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GEOMETRIC CALCULATIONS OF THE CHAMFERED TIP AND THE PROTUBERANCE UNDERCUT OF A TOOTH PROFILE

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IDETC/CIE 2011

August 29-31, 2011, Washington, DC, USA

DETC 47305

GEOMETRIC CALCULATIONS OF THE CHAMFERED TIP AND THE

PROTUBERANCE UNDERCUT OF A TOOTH PROFILE

Milos Nemcek

VSB-Technical University of Ostrava

Ostrava Poruba 708 33

Czech Republic

milos.nemcek@vsb.cz

Zdenek Dejl

VSB-Technical University of Ostrava

Ostrava Poruba 708 33

Czech Republic

zdenek.dejl@vsb.cz

ABSTRACT

P0

h

a

P

0

a

P

0

s =p/2

P0

Fig.1 BASIC TOOL

Fig.2 TOOL WITH THE

RAMP

Fig.3 TOOL WITH THE

PROTUBERANCE

Nowadays special modified tools are mostly used for

rough or semi-finishing milling in the mass production of

ground or shaved gears today. These modifications ensure the

desired chamfer at the head or the undercut at the bottom of the

gear tooth. Diameters of the beginning and the end of the

operational involute (exact knowledge of them is necessary for

the calculation of important meshing parameters) are found by

using several techniques. The first one is the simulation of the

generating action of a hob tooth using suitable graphic software

with the subsequent measuring of these diameters from the

envelope of hob tooth positions which was created. The second

one is measuring directly on the gear manufactured using a

measuring device. These simulations or measuring are often not

performed and the tool with recommended parameters of the

protuberance or the ramp is simply chosen by an educated

guess [1]. But it is not an acceptable technique in a mass

production (car industry). Standard DIN 3960 [2] gives a

certain manual for the determination of these diameters. It

suggests the iterative method for the calculation of the chamfer

beginning circle diameter but without a reliable guideline. And

as regards the protuberance, it refers to the correct calculation

only in theory. This paper deals with the computing method to

determine diameters of the beginning and the end of the

function part of a tooth flank involute. It is designed for a

specified tool with modifications for creating the chamfer or

the protuberance undercut. The paper also takes into account

the necessary shaving (grinding) stock or the backlash.

Furthermore it refers to possible problems when the basic

profile of the generating tool with the protuberance is designed

from the basic rack tooth profile.

P0

h

a

P

0

a

P

0

s =p/2

P0

h

F

f

P

0

K

P

0

P0

h

F

a

P

0

s =p/2

P0

a

P

0

p

rP

0

h

a

P

0

p

r

P

0

1 Copyright 2011 by ASME

1) THE TOOL

Three designs of the tool can be seen in Fig. 13. The first

classical one is according to [3], the second one has the ramp

for chamfering and the third one has the protuberance. It is of

course possible to use the tool with the ramp and the

protuberance together.

2) CHAMFERING ON THE TIP OF TEETH

This arrangement is used for a reduction of shocks (noise)

during gears meshing. Next it is possible in this way to reduce

crest edges damage hazard and to lower internal stress after a

heat treatment. Last but not least it is used for removing of the

burr which is produced during manufacturing. The calculation

of the circle diameter d

Fa

(the start of the chamfer - Fig. 8) is

necessary for the next precise calculation of the transverse

contact ratio

necessary for checking the interference with the opposite root.

The very chamfer can prevent from this interference. It is

possible to imagine the tool with the arrangement for

chamfering (Fig. 2) like two tools (Fig. 4). Each of them has a

different pressure angle and they are shifted in relation to each

other by so called differential positive shifting coefficient x

K

.

Fig.4 FORMATION OF THE TOOL WITH THE RAMP

Fig.5 CALCULATION OF x

K

The calculation (Eqn. (14)) of this differential addendum

modification coefficient x

K

results from Fig. 5 :

0 0

tan Q

P FfP k

h = (1)

0

tan

Q

Q

KP

k

= (2)

Q

0

=

FfP n k

h m x (3)

=

0

0 *

0

tan

tan

1

KP

P

FfP k

h x

(4)

Both cutting edges (

P0

and

KP0

Fig. 4) are cutting a

different involute and each has a different basic circle. The

point of intersection of these involutes lies on the searched

circle diameter of the start of the chamfer. It is impossible to

figure it out analytically but the numeric calculation presented

here is not complicated. The numeric calculation exploiting a

comparison of teeth thicknesses of normal and chamfered teeth

is quite complicated. The method presented here of finding the

point of intersection of two involutes is much simpler and

quicker. Its advantage is that it rapidly converges (both

methods must solve numerically an inverse of the involute

function in each iteration step). On addition this method never

overshoots the studied solution which makes this method

easier. The principle derives from Fig. 7 and the calculation

algorithm is in Fig. 9. Three inputs are enough for this

calculation two diameters of basic circles and the angle of

relative shifting

K

(in a transverse section of a produced tooth)

of both involutes starts (Fig. 6). The determination of this angle

is a standard task of an involute geometry [4].

h

F

f

P

0

P

0

K

P

0

+ =

x m

n K h

a

P

0

0

d

Fa

d

b

d

bK

K

inv

(K)

inv

s =p/2

P0

K

P

0

K

P

0

P0

P0

x

m

h

F

f

P

0

n

K

Q

Q

K

Fig.6 SHIFTING ANGLE OF OPERATING (inv) AND CHAMFERING

(inv

(K)

) INVOLUTES

2 Copyright 2011 by ASME

1 i

y

i

y

d d

Fig.7 CALCULATION PRINCIPLE OF FINDING INVOLUTES

INTERSECTION

Fig.8 TOOTH THICKNESSES OF THE CHAMFERED TOOTH

The basic algorithm using the principle from Fig. 7 could

look like one in Fig. 9.

The output is the diameter d

Fa

= d

y

i

determined.

Calculation of the tooth thickness s

taK

at the start of chamfering

(the diameter d

Fa

) and of the thickness s

tK

(the tip diameter d

a

)

is a routine task. When the tip thickness s

tK

is calculated, only

the pressure angle, addendum modification coefficient and the

diameter of the basic circle are changed.

0

d

Fa

d

y

tK

1

t

2

t

1

tK

1

i

n

v

t

2

in

v

t

1

=inv

K

1

2

3

d

b

d

bK

2

d

y

1

Input

1 ; ;

; ;

1 0

= = = i inv d d

d d

K t bK y

bK b

( )

i

t

b i

y

i

t

i

t

d

d

inv arc

cos

=

=

Yes

No

1

inv inv inv

arccos

1

+ =

+ =

=

+

i i

d

d

i

tK

i

t

i

tK

i

y

bK i

tK

s

tK

s

taK

d

Fa

d

a

d

Fa

= d

y

i

End

Fig.9 ALGORITHM FOR THE CALCULATION OF THE INTERSECTION

OF INVOLUTES

3 Copyright 2011 by ASME

3) PROTUBERANCE UNDERCUT OF TEETH

P

0

h

F

a

P

0

s =p/2

P0

p

rP

0

Q

,

Q

,,

p

rP

0

prP0

P0

x

m

n

p

r

h

a

p

r

P

0

Material is only removed from operating flanks during

surface finishing (grinding, shaving, honing). Sometimes it is

undesirable to grind the root fillet with a favourable

compressive surface tension (after carburizing or

nitrocarburizing). The tool must have a clearance to run out

into the root space. It is automatically ensured when the teeth

are undercut. For a larger number of teeth this technological

undercut is artificially generated by a tool with protuberance

(Fig. 3). This deliberate undercut then logically changes the

meshing conditions. The circle diameter of the start of the

involute d

Ff

affects the size of the transverse contact ratio

. At

the same time the protuberance undercut significantly restrains

(and eventually fully eliminates) danger of the interference.

The tool with the protuberance can also be compiled from two

parts too. Analogous to the tool with the ramp at the tool with

the protuberance has each part a different pressure angle. And

these parts are shifted in relation to each other by the

differential positive shifting coefficient x

pr

as well. For this

tool with the protuberance it is necessary to calculate the new

tool addendum h

aprP0

(for the protuberance part) - see Eqn. (5).

The formation of this tool is in Fig. 10.

n pr aP aprP

m x h h + =

0 0

(5)

Fig.10 FORMATION OF THE TOOL WITH THE PROTUBERANCE

The calculation (Eqn. (68)) of this differential addendum

modification coefficient x

pr

results from Fig. 11 :

Q Q tan

0 0

+ =

P FaP

h (6)

0 0 0 pr 0 0

tan tan x tan

prP FaP prP n P FaP

h m h + = (7)

= 1

tan

tan

0

0 *

0

prP

P

FaP pr

h x

(8)

Fig.11. HOW TO CALCULATE x

pr

The root fillet created by the tool with the protuberance

could have three forms. The situation of an application of this

tool on a naturally undercut gear is not under consideration :

- operating involute will be cut off by the non-

undercut involute created by the straight cutting

edge of the protuberance part of the tool (Fig. 13)

- operating involute will be cut off by the undercut

involute created by the straight cutting edge of the

protuberance part of the tool (Fig. 14a)

h

F

a

P

0

P

0

+ =

p

rP

0

h

a

p

r

P

0

x m

n pr h

a

P

0

- operating involute will be protuberantly undercut

by the rounded head of the tool (Fig. 14b).

a b

0

d

Ff

d

bpr

d

b

p

r

0

inv

(pr)

inv

(pr)

inv

inv

d

bpr

d

b

Fig.12 POSITIONS OF INVOLUTES OF THE TOOL WITH THE

PROTUBERANCE

4 Copyright 2011 by ASME

3.1) THE UNDERCUT BY THE FULL PROTUBERANCE

INVOLUTE

This sporadic situation is similar to the head chamfering.

The operating involute inv achieved by the cutting edge

P0

will be cut off by the involute inv

(pr)

created by the straight

cutting edge of protuberance part of the tool

prP0

(Fig. 13). The

only difference is the position (size) of the basic circles. The

gear basic circle d

b

is always smaller than the basic circle d

bpr

of the protuberance involute. The intersection of these

involutes can be seen in Fig. 12a. The calculation of the circle

diameter d

Ff

passing through this intersection is similar to the

one for chamfering. The fact whether or not these involutes

intersect determines if the protuberance involute comes into

existence. If they do not intersect this involute is not created

itself and only the protuberance undercut occurs. In order to

create the intersection, it is necessary for the thicknesses of the

teeth s

t(pr)

(of operating involute inv) and of the imaginary

teeth s

tbpr

(of protuberance involute inv

(pr)

) on the basic circle

d

bpr

to be s

t(pr)

> s

tbpr

(Fig. 12a).

For calculation of these thicknesses the following

equations apply. Angles must be carefully considered. The

angle

tpr

is the basic transverse pressure angle relevant to the

protuberance involute cut by the protuberance straight cutting

edge (

prP0

). While the angle

t(pr)

is the transverse pressure

angle of the operating involute on the diameter d

bpr

.

( )

+

+ =

tpr

prP pr

bpr tbpr

inv

z

x x

d s

2

tan 4

0

(9)

+ =

) (

0

) (

2

tan 4

pr t t

P

bpr pr t

inv inv

z

x

d s

(10)

bpr

b

pr t

d

d

arccos

) (

= (11)

The angle

pr

(Fig. 12a) serves as an input parameter for

the numerical calculation of the searched circle diameter d

Ff

. It

is possible to utilize the algorithm from Fig. 9 for chamfering.

But exchanging the basic circles is necessary.

Fig.13 TOOTH WITH THE FULL PROTUBERANCE INVOLUTE

3.2) THE PROTUBERANCE INVOLUTE IS UNDERCUT

This situation can rarely occur. It needs solving when on

the basic circle d

bpr

applies s

t(pr)

> s

tbpr

(see part 3.1), however

the protuberance involute is not a full one but it is undercut.

The circle diameter passing the point of undercut (point U in

Fig. 14a) to compare with the circle diameter d

Ff

(start of the

operating involute). If it is smaller one (Fig. 14a), the

procedure of finding the start of the operating involute (circle

d

Ff

) from the part 3.1 is used. If it is bigger (Fig. 14b) the whole

protuberance involute is removed and the next section 3.3 is

applied. The letter U in Fig. 14 marks the end undercut point

from the root diameter d

f

. This point U is the start of the

protuberance involute (undercut one) in Fig 14a. And in Fig.

14b this point U is the start of the operating involute and the

protuberance involute is entirely removed.

d

Ff

d

bpr

d

b

inv

inv

inv

(pr)

inv

(pr)

U

d

Ff

d

bpr

d

b

inv

inv

inv

(pr)

inv

(pr)

U

d

Ff

,

d

f

d

f

a b

Fig.14 TWO TYPES OF THE UNDERCUT

3.3) FULL PROTUBERANCE UNDERCUT

It always occurs when s

t(pr)

< s

tbpr

applies on the basic

circle d

bpr

(Fig 12b). Sometimes it occurs even if both involutes

intersect (part 3.2). There are several methods to find the

intersection between the curve of undercut root fillet and the

operating involute. A suitable one is for example the

comparison method of teeth thicknesses on the same diameter

near the intersection looked for (point U). In the point where

the thicknesses are equal (with selected accuracy) the right

intersection diameter

Ff

d passes through (Fig. 14b).

d

a

d

Ff

d

bpr

d

b

inv

inv

inv

(pr)

inv

(pr)

The calculation of these thicknesses is executed using

routine procedures [5]. The suitable numerical algorithm is

simple one as well.

5 Copyright 2011 by ASME

3.4) PROFILE ROUNDING RADIUS

The maximum value of the tooth crest rounding radius on

the tool with the protuberance

aP0max

is computed by Fig. 15.

This radius must be founded only for the separate protuberance

part of the tool (in the middle of Fig. 10). This part is defined

by the angle

prP0

and by the addendum h

aprP0

(Fig. 15). It is

possible to use a bigger radius for this part of the tool than for

the tool without a protuberance. This is because the angle of the

protuberance part

prP0

is always smaller than the pressure

angle of the basic rack

P

. The calculation of the maximal size

of the tooth crest rounding radius on the tool with the

protuberance is then according to Fig. 15 :

( ) ( )

0

*

0

0 0

*

0

*

0

cos

tan sin 1

4

prP max aP

prP prP max aP aprP

h

=

=

(12)

After some simplifications :

0

0 0

*

0

*

0

sin 1

cos tan

4

prP

prP prP aprP

max aP

h

= (13)

The theoretical maximum addendum of this imaginary

tool must not exceed the value :

0

*

0

tan 4

prP

max aprP

h

= (14)

Any other geometrical links among parameters of the tool

with the protuberance (

prP0

,

aP0

, pr

P0

, h

faP0

, h

aP0

) can be dealt

with analytically without any problems. But one possible

problem is important. It can appear when the size of the input

basic rack tooth profile root radius

fP

(used during the

geometric design - Fig. 16) is different from the tooth crest

rounding radius of the tool with the protuberance

aP0

used. The

size of the root radius

fP

is mostly restricted by the bigger

pressure angle

P

(than the protuberance tool angle

prP0

) and

the next restriction is the specified size of the bottom clearance

c

P

. In order to the maximum size of the root radius

fP

it is

necessary to work out two calculations. The smaller value from

these calculations is the maximum possible size of the root

radius

fP

(Eqn. (15) and (16)).

Equation 15 see Fig. 16a

( )

P

P P P aP

fPmax

c h

sin 1

cos tan

4

* *

*

+

= (15)

Fig.15 THEORETICAL PROTUBERANCE PART OF THE TOOL

Equation 16 see Fig. 16b

P

P

fPmax

c

sin 1

*

*

= (16)

aP0max

0,25 m

n

prP

0

h

a

p

r

P

0

h

a

p

r

P

0

m

a

x

P

c

h

f

P

m

a

x

h

v

a

P

f

P

m

a

x

P

c

h

a

P

P P

a b

Fig.16 BASIC RACK TOOTH PROFILE ROOT FILLET RADIUS

6 Copyright 2011 by ASME

When the same sizes of both radii are used (the basic rack

tooth profile root radius and the tooth crest rounding radius of

the tool with a protuberance), the form of undercut root fillet

does not change basically. The material is removed uniformly.

When different sizes of these radii are used there is a change

between the theoretical basic and the final forms of the root

fillet. All these forms can be seen in Fig. (17 20). In all of

these figures there is the same real tooth in the basic form

(without the protuberance undercut) and four different

imaginary teeth manufactured by the imaginary protuberance

tool (from the middle of Fig. 10). These imaginary teeth

illustrate shapes of the undercut on the same basic tooth but

with a different size of the tooth crest rounding radius

aP0

of

the tool with the protuberance. The output form of each

manufactured tooth is the internal contour (intersection of teeth

contours). The protuberance undercut of the standard tooth of a

gear (z = 20, x = 0,

*

f

= 0,38) can be seen in the next four

figures (17 20). This standard tooth always has a smaller tip

diameter and the basic circle d

b

. It is drawn together with the

protuberance tooth on the common axis. Both teeth have the

same reference circle d. This protuberance tooth would be

manufactured by an imaginary protuberance tool (from the

middle of Fig. 10). In each of these four figures this tool has

three basic identical parameters (by Fig. 3) :

05 . 0 75 . 0 25 . 1

*

0

*

0

*

0

= = =

P FaP aP

pr h h

A different size of the tooth crest rounding radius of the

tool with the protuberance was always chosen for the next

assessment. The rest of the related parameters for each chosen

radius was calculated (Table 1). The protuberance teeth have

of course different basic circles d

bpr

depending on angles

prP0

.

The resultant effect can also be seen in figures (17 20). Each

start and end of the root fillets (both standard and

protuberance tooth) are marked by the short stroke in these

figures. When the protuberance tool with the radius

aP0

smaller than the designed basic rack tooth profile root radius

fP

is used, dangerous thinning of the tooth root occurs, but the

operating involute lengthens a little (Fig. 19, 20). When a

bigger radius of tool crest (Fig. 18) is used (the tool with

protuberance makes it possible) the shape of the undercut root

fillet is more favourable but the operating involute slightly

shortens (Tab. 1).

Tab. 1 PARAMETERS OF PROTUBERANCE TOOLS

Fig.17 TOOL

*

aPO

= 0,38; BASIC PROFILE

*

fP

= 0,38

Fig.18 TOOL

*

aPO

= 0,42; BASIC PROFILE

*

fP

= 0,38

Tool

crest

radius

Angle of

protuberance

part

Differential

shifting

coefficient

Protuberance

tool addendum

(new one)

Length change of

operating involute

toward to Fig. 17

*

aP0

prP0

x

pr

h

*

aprP0

Fig..

[-] [] [-] [-] [-]

17 0.38 6.0530 1.8243 3.0743 0

18 0.42 1.8869 7.5360 8.7860 1 %

19 0.10 13.4903 0.3879 1.6379 + 2.2 %

20 0.00 14.4428 0.3099 1.5599 + 3.3 %

7 Copyright 2011 by ASME

Fig.19 TOOL

*

aPO

= 0,10; BASIC PROFILE

*

fP

= 0,38

Fig.20 TOOL

*

aPO

= 0,00; BASIC PROFILE

*

fP

= 0,38

4) BACKLASH AND FINISHING STOCK

It is necessary to take into account an effect of the

backlash and the finishing stock when doing calculations

concerning chamfering or the protuberance undercut. For

example the hob for rough milling is always thinner by the

finishing stock q

n

on both sides (Fig. 22). Both the backlash

and the finishing stock are often created by the additional

addendum modification coefficient x

E

(x

E(q)

). With regard to

various methods of creating a backlash (pinion teeth thinning

only, wheel teeth thinning only, both of them thinning, wheels

shifting, an extra addendum modification coefficient) it is

useful to show the equation solving the alternation s

t

of the

tooth thickness on the reference circle in a transverse section

when the additional addendum modification coefficient is

applied. The backlash j

n

and the finishing stock q

n

are entered

in a normal section (Fig. 21 and 22).

In a normal section :

n E n

n

n

n

x m

j

s

tan 2

cos

= = (17)

And in a transverse section :

b

n

t

s

s

cos

= (18)

s / 2

n

x

m

E

n

n

j

/

2

n

Fig.21 EFFECT OF THE BACKLASH j

n

When the backlash is created by teeth thinning it is

possible to proceed in the same way as when calculating the

finishing stock (Fig. 22). Attention must be paid to the signs.

For the alternation of the reference thickness for the

finishing stock then applies :

n

n

n

q

s

cos

2 = (19)

8 Copyright 2011 by ASME

b

n

t

s

s

cos

= (20)

Or by using the additional addendum modification coefficient :

n

n

q E n

q

x m

sin

) (

= (21)

n q E n n

x m s tan 2

) (

= (22)

Fig.22 EFFECT OF THE FINISHING STOCK q

n

CONCLUSION

Modern technologies of mass production plentifully

exploit such modifications of gears which simplify some

manufacturing operations and at the same time they improve, in

a specific way, the functional quality of the gears

manufactured. Adding chamfer to gear teeth and creating the

protuberance undercut belong to them. This paper deals with

some problems occurring when calculating meshing parameters

of gears modified in this way. At the same time it brings certain

recommendations when using both the technologies mentioned.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This paper was elaborated with the support of Project

1M0568 Josef Bozek Research Center of Engine and

Automotive Technology II (Czech Republic). Authors

gratefully acknowledge it.

REFERENCES

[1] Daryani, P., H.: The Art of Gear Fabrication. Industrial

Press, Inc. New York 2001. ISBN 0-8311-3142-X.

[2] DIN 3960 Begriffe und Bestimmungsgren fr Stirnrder

(Zylinderrder) und Stirnradpaare (Zylinderradpaare) mit

Evolventenverzahnung..

[3] DIN 3972 Bezugsprofile von Verzahnwerkzeugen.

[4] Litvin, F., L., Fuentes, A.: Gear Geometry and Applied

Theory. Second Edition. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY

PRESS. ISBN 0-521-81517-7.

[5] Nmek, M.: Vybran problmy geometrie elnch

ozubench kol. MONTANEX a.s. Ostrava, 2003 ISBN

80-7225-111-2.

s / 2

n

x

m

E

(

q

)

n

n

q

n

q

n

9 Copyright 2011 by ASME

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