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The Heat Exposure Assessment Related to Health Risk at an Indoor

Workplace.

Introduction:
Nowadays, many workplaces were designed with operating system
which some of them will producing heat such as iron and steel foundries,
nonferrous foundries, brick-firing and ceramic plants, glass products
facilities, rubber products factories, electrical utilities (particularly boiler
rooms), bakeries, confectioneries, commercial kitchens (restaurant kitchen),
laundries, food canneries, chemical plants, mining sites, smelters, and steam
tunnels. Most of them still need to be handled manually by the workers and
this will give chances for the workers to expose to the risk of getting or might
possibly considered as suffering heat stroke or heat strain in hot indoor
environment (once it is rise as extremes temperatures) especially in the
summer days when the temperature and humidity are high. [Reference:
2008 TLVs and BEIs: Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and
Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. Cincinnati, Ohio: American
Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 2008. p. 217.]

Perspiration is the mechanism by which the body cools itself. As


perspiration evaporates from the skin, the cooling effects lower body
temperature. Blood vessels in the outer surface of the skin dilate, allowing
more blood flow to the skin surface where heat can be dissipated. Air
movement from wind or fans as well as boy movement help enhance the
evaporation process. The body can also reduce its internal temperature
throught respiration, when cooler air is brought into the body (lungs) where it
comes into contact with blood.

Understanding the dynamics of body temperature regulation and the


role it must play requires distinguishing between the concept of heat stress
and that of heat strain. They are related, but they are not the same. Heat
stress is described in terms of external demands and limits placed on a
person. Heat strain reflects the extent to which the individual has to
assemble defenses to keep total body heat content and deep body
temperature in a workable and livable range.

a) Heat Stress.
Heat stress is the cumulative of environmental and physical work
factors that constitute the total heat load imposed on the body. The
environmental of heat stress include air temperature, relative humidity, air
flow velocity, radiant heat exchange, air movement, and water vapor
pressure. While the physical work will contributes to the total heat stress of
the job by producing metabolic heat in the body in proportion to the intensity
of the work. Clothing requirements also will affect the heat stress.

All these factors defining potential heat stress, which are assessed with
varying degrees of precision and accuracy. Such measures provide valuable
and useful information about the thermal load to which humans must adjust.
These measurements, however, provide no information about the safety of
the exposure or the extent to which humans are compromised in their
abilities to adjust to it.

Measurements of thermal stress, no matter how accurately they are


assessed, only quantify the internal and external thermal demands that
challenge thermoregulation. They are unreliable predictors of how safe
someone will be when working in that environment. Accurate measurements
of heat stress provide the basis for an assessment of how hot an
environment is.

Usually, the more factors are evaluated, the more reliable the net
information. Measuring just air temperature, for instance, seldom provides
much useful insight. Additional data about ambient humidity, air velocity,
infrared radiant intensities, and emissivity of clothing and nearby objects
provide a much more complete picture for the level of heat stress. A mild or
moderate heat stress may cause discomfort and may adversely affect
performance and safety, but it is not harmful to health. As the heat stress
approaches human tolerance limits, the risk of heat-related disorders
increases.

b) Heat Strain.
Heat strain is the series of physiological response resulting from heat
stress. These responses reflect the degree of heat stress. When the strain is
excessive for the exposed individual, a feeling of discomfort or distress may
result, and will finally a disorder may ensue. The severity of strain will
depend not only on the magnitude of the existing stress, but also the age,
physical fitness, degree of acclimatization and dehydration of the worker.

Heat strain reflects the extent to which the individual has to organize
defenses to keep total body heat content and deep body temperature in a
workable and livable range. It is a characteristic that is unique to each
person and will, in fact, change even for the same person from time to time.
Heat strain is the cost of adjusting to heat stress. It is not a measure of how
successfully the adjustment is made. Unpleasant measures of heat strain
include body core temperature, heart rate, and sweat loss. Other important
responses are allocations of the fluid volumes in the body, electrolyte
concentrations in the intra- and extra-cellular spaces, levels of hormones,
and blood pressure.

Heat strain is not reliably predicted from heat stress. This means that
environmental measurements cannot safely or accurately predict heat strain,
the amount of discomfort, or the degree of danger being faced by an
individual at any time. The predictive gap is largely explained by personal
risk factors. These are each person’s unique strengths and weaknesses for
distributing heat in the body and for dissipating it to the surrounding
environment.

c) Heat Disorders.
Heat disorders generally are caused by the body’s inability to shed
excess heat. The body is cooled by losing heat through the skin and by
perspiration. When heat gain exceeds the amount the body can remove, the
body’s inner temperature begins to rise, and heat-related illness may
develop.

Heat disorders share one common feature which is once the individual
has been overexposed to heat, or over-exercised for his age and physical
condition on a hot day, the severity of heat disorders tends to increase with
age for example it can be a heat cramps in a 17-year-old but may become as
a heat exhaustion in someone 40 and heat stroke in a person over 60 years
old. Sunburn can significantly retard the skin’s ability to shed excess heat.
Elderly people, young children, people on certain medications or drugs, and
people with weight and alcohol problems are particularly susceptible to heat
reactions.

d) Heat-related Illness
Heat-related illness can occur during work in hot weather, in hot ambient
conditions, or when workers are wearing layers of protective gear that
interfere with perspiration( the mechanism by which the body cools itself).
Below are the following descriptions of the forms of heat-related illness.

i. Heat rash.
Heat rash can be called as prickly heat which appears as little red
bumps on the skin, which is in fact inflamed sweat gland. It usually appears
on areas of the body that become and stay damp, as under sweat soaked
shirt, pants and gloves. Heat rash is not usually serious, although it can
become infected. Treatment includes allowing the skin to dry and keeping
affected areas as dry as possible. Infections can be treated with a topical
antibiotic ointment.

ii. Heat cramps.


It is typically caused by heavy perspiration with resultant loss of body
fluid, causing an imbalance in the salts and minerals of the muscles, which in
turn can causes cramping. Heat cramps can be very painful but do not
usually last very long and do not cause permanent disability. Treatment for
heat cramps include removing the individual from the hot environment and
providing plenty of water to drink.

iii. Heat syncope.


This is a fainting or near-fainting condition that occurs among people
who have been standing in one position for a period of time, usually in the
sun, but it can occur in any warm environment. Standing still causes of the
blood to pool in the lower region of the body, which leads to fainting after
some time. In summer, this is not uncommon at outdoor receptions or
weddings. It may also occur at construction sites, affecting the worker who
stands on the streets in the hot sun directing traffic. Individuals with heat
syncope should lie down in a shady spot and drink water. Flexing leg muscles
and moving around periodically during the work shift along with regular
intake of water all help prevent the condition.

iv. Heat exhaustion.


Typically, it will develop among individuals who have experienced loss
of body fluids due to heavy perspiration. Symptoms of heat exhaustion
include nausea, dizziness, headaches, tiredness, and possibly fainting. An
individual suffering from heat exhaustion is usually sweating profusely and
may be confused or disoriented. Treatment includes removing the individual
from the hot environment and providing cool water (7–10 ˚C) to drink. The
individual should be monitored by someone with first aid training and
medical attention should be sought immediately if the condition deteriorates.

v. Heat stroke.
This is the most serious form of heat-related illness. The individuals
who are suffering from heat stroke may or may not be perspiring and will
have an elevated body temperature at or above 40˚C. Symptoms of heat
stroke include a red, hot face and skin, lack of or reduced perspiration,
erratic behavior, confusion or dizziness, and collapse or unconsciousness.
This condition is extremely dangerous medical emergency, which the person
should be moved to cool area and aggressively cooled, using wet blankets
and fanning. Victims should be transported by a medical team to the nearest
hospital immediately or the outcomes include possible coma and death.

They are several factors that can affect the potential for workers to develop
heat-induced conditions.
i) Acclimatization: the workers experience and acclimatization period during
the first ten days to two weeks of work in hot environment. During this time,
their body gradually adjusts to operating in very warm conditions. After the
body has acclimated, workers are less likely to experience heat-related
problems. While individuals need 10-14 days to become heat-acclimated,
they may lose this acclimation after only a few days away from hot
environment. For this reason, workers returning from long weekends or
vacations should monitor themselves closely to detect early signs of heat
stress.
ii) Physical fitness: it is known that workers who are in good physical condition
are less likely to experience heat-related illnesses. In fact, obesity also may
contribute to a worker’s inability to handle heat stress due to the added
insulation that prevents the body from cooling efficiently.
iii) Age: the older workers may have some more difficulty working in hot
environment and may take longer period to become acclimatized.
iv) Alcohol and drug usage: alcohol consumption may contribute to the
dehydration and makes workers much more likely to experience heat-related
illness. Some prescription and over-the-counter drugs may also increase a
worker’s susceptibility to heat stress.
v) Atmospheric conditions: high humidity, direct sunlight, and radiant heat
greatly increase heat stress conditions, which are likely with personal
protective equipment (PPE) usage at temperatures of 21˚C or greater.
vi) Workload: workers performing strenuous work are more likely to suffer from
heat-induced illness since they are generally losing more body fluids through
perspiration. In addition, the heat produced by the body’s metabolism adds
to the overall heat load of the body.

Heat transfer deal with how quickly heat energy can be passed from one
object to another. It can be transferred through several mechanisms which
are conduction, convection and radiation.

i) Conduction.
Conduction is the transfer of heat between materials that contact each
other. Heat passes from the warmer material to the cooler material. For
example, a worker's skin can transfer heat to a contacting surface if that
surface is cooler, and vice versa.

ii) Convection.
Convection is the transfer of heat in a moving fluid. Air flowing past the
body can cool the body if the air temperature is cool. On the other hand, air
that exceeds 35°C (95°F) can increase the heat load on the body.
iii) Radiation.
Radiation is the transfer of heat energy through space. A worker whose
body temperature is greater than the temperature of the surrounding
surfaces radiates heat to these surfaces. Hot surfaces and infrared light
sources radiate heat that can increase the body's heat load.

General Objective:
To conduct a heat stress assessment among workers at Nando’s Kitchen,
Pavilion Shopping Complex, Kuala Lumpur at 10th of September 2009.

Specific Objective:
i. To determine the temperature at working area in Nando’s
Kitchen.
ii. To determine the workload category of all the workers based on
their work task whether as worker at administrative or production
part.
iii. To determine whether the workers are having any heat stress or
not based on their workload category and WBGT reading (heat
exposure).
iv. To determine the degree of comfort at working area by using
Humidex Table.

Problem Statement:
When the air temperature or humidity rises above the optimal ranges
for comfort, problems can arise. Exposure to more heat stress can cause
physical problems which impair workers' efficiency and may cause adverse
health effects.
Some of the problems and their symptoms experienced in the
temperature range between a comfortable zone (20˚C-27°C) and the highest
tolerable limits (for most people) are summarized in Table 1.

The risk of heat-related illness varies from person to person. A person’s


general health also influences how well the person adapts to heat (and cold).
Those with extra weight often have trouble in hot situations as the body has
difficulty maintaining a good heat balance.
Age (particularly for people about 45 years and older), poor general
health, and a low level of fitness will make people more susceptible to feeling
the extremes of heat. Medical conditions can also increase how susceptible
the body is. People with heart disease, high blood pressure, respiratory
disease and uncontrolled diabetes may need to take special precautions.

In addition, people with skin diseases and rashes may be more


susceptible to heat. Substances (both prescription or otherwise) known can
also have an impact on how people react to heat. Heat exposure causes the
following illnesses such as heat edema, heat rashes, heat cramps, heat
exhaustion, heat syncope, and also heat stroke and hyperpyrexia (elevated
body temperature).

Certain kidney, liver, heart, digestive system, central nervous system


and skin illnesses are thought by some researchers to be linked to long-term
heat exposure. However, the evidence supporting these associations is not
conclusive. Chronic heat exhaustion, sleep disturbances and susceptibility to
minor injuries and sicknesses have all been attributed to the possible effects
of prolonged exposure to heat. (Reference: Occupational exposure to hot
environments. Revised Criteria. Cincinnati, Ohio: National Institute for
Occupational Safety and Health, 1986).

Methodology:

i) Monitoring location.
The heat exposure monitoring was done at Nando’s Kitchen, Pavilion
Shoping Complex, Kuala Lumpur at 10th of September 2009. The purpose of
this monitoring is to determine the heat level at the kitchen which there is a
stoves as a source of heat exposure to the workers which work inside the
kitchen as a cooker.

ii) Research sampling.


The selection of the respondent were done randomly among workers
which including the managers (administrative part) and workers inside the
kitchen (production part).

iii) Data collection method.


There are two types of data collection methods that we were used
which are the heat temperature monitoring equipment and also the
questionnaires. The heat monitoring was done around 20 minutes from 8.57
p.m untill 9.20 p.m on that particular day.

The heat monitoring was done by using the Wet Bulb Globe
Temperature (WBGT) meter model QUESTemp˚ 34 Thermal Environment
Monitor.

Questionaires was done through the selection of research respondents.


The selection of the respondents were done randomly and the questions
asked in the questionaires were based on their personal information, medical
history, job information, and also to know the symptoms of heat stress if
they ever had any.

Instrument:
A number of approaches that can be used for monitoring the work
environment. The most common method is one published in the ACGIH TLV
booklet. The ACGIH TLVs for heat stress are based on an index called the
Wet Blub Globe Temperature (WBGT) that provides the information on the
heat load of the environment. It measures temperatures with a dry bulb
thermometer, a wet bulb thermometer and a large, matte, black globe.

The dry bulb thermometer measures the ambient temperature. This


thermometer is exposed to the air just as any thermometer is used to
measure air temperature. A dry bulb thermometer consist of a hollow glass
tube with a bottom reservoir of mercury. The range of the thermometer
should be -5 to +50oC and accurate to ±0.5oC. temperature beyond the
range of a dry bulb thermometer may break the thermometer. When the
measurements are taken, the dry bulb thermometer must be shielded from
radiant heat sources so that only the temperature of the ambient air will be
detected. Thermoelectric thermometers or thermocouples are also
commonly used to measure the ambient air temperature.

Wet-bulb temperature is measured using a standard mercury-in-


glass thermometer, with the thermometer bulb wrapped in wick, which is
kept wet in distilled water. The wick is made of highly absorbent woven
cotton. As the wick evaporates water, a certain amount of heat energy is
dissipated through evaporative cooling. The bulb is then cooled by the heat
absorbed by water during evaporation of the water, and equilibrium is
reached between the evaporation rate and the water vapor pressure in air.
The temperature is indicated on the thermometer. At full saturation, the wet
bulb thermometer temperature will equal the dry bulb temperature since no
evaporative cooling will be experienced. The evaporation of water from the
thermometer has a cooling effect, so the temperature indicated by the wet
bulb thermometer is less than the temperature indicated by a dry-bulb
(normal, unmodified) thermometer. The rate of evaporation from the wet-
bulb thermometer depends on the humidity of the air - evaporation is slower
when the air is already full of water vapor. For this reason, the difference in
the temperatures indicated by the two thermometers gives a measure of
atmospheric humidity.

The black globe thermometer, or Vermon globe, is the standard


method for measuring radiant heat. A black globe thermometer consist of a
6-in. diameter hollow copper sphere that is painted matte black. a
thermometer is inserted so that its bulb is centered inside the globe. The
range of the thermometer should be -5 to +100oC and accurate to ±0.5oC.
the black globe absorbs radiant heat increasing the temperature of air within
the globe proportional to the amount of heat energy absorbed. The
thermometer inside the globe is allowed to reach equilibrium. The
temperature calculated from globe temperature is termed the mean radiant
temperature, which is indicative of the average temperature of surrounding
environment.

Wet Bulb Dry Bulb


Thermomete Thermomet
r er

Globe
Thermomete
r

Quality Control:
The range of the dry and natural wet bulb thermometer should be 5oC
to ±50oC. The dry bulb thermometer must be shielded from the sun and the
other radiant surfaces of the environment without restricting the airflow
around the bulb. The wick of the natural wet bulb thermometer should be
kept wet with distilled water for at least one-half hour before the
temperature reading is made. It is not enough to immerse the other end of
the wick into the reservoir of distill water and wait until the whole wick
becomes wet by capillarity. The wick must be wetted by direct application of
water from a syringe one-half hour before each reading. The wick must cover
the bulb of the thermometer and an equal length of additional wick must
cover the stem above the bulb. The wick should always be clean, and new
wicks should be washed before using.

A globe thermometer consisting of a 15cm (6-inch) in diameter hollow


copper sphere painted on the outside with a matte black finish, or
equivalent, must be used. The bulb or sensor of the thermometer (range -5oC
to +100oC with an accuracy of ±0.5oC) must be fixed in the center of the
sphere. The globe thermometer should be exposed at least 25 minutes into
the environment atmosphere before it is used.

A stand should be used to suspend the three thermometers so that


they do not restrict free air flow around the bulbs and the wet bulb and globe
thermometer are not shaded. The QUESTemp˚ 34 should be placed at a
height of 0.1m (feet), 1.1m (abdomen) and 1.7m (head) for standing
individuals or 0.1m (feet), 0.6m (abdomen) and 1.1m (head) above the floor
for seated individuals. Tripod mounting is recommended to get the unit away
from anything that might block radiant heat or airflow. A 1/4"x20 threaded
bushing on the bottom of the instrument allows mounting to a standard
photographic tripod. Do not stand close to the unit during sampling. The
thermometers must be placed so that the readings are representative of the
employee’s work or rest areas, as appropriate.

Result and Discussion:


WBGT Reading:
Measurement Sensor 1 Sensor 2 Sensor 3 (feet)
(abdomen) ˚C (head) ˚C ˚C
WBGT In 26.5 28.5 24.7
WBGT Out 26.3 28.1 24.6
Wet Bulb 23.6 24.4 22.2
Dry Bulb 31.5 34.7 29.5
Globe 33.5 38.1 30.6
Heat Index 32 36 30
Relative 47 % 40 % 49 %
Humidity

By using the WBGT indoor (with no exposure to light) calculation:


WBGT = 0.7WB + 0.3GT

Sensor Calculation
Sensor 1: WBGT = 0.7 (23.6) + 0.3 (33.5)
= 26.57 ˚C
Sensor 2: WBGT = 0.7 (24.4) + 0.3 (38.1)
= 28.51 ˚C
Sensor 3: WBGT = 0.7 (22.2) + 0.3 (30.6)
= 24.72 ˚C

Then, the assessment of heat exposure was calculated by using the WBGT
(TWA) calculation:

(2) WBGT1+ (1) WBGT2 + (1) 0.5 WBGT1 + 0.25


Average
WBGT3 or WBGT2 + 0.25
WBGT = 4
WBGT3

(2) (26.57) + (1) (28.52) + (1)


= (24.72)
4
= 26.59 ˚C
The correction calculation factor for heat stress exposure was calculated by
using the following method:

TABLE III: 4-3. WBGT CORRECTION FACTORS IN °C

Clothing type Clo* WBGT


value correction
Summer lightweight 0.6 0
working clothing
Cotton coveralls 1.0 -2
Winter work clothing 1.4 -4
Water barrier, permeable 1.2 -6
*Clo: Insulation value of clothing. One clo = 5.55
kcal/m2/hr of heat exchange by radiation and convection for each
degree °C difference in temperature between the skin and the adjusted
dry bulb temperature.

Note: Deleted from the previous version are trade names and "fully
encapsulating suit, gloves, boots and hood" including its clo value of 1.2
and WBGT correction of -10.

Since all the workers at Nando’s Kitchen Restaurant were wearing summer
lightweight working clothing, thus the correction factor is 0.
WBGT = 26.59 ˚C – 0 ˚C
= 26.59 ˚C

However, in order to determine whether the workers are having any heat
stress or not, the work load should be known first then compared with the
standard given.

Work Load Category


Category kcal/hour
Light Work Up to 200 kcal/hour
Medium Work 200–350 kcal/hour
Heavy Work 350–500 kcal/hour

The workload calculation was done by referring to the following table:

TABLE III: 4-1. ASSESSMENT OF WORK

Body position and kcal/min*


movement

Sitting 0.3
Standing 0.6
Walking 2.0-3.0
Walking uphill add 0.8 for every meter (yard)
rise
Type of work Average Range kcal/min
kcal/min

Hand work
Light 0.4 0.2-1.2
Heavy 0.9

Work: One arm


Light 1.0 0.7-2.5
Heavy 1.7

Work: Both arms


Light 1.5 1.0-3.5
Heavy 2.5

Work: Whole body


Light 3.5 2.5-15.0
Moderat
5.0
e
Heavy 7.0
Very
9.0
heavy

* For a "standard" worker of 70 kg body weight (154 lbs)


and 1.8m2 body surface (19.4 ft2).

** The workload calculation should be added with basal metabolism


which is 1.0 kcal/min.

Source: ACGIH 1992 (updated in 2001).

Work load
Respondent Work load calculation
category
2.0 kcal/min (walking) + 3.5 kcal/min
1 (working with whole body) + 1.0 kcal/min
(administrat (basal metabolism) Heavy
ive part) = 6.5 kcal/min
6.5 kcal/min × 60 min = 390 kcal/hour
0.6 kcal/min (standing) + 1.5 kcal/min
2 (working with both arm) + 3.5 kcal/min
(production (working with whole body) + 1.0 kcal/min Heavy
part) (basal metabolism) = 6.6 kcal/min
6.6 kcal/min × 60 min = 396 kcal/hour
3 0.6 kcal/min (standing) + 1.5 kcal/min Heavy
(production (working with both arm) + 3.5 kcal/min
part) (working with whole body) + 1.0 kcal/min
(basal metabolism) = 6.6 kcal/min
6.6 kcal/min × 60 min = 396 kcal/hour
2.0 kcal/min (walking) + 1.5 kcal/min
4 (working with both arm) + 3.5 kcal/min
(production (working with whole body) + 1.0 kcal/min Heavy
part) (basal metabolism)= 8.0 kcal/min
8.0 kcal/min × 60 min = 480 kcal/hour
2.0 kcal/min (walking) + 3.5 kcal/min
5 (working with whole body) + 1.0 kcal/min
(administrat (basal metabolism) Heavy
ive part) = 6.5 kcal/min
6.5 kcal/min × 60 min = 390 kcal/hour

All the workers including at the production part (working at the kitchen as
cookers) and administrative part (working at counter as money reception or
manager which sometimes helps at the kitchen) were performed a heavy
workload task.

However, to indicate whether they are having or getting any heat stress or
heat-related illness or not, we were using the following table as a reference.
Since the WBGT value for all of those workers are 26.59˚C and the suggested
temperature is 27.5˚C (maximum), thus all the workers can be considered as
not getting any heat stress or heat-related illness. The present temperature
condition at working area can be considered as acceptable for all workers.
However, to indicate whether the environmental condition (surrounding) at
work area comfortable or not, the following step were used.

Dry Bulb Relative


Sensor
(˚C) Humidity
1
(abdome 29.5 47 %
n)
2 (head) 34.7 40 %
3 (foot) 31.5 49 %
Average 31.9 45.3%

Since the temperature is 31.9˚C (assumed as 32˚C) and the relative


humidity is 45.3% (assumed as 45%), thus condition at the workplace can be
considered as “some discomfort”.
However, based on the questionnaire given the workers were claimed that
they are comfortable with the current working area condition. It may due to
the installation of air-conditioner in whole building of Pavilion Shopping
Complex (since this Nando’s Kitchen is placed inside the Pavilion Shopping
Complex). Thus, it will be able to balancing the distribution of heat and
making the environment not too hot when the workers are cooking at the
kitchen.

Conclusion:
Based on the study and the monitoring of the heat stress above, we
can conclude that all of the respondents who worked at Nando’s Kitchen,
Pavilion Shopping Complex, Kuala Lumpur were not experiencing any heat
stress or heat-related illness yet. This conclusion was made due to the WBGT
reading and workload level of the respondents which have been monitored
at 10th September 2009.

The conclusion of the heat stress were done complying to the


guidelines given by the American Conference Governmental of Industrial
Health (ACGIH) 1992 which the monitoring was done by using the WBGT
meters and questionnaires. The questionnaires were distributed first to all six
respondent to determine if they are having any heat-related symptoms like
nausea, dizziness and so on. The WBGT was used after that to determine the
temperature at the respondents working area (at the kitchen). Based on the
heat index, all the respondent were considered as not having any heat stress
since they work there.

Standardization:
The standard used in determining the heat stress, experiencing by the
six respondent at Nando’s Kitchen, Pavilion Shopping Complex, Kuala
Lumpur was done according to the American Conference of Governmental
Industrial Hygienist (1992) which have states that all workers should not be
permitted to work when their deep body temperature exceeds the value of
38.0oC (100.4oF).

By using the WBGT meter and questionaires as suggested by the


AGCIH and the previous reserach, we can determined weather or not that
each respondent have experiencing the heat stress during working hours.
Beside that, from using the questionaires we were able to know the
symptoms of the heat stress experienced by the respondents.

Belows are related standards and guideline used in heat stress


i. NIOSH (Minnesota, USA)
Criteria Document for Heat Stress – One-hour TWA for continuous
exposure or two-hour TWA for intermittent exposure 79oF WBGT
ii. International Standard ISO 7243: 1989-08-01
Hot environments – estimation of the heat stress on working man,
based on the WBGT index.

Recommendation:
Since all the workers are not experiencing any heat stress or heat-related
illness, the following table was provided as the employer can taking any
actions if any heat-related symptoms arise in the future.

There are other prevention actions which can be used to avoid the workers
from having any heat stress or heat-related illness. The reduction of heat
stress can be accomplished through the following controls which are:-
a) Train employees to recognize heat stress.
b) Allow time for employee acclimation to hot environments.
c) Encourage workers to drink adequate replacement fluids. A person

Source:
http://www.thezenith.com/employers/services/pi/indsaf/agr/rmb/Agriculture_PreventingHea
tStress
should drink 1 1/2 gallons of water per day. Salt pills or sport drinks
with added salt are unnecessary as the typical people has enough salt
in their diet. If a person loses 1.5% of their total body weight in a
workday, they are not drinking enough fluids (for example, if a 200
pound employee loses more than 3 pounds in a day, they need to drink
more fluid).
d) Someone who develops symptoms of heat exhaustion or heat stroke
should be removed to a cool area, provided fluids and be medically
evaluated.
e) Use the buddy system (never working alone in hot areas) to monitor
co-worker for heat stress.
f) Encourage employees to maintain physical fitness.

Through our group’s observation, there are engineering controls at this


workplace which are an installation of LEV system and air-conditioning
system. While for the administrative control is by giving the entire worker
the same type of clothes which are summer lightweight working clothes.

LEV system Proper clothing Air-conditioning in whole


building

References:
1) OSHA Technical Manual: Heat Stress (online). Retrieved September 4,
2009 from United States Department of Labor, Occupational Safety &
Health Administration. Available at
http://www.osha.gov/dts/osta/otm/otm_iii/otm_iii_4.html#5

2) NIOSH Safety & Health Topic: Heat Stress (online). Retrieved September
4, 2009 from National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.
Available at http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/heatstress/

3) Preventing Heat Stress (online). Retrieved October 26, 2009 from The
Zenith.Com, Zenith Insurance Company. Available at
http://www.thezenith.com/employers/services/pi/indsaf/agr/rmb/Agricultur
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