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IMMUNIZATION BY

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA
Siddhendu Bhattacharjee
1
Sampriti jana
2
1
m.pharm (Ayurveda)
2
D.pharma (ayurveda)
Lovely professional university
Immunization
Immunization is a form of preventive mei!ine" It prepares
t#e $o% to fi&#t a&ainst infe!tion" Its aim is to prote!t
iniviua's an !ommunities from infe!tious iseases"
Immunization operates on the premise that once you have had a
disease, you are unlikely to contract it again.
Through injections, oral drops or scratches on the skin, the body
is exposed to weakened or dead disease-producing
microorganisms or to the toxins they produce. This will cause
the individual to develop the same antibodies and antitoxins that
would have been developed if the person had actually contracted
the disease, in order to fight the disease.
nce the body has been exposed to an infection, the immune
system will !recognize! if the disease were to recur, and produce
antibodies or antitoxins to destroy the infection. The body has to
be exposed to infection once for the immune system to
recognize it. This is done through immunization.
Risks of immunization
"ery rarely, one hears of cases where immunization has resulted
in the development of fatal complications. #ost children have a
mild reaction to immunization, but a few have become seriously
ill. $ith some vaccines there is a negligible risk of serious or
permanent damage or even death. %s you are aware, your child
can be at risk while crossing the street or even sleeping in her
bed. &ust as you take precautions in these routine life situations,
you should take precautions before vaccinating your child. #ake
sure she is in good health before taking her for a shot and report
any side effects to the doctor immediately. 'emember that the
advantages of immunization far outweigh its drawbacks. It is
thanks to immunization that a disease like small pox has been
eradicated.
Immunization s!#eu'e for !#i'ren
Immunization forms one of the most important and cost effective strategies for the
prevention of childhood sicknesses and disabilities and is thus a basic need for all
children. The following schedule has been recommended by the #inistry of
(ealth, )ovt. of India and is one of the most widely followed by the child health
care providers.
Immunization *chedule as per )overnment of India ..+*ource ,'outine
Immunization (and -ook for #edical fficers published by ..'.(.#, India.
Vaccination Chart For Children In India
Vaccination Schedule for children in India. Please note that the prices are indicative in nature and do not include
doctor's fee or administration charges. Consult your doctor for more details.
("
No
A&e Manator% an Optiona' Va!!ines
Detai's
/
BIRT)
1. BCG (Bacillus Calmette
Guerin) (Mandatory)
- Prevents: Tuberculosis.
- Important Ino: It causes
slight swelling at the inected
site. !o not apply any medicine
on the swollen area.
". !PV (!ral Polio
Vaccine) (Mandatory)
- Prevents: Poliomyelitis
#Polio$% which damages nervous
system% causes muscle
wea&ness or paralysis.
- Important Ino: 'iven for
()** in 'ovt. +ospitals upto
the age of , yrs on Pulse
Immuni-ation !ay.
.. "epatitis B (!ptional)
- Prevents: /iver infection
caused by +epatitis 0 virus.
1 Important Ino: *ssential
within 1" hours of birth to
prevent transmission from
mother.
2. "PV ("uman Papilloma
Virus) (!ptional)
- Prevents: Cervical Cancer
3 other genital cancers.
- Important Ino: 4nly for
girls.
0
* +EE,(
/. D-T .Manator%/
0 -revents1 1iphtheria +upper
respiratory illness2, 3ertussis
+$hooping 4ough2 5 Tetanus.
0 Important Info1 There may be
mild fever, pain 5 swelling at the
injected site.
0. O-V .Ora' -o'io
Va!!ine/ .Manator%/
0 -revents1 3oliomyelitis
+3olio2, which damages nervous
system, causes muscle weakness or
paralysis.
0 Important Info1 )iven for
6'77 in )ovt (ospitals upto the
age of 8 yrs on 3ulse Immunization
1ay.
("
No
A&e Manator% an Optiona' Va!!ines
Detai's
9. )iB .)aemop#i'us Inf'uenzae
T%pe B/ .Optiona'/
0 -revents1 #enangitis, which
affect membranes surrounding the
brain 5 the spinal cord.
0 Important Info1 There might
be slight redness, swelling or pain
at the injected site.
:. -neumo!o!!a' .Optiona'/
0 -revents1 3neumococcal
disease, caused by *treptococcous
3neumonia bacteria.
0 Important Info1 3revenar was
the first vaccine against
3neumococcal disease in India.

8. )epatitis B .Optiona'/
0 -revents1 ;iver infection
caused by (epatitis - virus.
0 Important Info1 7ssential
within /0 hours of birth to prevent
transmission from mother.
9
23 +EE,(
1. #P$ (Mandatory)
- Prevents: !iphtheria #upper
respiratory illness$% Pertussis
#5hooping Cough$ 3 Tetanus.
- Important Ino: There may
be mild fever% pain 3 swelling at
the inected site.
". !PV (!ral Polio
Vaccine) (Mandatory)
- Prevents: Poliomyelitis
#Polio$% which damages nervous
system% causes muscle
wea&ness or paralysis.
- Important Ino: 'iven
()** in 'overnment +ospitals
upto age of , years on every
Pulse Immuni-ation !ay.

.. "epatitis B (!ptional)
- Prevents: /iver infection
caused by +epatitis 0 virus.
- Important Ino: *ssential
within 1" hours of birth to
prevent transmission from
mother.
2. Pneumococcal (!ptional)
- Prevents: Pneumococcal
disease% caused by
Streptococcous Pneumonia
bacteria.
- Important Ino: Prevenar
was the first vaccine against
("
No
A&e Manator% an Optiona' Va!!ines
Detai's
Pneumococcal disease in India.

,. "iB ("aemophilus
Inluen%ae $ype B) (!ptional)
- Prevents: 6enangitis% which
affect membranes surrounding
the brain 3 the spinal cord.
1 Important Ino: There might
be slight redness% swelling or
pain at the inected spot.
7. IPV (Inactivated Polio
Vaccine) (!ptional)
- Prevents: Poliomyelitis
#Polio$% which damages nervous
system% causes muscle
wea&ness or paralysis.
- Important Ino: 'iven in the
form of inection.
:
24 +EE,(
1. !PV (!ral Polio
Vaccine) (Mandatory)
- Prevents: Poliomyelitis
#Polio$% which damages nervous
system% causes muscle
wea&ness or paralysis.
1 Important Ino: 'iven for
()** in 'ovt +ospitals upto the
age of , yrs on Pulse
Immuni-ation !ay.
". #P$ (Mandatory)
- Prevents: !iphtheria #upper
respiratory illness$% Pertussis
#5hooping Cough$ 3 Tetanus.
1 Important Ino: There may
be mild fever% pain 3 swelling at
the inected site.
.. "epatitis B (!ptional)
- Prevents: /iver infection
caused by +epatitis 0 virus.
1 Important Ino: *ssential
within 1" hours of birth to
prevent transmission from
mother.
2. Pneumococcal (!ptional)
- Prevents: Pneumococcal
disease% caused by
Streptococcous Pneumonia
bacteria.
1 Important Ino: Prevenar
was the first vaccine against
Pneumococcal disease in India.
,. "i& ("aemophilus
Inluen%ae $ype B) (!ptional)
("
No
A&e Manator% an Optiona' Va!!ines
Detai's
- Prevents: 6enangitis% which
affect membranes surrounding
the brain 3 the spinal cord.
1 Important Ino: There might
be slight redness% swelling or
pain at the inected site.
7. IPV (Inactivated Polio
Vaccine) (!ptional)
- Prevents: Poliomyelitis
#Polio$% which damages nervous
system% causes muscle
wea&ness or paralysis.
- Important Ino: 'iven in the
form of inection.
8
* MONT)(
1. 'otavirus (!ptional)
- Prevents: )otavirus
infection% which causes severe
!iarrhoea among infants.
1 Important Ino: (irst dose is
given before the age of 7
months 3 second dose at a gap
of 1 month.
". Inluen%a (!ptional)
- Prevents: Influen-a virus
which causes infection of the
respiratory system.
1 Important Ino: The most
common vaccine is Trivalent
Influen-a Vaccine #TIV$.
.. "PV ("uman Papilloma
Virus) (!ptional)
1 Prevents: Cervical Cancer
3 other genital cancers.
1 Important Ino: 4nly for
girls.
<
5 MONT)(
/. Meas'es .Manator%/
- -revents1 #easles, which
causes infection of the respiratory
system.
- Important Info1 (ighly
contagious disease. (ence its very
important to get the vaccination
done on time.
= 1. Varicella (!ptional)
- Prevents: Chic&enpo8.
1 Important Ino: Varicella is
the primary vaccine for
Chic&enpo8.
("
No
A&e Manator% an Optiona' Va!!ines
Detai's
26 MONT)(
>
27 MONT)(
1. MM' (Mandatory)
- Prevents: 6easles% 6umps%
)ubella.
1 Important Ino: There might
be slight fever% oint pain or
stiffness after the vaccination.
". Pneumococcal
Booster (!ptional)
- Prevents: Pneumococcal
disease% caused by
Streptococcous Pneumonia
bacteria.
1 Important Ino: Prevenar
was the first vaccine against
Pneumococcal disease in India.
.. IPV (Inactivated Polio
Vaccine) (!ptional)
- Prevents: Poliomyelitis
#Polio$% which damages nervous
system% causes muscle
wea&ness or paralysis.
- Important Ino: 'iven in the
form of inection.
?
28 MONT)(
1. !PV (!ral Polio Vaccine)
Booster (Mandatory)
- Prevents: Poliomyelitis
#Polio$% which damages nervous
system% causes muscle
wea&ness or paralysis.
1 Important Ino: 'iven for
()** in 'ovt +ospitals upto the
age of , yrs on Pulse
Immuni-ation !ay.
". #P$ Booster (Mandatory)
- Prevents: !iphtheria #upper
respiratory illness$% Pertussis
#5hooping Cough$ 3 Tetanus.
1 Important Ino: There may
be mild fever% pain 3 swelling at
the inection site.
.. "iB ("aemophilus
Inluen%ae $ype
B) Booster (!ptional)
- Prevents: 6enangitis% which
affect membranes surrounding
the brain 3 the spinal cord.
1 Important Ino: There might
be slight redness% swelling or
pain at the inected site.
2. "epatitis ( (!ptional)
- Prevents: /iver infection
("
No
A&e Manator% an Optiona' Va!!ines
Detai's
caused by +9V #+epatitis 9
virus$.
- Important Ino: Since
+epatitis 9 is common in young
children India% it is advisable to
get the vaccination done.
/@
6 YEAR(
1. $yphoid (Mandatory)
- Prevents: Typhoid% a fever
caused by Typhoid bacillus.
1 Important Ino: There are "
types of Typhoid vaccines1
Inactivated Vaccine #Shot$ 3
5ea&ened Vaccine.
". "epatitis ( (!ptional)
- Prevents: /iver infection
caused by +9V #+epatitis 9
virus$.
1 Important Ino: Since
+epatitis 9 is common in young
children India% it is advisable to
get the vaccination done.
//
4 YEAR(
1. MM' (Mandatory)
- Prevents: 6easles% 6umps%
)ubella.
1 Important Ino: There might
be slight fever% oint pain or
stiffness after the vaccination.
/0
7 YEAR(
1. !PV (!ral Polio Vaccine)
Booster (Mandatory)
- Prevents: Poliomyelitis
#Polio$% which damages nervous
system% causes muscle
wea&ness or paralysis.
1 Important Ino: 'iven for
()** in 'ovt +ospitals upto the
age of , yrs on Pulse
Immuni-ation !ay.
". #P$ Booster (Mandatory)
- Prevents: !iphtheria #upper
respiratory illness$% Pertussis
#5hooping Cough$ 3 Tetanus.
1 Important Ino: There may
be mild fever% pain 3 swelling at
the inected site.

"accination 4hart for Infants and 4hildren
The )overnment of India recommends the following schedule for vaccinations,
A&e Va!!ine
-irth -4)
< weeks ral 3olio "accine +3"2 and 1iphtheria, 3ertussis and Tetanus +13T2
/@ weeks 3", 13T
/: weeks 3", 13T
? - /0 months #easles
/8 - /> months 3", 13T
: - 8 years 1T, Typhoid
/@ - /< years Tetanus, Typhoid
The schedule recommended by the )overnment of India has fully incorporated the
recommendations of the 73I schedule given by the $orld (ealth rganization.
The following table shows the possible adverse reactions for each vaccine,
Va!!ine T%pe Averse Rea!tions
-4) live attenuated axillary adenitis +swelling in the armpits2
3" live attenuated none
13T killed fever, excessive crying, encephalopathy, seizures
#easles live attenuated fever, rash
##' live attenuated fever, rash, arthralgia +pain in the joints2
1T killed fever
TTA killed fever
(epatitis - recombinant pain, erythema