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Fuse

In electronics , a fuse is a type of low resistance that acts as a sacrificial


device to provide over current protection, of either the source circuit. Its
essential component is a metal wire or strip that melts when too much current
flows, which interrupts the circuit in which it is connected. Short circuit,
overloading, mismatched loads or device failure are the prime reasons for
excessive current.
A fuse interrupts excessive current (blows) so that further damage by
overheating or fire is prevented. Wiring regulations often define a maximum
fuse current rating for particular circuits. Over current protection devices are
essential in electrical systems to limit threats to human life and property
damage. The time and current operating characteristics of fuses are used to
provide adequate protection without needless interruption. Slow blow fuses
are designed to allow harmless short term higher currents but still clear on a
sustained overload. Fuses are manufactured in a wide range of current and
voltage ratings to protect wiring systems and electrical equipment. Self-
resetting fuses automatically restore the circuit after the overload has cleared;
these are useful, for example, in aerospace or nuclear applications where fuse
replacement is impossible.
In the field of electrical and electronics engineering, a fuse (short for fusible
link) is considered as a safety tool to protect any electrical circuit from the
result of overload currents. It consists of a very thin metal wire or strip that
melts or vaporizes when excessive current flows within. The thin wire may be
constructed out of aluminum, tin-coated copper or nickel. Most fuses on
electronic equipment are cylindrical glass or ceramic type with a metal cap on
both ends.
Together with other overcurrent devices, fuses are crucial elements in a power
distribution system to avoid damage, overheating or fire. This is done by
opening the circuit under extreme current conditions. The maximum rating of
a fuse for a given circuit is determined by the wiring regulation.
Construction
A fuse consists of a metal strip or wire fuse element, of small cross-section
compared to the circuit conductors. The fuse is arranged in series to carry all
the current passing through the protected circuit. The resistance of the
element generates heat due to the current flow. The size and construction of
the element is (empirically) determined so that the heat produced for a normal
current does not cause the element to attain a high temperature. If too high a
current flows, the element rises to a higher temperature and either directly
melts, or else melts a soldered joint within the fuse, opening the circuit.
The fuse element is made of zinc, copper, silver, aluminum, or alloys to provide
stable and predictable characteristics. The fuse ideally would carry its rated
current indefinitely, and melt quickly on a small excess. The element must not
be damaged by minor harmless surges of current, and must not oxidize or
change its behavior after possibly years of service.
The fuse elements may be shaped to increase heating effect. In large fuses,
current may be divided between multiple strips of metal. A dual-element fuse
may contain a metal strip that melts instantly on a short-circuit, and also
contain a low-melting solder joint that responds to long-term overload of low
values compared to a short-circuit. Fuse elements may be supported by steel
or nichrome wires, so that no strain is placed on the element, but a spring may
be included to increase the speed of parting of the element fragments.
The fuse element may be surrounded by air, or by materials intended to speed
the quenching of the arc. Silica sand or non-conducting liquids may be used.
The circuit shown was designed to test the life span of a fuse using a resistor
and LEDas a visual indicator.
Under out of order conditions of the fuse, LED1 illuminates as the current
starts to travel and be controlled by R1 to a safe level. This indicates that the
fuse have been blown or in an open circuit state. The fuse operates in a
short-circuit manner wherein it allows the passage of normal currents. Another
way of testing the fuse, even while it is still in circuit, is by testing the
continuity of the fuse using a multimeter that reads zero ohm for good fuse
and that reads infinity when broken.

RF BASED Fuse Monitoring System

Fuse Monitoring embedded system, which will control all these devices with
wireless RF communication.
In this project we are using 8051 based microcontroller for controlling the
equipments in the home. RF communication is used to communicate and
respond to the remote commands.
This monitoring system can also be used for Fuse. It will monitor the fuse via
RF communication.
The circuit shown was designed to test the life span of a fuse using a
resistor and LEDas a visual indicator.
This circuit monitors a DC fuse.
Its LED lights continously when the fuse is intact but blinks is the fuse is
broken. The fuse monitor circuit is designed for 12 volts but can be modified
for other voltages. To use this circuit for 6 volts, divide all resistance values by
two, for 24 volts, double the values.

The circuit consumes around 25 mA and most of the current is consumed by
the LED. If you decide to use the circuit in battery operated modules, it is
highly recommended to use a high efficiency LED and increase the value of R7
accordingly.
Under out of order conditions of the fuse, LED1 illuminates as the current
starts to travel and be controlled by R1 to a safe level. This indicates that the
fuse have been blown or in an open circuit state. The fuse operates in a
short-circuit manner wherein it allows the passage of normal currents. Another
way of testing the fuse, even while it is still in circuit, is by testing the
continuity of the fuse using a multimeter that reads zero ohm for good fuse
and that reads infinity when broken.

The system uses a compact circuitry built around 8051 microcontroller
Programs are developed in Embedded C. Flash magic is used for loading
programs into Microcontroller.
Objective:
System is used to controlling of home appliances. In this project we are going
to develop an
The main objective of this project is to develop a fuse monitoring system with
a RF controlled remote. As technology is advancing so houses are also getting
smarter. Modern houses are gradually shifting from conventional switches to
centralized control system, involving RF controlled fuses.
Presently, conventional wall switches located in different parts of the house
makes it difficult for the user to go near them to operate. Even more it
becomes more difficult for the elderly or physically handicapped people to do
so. Remote controlled home automation system provides a simpler solution
with RF technology.
In order to achieve this, a RF remote is interfaced to the microcontroller on
transmitter side which sends ON/OFF commands to the receiver where loads
are connected. By operating the specified remote switch on the transmitter,
the loads can be turned ON/OFF remotely through wireless technology. The
microcontroller used here is of 8051 family. The loads are interfaced to the
microcontroller using opto-isolators and triacs.