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Centre Number

Candidate Number

Name

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS


General Certificate of Education Ordinary Level
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

5014/01

Paper 1
October/November 2006
Candidates answer on the Question Paper.
Additional Materials: Ruler (cm/mm)
Protractor

2 hours 15 minutes

READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST


Write your Centre number, candidate number and name on all the work you hand in.
Write in dark blue or black pen.
You may use a soft pencil for any diagrams, graphs or rough working.
Do not use staples, paper clips, highlighters, glue or correction fluid.
Answer all questions.
The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part question.
At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together.

For Examiners Use

1
2
3
4
5
6
Total
This document consists of 25 printed pages and 3 blank pages.
SP (NF/CGW) T09166/5
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2
Section A

(a) The map shows part of a plate boundary and some of the features caused by plate
movement in North Island, New Zealand.

Australian
Plate

Napier

Pacific
Plate

0 km 100

(i)

land

ocean trench

plate boundary

volcano

town badly damaged


by 1931 earthquake

direction of plate
movement

What type of plate boundary is this?


..............................................................................................................................[1]

(ii)

Which oceanic plate is shown in the map?


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(iii)

Add an arrow to the map to show the likely direction of movement of the Pacific
Plate.
[1]

For
Examiners
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(b) In 1931 an earthquake destroyed much of the town of Napier. Explain why a powerful
earthquake can affect the economy of a town or city.
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(c) Methods used to reduce the impact of future earthquakes include rebuilding the
settlement on a different site and strengthening the structure of buildings. Suggest
disadvantages of one of these methods.
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2

(a) The graph shows the average productivity of marine ecosystems.


g / m2 / year

2000

1500

1500

1000

1000

500

500

(i)

Complete the graph using the figures below:


ecosystem
continental shelf
coral and algal reefs

(ii)

coral and
algal reefs

2000

estuaries

2500

continental
shelf
up welling
zones

2500

open ocean

average
productivity

g / m2 / year

average productivity (g/m2/yr)


360
2 500

[1]

Why can changes in one marine ecosystem easily lead to changes in another
marine ecosystem?
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5
(b) The map shows an El Nino event in the Southern Pacific Ocean.

Equator
South Equatorial

Australia

Fiji

South Pacific
Ocean
0

km

South
America

3000

key
ocean current
land
Describe and explain El Nino.
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(c) In March 2000 an El Nino event damaged 65% of the coral reefs in Fiji. Coral reefs are
made of the skeletons of tiny animals that grow very slowly. They can also be damaged
by tourism which is increasing in Fiji. The map shows attempts started by local people,
together with the hotel management and staff, to preserve the local coral.
Pacific Ocean
Protected Area
No walking on the reef
Snorkel only at high tide
Do not put feet down
Do not take
anything from the sea
No fishing

coral
farm

sand
N
hotel grounds
0

100 m
racks in which coral
are grown for replanting

edge of coral reef


at surface

guided reef walk


at low tide

boundary of protected
area

What are the advantages of these measures both for the ecosystem and for the local
people?
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7
BLANK PAGE

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8
3

(a) The diagram shows some features of the green revolution in rice farming in the Indian
Punjab.
A
well
controlled
irrigation

power

capital / loans

pesticides
IR 8 miracle
rice seeds

pollution
of soil
and water

herbicides

research

shorter
growing
period

higher
yields

fewer
imports

surplus
for sale
B

more income
for farmer

more
irrigation,
facilities,
fertilisers,

wealthy farmers
become wealthier

greater wealth
gap between
rich and poor
farmers
(i)

State three different disadvantages of the green revolution that are shown in the
diagram.
..................................................................................................................................
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..............................................................................................................................[3]

(ii)

In the empty box A write another input that would help to increase yield.

(iii)

In the empty box B write how a shorter growing period can lead to a surplus for
sale.
[1]

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9
(b) Explain the disadvantages of using only IR-8 seeds, instead of traditional seeds, over a
very large area.

For
Examiners
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(c) Suggest why all farmers in rice growing areas cannot benefit from the green
revolution.
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4

(a) The diagram shows vegetation in a hot desert where it rains, on average, only
twenty-seven days in a year.

hot ground surface by ay


d

dry soil
water table
soil contains water

Explain why
(i)

some plants have long roots,


..............................................................................................................................[1]

(ii)

other plants have shallow roots,


..............................................................................................................................[1]

(iii)

plants are widely spaced.


..............................................................................................................................[1]

(b) Hunter-gatherers and nomadic pastoralists live in some desert areas and in other difficult
environments. Choose one of these groups and explain how they are able to survive in
their environment.
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(c) The map shows the United Arab Emirates, an oil-rich state with a hot desert climate,
only 75 mm of rain a year and no rivers.

For
Examiners
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Sea

N
United Arab
Emirates
0 km 100

Oman

Saudi Arabia

cities
international border
(i)

Suggest how the location of the country allows it to be able to supply large amounts
of water for its growing tourist industry.
..................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................[1]

(ii)

Give one advantage and one disadvantage of this method of water supply.
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Section B
5

The map gives information about pollution in the North Sea.


Threats to the North Sea
Shetland Is.

NORWAY

Orkney Is.

North Sea
DENMARK

R. Tyne
R. Tees

Tre
n

R. Elbe

R.

R. Ems R. Weser

GERMANY

UK

NETHERLANDS
N

R. Rhine
R. Thames

BELGIUM

dt
R. Schel

FRANCE

Map Key

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Fertilisers
and Manure

Oil/gas
Fields

Main sea
Currents

Oil
Refineries

Chemical
Industries

Algal
Blooms

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100 km

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13
(a) (i)

Name three sources of pollutants in the North Sea shown on the map.
1 ...............................................................................................................................
2 ...............................................................................................................................
3 ...........................................................................................................................[1]

(ii)

Pollutants build up in the North Sea. Why are pollutants not dispersed quickly after
reaching the North Sea?
..................................................................................................................................
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..............................................................................................................................[2]

(iii)

Where in the North Sea are algal blooms found?


..................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................[1]

(iv)

Suggest why algal blooms are located in these places.


..................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................[1]

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(b)

Amount of nitrogen from rivers flowing into the North Sea


(tonnes per year)

River

Amount

Countries passed through

Thames

31 000

UK

Rhine

420 000

Switzerland, France, Germany, Netherlands

Scheldt

49 000

France, Belgium

Weser

87 000

Germany

Elbe

150 000

Czech Rep., Germany

(i)

Draw a bar graph to show amounts of nitrogen from the five rivers.

450,000

Tonnes of nitrogen per year

400,000
350,000
300,000
250,000
200,000
150,000
100,000
50,000
0
[3]
(ii)

Name two sources of nitrogen in the North Sea from human activities.
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(c) In Europe, as in other continents, some rivers carry more pollutants than others.
Give reasons why
(i)

most of the worlds rivers carry pollutants;


..................................................................................................................................
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(ii)

some carry more than others.


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(d)
NORTH SEA FOOD CHAINS

POLLUTION

TOP
PREDATORS
dolphin
seals
sea birds

POLLUTION

Species fished for human consumption


cod, haddock, plaice etc.

POLLUTION

Human
Consumption

Species fished for producing fish oil and meal,


sand eels, Norway pout etc.

POLLUTION
Plankton

(i)

Why is plankton important in the North Sea food chains?


..................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................[1]

(ii)

These are food chains under threat, with great competition for marine resources.
Describe how the food chains diagram shows this.
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(iii)

Explain how the growth of algal blooms affects marine life.


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Animal
Feed

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17
(e) The graph shows breeding stocks of cod in the North Sea.
North Sea Spawning Cod Stock
1000s tonnes
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

Year
Describe the trends shown in the graph.
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(f)

Time Line for North Sea Fishing


North Sea Fishing Time Line

Small fishing trawlers


used. Fishermen
followed flocks of sea
birds to locate big
fish shoals. Interruptions
to fishing by bad
weather frequent.

Large nets
used to
suck up
the fish.
Ships
Fish caught
equipped
for
with sonar Bigger and
industrial
bigger
for finding
products,
factory
fish shoals
accurately. ships used. e.g. fish oil.

Cod and
haddock
declared
below
safe
biological
limits.

Smaller
and
younger
fish
caught,
especially
sand eels.

1940s

1930s

(i)

1950s

1960s

1970s

1980s

?
1990s

2010

What is meant by fish stocks falling below safe biological limits?


..................................................................................................................................
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(ii)

Describe what happened between the 1950s and 1990s to cause over-fishing in
the North Sea and in many other parts of the world.
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(g)

Options for Fishing Grounds under threat

DECOMISSION
FISHING BOATS
DO NOTHING
Fish stocks not as low as
scientists suggest.
Allow fish stocks to
recover naturally.

Pay owners to stop using boats


for fishing.
Change to other work such
as boat trips for tourists.

POLLUTION CONTROL
Stricter controls and monitoring
of rivers by Water Authorities.
Emergency teams trained to
act fast after a pollution
disaster.

(i)

Add two more options in the spaces provided for management of fishing grounds
which have been over-fished.
[4]

(ii)

Are all the options sustainable?


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(iii)

Is it better to use several different options instead of just using one? Explain your
views as fully as you can.
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[Total: 40]

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20
6

(a) The diagram below shows a rain gauge.

A
30 cm
Grass

(i)

Name the three parts labelled A, B and C.


A ...............................................................................................................................
B ...............................................................................................................................
C ...........................................................................................................................[3]

(ii)

This rain gauge is partly buried in the ground and placed on grass with its top
30 cm above the ground surface. Explain the advantages of siting the rain gauge in
this way.
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(iii)

When or why is it sometimes difficult to obtain accurate readings of precipitation


with a rain gauge?
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(b) Many places in South Asia have wet summers because of monsoon rains. Look at the
rainfall graph for Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh.

For
Examiners
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450
425
400
375
350
325
300
275
Average
rainfall
(mm)

250
225
200
175
150
125
100
75
50
25
0

(i)

J
J
Month

How much rain falls in Dhaka during the three wettest months? Show your
working.
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(ii)

Explain why the risk of flooding is greater in August and September than in May
and June?
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(c) In summer 2004 large areas in South Asia were affected by some of the worst-ever
floods. Bangladesh was the country most badly affected. Read this newspaper report.

Bangladesh stretches across the


worlds largest delta, where two of
Asias great rivers meet. The people
of Bangladesh live with the risk of
flooding. Summer is always wet,
because it is the monsoon season; in
2004 it was very wet.
After almost non-stop rains in July and
August, more than half of Bangladesh
was already flooded. Then on 13
September 350 mm of rain fell in 24
hours in Dhaka, the worst rains for 50
years.
Not only were monsoon rains heavy in
Bangladesh, but the rivers were full of
floodwater. This came from the very
heavy monsoon rains in northern India
and Nepal. Every year Bangladeshis
become more worried about trees
being cut down in the hills and
mountains of India and Nepal.
Deforestation increases run off into
rivers.

(i)

As a result of the floods in 2004, at


least 760 were killed and more than 35
million Bangladeshis were affected.
River floods washed away countless
homes, roads and stores of vital
subsistence crops, especially rice. It
was estimated that 8.5 million homes
were destroyed. The government put
the cost of repairs to roads, agriculture
and industry at US$6bn.
In the countryside where 75% of
Bangladeshis live, the monsoon is
normally welcomed. Houses are built
on raised ground, sometimes on stilts.
The river floods leave a new layer of
rich silt which fertilises the padi (wet
rice) fields. The many rivers and lakes
are important sources of fish, which
adds protein to the diet of rice farmers.
But in 2004 flood waters were more
than four metres above normal flood
levels, surrounding homes, wiping out
the rice crop and threatening diarrhoea,
dysentery and other diseases spread by
dirty water.

What is the evidence that flooding in 2004 in Bangladesh was much worse than
normal?
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................[2]

(ii)

Where do people in Bangladesh live so as to avoid the normal monsoon floods?


..............................................................................................................................[1]

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23
(d) Floods have both advantages and disadvantages for farmers in Bangladesh.
(i)

State two advantages of floods to farmers in Bangladesh. Explain their importance.


1 ...............................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
2 ...............................................................................................................................
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..............................................................................................................................[4]

(ii)

State one short-term and one long-term problem caused by floods in Bangladesh.
Short-term ................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
Long-term .................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................[2]

(iii)

Explain why different strategies are needed to reduce the effects of short-term and
long-term problems.
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(e) The pie graphs are to show what happens to 100% of precipitation in forested and
non-forested areas.

KEY
Evapo-transpiration
Runoff
Groundwater
(i)

% in non-forested areas
evapo-transpiration
runoff
groundwater

25
45
30

Show these percentages in the non-forested pie graph.


(ii)

[3]

For which process is there the largest difference between forested and non-forested
areas?
..............................................................................................................................[1]

(iii)

The newspaper report suggested that deforestation in the mountains and hills of
India and Nepal increased the floods in Bangladesh. Explain how this can happen.
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25
(f)

One strategy to reduce the harmful effects of climatic hazards is improved weather
forecasting.

For
Examiners
Use

Sources and use of data for weather forecasts

3
4
2
Ships

Land
stations

Upper air
balloons

Satellites

7
1
Radar
data
Aircraft

Software,
computer programs
and weather models

Explain why the accuracy of weather forecasts is increasing.


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26
(g)

Improved weather forecasting will not help


farmers and others living in rural areas of
developing countries like Bangladesh.

More reliable weather forecasts always help.


Governments can plan what to do before
bad weather reaches their countries.

(i)

Would improved weather forecasts have helped the people of Bangladesh in


summer 2004?

(ii)

Can governments in developing countries plan adequately for climatic hazards?


Give and explain your views on these.

(i)

..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................

(ii)

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[Total: 40]

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Copyright Acknowledgements:
Question 2 (a)
Question 2 (b)
Question 4 (a)
Question 4 (c)

Kevin Byrne; Environmental Science; Thomas Nelson & Sons; 1997.


Reprinted by permission of HarperCollins Ltd (1994) RSPB.
David C. Money; Climate and Environmental Systems; Collins Educational; 1988.
Collins Bartholomew Ltd 2000. Reproduced by Kind Permission of HarperCollins Publishers.

Permission to reproduce items where third-party owned material protected by copyright is included has been sought and cleared where possible. Every reasonable
effort has been made by the publisher (UCLES) to trace copyright holders, but if any items requiring clearance have unwittingly been included, the publisher will
be pleased to make amends at the earliest possible opportunity.
University of Cambridge International Examinations is part of the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES), which is itself a department
of the University of Cambridge.

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