceed 24dB in 3.12.8.23 (a)

According to 3.12.9.1, extended length is used for this code is 12 db or effective depth of the section, is
believed to be the largest vertical distance between the rebar from the concrete surface to farthest.

49.2.4 Length development IS 456-2000

Length straight tensile development are fundamental terms 26.2.1:



in which:

fy = elastic stress of the bar
= Diameter of bar
= Design bond stress is given in Table 26.2.1.1

For deformed bars with high intensity, stress can stick them up 60 percent. Assuming rise to any
public bar with fy> 250 N/mm2.

In addition, the following coefficients (from ACI 318) is applied:

system of government

o 1.5 for epoxy-coated bars with protective layer (the middle bar) less than 3dB (distance
not included)
o 1.2 bar for other epoxy
o 1.0 for non-stick coated

coefficient of lightweight aggregate concrete:

o 1.3 for concrete density < 1900 kg/m3
o 1.0 for concrete density> 1900 kg/m3
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For the development of machinery, bend radius is assumed to be within 2dB to stick with elastic stress
less than or equal to 250 N/mm2 and 4dB to stick with elastic stresses greater than 250 N/mm2.

For the 90-degree hook, the hook anchoring effect of 8 times the diameter of the bar
26.2.2.1 (1).

For the hook 180 degrees, the effect of mechanical anchor 16 times the diameter of the bar
26.2.2.1 (2).

According to 3.12.9.1, extended length is used for code Nayla 12 db or effective depth of the section, is
believed to be the largest vertical distance between the rebar from the concrete surface to farthest.

49.3 The Ram Concept reinforcement layout program like

Note: This section describes the layout of reinforced vertical programs of Concept program. Do not
consider horizontal reinforcement or SSR.

Program Concept design review of all the rhythm section and all the layout design of reinforced
program. Algorithm Concept layout of the program made the following 5 steps:

Step 1 Divide the required reinforcement
groups.

Concept sharing program requirements reinforced the rhythm and form similar groups according to the
following characteristics:

User rate - latitude and longitude

The hand - above or below

Front projection reinforced - the absolute reference of reinforced

User reinforced - see the direction of the reinforcing steel (always perpendicular to the cross
section section)

The requirements with similar characteristics are grouped together for further
processing.

Step 2 Find the area and the pillows stacked near the required

For each request, the program will search the Concept of the requirements can be met by the same
reinforced callout.

Step 3 Create the preliminary callout for each
zone

For the requirements of each region and create a program Concept of optimum rebar callouts have to
consider the cost factor is defined in the Options dialog box Calc. The callout this preliminary review
length development.

Step 4 Consider the length of
development

For each callout Preliminary Concept program will check all cross-sectional area and identify relevant
(to examine the cross section of the reinforcement and development of cross-sectional area of
reinforcement required in each cross section) the need to expand outside the bar cross-sectional area
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concerned.
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If you can not stick with the extension request (due to the required side or the top layer of sound
protection), examined the scope expanded concession machines use 90-degree or 180-level. If the
hook does not have a fully developed, the "anchors" will be placed at the end of the bar.

Note: Any bar is required to expand within the protected class, the distance of the next version will
have the "anchor".

Step 5 Switch the program reinforced focus

As this is the final step, the program conducted Concept convert audio callouts (including length and
develop the audio terms) the reinforcement program focus.

See "Reinforcement layout and the detailed parameters" on page 127,Chapter 27, "Calculation results".

49.4 Program Concept detailed user reinforcement and reinforced how the program

Program Concept create reinforcement bars from centralized and distributed by the users, making it
ever sound consideration when calculating a cross-sectional design and rhythm.

Also, the sound created by Concept program enables display rebar or programs used in perspective
drawing.

The bar has been tagged as "users" because they are directly generated from the use of reinforcement.

Concept program also generates sound from reinforced design focus. The radio program is only for
display and not used to calculate.

Reinforced focus and distribution is presented in detail in each bar in 5 steps as follows:

Step 1 Create a preliminary
layout of the bar

Using the shape of the reinforcing steel (rectangular or parallelogram bars for focus, and polygons for
distribution bars), reinforced the direction and distance / number of bars, Concept determine program
the preliminary layout of the bar parallel position.

For the Focus bar, the first bar and the last bar from the edge always be paired with a half bar spacing.

Step 2 Determine the projection of
sound

Each callout reinforced centralized or distributed with a high reference point. For reinforced focused,
high-level reference point is the location where the bar (symbol) and arrows intersect range. For
reinforcement distribution, elevation reference points are shown as circles in the middle of the bar
(symbolic).

Surface elevation and lower arches are determined at the reference point and elevation information,
along with reinforced high reference (absolute, on the surface, the roof, the upper mantle or lower
mantle) and the determine the value of absolute pitch of the sound generated by the callout. View the
picture 49-5 and 49-6.

Step 3 Determine the shape of the bar at high

For each of the high bar, Concept program will determine the shape of the. This shape can be
contiguous or shape of the individual shapes.
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Step 4 Tweaks preliminary layout of the bar in the shape of the
projection

Preliminary layout of the bar is in the shape of the tune is defined in step 3. In addition, the coating
upon request (as defined in the Options window Calc) can shorten the bar. This tweaks can transform
into a sound bar, or can be completely removed a stick.

Note that the first bar of "anchor" does not consider the required cover. We just tweaked the shape at
the height of the bar.

Step 5 Switch position radio tuned into liquidation

Finally, the conversion program Concept preliminary layout of the bar is tweaked into liquidation. The
conversion declare each one is created from sound reinforcement "users" into the "user" and the sound
generated by reinforcement "program" in the "program".

Note: Details of reinforcement using calculations take place before the detailed design and
reinforcement program takes place after the design calculations.





Figure 49-5 The ladder as a means of reinforcing steel with two identical objects unless the
corresponding position of the high points of reference.
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Figure 49-6 The program rebar by Concept detailed from Figure 49-5

49.5 Program Concept and the horizontal handle bar reinforced how

Program Concept and create horizontal reinforcement bar from the calculation results of shear and
torsion. Reinforcement was created to display only - not used in the calculations and can not be
changed reinforced "the user".

In the geometric complexity location (such as a multi-span beams in the design, or the curved beams),
Concept program can not be presented properly reinforced as required by the design calculations. Can
always see the exact amount of design drawings Design Selection of design layer status.

Note: spiral reinforcement required 2 feet always be chosen in the design rate. If not, the program's
design concept will be the exact number of overall reinforcement, but will not show the correct
selection of the opening and closing Reinforced belt.

Note: horizontal reinforcement as required by the design section is shown on the reinforcement layer.
This is another reason why the rhythm section designed like the design better.

49.6 Example 1: results
reinforced

The introduction of reinforced layers and details that the program reinforced Concept becomes
stronger and more complex.

The following example shows the effect, due to the two beats against the wall, of:

rate using detailed declaration code in the range of designs, and

the choice of different drawings

Layout and use Reinforcement Detailing Parameters selected in Calc
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two different sets of rules: the intensity and smallest code

49.6.1 Calculate the (only) the intensity

This section shows the results relate only to the intensity rule.

Layer design status

The following figure shows the influence of the detailed code for the reinforced layer design status.





Figure 49-7 Status Design: Front Projection reinforced

Note that the code details:

Longer bars above
the sidebar under continuous

Note: for example, "no detailing" very similar to the results with version 2.1.

Reinforced Layer

The following figure shows the detailed effects of the code on a layer of reinforced rebar.





Reinforced Figure 49-8: The standard reference

Note that:

This program is the sound rational to the sound of the density is consistent with
the radio program can be changed to bar users
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each sound can be represented by the visible objects
Concept Program detailed in the sidebar on the right support system with 90 degree bend
the

Influence of Reinforcement Layout and Detailing Parameters

Reinforcement Layout and Detailing Parameters affecting rebar layout, Figure 49 - 9 presents the
results reinforced the other with Figure 49-8 when changing a parameter (in this case, the number 3 Bar
Length Cost is not 1). See "Reinforcement layout and cost parameters Details "on page 127,Chapter 27,
"Calculation results".





Reinforced Figure 49-9: The standard reference for the declaration of Bar Length Cost is 3.

Layer design with the drawing status: Under no rhythm details:

For this drawing, detail design spans the range declaration code has no effect.





Figure 49-10 The layer drawing on Design Status: under [no details rhythm]

Note: See the 29.6,Chapter 29, "Drawing Results" for more information about the reinforcement
drawings.

Layer design with the drawing status: Detailed below are the rhythm:

Detailed drawings using drawing rhythm "horizon".
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Figure 49-11 The layer drawing on Design Status: Under [have more rhythm]

Note that the details of the rhythm strip design code declaration creates more reinforced.

Layer design with the drawing status: Under (Developed) have more rhythm:

The drawing is identical with "Under no details rhythm" (ie crude steel rod) for this example only uses
rule strength and reinforcement must be developed.





Figure 49-12 Status Design The drawing layer: this (development) have more rhythm

49.6.2 Smallest code and calculated intensity

This section presents the results that the smallest code rules and intensity are considered.

Reinforced Layer

The following figure shows the code minimum reinforcement and strength.


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Reinforced Figure 49-13: The reference standard

Note that the smallest design increases sidebar rhythm duo in no case left for detailing. View 49-8.

Layer design with the drawing status: Under no rhythm details:

For this drawing, detail design spans the range declaration code has no effect.





Figure 49-14 Status Design The drawing layer: bottom [No details rhythm]

Layer design with the drawing status: This is the rhythm details:

The detailed drawings using drawing rhythm "horizon".





Figure 49-15 The layer drawing on Design Status: Day [There rhythms Details]

Note that the details of the rhythm strip design code declaration creates more reinforced.

Layer design status with the draw: Day (Developed) no more rate:

The drawing is different from "Under no details rhythm" (ie crude steel rod) as the smallest
reinforcement not required to be developed.
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Figure 49-16 The layer drawing on Design Status: Day (Developed) No details rhythm

Layer design with the drawing status: Under (Developed) have more rhythm:

The drawing is different from "Day with details rhythm" (ie crude steel rod) for at least the first
reinforced support
not been developed, and thus rendering the value zero.

In addition, the crude steel rod was developed for detailed process design layer rate for continuous
deemed status, whether they have been developed or not, but at least partially developed.





Figure 49-17 Status Design The drawing layer: this (development) have more rhythm
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53 Design AS 3600-2001

This chapter presents the detailed implementation of the 3600-2001 program AS RAM Concept.
Six section outlines the following:
The default load

Default load combination

Load factor

Conduct materials

How to choose the code rules for cross-section design

How to code rules

53.1 The default load AS 3600-2001

This section provides information about the programs that load RAM Concept created by default when
starting a new file AS 3600-2001. Due to the purpose and function of most loads very clear, the
problem only notable new feature is presented here.

53.1.1 Temporary construction loads (when
stretched)

This type of load is temporary load present in the building when the contractor effects of stress
prestressed reinforcement. Since this is a temporary load, so generally only in the load combination
used initially.

If the presence of fixed load when stretched, should determine the layer payload temporary
construction loads (when stretched) and fixed layer load appropriately. Or, may be fixed taking into
account the present load when stressed with the proper use of the load factor.

53.2 Default load combination AS 3600-2001

This section provides information about the default load combination (technically, the load
combination) which programs startup RAM Concept create a new file AS 3600-2001. The purpose
and origin of each load combination is presented. You can remove or edit any of this load
combination. Also can add load combination. Load combination is from AS / NZS 1170.0, unless
shown otherwise.

The program uses the concept of load factor to determine the appropriate load combinations. In the case
of short-term, the coefficient Works with 1.0 for download (no rebate can be) and Live Load
(Cumulative) and 0.7 for another load. For the case of long-term combined ratio Works with 0.6 for
download (no rebate can be) and Live Load (Cumulative), Works 0.4 for download (concession can
be), and 0.0 for Live Load (Tran).

Note: Many load combination in the file (friends) is a Lateral Group and analyzed using "zero
tension". Because load combination analysis using "Accept zero drag" Alternate Envelope Factors
NOT use, so load combination in the file is expanded into multi-load combination. See Chapter 11,
"Defining load combination" for more information.
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53.2.1 The static load LC

This load combination synthesize all the static load, the load factor of 1.0, while activity in standard
conditions of use. This load combination information is for reference only - not programs use RAM
Concept to design.

53.2.2 LC initial use

Load combination is expected to examine the requirements for pre-stressed effects. The load factor
used are:

Load balancing: 1:15 (std & alt) (including an increase of 15% for the long-term loss, which usually
does not happen at this stage)

Note: Although born shrinkage of concrete short-term loss, but the program RAM Concept of loss due
to shrinkage of concrete is considered as a part of the overall long-term losses.

Static load itself: 0.8 (std) & 1:15 (alt)

Temporary construction loads (when stretched): 0.8 (std) & 1:15 (alt)

53.2.3 LC used: D + L

Load combination is expected to check the status of limited use. The load factor is used:

Load Balance: 1.0 (std & alt) Static
load: 1.0 (std & alt)
Load (concessions may be): 0.7 (std) & 0.0 (alt) Work load
(no rebate can be): 1.0 (std) & 0.0 (alt) Work load
(cumulative): 1.0 (std) & 0.0 (alt)
Load (Tran): 0.7 (std) & 0.0 (alt)

53.2.4 LC largest used: D + (1.0 | 0.0) L

Load combination is expected to check the status of limited use. The load factor is used:

Load Balance: 1.0 (std & alt) Static
load: 1.0 (std & alt)
Load: 1.0 (std) & 0.0 (alt)

53.2.5 LC Last: 1.35D

Load combination is expected to check the status of limited intensity. The load factor is used:

Super static load: 1.0 (std & alt)
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Static load: 1:35 (std) and 0.9 (alt)

53.2.6 LC Last: 1.2D + 1.5L

Load combination is expected to check the status of limited intensity. The load factor is used:

Super static load: 1.0 (std & alt)
Static load: 1.2 (std) and 0.9
(alt) load: 1.5 (std) & 0.0 (alt)
53.2.7 LC hammock not cracked LT

Load combination is expected to check the long-term deflection without regard to the issue of cracks.
The load factor is:

Load balancing: 3:35 (std & alt) [1.0 + 2.35 initial creep] Static load:
3:35 (std & alt)
Load (concessions may be): 1.64 (std & alt) [0.4 (3.35) + (0.7-0.4)] Live Load
(concession can not be): 2:41 (std & alt) [0.6 (3:35) + (1.0-0.6)] Work load
(cumulative): 2:41 (std & alt) [0.6 (3.35) + (1.0-0.6)]
Load (Tran): 0.7 (std & alt) [0.0 (3.35) + (0.7-0.0)]

53.2.8 LC used by wind: D + L + W (Wind Load of use)

Load combination is expected to check the status of limited use to the wind and the applied load. The
load factor is used:

Load Balance: 1.0 (std & alt) Static
load: 1.0 (std & alt)
Load (concessions may be): 0.4 (std & alt) Work load
(no rebate can be): 0.6 (std & alt) Work load
(cumulative): 0.6 (std & alt)
Load (Tran): 0.0 (std & alt)

Wind load by using: 1.0 (std & alt)

53.2.9 LC used by wind: D + W (Wind Load of use)

Load combination is expected to check the status of limited use to the wind load applied. The load
factor is used:

Load Balance: 1.0 (std & alt)
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Static load: 1.0 (std & alt)

Wind load by using: 1.0 (std & alt)

53.2.10 LC due to seismic activity: D + L + E (load due to seismic activity)

Load combination is expected to check the status of limited use with seismic activity and applied load.
The load factor is used:

Load Balance: 1.0 (std & alt) Static
load: 1.0 (std & alt)
Load (concessions may be): 0.4 (std & alt) Work load
(no rebate can be): 0.6 (std & alt) Work load
(cumulative): 0.6 (std & alt)
Load (Tran): 0.0 (std & alt)

Load due to seismic activity: 1.0 (std & alt)

53.2.11 LC due to seismic activity: D + E (Load of seismic activity)

Load combination is expected to check the status of limited use to the seismic load applied. Currently
the program only creates the foundation / basement friends. The load factor is used:

Load Balance: 1.0 (std & alt) Static
load: 1.0 (std & alt)
Load due to seismic activity: 1.0 (std & alt)

53.2.12 LC by wind finally: 1.2D + L + W (Wind Load of use)

Load combination is expected to check the status of the wind strength limit and the load applied. The
load factor is used:

Super static load: 1.0 (std &
alt) Static load: 1.2 (std &
alt)
Load (concessions may be): 0.4 (std & alt) Work load
(no rebate can be): 0.6 (std & alt) Work load
(cumulative): 0.6 (std & alt)
Load (Tran): 0.0 (std & alt)

Ultimate load by wind: 1.0 (std & alt)

53.2.13 LC by wind finally: 0.9D + W (final wind-load)
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Load combination is expected to check the strength limit state for wind load applied. The load factor is
used:

Super static load: 1.0 (std &
alt) Static load: 0.9 (std &
alt)
Ultimate load by wind: 1.0 (std & alt)

53.2.14 LC by following seismic same: D + L + E (seismic load due to last)

Load combination is expected to limit state check with seismic intensity and the applied load. The load
factor is used:

Super static load: 1.0 (std &
alt) Static load: 1.0 (std &
alt)
Load (concessions may be): 0.4 (std & alt) Work load
(no rebate can be): 0.6 (std & alt) Work load
(cumulative): 0.6 (std & alt)
Load (Tran): 0.0 (std & alt)

Load of seismic finally: 1.0 (std & alt)

53.2.15 LC by following seismic same: D + E (seismic load due to last)

Load combination is expected to check the strength limit state with seismic loads applied. The load
factor is used:

Super static load: 1.0 (std &
alt) Static load: 1.0 (std &
alt)
Load of seismic finally: 1.0 (std & alt)

53.3 Load factor AS3600 / AS / NZS 1170.1

To have the appropriate coefficient, suggest that you draw:

the parking load on load layer activity (Cumulative)

the load on layer assembly Live Load (concession can not be)

the load cap is used for the active layer of the floor on Live Load (concessions may be) or
download Active Layer (concession can not be)

Note: However, if the paint layer payload parking on Live Load (Cumulative), RAM Concept
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application program load factor (peacefully) in the LC 1.0 user, load factor (mild) 0.6 in load
combination due to wind and seismic (both used and finally), and load factor (mild) 2:41 in LC LT
hammock is not cracked.
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Note: However, if the load assembly drawing layer on Live Load (concession can not be), RAM
Concept program application of the load deflection 2:41 in LC LT is not cracked.

53.4 The material behaves AS 3600-
2001

This section explains how to program RAM Concept Modeling Concrete, reinforced and prestressed
steel reinforced prestressed using AS 3600-2001.

53.4.1 Concrete
Conduct

Determination of elastic modulus of concrete in the window material. You can use code 6.1.2
equation, an equation from another code, or a theoretical value.

When specifying the value directly, need to have two elastic modulus
values: Eci = value to analyze cross-sectional area (transmission) using
Ec = initial values for other conditions
If you select the 6.1.2 code AS 3600-2001, the following values are used:





In that

fcmi = mean value of concrete cylinder strength when stretched fcm
= mean value of the 28-day strength of concrete cylinders
For the calculation based on the total cross section, assuming concrete is a linear elastic material
perfectly without stretching the limits or distortions.

To analyze the cross section details the general stress - strain is presented in "The curve of stress -
deformation of concrete," on page 324,Chapter 47, "The designers note section ".

The intensity curve stress - strain was shortened at 0.003 strain. The stress curve - no other deformation
strain limit.

53.4.2 Conduct reinforced (not prestressed)

The material is presented in section "The stress curve - not the deformed reinforcement strain "on page
321,Chapter 47, "The cross-sectional design note".

53.4.3 Conduct is reinforced prestressed concrete adhesion
to

The material is presented in section "The curve of stress - strain deformation following material" on
page 321, And "The relationship of stress after deformation with adhesion to concrete for the
deformed cross section "on page 322,Chapter 47, "The cross-sectional design note".

53.4.4 Conduct pre-stressed reinforced no adhesion to concrete
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For conditions of use, RAM Concept program assumes that stress is not prestressed reinforced with
concrete adhesive is not affected by the cross section deformation.

For calculating the final torque resistance, common mode for curve stress - deformation of reinforced
prestressed concrete does not stick to the program RAM Concept is presented in detail in "The curve
of stress - stress after deformation from sticking Concrete - How to program "on page 323 Chapter 47,
"The cross-sectional design note".

For AS 3600-2001, the maximum deformation of prestressed reinforced with concrete does not stick,
fgioi term is defined in section 8.1.6. In calculating befdp, RAM Concept program assumes the
prestressed reinforcement is placed in the central cross section is more beneficial (limit values similar
deformation is used to calculate the negative torque capacity and positive at each cross section).

53.5 Choose AS 3600-2001 code rules

The following explains how to program RAM Concept decide AS 3600-2001 code rules will apply
based on the range of fractional properties sectional design or design combined with flexible design
rules activities for the rules under consideration.

53.5.1 Minimum reinforcement content code

Structural system (as defined in section design or designs range segment) is considered
(beams, according to the method, the two methods).

Type of reinforcement (as defined in section design or designs range segment) is considered is
(PT or RC).

Sort reinforcement based on choice "position reinforced minimal amount" for distribution
section or sections designed range of design:

o The Advanced - Reinforced support system above and below near near mid-span.

o The nails - close reinforcement system below and above support near the center span.

o Surface tension - reinforcement position is determined by the torque envelope for
design set of rules (which may be reinforced on both sides).

o Upper - Reinforced always be placed at the top of the (Optional Engineers)

o Below - Reinforced always be placed in the map below (Optional Engineers)

o No - There is no reinforcement (Optional Engineers)

The code rules are applied as shown in the following table


Table 53-1 Rule reinforced the minimum amount
System design RC PT
Beams 8.1.4, 9.4.3.2 8.1.4, 9.4.3.2
The method according
to a
8.1.4, 9.4.3.2 8.1.4, 9.4.3.2
The two methods 8.1.4, 9.4.3.2 8.1.4, 9.4.3.2
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.

53.5.2 Minimum reinforcement levels of users

RAM Concept program allows us to identify the function of reinforcement rate minimum rate for each
period.

The rate of minimum levels of reinforcement determined by the
user

Each segment spans four reinforcement value ratio determined by the
user:

Reinforced in the column of

Column of reinforced underneath

Reinforced in the range between

Reinforced below mid range

Specified minimum amount of reinforcement users of Concept program uses this value to design
reinforced at each cross section. These values can not be calculated in reinforcement of other rules.
For example, rebar bending strength were reported in the intensity rules out no reinforcement in
reinforced Regulations minimal amount of users.

The calculated minimum amount of reinforcing steel used

The calculated minimum amount of reinforcement users of Concept program based on the total cross
section (after refining) and the rate determined by the user. For example:

columnDaiTopAs = (cross sectional area Ac) (ratio reinforcement in the
column strip)

The
requiremen
ts

Specified minimum amount of reinforcement will not be designed to use ferro unless the rule is used
at least in the load combination.

The ex files

The Pre-Concept 2.0 files required to rebuild and load combination rules to supplement the regulations
reinforced the minimum levels of users. See "Rebuilding consortium download important "on page
35,Chapter 11, "Defining load combination" for more information.

53.5.3 Originally Use

The prestressed reinforcement are considered external loads (load balancing and is assumed is
included in the load factor).

Type of reinforcement (as defined in section design or designs range segment) is considered is
(PT or RC).

The deformation of the structure is determined by the torque envelope for the rules (Can be
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reinforced on both sides).

The code rules are applied as shown in the following table
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Table 53-2 uses the original rules
System design RC PT
Beams (Not
available)
8.1.4.2
The method according
to a
(Not
available)
8.1.4.2
The two methods (Not
available)
8.1.4.2

.

53.5.4 Use

The prestressed reinforcement are considered external loads (load balancing and is assumed is
included in the load factor).

Type of reinforcement (as defined in section design or designs range segment) is considered is
(PT or RC).

The deformation of the structure is determined by the torque envelope for the rules (Can be
reinforced on both sides).

The code rules are applied as shown in the following table


Table 53-3 Rules of use
System design RC PT
Beams 8.6.1 (parts) 8.6.2
The method according
to a
9.4.1 (parts) 9.4.2
The two methods 9.4.1 (parts) 9.4.2

.

53.5.5 Using the maximum

Expected load combination used in the = 1.0.

The prestressed reinforcement are considered external loads (load balancing and is assumed is
included in the load factor).

Type of reinforcement (as defined in section design or designs range segment) is considered is
(PT or RC).

The deformation of the structure is determined by the torque envelope for the rules (Can be
reinforced on both sides).

The code rules are applied as shown in the following table.


Table 53-4 using the maximum rule
System design RC PT
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Beams 8.6.1 (parts) (Not
available)
The method according
to a
9.4.1 (parts) (Not
available)
The two methods 9.4.1 (parts) (Not
available)
53.5.6 Intensity

The prestressed reinforcement is considered in its side profile (and super static load is assumed
to be in the load factor).

Type of reinforcement (as defined in section design or designs range segment) is considered is
(PT or RC).

The deformation of the structure is determined by the torque envelope for the rules (failure can
occur on both sides).

See "The problem twists" on page 330 to understand how twisted.

The code rules are applied as shown in the following table.


Table 53-5 Rules intensity
System design RC PT
Beams
8.1, 8.2, 8.3 * 8.1, 8.2, 8.3 *
The method according
to a
8.1, 8.2, 8.3 * 8.1, 8.2, 8.3 *
The two methods
8.1, 8.2, 8.3 * 8.1, 8.2, 8.3 *

Note: * - 8.3 only applies if you choose "beams" twist (see the note design twist)

53.5.7 Viscosity

Type of reinforcement (as defined in section design or designs range segment) is considered is
(PT or RC).

Reinforced vertically from the other designs (other than ductility) is considered to be in place
before further reinforced plastic.

Symbol (or symbols) bending moment is determined by the boundary layer momentum against
the rules (there may be flexibility for both positive and negative torque).

The code rules are applied as shown in the following table.


Table 53-6 Rules ductility
System design RC PT
Beams 8.1.3 8.1.3
The method according
to a
8.1.3 8.1.3
The two methods 8.1.3 8.1.3
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53.6 implementation code AS 3600-
2001

53.6.1 Modulus of elasticity of
concrete

Elastic modulus for concrete are 6.1.2 (a).

Fcm value in the calculation were taken from Table C6.1.2. Linear interpolation is used
between the values in the table. The table values are interpolated out peacefully (if f'c <20 MPa,
fcm
= 1.2 f'c, if f'c> 50 MPa, fcm = f'c + 6.5
MPa).

This calculation must be selected in the window material will be used.

53.6.2 Tensile strength of concrete curved

Limit curve for concrete tensile strength is calculated by 6.1.1.2 (a).

53.6.3 The curve of stress - strain deformation after the concrete from sticking

The curve of stress - strain deformation following adhesion to concrete is used, but modified as
detailed below.

For the analysis of the level of use (elastic), reinforced stress prestressed concrete from
sticking is assumed to be independent of the cross-sectional deformation.

Prestressing stress never falls below p.ef.

Prestressing stress never exceeds FPY.

Prestressed stress is limited by equation (a) or (b) if code section 8.1.6 can.

Note: The program does not consider the 19.3.5 shows that the prestressed reinforcement without
adhesion to concrete will only be used according to label; engineers need to consider before you start
designing.

53.6.4 The intensity of the beam
bending 8.1

No exception from section reinforced concrete section.

Design compatible strain used. See "General Design Method" in page 321 to know more about
the design compatibility of deformation RAM Concept program.

See "The curve of stress - deformation of concrete," on page 324 and for the
curve stress - deformation of reinforced prestressed, reinforced concrete and soft.

Using the value of the user Es

For many sections f'c value, of each concrete f'c used appropriately.

Design Concept of the RAM program may exceed the maximum amount allowed
reinforcement, and so can create a section with too much reinforcement. See "Viscosity" to
apply the ductility requirements.
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If sections or panels that are not declared as follows stress, then skip the pre-stressed
reinforced its force after
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The axial force (loads) on the cut surface or give consideration based on the qu section of the
report design or design segment band under consideration. If you choose the axial force is
included, the cross section is designed to provide torque required axial force at the same time
given.

At the beam "T", "L" and "Z", beams and side beams themselves may have significant tension
and compression (at different altitudes) required to balance the torque. If the cross section over
the entire beam, then these forces will largely cancel (while increasing the bending moment).
However, if the cross section is only one direction through the expanded beam is off, then the cut
could have a significant axial force required to balance the torque, the design for axial load (by
select the design features section or segment of the appropriate design range) necessary to ensure
safe design.

For cross sections with very little torque, reinforced by the content of the program can
calculate RAM Concept beyond overkill. That is because the program RAM Concept will not
allow the cross section deformation is greater than 20%, the level required to create a smaller
compression zone. Reinforced that the program needed to select RAM Concept axial force
balance in cross section.

Deviation of the tension in the system following the support (and other structural areas) cause
tensile indeterminate (s) in the cross section, as appropriate.

RAM Concept Program does not consider that section 19.3.5 presents the application of
reinforcement no adhesion force with concrete will be used only as labeled, the engineer should
consider before starting the design.

Do not make the 8.1.8 (Details of curved reinforced and prestressed reinforcement).

Factor intensity standard rebate () 0.8 is used.

53.6.5 8.1.4 Intensity minimum curve

The cross section of the sixth rhythm support from us or sixth beat of the rhythm between being
considered "at critical sections ".

If the cross-sectional design is declared as follows in section tensioning design or designs
range segment, the P / Ag and Pe 8.1.4.1 is assumed to be zero (although the cross section
including the core prestressed).

Assumptions on crack (negative torque) or below (positive torque) based on the "Model
Minimum reinforcement content" is selected in the range of fractional sectional design or
designs.

See "" Torque cracking "is used in the design calculations" on page 329 for more detailed
theory of "cracking load".

53.6.6 8.1.4.2 Transfer the compressive stress limit

Implementation of the second clause 8.1.4.2.

The cross-section analysis is cracked. This analysis is somewhat more moderate total cross
section calculations in the proposed code.

limits of concrete compressive stress is 0.5 fcp.
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If the rate limit is exceeded, then further reinforced as required in order to limit the
performance concrete, depending on the bending moments and axial forces, additional
compression reinforcement, reinforcement tensile steel, or both.

For more sectional concrete strength, cross-sectional stress limit is reported minimal stress
limit (absolute value) of all of the concrete section.

53.6.7 Ductility of the beams to bend the 8.1.3

See "General Design Method" on page 321 for more general information about the calculated
cross section.

Limit depth of neutral axis (ku) in section 0.4 8.1.3. Reinforcement is added to minimize the
depth of the neutral axis.

If the protective layer of reinforcing steel bar is the bar outside the pressurized area 0.4 d, the
solution is not effective.

In certain cases, can not simultaneously provide positive torque viscosity and viscosity negative
torque. This usually happens if there is a prestressed reinforcement after large near the center of
the cross section.

53.6.8 Section 8.2 Design shear

See "Identify" core "Concrete" on page 330 to calculate the plate width (bw).

Half the width of the tubes reinforced with prestressed concrete and adhesion to all the width of
the tube containing prestressed reinforcement without adhesion to concrete in the core subject
cutting width to determine the width bw bv. In which the tube at different altitudes in the core,
with the use of highly efficient large tubes to determine maximum bv.

If the section is declared as "stress after", d0 is the maximum depth of the tensile
reinforcement or 0.8D. No test conducted to confirm that the structure is indeed following
stress.

If the section is not stressed then, d0 is the maximum depth of the tensile reinforcement.

Ast is the cross-sectional area of longitudinal reinforcement (except PT) in the tensile zone for
its cross section is considered.

Vertical structures of prestressed reinforced front tilt, ignoring Pv, (reported as zero).

Cutting forces are bent area 8.2.7.2 (a) (for the non-prestressed structures, Apt
and V0 is zero).

V0 is calculated as M0 / (M * / V *) for determining the structure and amorphous.

2 is 1.0 (not considering axial force).

3 is 1.0.

Apt is the sum of the following forces (adhesion to concrete with and without adhesion to
concrete) in the tensile zone. The vector components of the scope of prestressed reinforcement is
used for the non-prestressed reinforcement perpendicular to the cutting surface design.
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Shear scope are 8.2.7.2 (b) (for both pre-stressed structures and the stress). Perform calculations
of the structures at the center, but the width of the plate to (bv) are used to determine the shear
stress at the center. Equilibrium analysis of pre-stressed force and the the total cross-sectional
characteristics are used to determine the axial stress at the center.

Vus are 2.8.10 (a).

No consideration for increased capacity or payload section near the support system.

If you choose the "twisted beams," designed and conducted twist (see "Section 8.3 Design for
torsion beams "). The maximum shear rate is reduced under section 8.3.3. If torsion
reinforcement requirements, the use of Section 8.3.4 (b) to reduce the shear capacity is.

The reinforced belt distance is reduced by factor of 0.8 in 8.2.12.4 (c).

53.6.9 Torsion beam design for the 8.3

Follow section 8.3.

No spiral reinforcement provided if they meet the requirements 8.3.4 (a) (i) [T * <0:25 Tuc].
Ignore requirements 8.3.4 (a) (ii) and (iii).

Assuming twisted take the word "core". See "Identify" core "Concrete" on page 330 for
calculating core.

In many near the core, the calculation based on the average near (and then multiplied by the
coefficient with the tendon).

Use the 8.3.3 to reduce the maximum shear capacity.

At the Once and ut, the coating surface to the center of the vertical bar is assumed to be the
maximum upper mantle and the mantle beneath the center of the vertical bar of the
corresponding vertical bars, respectively.

No reduction longitudinal torsion reinforcement in compression by the compression curve
[8.3.6 (a) is used for both tensile and compressive side]

No report output torque; instead shear capacity is reduced so that it fits, etc.
be used to provide the required torque capacity.

When cutting forces operate simultaneously with torque, part 8.3.4 (b) to be considered when
designing a closed transverse reinforcement belt.

Closed horizontal reinforced belt (ASW) is provided to reduce T * and Tu, max. If T * is
greater than Tu, max, the section will be reported as non-response sections 8.2 and 8.3. The
minimum requirement 8.3.7 (a) are met.

Provides longitudinal reinforcement based ASW values calculated for T * and Tu, lower max.

Distance reinforced belt is closed down by a factor of 0.8 in 8.2.12.4 (c), whether section
purely cross twisted (no shear stress).

53.6.10 Control of cracked RC beam section 8.6.1

If there is no tensile stress in the cross section, there is no reinforcement.
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"The critical tension" is considered the cross sectional area of stress is equal to or more sections 3 MPa
to force cross-section is considered (slightly different - and less benign - more code M * S.1).
Compressive (or tensile) axial considered in the calculation of this stress.

Cross-sectional area is considered "tensile structures" if both sides are based on the total tensile stress
on the power section cross section will be considered. (Code code using "fundamental tension".).

Reinforced only fully designed on structures with high tensile stress (stress on the total cross section).
In some cases, tensile structures, can further reinforced in the "compression" to meet the balance, but
reinforced the "compression" that will not define the scale to meet section (i) and ( ii).

Reinforced by the user to determine at which angle cross section will only components perpendicular
cross-section is considered.

Part (i) - For design work, use this section if the cross-section tensile structures or critical tensile zone.
For maximum design activities, this section is used only for the critical tensile zone. Never use this
part of environmental protection.

Additional reinforcement based on equation Ast, min = 3KS Act / Fs

Using 0.8 ks values for tensile structures, otherwise ks value 0.6 is used.

fs is determined from Table 8.6.1 (A). Maximum diameter of the steel rod fixed to the surface
tension is used in table 8.6.1 (A).

Part (ii) - Always use this part of the design, but do not use the maximum design activities.

Reinforcement is added to limit the maximum distance is 300 mm. The bar on the right side
(including the small components for the bar at the corner of the cross section) is considering the
distance requirements, including small bars than half the diameter of the largest bar in the cut.
Can not use the original sound and distance.

Part (iii) - Use this section if the cross-section tensile structures and environment
protected.

For design activities:

o Reinforcement is added to both sides to maintain the reinforcement stress the limits of
Table 8.6.1 (A).

o Maximum diameter of the steel rod fixed to a particular surface used in table 8.6.1 (A).

For maximum design activities:

o Reinforcement is added to both sides to maintain the reinforcement stress fsy less than
0.8.

Part (iv) - Use this section if the cross section is not tensile structures and unprotected environment.
Monday Use code option (code beginning with "Alternately, ...").

For design activities:
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o Reinforcement is added to both sides to maintain the reinforcement stress the limits of
Table 8.6.1 (B).

o The distance is calculated in the audio bar on the right side (including the components
small bar in the corner to the cross sectional area), including more than half of small
bars largest diameter of the cross bar. You can use the few bars and some distance.

For maximum design activities:

o Reinforcement is added to both sides to maintain the reinforcement stress fsy less than
0.8.

53.6.11 The cracked beam control PT Section 8.6.2

If the tensile stress in the concrete shall not exceed reinforcement does not need to
control the cracks and do not apply to the following.

Part (a) to limit be i gnor ed because t her e i s no gui dance on t he
r ei nf or cement of what i s needed. Inst ead of ( b) i s al ways used.

Reinforcement is added to maintain the stress changes on the tensile mild steel up to 200 MPa
for torque changes from compression to the user.

o In rare cases (in which stress is to use compression reinforcement, although concrete
stress exceeds ) This condition is ignored by additional reinforcement will
reduce compression (pull up), so I can not meet the conditions by increasing
reinforcement.

o Reinforcement stress force is the total cross-section traction, while stress reinforcement
is calculated by using traction cracked section.

Reinforcement also be added if necessary to provide reinforcement spacing from center to
center small than 200 mm.

o For this requirement, each tube containing prestressed reinforced with concrete
adhesion to the tensile zone (based on the total cross-sectional stress) is considered
equivalent to mild steel bar (though far from the tensile). In calculating distance, the
tube containing prestressed reinforcement is assumed to be placed in the optimum
position to reduce minority mild steel bar requirements - ignoring the pipe layout

o Can identify the few bars and some distance to meet spacing requirements.

Reinforced by the user to determine at which angle cross section will only components
perpendicular cross-section is considered.

53.6.12 The intensity of the bend section 9.1

Use 8.1 to calculate the magnitude of the bend. The request was reinforced by reports 8.1. See
"bending beam intensity of 8.1" above for detailed how to implement 8.1.

53.6.13 Control of the RC Section 9.4.1 crack
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"The critical tension" is considered the cross sectional area of stress is equal to or more sections 3 MPa
to force cross-section is considered. Compressive (or tensile) axial considered in the calculation of this
stress.

Reinforced only fully designed on structures with high tensile stress (stress on the total cross section).
In some cases, tensile structures, can further reinforced in the "compression" to meet the balance, but
reinforced the "compression" that will not define the scale to meet section (ii) and ( iii).

Reinforced by the user to determine at which angle cross section will only components perpendicular
cross-section is considered.

Part (i) of this section-not done here. 9.1.1 Implementation of the designed minimum levels through
the reinforcement of 8.1.4.1.

Part (ii) - In the design activity and design activity maximum, use this section if the cross section in
the tensile zone is not critical and the environment are protected.

Additional reinforcement based on equation Ast, min = 3KS Act / Fs

ks = 0.6

fs is determined from Table 9.4.1 (A). Maximum diameter of the steel rod fixed to the surface
tension is used in table 9.4.1 (A).

Part (iii) - Always use this part works as designed, but are not designed to use when working
maximum
mobility.

Reinforcement is added to limit the maximum distance up to 300 mm or twice the depth of
cross section. The bar on the right side (including the small components for the bar at the corner
of the cross section) is considered the distance requirements, including small bars than half the
diameter of the largest bar in the cut. Few bars and the distance can be used.

Part (iv) - This section is used for design work, but not used in the protected environment. Monday
Use code (code beginning with "Alternately, ...").

Reinforcement is added to both sides to maintain the reinforcement stress the limits of Table
9.4.1 (B).

The distance is calculated in the audio bar on the right side (including the small components
the bar at the corner to cross-sectional area), including the bar diameter less than half of largest
cross bar. Few bars and the distance can be used.

Section (v) - This section is used for maximum design used, but not used in the protected environment.

Reinforcement is added to both sides to maintain the reinforcement stress fsy less than 0.8.

53.6.14 Control of the PT Section 9.4.2 crack

If the tensile stress in the concrete shall not exceed reinforcement does not need to
control the cracks and do not apply to the following.
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Part (a) the limit is ignored because there is no guidance on the amount of reinforcement
needed how much. Part (b) is always used instead.

Reinforced by the user to determine at which angle cross section will only components
perpendicular cross-section is considered.

Reinforcement is added to maintain the stress changes on the tensile mild steel in the range 150
MPa for torque changes from compression to the user. In rare cases (in which stress is to use
compression reinforcement, although concrete stress exceeds ) This condition is
ignored.

reinforcement stress force is calculated by determining cross section deformation section
compression and tension applied to the reinforcing steel.

Reinforcement also be added if necessary to provide reinforcement spacing from center to
center small than 500 mm. For this requirement, each tube containing prestressed reinforced
with adhesion to concrete concrete (in the tensile stress on the total cross section) is considered
equivalent to mild steel bar (though far from the surface in tension). In calculating distance, the
tube containing prestressed reinforced with concrete adhesive to be placed in assuming optimal
position to reduce minority mild steel bar requirements. Can identify the few bars and some
distance to meet distance requirements.

53.6.15 Concrete Shrinkage and Temperature - Section 9.4.3.2

Applying this condition as part of the design of reinforced minimum levels because no depends
on the intensity of the cross-cut force.

Applying this condition for both the beam and, although not AS 3600 requirements apply to
beams.

Crack is assumed above (negative torque) or below (positive torque) based on the "model
reinforced minimal amount" is selected in the range of fractional sectional design or designs.

Reinforcement can be applied to both sides if the cross section depends on the negative torque
and select the location and positive reinforcement, "The Tension".

Reinforced by the user to determine at which angle cross section will only components
perpendicular cross-section is considered.

The amount of reinforcement is provided in 0.75 (according to 9.4.3.2 (b)) times the amount is
determined by 9.4.3.4 (a) (i), 9.4.3.4 (b) (i), or 9.4.3.4 (c ).

For environmental "protection" of reinforcement is provided: As = (0.75) (1.75 - 2.5
cp) (Ag) / 1000

For the environment "normal" amount of reinforcement is provided: As = (0.75) (3.5 - 2.5
cp) (Ag) / 1000

For the environment "destroyed" or "are destroyed", the amount of reinforcement is provided:
As = (0.75) (6.0 - 2.5 cp) (Ag) / 1000

For the range of designs and PT are not sectional design, cp is zero.
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53.6.16 Design shear pierced

See Chapter 57, "The design shear note pierced".
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54 Design BS 8110: 1997

This chapter details how to implement BS8110: 1997 (including edits 1 and 2) and 43 technical reports
(also known as TR 43) of program RAM Concept.

Six section outlines the
following:

The default load

Default load combination

Load factor

application material handling

The code rules is selected to design the cross section of how

How to implement the rules of the code

54.1 The default load of BS 8110 / TR 43

This section provides information about the programs that load RAM Concept created by default when
you launch a new set ttrong BS 8110. Due to the purpose and function of most loads very clear, the
problem only notable new feature is presented here.

54.1.1 The load factor default template

To completed the required review of Load "disadvantage" and "Beneficial" code requirements in
section 2.4.3.1, RAM Concept Program using the form factor of the load. For static load, RAM Concept
program using the form factor of 1.0 and 1.0/1.4, or 0.71. For load, RAM Concept program using the
form factor of 1.0 and 0. See "Load Model" on page 32 to more information.

54.1.2 Temporary construction loads (the stress)

This type of load is temporary load present in the building when the contractor effects of stress
prestressed reinforcement. Since this is a temporary load, generally only in the load combination used
initially.

If fixed load when stress is present, to determine the layer payload temporary construction loads (the
stress) as well as the fixed layer load appropriately. Or, maybe the load fixed to the presence of stress
with the use of the appropriate load factor.

54.2 Default load combination BS 8110 / TR 43

This section provides information about the default load combination (technically, the load
combination) RAM Concept program that created the file ttrong launch new BS 8110. The purpose
and origin of each load combination is given. You can remove or edit any of this load combination.
Also can add load combination. Load combination from BS8110-1: 1997 (including corrective actions
1 and 2), unless shown otherwise.

Note: Many load combination in the file (friends) is a Lateral Group and the analysis of "zero
tension". Because load combination analysis using "Accept zero drag" is not used
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Alternate Envelope Factors used, the load combination of files has been extended to the load
combination. See Chapter 11, "Defining load combination" for more information.

54.2.1 The static load LC

This load combination synthesize all the static load, the load factor of 1.0, while activity in standard
conditions of use. This load combination information is for reference only - not programs use RAM
Concept to design.

54.2.2 LC initial use

Load combination is expected to examine the requirements for pre-stressed effects. The load factor
be is used:

Load balancing: 1:15 (std & alt) (including an increase of 15% for the long-term loss, which usually
does not happen at this stage)

Note: Although born shrinkage of concrete short-term loss in program RAM Concept of loss due to
shrinkage of concrete is considered as a part of the overall long-term losses.

Static load itself: 1.0 (std & alt)

Temporary construction loads (When stress): 1.0 (std & alt)

54.2.3 LC used: D + (1.0 | 0.0) L

Load combination is expected to check the status of limited use. The load factor is used:

Load Balance: 1.0 (std & alt) Static
load: 1.0 (std & alt)
Load: 1.0 (std) & 0.0 (alt)

54.2.4 final LC: (1.4 | 1.0) D + (1.6 | 0.0) L

Load combination is expected to check the status of limited intensity. The load factor is used:

Super static load: 1.0 (std & alt)
Static load: 1.4 (std) and 1.0
(alt) load: 1.6 (std) and 0.0 (alt)
54.2.5 LC hammock not cracked LT

Load combination is expected to check the long-term deflection without regard to the issue of cracks.
The load factor is:

Load balancing: 3:35 (std & alt) [1.0 + 2.35 initial creep] Static
load: 3:35 (std & alt)
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Load (concessions may be): 1:59 (std & alt) [0.25 (3.35) + 0.75 (1.0)] Live
Load (concession can not be): 1:59 (std & alt) [0:25 (3:35) + 0.75 (1.0)] Work
load (cumulative): 2.76 (std & alt) [0.75 (3.35) + 0.25 (1.0)]
Load (Tran): 1:59 (std & alt) [0.25 (3.35) + 0.75 (1.0)]

54.2.6 LC used by wind: D + L + W (Wind Load of use)

Load combination is expected to check the status of limited use to the wind and the applied load.
Currently the program only creates the foundation / basement friends. The load factor is used:

Load Balance: 1.0 (std & alt) Static
load: 1.0 (std & alt)
Load: 1.0 (std & alt)

Wind load by using: 1.0 (std & alt)

54.2.7 LC used by wind: D + W (Wind Load of use)

Load combination is expected to check the status of limited use to the wind load applied. Currently the
program only creates the foundation / basement friends. The load factor is used:

Load Balance: 1.0 (std & alt) Static
load: 1.0 (std & alt)
Wind load by using: 1.0 (std & alt)

54.2.8 LC by wind finally: 1.2D + 1.2L + 1.2W (due to wind load used)

Load combination is expected to check the status of the wind strength limit and the load applied. The
load factor is used:

Super static load: 1.0 (std &
alt) Static load: 1.2 (std &
alt) load: 1.2 (std & alt)
Wind load by using: 1.2 (std & alt)

54.2.9 LC by wind finally: D + 1.4W (due to wind load used)

Load combination is expected to check the strength limit state for wind load applied. The load factor is
used:

Super static load: 1.0 (std &
alt) Static load: 1.0 (std &
alt)
Wind load by using: 1.4 (std & alt)
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54.2.10 LC by wind finally: 1.4D + 1.4W (due to wind load used)

Load combination is expected to check the strength limit state for wind load applied. The load factor is
used:

Super static load: 1.0 (std &
alt) Static load: 1.4 (std &
alt)
Wind load by using: 1.4 (std & alt)

54.2.11 LC by
accident

Load combination is expected to complete the requirements of the code section 2.4.3.2 and TR 43
6.10.4. The load factor is used: Static load:
1:05 (std) and 1.0 (alt)
Work load: 0:35 (std) (this is 1:05 / 3) and 0.0
(alt)

This load combination is used by the Design Rules accident.

54.3 System load of BS 8110 / BS 6399-
1

To have the appropriate coefficient, suggest
you draw:

the parking load on load layer activity (Cumulative)

the load on layer assembly Live Load (concession can not be)

Note: However, if the paint layer payload parking on Live Load (Cumulative), RAM Concept
application program load factor (peacefully) in the LC hammock 2.76 LT is not cracked.

54.4 The behavior of materials BS
8110/TR43

This section explains how to program RAM Concept Modeling Concrete, reinforced and prestressed
steel reinforced prestressed using BS 8110 / TR 43.

54.4.1 Concrete
Conduct

Elastic modulus of concrete is determined by the user in the window material. Users can use the code
BS8110 Figure 2.1, the equation from the other code, or a theoretical value.

When the value is determined directly, two elastic modulus values have been identified:
Eci = value analysis of cross-sectional area (transmission) using the original
Ec = value for other conditions
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When using the BS 8110 code select the following values:


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In that

fcui = intensity of the three stress
intensity three methods FCU = 28
days
For wi t h cal cul at i ons bas ed on " concr et e s ect i on" Concr et e i s as s umed l i near
el as t i c mat er i al per f ect i on i s no l i mi t s t r es s or s t r ai n.

To cross-section analysis in detail, using four strain curves - different deformation. The four curves of
stress - strain curve is linear parabolic shape as shown in detail. The transition from deformed parabolic
curve to curve is linear 2fc/Ec, including peak stress fc and Ec is the elastic modulus at zero strain.

For wi t h t he i ni t i al condi t i ons of s t r es s , t he peak s t r es s i n t he s t r es s cur ve - i s
0. 67f cui def or mat i on.

For wi t h t h e s t r e s s c o n d i t i o n s u s e d , t h e p e a k s t r e s s i n t h e s t r e s s - s t r a i n
c u r v e i s 0 . 6 7 f c u .

For with the conditions of intensity, peak stress-strain curve is deformed 0.67fcu / 1.5

For wi t h t he i nt ens i t y of acci dent condi t i ons ( damage i s l ocal i zed) , t he peak
s t r es s i n t he s t r es s - s t r ai n cur ve i s 0. 67f cu / 1. 3.

The stress intensity curves - shortened deformation strain at 0.0035. The stress curve - no other
deformation strain limit.

For to calculate the ECR, the maximum tensile stress in the concrete is assumed
.

In the crack width calculation designed and used for stress analysis using design cracked, general stress
- strain reinforced concrete tensile be used:
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Using similar curves, but technically it is not similar to the provisions BS 8110-2:1985 Figure 3.1.
Comparative chart for stress regulation and code implementation of Concept program is presented as
follows:







Figure 3.1
regulations






How to Program Concept
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Due to the design crack width of Concept program perform stress analysis is cracked (the curve stress
- strain non-reinforced concrete tensile) for 0.8 fy regulations, the concrete results of stress rebar and
concrete structural components that implement the design will crack width corresponding to the range
between the resulting curve stress - strain reinforced concrete tensile and non-tensile. The results stress
the concrete and rebar for the other components will correspond to curves using stress - strain
reinforced concrete tensile.

54.4.2 Conduct reinforced (not tensile)

Tensile steel reinforcement is modeled as elastic materials / flexible perfect, as shown in Figure 2.2
code. Elastic modulus defined by the user in the window instead of material-defined code 200 000
N/mm2.

When considering intensity, using of
1:05.

When considering other issues (including accidents intensity) using of
1.0.

54.4.3 Conduct is reinforced prestressed concrete adhesion
to

Prestressed reinforced model was created using the power formula. The curve is defined by four
parameters:

Eps = modulus at zero strain (from the window material) stress
FPY = "elasticity" of reinforcing steel (from the window
material)
Fpu = ultimate stress of reinforcement (from the window
material) = Partial safety factor for materials
Four parameters are used to calculate the three parameters needed for capacity formula, as described in
Chapter 47, "The cross-sectional design note". Three parameters are:







When considering intensity, using of
1:05.

When considering other issues (including accidents intensity) using of
1.0.

54.4.4 Conduct pre-stressed reinforced no adhesion to concrete

For with the conditions of use, RAM Concept program assumes that stress is not
prestressed reinforced with concrete adhesive is not affected by the cross section
deformation.
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For with the intensity conditions "accident", RAM Concept program assumes that the
prestressed reinforcement without adhesion to concrete without stress.

For t o c a l c u l a t e t h e u l t i ma t e mo me n t r e s i s t a n c e , c o mmo n mo d e o f
p r o g r a m RAM Co n c e p t f o r g e n e r a l s t r e s s - d e f o r ma t i o n o f r e i n f o r c e d
p r e s t r e s s e d c o n c r e t e f r o m s t i c k i n g
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tones are presented in detail in Chapter 47, "The cross-sectional design note". For BS 8110-1997, the
maximum deformation of prestressed reinforced with concrete does not stick (FPB, called flimit in
Chapter 47, "The cross-sectional design note") Is defined by equations 52 and 0.7fpu.

When Equation 52 is used in many cross-section prestressed reinforcement, the following terms are
used to calculate:

l / d = length of each prestressed reinforcement divided by its depth

FPU FPU Aps = sum of the prestressed reinforcement is the vector with components of
Aps.

FCU three bd = compressive strength of concrete squares is multiplied by the width and depth of
compression to the center of the scope of prestressed reinforced component vector

For with BS 8110: 1997, the value is used as the distortion coefficients concession for
prestressed reinforcement without adhesion to concrete is: k = 5d / L

In that

L = length of non-prestressed reinforcement with concrete adhesive.

d = depth of prestressed reinforcement follows (measured from the
farthest concrete)

Equivalent to assuming neutral axis depth d and 0.5 "inelastic region" ten times this length [see BS
8110 code code with equations 52].

In equation 52, RAM Concept program to determine "d" and "b". RAM Concept program assumes that
each prestressed reinforced the emphasis placed on the cross-section is more beneficial (limit values
similar deformation is used to calculate the positive and negative moment capacity at each cross
section). This assumption does not affect the ultimate capacity of prestressed reinforced because the
prestressed reinforcement is located in the "wrong" side cross section of heart, stresses in prestressed
reinforced smaller FPB, by small tensile strain (strain can be compressive) in the cross section at high
prestressed reinforcement.

Length prestressed reinforced "l" in equation 52 is not adjusted (moderate) to the elastic constant
regions.

54.5 BS 8110 / TR 43 Select the code rules

The following explains how RAM Concept program decision rules code 8110 BS / TR 43 will apply
based on the character designs range segment or section design, combined with the design rules
flexibility of the rules under consideration.

54.5.1 Minimum reinforcement content code

Structural system (as defined in section design or designs range segment) is considered
(beams, according to the method, the two methods).

Type of reinforcement (as defined in section design or designs range segment) is considered is
(PT or RC).

Sort reinforcement based on choice "position reinforced minimal amount" for distribution
the strip design or design section:

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o The Advanced - Reinforced support system above and below near near mid-span.
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o The nails - close reinforcement system below and above support near the center span.

o Surface tension - reinforcement position is determined by the torque envelope for
design set of rules (which may be reinforced on both sides).

o Inon - Reinforced always be placed at the top of the (Optional Engineers)

o Below - Reinforced always be placed in the map below (Optional Engineers)

o No - There is no reinforcement (Optional Engineers)

The code rules are applied as shown in the following table


Table 54-1 Rule reinforced the minimum amount

System
syste
m design


RC
PT - the prestressed
reinforcement with
concrete adhesive to

PT - the prestressed
reinforcement without adhesion
to concrete

Beams
3.12.5,
3.12.11.2.4

4.12.2
3.12.5, 3.12.11.2.4, 4.12.2,
TR43/6.10.6
The as a
means
3.12.5,
3.12.11.2.7

4.12.2
3.12.5, 3.12.11.2.7, 4.12.2,
TR43 / 6.10.6
The two
methods
3.12.5,
3.12.11.2.7

TR43 / 6.10.6

TR43 / 6.10.6

.

54.5.2 Minimum reinforcement levels of users

RAM Concept program allows us to identify the function of reinforcement rate minimum rate for each
period.

The rate of minimum levels of reinforcement determined by the
user

Each segment spans four reinforcement value ratio determined by the
user:

Reinforced in the column of

Column of reinforced underneath

Reinforced in the range between

Reinforced below mid range

Specified minimum amount of reinforcement users of Concept program uses this value to design
reinforced at each cross section. These values can not be calculated in reinforcement of other rules.
For example, rebar bending strength were reported in the intensity rules out no reinforcement in
reinforced Regulations minimal amount of users.

The calculated minimum amount of reinforcing steel used
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The calculated minimum amount of reinforcement users of Concept program based on the total cross
section (after refining) and the rate determined by the user. For example:

columnStripTopAs = (cross sectional area Ac) (ratio reinforcement in the
column strip)

The
requiremen
ts

Specified minimum amount of reinforcement will not be designed to use ferro unless the rules are used
by at least the load combination.

The ex files

The Pre-Concept 2.0 files required to rebuild and load combination rules to supplement the regulations
reinforced the minimum levels of users. See "Rebuilding consortium download important "on page
35,Chapter 11, "Defining load combination" to more information.

54.5.3 Originally Use ("Transmission")

The prestressed reinforcement are considered external loads (load balancing and is assumed is
included in the load factor).

Type of reinforcement (as defined in section design or designs range segment) is considered is
(PT or RC).

The deformation of the structure is determined by the torque envelope for the rules (Can be
reinforced on both sides).

The code rules are applied as shown in the following table


Table 54-2 uses the original rules
System design RC PT

Beams

(Not
available)
4.3.5.1
4.3.5.2

The method according
to a

(Not
available)
4.3.5.1
4.3.5.2

The two methods

(Not
available)
4.3.5.1
4.3.5.2

.

54.5.4 Use

The prestressed reinforcement are considered external loads (load balancing and is assumed is
included in the load factor).

Type of reinforcement (as defined in section design or designs range segment) is considered is
(PT or RC).

The deformation of the structure is determined by the torque envelope for the rules (Can be
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reinforced on both sides).
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Features the strip segment designs or design section "Environment" is used to
determine type structures following stress as follows:

Being Protection: Type 3 (0.2
mm crack) Normal: Type 3 (0.1
mm crack) Destruction: Type 2
It destroyed: Type 1

The code rules are applied as shown in the following table


Table 54-3 Rules of use
System design RC PT


Beams


3.12.11.2.1
3.12.11.2.1
4.3.4.2
4.3.4.3 / TR 43


The method according
to a


3.12.11.2.1
3.12.11.2.1
4.3.4.2
4.3.4.3 / TR 43

The two methods

3.12.11.2.1
4.3.4.2
4.3.4.3 / TR 43

54.5.5 Intensity

The prestressed reinforcement is considered in its side profile (and super static load is assumed
to be in the load factor).

Type of reinforcement (as defined in section design or designs range segment) is considered is
(PT or RC).

The deformation of the structure is determined by the torque envelope for the rules (failure can
occur on both sides).

See "The problem twists" on page 330 to learn how to make twisted.

The code rules are applied as shown in the following table


Table 54-4 Rules intensity
System design RC PT


Beams
3.4.4 4.3.7
3.4.5 4.3.8
3.4.5.13 * 4.3.9 *


The method according
to a
3.4.4 4.3.7
3.4.5 4.4.1 / 4.3.8
3.4.5.13 * 4.3.9 *
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The two methods
3.4.4
3.4.5
3.4.5.13 *
4.3.7
4.4.1 / 4.3.8
4.3.9 *

Note: * - 3.4.5.13 and 4.3.9 apply only if you select "beams" twist (see the note design twist)

54.5.6 Viscosity

Type of reinforcement (as defined in section design or designs range segment) is considered is
(PT or RC).

Reinforced vertically from the other designs (other than ductility) is considered to be in place
before further reinforced plastic.

Symbol (or symbols) bending moment is determined by the boundary layer momentum against
the rules (there may be flexibility for both positive and negative torque).

The code rules are applied as shown in the following table


Table 54-5 Rules ductility
System design RC PT
Beams 3.2.2.1 4.2.3.1
The method according
to a
3.2.2.1 4.2.3.1
The two methods 3.2.2.1 4.2.3.1

54.5.7 Accidents

Perform strength calculations on the code section 2.4.3.2, and 2.4.4.2 of TR 43
6.10.4 if appropriate.

The prestressed reinforcement after no adhesion to concrete is assumed to have zero stress.

Type of reinforcement (as defined in section design or designs range segment) is considered is
(PT or RC).

The deformation of the structure is determined by the torque envelope for the rules (failure can
occur on both sides).

Using the coefficients be concession in the intensity calculations. For the curved
concrete, = 1.3 and for reinforcement, = 1.0. Note that to calculate the shear
reinforcement, the values "0.95fyv" is changed to "1.0fyv".

The code rules are applied as shown in the following table


Table 54-6 Rules accident
System design RC PT
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Beams


(Not
available)
4.3.7
4.3.8
4.3.9 *

( the concession)


The method according
to a


(Not
available)
4.3.7
4.3.8
4.3.9 *

( the concession)
The two methods (Not
available)
(Not available)

Note: * - 4.3.9 only applies if you select the "beams" twist (see the note design twist)

54.6 BS8110 / TR43 Perform code

54.6.1 Paragraph 3.2.2.1 the torque distribution (Check
plasticity)

Include the code - 3.2.2.1 (item b). Excluding code
sections - 3.2.2.1 (Left).
RAM Concept program is not distributed to the torque, but the application "Condition 2" which limits
the depth of the neutral axis, thereby ensuring flexibility.

The neutral axis depth is limited to 0.6 times the effective depth.

54.6.2 Paragraph 3.4.4 Moment of resistance of the beam
design

Include the code - 3.4.4.1.

Excluding code sections - 3.4.4.2 to 3.4.4.5 (this is the optimal simplification of
the
3. 4. 4. 1) .

Follow the items a, b, c, d and e of paragraph 3.4.4.1. Do not
follow this option at the end of the 0.1fcu 3.4.4.1
Design compatible strain used. The maximum compressive strain is 0.0035. Do not use
stress blocks the simplified Figure 3.3.

See Materials for the stress curve - materials deformation ( = 1.5 for concrete; =
1:05 to reinforcement).
The cross sections are not reduced from reinforced
concrete section. Ignore the prestressed reinforced its
wake.


For with the cross section with concrete, the stress-strain curve of each concrete blocks are
used appropriately.

The axial force (loads) on the section to be considered or ignored based on the parameters declared in
the rhythm section design or design under consideration. If you choose to axial forces will be included,
cross-section is designed to provide the required torque and the axial force given.
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At the beam "T", "L" and "Z", beams and side beams themselves may have significant tension and
compression (at different altitudes) required to balance the torque. If the cross section over the entire
beam, these forces will largely cancel (while increasing the bending moment). However, if the cross
section is only one direction through the expanded beam wing, the cross section can have a significant
axial force required to balance the torque, the design for axial loads (by selecting the cross-sectional
design characteristics or design appropriate rate) necessary to ensure safe design.

Design Concept of the RAM program may exceed the maximum amount allowed reinforcement, and
thus can create a section with too much reinforcement. See section on plasticity in the previous section
to apply the requirements of flexibility.

For wi t h t he cross sect i on wi t h ver y l i t t l e t orque, rei nf or ced by t he cont ent of t he
progr am can cal cul at e RAM Concept beyond over ki l l . That ' s because RAM
Concept progr am wi l l not al l ow t he cross sect i on defor mat i on i s gr eat er t han 20%,
i t i s necessar y t o make a smal l er compressor . Rei nforced t hat t he pr ogram needed
t o sel ect RAM Concept axi al force bal ance i n cr oss sect i on.

54.6.3 Paragraph 3.4.5 Design shear resistance of the
beams

Include the code - 3.4.5.1 to 3.4.5.4, 3.4.5.5 (a part), 3.4.5.12

Excluding code sections - 3.4.5.5 (a part), 3.4.5.6 - 3.4.5.11, 3.4.5.13 (considered separately)

See "Identify" core "Concrete" on page 330 for to calculate bv. vc is
calculated by Note 2, Table 3.8, including any adjustment FCU.
Reinforced vertically designed by minimum functional design, use and intensity to be considered when
determining the calculations used in the vc.

100As / bvd a minimum 0:15, followed by "= 0:15" in Table
3.8.

For with the cross section with concrete mix, using minimal FCU.

The Deep efficiency was determined by analyzing the cracked section using bending moment and
axial force in place during shear testing. If the reinforcement in the cross section is compressed, the
effective depth is calculated as the distance from the compressor to the farthest reinforcement
activities (in the case 100As / bvd is 0:15).

vc 'is calculated as the minimum of equation Equation 6a and 6b, but not less than zero. fyv is limited
to 460 N/mm2.
The ramp is provided in Table 3.7

The ramp is provided in the required area calculation, not the entire length of the beam.

Application maximum shear capacity enables smaller than 5
N/mm2 and .

Distance along the seam of the rate is 0.75 d. Distance through rate is not considered.
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Do not look at the bar and bend the nearest support system. Do
not consider the beam loading below.
Do not check the anchor of the vertical bar.

The axial force is considered if checked "Net Axial Consider ...".

54.6.4 Section 3.4.5.13
Twist

Include the code - 2.4.1, 2.4.2, 2.4.4 (in part) to 2.4.8

Excluding code sections - 2.4.3, 2.4.4 (part), 2.4.9, 4.2.10

Note: The code referenced in this section refer BS 8110, Part 2

Only the "core" of the cross section is used to design twists. See "Identify" core "concrete tone "on
page 330.

Application vt torsion shear rate is calculated by the equation 2
2.4.4.1.

Maximum combined shear stress was calculated according to VTU table 2.3, note 2 including
adjustment coefficients y1 and compared with vt. The remaining capacity is used to calculate the
remaining capacity of maximum shear.

Reinforced shear and torsional rigidity provided in Table 2.4.

Scope and twisted seams reinforced vertically by section 2.4.7. The maximum distance of
the smallest seams x1, y1 / 2 or 200 mm.
If you choose to design spiral, at least the smallest seams will be provided at the location.

Note: Assumptions in the equations in Table 2.3, note 2 is incorrect in error, and must be .

54.6.5 Paragraph 3.5.4 Moment of resistance of the
hard copy

Include the code - 3.5.4

Excluding the code - see paragraph 3.4.4 to no
more details.
54.6.6 Paragraph 3.5.5 of the shear strength of the
resistance to hard

Include the code - 3.5.5.1 to 3.5.5.3 Excluding code
sections - no
Video 3.4.5 is used to determine the shear r esistance of the hard copy, except the Table
3:16 (with bv is determined by the "core shear") is used instead of Table 3.7.

54.6.7 Paragraph 3.12.5 of the minimum range of the structural
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reinforcement
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Note: This will not be used for the following stress components which basically adhesion to concrete.
See "Identifying The cross section is adhesion to concrete with no section Adhesion to Concrete " for
more information.

Include the code - 3.12.5.1 and 3.12.5.3 Excluding code
sections - 3.12.5.4
Reinforcement is provided in Table 3:25, assuming that the cross section perpendicular to and
dependent on the
ben
ding
.

Reinforcement is provided
as:





For the cross section is not declared after the stress, the reinforcement is tensioned after
bypass

For with the beam and the stress after stress after a method, the adhesion force following the
concrete surface tension of the center cross-section, or the 10% depth of the cross section
height focus, is considered equivalent to the tensile reinforcement is not 460 N/mm2, and
reduce the amount of tensile reinforcement is not required. The prestressed reinforced with
concrete adhesive to the corner
to cr os s s ect i on wi l l be t he vect or c omponent s of t he r ei n f or ce d s ect i on i s t o
c ons i der t he r eques t . The i nt er pr et at i on of t hi s i s s ome what mor e moder at e
c ode r equi r e ment s .

Reinforced by the user to determine at which angle cross section will only components