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Cordoba 1

Glenda Cordoba
Professor Laudani
ENC 1101 08Z
10 April 2014
Immigration
!"e Creation of Compre"ensi#e Immigration $eform
%e& sub'e(ts are as (ontro#ersial as immigration) *ou read and "ear ne&s about all t"e
different groups in fa#or and against an+ t+pe of bill to establis" legal status to t"ose "ere
illegall+) !"ere is an estimate of more t"an ele#en million unaut"ori,ed immigrants in t"e -nited
.tates (omposing t&ent+ eig"t per(ent of t"e total immigrant population /0!en E(onomi( %a(ts1
123) !"is population "as broug"t man+ e(onomi( and (ultural benefits to t"e -nited .tates)
4an+ solutions "a#e been broug"t to sol#e t"e problem of unaut"ori,ed immigrants5 but t"e
(reation of (ompre"ensi#e immigration reform is t"e most reasonable solution due to t"e legal
status it &ould pro#ide t"ose &"o benefit from it5 allo&ing t"em to (ontribute to t"e -nited
.tates t"e same &a+ legal immigrants are) 6+ (reating (ompre"ensi#e immigration reform5
unaut"ori,ed immigrants &ould benefit but so &ill t"e e(onom+ and (ultural life of t"e -nited
.tates)
7#er t"e +ears5 t"e e(onom+ of t"e -nited .tates "as been benefited from t"e
(ontributions of foreign born &or8ers or immigrants in numerous &a+s)
!o begin &it"5 immigrants impro#e t"e li#ing standard of Ameri(ans) A((ording to re(ent
a(ademi( resear("5 0on a#erage5 immigrants raise t"e o#erall standard of li#ing of Ameri(ans b+
boosting &ages and lo&ering pri(es1 /0!en E(onomi( %a(ts1 93) A#ailable e(onomi( e#iden(e
suggests t"at nati#e born &or8ers and immigrants (omplement ea(" ot"er instead of (ompeting
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against ea(" ot"er as belie#ed) In fa(t5 resear("ers (laim t"at 0:0 per(ent of nati#e born &or8ers
&it" at least a "ig" s("ool diploma e;perien(ed &age gains from immigration ranging from 0)<
to 2)4 per(ent depending on edu(ation1 /=est 42>3 as a result of t"e (omplement of immigrants
to t"e &or8 of nati#e born &or8ers) !"is pro(ess is e;plained b+ resear("ers 4i("ael Greenstone
and Adam Loone+ 0Lo& s8ill laborers allo& -).?born farmers5 (ontra(tors5 or (raftsmen to
e;pand agri(ultural produ(tion or to build more "omes?t"ereb+ e;panding emplo+ment
possibilities and in(omes for -). &or8ers1 /0="at Immigration 4eans1 23)
In addition5 lo&?s8illed and lo&?&age 'obs related to building maintenan(e5
manufa(turing5 food ser#i(e5 transportation5 material?mo#ing o((upations5 restaurants5
(onstru(tion5 and agri(ulture are performed in a large part b+ immigrants) -nattra(ti#e 'obs for
nati#e born &or8ers /$osenblum 1104@ =est 42>3) .in(e more s8illed &or8ers are needed to
(ommand laborers "olding t"is o((upations5 nati#e born &or8ers benefit) 4oreo#er5 it "as been
establis"ed t"at due to t"e (omplement of immigrants and nati#e born &or8ers5 nati#e born
&or8ers in(rease t"eir produ(ti#it+ on t"e 'ob) Ao&e#er5 t"e a#ailable e#iden(e seems to not be
ta8en into (onsideration) Criti(s (on(erned &it" t"e real impa(t t"at immigrants "a#e in &ages
(laim t"at immigrants lo&er t"e &ages of lo& s8ill &or8ers su(" as t"ose &"o retain less t"an a
"ig" s("ool diploma) !"e+ emp"asi,e t"at 0B !"ere is e#iden(e of negati#e &age effe(ts for
nati#e born Ameri(ans &it"out a "ig" s("ool diploma) %or t"ese indi#iduals5 +earl+ &ages
dropped 1)1 per(ent due to immigration1 /=est 4293) It is also (laimed b+ (riti(s t"at immigrant
&or8ers (ompete &it" nati#e born &or8ers for 'obs) As a result5 t"ese (on(erns "a#e led nati#e
born (iti,ens to see immigrants as a t"reat rat"er t"an as a gain)
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Additionall+5 immigrants lo&er t"e pri(es of (ertain ser#i(es) .er#i(es su(" as ("ild (are5
gardening5 and (leaning are offered b+ immigrants ("eaper and of easier a((ess to nati#e born
(iti,ens in need of t"is ser#i(es)
ECuall+ important5 immigrants influen(e t"e emplo+ment prospe(ts of -).) born (iti,ens)
!"e+ do so b+ (reating ne& businesses and filing patents in "ig" rates5 (ontributing to t"e
(reation of 'obs and t"e inno#ation of t"e -nited .tates) 7n a spee(" done in .eptember 2012
about t"e important (ontributions of immigrants5 Illinois $epresentati#e 6ill %oster stated t"e
follo&ing
4ore t"an 40 per(ent of %ortune 900 (ompanies &ere founded b+ immigrants or
("ildren of immigrants) !"ese Ameri(an (ompanies represent < of t"e 10 most
#aluable brands in t"e &orld5 and (olle(ti#el+ emplo+ more t"an 10 million
people and generate annual re#enue of D4)2 trillion) !"atEs a Cuarter of our
e(onom+) /0%oster Aig"lig"ts Contributions of Immigrants13
$epresentati#e 6ill %oster (laims t"at (ompanies founded b+ immigrants "a#e done important
(ontributions to t"e e(onom+ of t"e -nited .tates5 as &ell as earning re(ognition around t"e
&orld) !"ree e;(eptional e;amples of &orld&ide 8no&n (ompanies founded b+ immigrants in
t"e -). are Google In() an internet resear(" engine (orporation founded b+ .erge+ 6rin5 &"o
&as born in $ussia5 but mo#ed to t"e -). &"en "e &as si;@ e6a+ In() an internet (ustomer?to?
(ustomer (orporation establis"ed b+ %ren(" Pierre 7mid+ar &"o mo#ed to t"e -. &"en "e &as
a ("ild@ and *a"ooF In() an internet (orporation founded b+ !ai&anese Gerr+ =ang &"o mo#ed to
t"e -. at t"e age of ten) !"ese (ompanies are not onl+ su((essful5 t"e+ also (ontribute to
business in t"e -nited .tates) In detail5 a((ording to a te("nolog+ and engineering business
stud+5 29)2 per(ent of engineering and te("nolog+ (ompanies &ere establis"ed b+ immigrants or
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"ad an immigrant founder during 1::9 and 2009) $e#enues of D92 billion &ere generated b+ t"is
(ompanies5 and a total of 4905000 &or8ers &ere emplo+ed during t"e last +ear) /Greenstone5
Loone+5 and 4ar8s 9@ =est 42<3) .imilarl+5 t"e same stud+ suggested t"at 0in (omparing
inno#ation from 1::8 to 200>) !"e per(entage of foreign?born patents rose from <)2 to 24)21
/=est 42<3 supporting &it" t"ese results t"e e#iden(e alread+ a#ailable t"at "ig"?s8illed
immigrants file patents in "ig" rates) 6ut t"e "ig" rate in &"i(" immigrants file patents not onl+
benefits t"e inno#ation of t"e -.5 it also benefits t"e GHP) %or e;ample5 it &as estimated t"at in
t"e 1::0s5 t"e GHP gre& bet&een D481 to D829 per person /Greenstone5 Loone+5 and 4ar8s 93)
%inall+5 immigrants impa(t t"e -). budget) Criti(s (laim t"at immigrants are a drain on
publi( sour(es5 and t"at t"e+ do not pa+ ta;es) Ao&e#er5 t"e a#ailable e(onomi( e#iden(e
pro#ides information t"at (on(ludes in t"e (ontrar+) Immigrants are not a drain on t"e federal
go#ernment budget /0!en e(onomi( fa(ts1 >3) !"e+ (ontribute in ta;es more t"an t"e+ re(ei#e in
benefits5 and to t"e finan(es of .o(ial .e(urit+) Immigrants do rel+ on publi( ser#i(es su(" as
s("ools5 "ospitals5 and means?tested programs5 but t"e+ also (ontribute on ta;es) %or e;ample5
unaut"ori,ed immigrants pa+ sale5 propert+5 in(ome5 4edi(are5 and .o(ial .e(urit+ ta;es) In fa(t5
t"e+ (ontribute more ta;es during t"eir lifetime t"an t"e+ re(ei#ed in benefits) In man+ of t"ese
(ases5 unaut"ori,ed immigrants are una#ailable to obtain in benefits an+ portion of &"at t"e+
paid in ta;es) It &as estimated in a report done b+ t"e National Immigration %orum and Cato
Institute t"at D1>2 billion &as (olle(ted b+ t"e go#ernment on ta; re#enues from immigrants)
Anot"er report done b+ !"e National $esear(" Coun(il (laimed t"at 0)))t"e a#erage immigrant
pa+s nearl+ D15800 more in ta;es t"an "e or s"e (osts in benefits1 /=est 4293) If t"e ta;es paid
and t"e benefits re(ei#ed b+ immigrants &ere (ompared5 t"e result &ould turn out to be more
positi#e t"an negati#e for t"e -). budget) An estimation done in 200< b+ t"e Congressional
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6udget 7ffi(e (on(luded t"at t"e federal re#enue (ould benefit &it" D48 billion b+ gi#ing t"ose
under t"e s"ado&s a legal status5 &it" onl+ D22 billion of t"e total amount being utili,ed to
afford t"e (osts of t"e go#ernment benefits /0!en E(onomi( %a(ts1 >3) Immigrants also raise t"e
GHP) A stud+ done b+ t"e ="ite Aouse Coun(il of E(onomi( Ad#isors in 200< (laimed t"at a
total of D2< billion &as in(reased in t"e -). GHP ea(" +ear due to immigrants) It &as also
estimated in t"e same stud+ t"at 0)))immigrants add one t"ird of total population gro&t" in t"e
-nited .tates be(ause t"e+ bu+ food5 pa+ for "ousing5 en'o+ entertainment5 get "air(uts and
spend mone+ on a range of (ommer(ial ser#i(es1 /=est 4293) ECuall+5 a((ording to t"e .o(ial
.e(urit+ Administration !rusteesI report5 t"e finan(es of so(ial se(urit+ "a#e been benefited from
t"e arri#al of immigrants to t"e -nited .tates5 in parti(ular from t"e des(endants of immigrants
/Greenstone5 Loone+5 and 4ar8s 93)
E#en t"oug" t"e greatest impa(t immigrants "a#e is on t"e e(onom+5 t"ere is ot"er areas
t"at also benefit from immigrants) In re(ent +ears5 t"e (ultural life of Ameri(a "as been largel+
affe(ted b+ immigration in areas su(" as arts5 sports5 and food) 4an+ immigrants "a#e broug"t
t"e &orld of !ele#ision5 film and dan(ing t"eir talent from around t"e &orld) .ome outstanding
e;amples are .alma Aa+e85 a 4e;i(an a(tress &"o mo#ed to t"e -). &"en s"e &as 12 +ears old5
Gim Carre+5 a Canadian a(tor and produ(er &"o mo#ed to t"e -nited .tates &"en "e &as +oung5
and 4i8"ail 6ar+s"ni8o#5 a $ussian dan(er and ("oreograp"er &"o mo#ed to -). &"en "e &as
in "is middle age) In fa(t5 07f Aoll+&ood dire(tors &"o re(ei#ed multiple A(adem+ A&ards5
nine of t"e 1< &ere foreign born1 /Ctd) in =est3) !"ese talented indi#iduals "a#e enri("ed t"e
arts of t"e -nited .tates &it" t"eir talents) .imilarl+5 sports is anot"er area "ig"l+ impa(ted b+
immigrants) It seems "ard to mention t"e sport of 6aseball &it"out t"in8ing about an+ of its
international pla+ers) !"e -nited .tatesE ma'or league baseball teams "a#e pla+ers from
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(ountries from all around t"e &orld su(" as Jene,uela5 Homini(an $epubli(5 Cuba5 Gapan5 and
Gamai(a) It &as estimated t"at 0In re(ent +ears5 2: per(ent of t"e pla+ers in ma'or league baseball
&ere born outside t"e -nited .tates5 mainl+ in t"e Homini(an $epubli( or Jene,uela1 /Ctd) in
=est3) An e;ample of a su((essful immigrant at"lete is .ami .osa a Homini(an baseball pla+er
&"o made "istor+ in t"e ma'or leagues &"en "e be(ame one of t"e leading "ome?run "itters)
.ami .osa and man+ ot"er talented immigrant at"letes "a#e (ontributed to t"e "istor+ of
baseball) Li8e&ise5 food is anot"er area "ig"l+ influen(ed b+ immigrants) $esear("ers
Gianmar(o 7tta#iano and Gio#anni Peri tried to (al(ulate t"e role t"at (ultural di#ersit+ pla+s in
t"e -nited .tates5 and t"e+ (on(luded t"at t"e internali,ation of food in metropolitan areas
(ontribute to more di#ersit+ &"i(" leads to "ig"er &ages among -).?born (iti,ens &"o find t"is
en#ironments more desirable /=est 4403) ConseCuentl+5 t"e di#ersit+ broug"t b+ immigrants to
t"e Ameri(an (ulture seem to ma8e life more en'o+able for Ameri(ans)
!"e -nited .tates "as be(ome a nation of immigrants o#er t"e +ears5 attra(ting legal and
unaut"ori,ed immigrants) Immigrants (an enter in t"ree main &a+s@ t"roug" permanent legal
residen(+ or green (ards5 t"roug" tourism #isas5 and t"roug" illegal immigration) 6eing illegal
immigration t"e most (ontro#ersial of t"em all) It is estimated t"at t"ere is more t"an ele#en
million unaut"ori,ed immigrants (urrentl+ li#ing under t"e s"ado&s in t"e -).) !"is ele#en
million ma8e up for t&ent+ eig"t per(ent of t"e total immigrant population residing in t"e -nited
.tates /0!en E(onomi( %a(ts1 23) !o deal &it" all t"e immigrants t"at "a#e entered t"e (ountr+
t"roug" illegal immigration5 t"ree approa("es "a#e been (onsidered deportation5 attrition
t"roug" enfor(ement5 and t"e (reation of (ompre"ensi#e immigration reform) !"ree different
s+stems &it" (osts and benefits)
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In t"e first pla(e5 t"e approa(" of deportation "as been one of t"e most (onsidered5 but an
anal+sis of t"is pro(ess (on(ludes t"at it offers more (osts t"an benefits) It &ould be
mat"emati(all+ impossible to deport t"e more t"an ele#en million unaut"ori,ed immigrants
(urrentl+ li#ing in t"e -).5 not to mention5 t"e billions it &ould (ost t"e go#ernment to e;e(ute
t"is pro(ess5 and t"e (i#il?rig"ts t"at &ould be #iolated) It &ill reCuire offi(ials to ("ase
immigrants in "ouses5 s("ools and &or8pla(es) In 200<5 "ead of ICE during t"e 6us"
administration5 Gulie L) 4+ers stated t"at 0it &ould (ost at least D:4 billion1 to deport t"e more
t"an ele#en million unaut"ori,ed immigrants) In t"is estimated5 ot"er (osts su(" as t"e (osts of
lo(ali,ation of t"ese indi#iduals5 and t"e pro(ess of deportation on t"e (ourts &ere not in(luded)
In 20095 t"e Center for Ameri(an Progress or CAP estimated t"at it &ould (ost around D20>
billion to D220 billion to e;e(ute t"e mass deportation in a period of fi#e +ears /E&ing 1143)
Ao&e#er5 none of t"ose estimates in(luded t"e negati#e impa(t t"at deportation &ould "a#e in
t"e e(onom+) In 20085 !"e Perr+man Group estimated t"at 2)8 million 'obs &ould be lost
altoget"er &it" D991)> billion of annual spending5 and D249 billion of e(onomi( output5 not
in(luding t"e re#enue t"at &ould be lost b+ t"e federal and state treasuries /Ctd) in E&ing3) !"is
approa(" seems to "a#e more (osts t"an benefits sin(e it is not guarantee its su((ess)
In t"e se(ond pla(e5 t"e approa(" of attrition t"roug" enfor(ement is also an option) !"e
purpose of t"is approa(" is to en(ourage unaut"ori,ed immigrants to #oluntaril+ lea#e t"e -nited
.tates as a result of ma8ing t"eir life "arder) !"is pro(ess &ould reCuire to 0)))&or8site
immigration raids5 Kt"eL denial of dri#erIs li(enses to unaut"ori,ed immigrants5 and t"e enlisting
of state and lo(al poli(e departments in federal immigration enfor(ement1 /E&ing 11435 but t"e
main (on(ern &ould be t"e implementation of t"e E?#erif+ s+stem@ a s+stem (ontrolled b+ t"e
Hepartment of Aomeland .e(urit+ and t"e .o(ial .e(urit+ Administration t"at "as as its main
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purpose to pro#ide emplo+ers a tool to #erif+ t"e legal status of potential emplo+ees) 6ut t"e E?
#erif+ s+stem is una#ailable to determine if t"e person &it" t"e identit+ is &"o "e or s"e sa+s "e
or s"e is) In 20095 !"e Go#ernment of A((ountabilit+ 7ffi(e or GA7 reported t"at 0E?#erif+
(annot dete(t identit+ fraud in &"i(" an unaut"ori,ed &or8er presents an emplo+er &it" eit"er
#alid identit+ do(uments belonging to anot"er person5 or reasonabl+ &ell?made (ounterfeit
do(uments (ontaining #alid information about anot"er person1 /E&ing 11435 but t"is s+stem
(annot onl+ be erroneous5 it &ould also (ost billions to ma8e it mandator+) In 200<5 !"e
Congressional 6udget 7ffi(e or C67 estimated t"at if t"is s+stem &as mandator+ as it &as
suggested in t"e .AJE A(t of 200<5 in a period of ten +ears an appro;imate of D12 billion &ould
"a#e been utili,ed to afford t"is s+stem5 and a total D1<)2 billion &ould "a#e been lost on federal
re#enue sin(e more &or8ers &ould "a#e failed to pa+ in(ome ta;es /Ctd) in E&ing3) Additionall+5
in 200>5 t"e ..A Inspe(tor General reported to Congress t"at around 12)< million of -). born
(iti,ens "ad errors in t"eir .o(ial .e(urit+ re(ords 0)))t"at &ould result in in(orre(t feedba(8 to
emplo+ers as to t"eir identit+ or aut"ori,ation to &or81 /Cdt) in E&ing3) In simpler terms5 t"e
e;pansion of t"e E?#erif+ s+stem &ould not onl+ (ost t"e go#ernment billions5 it &ould also be
unsu((essful to identif+ t"e real identit+ of t"e person being anal+,ed5 and it &ould (ause t"e ta;
re#enue pro#ided b+ unaut"ori,ed &or8ers to de(rease) Not to mention5 t"e unli8eliness t"at
unaut"ori,ed immigrants &ould de(ide to self?deport be(ause of t"is met"od)
!"ird5 t"e (reation of a (ompre"ensi#e immigration reform is t"e last and t"e most
reasonable option) Compre"ensi#e immigration reform &ould offer t"ose &"o Cualif+ a pat" to
legali,ation t"roug" a pro(ess of (riminal ba(8ground ("e(85 t"e pa+ment of fees5 fines5 and an+
ta;es o&ned) An anal+sis of t"e Immigration $eform A(t of 200> done b+ C67 states some of
t"e e(onomi( benefits of t"is bill
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!"e bill &ould "a#e generated D>> billion in ne& re#enue o#er ten +ears5
primaril+ from in(ome and pa+roll ta;es paid b+ bot" ne& and ne&l+?legali,ed
immigrants) !"is re#enue &ould "a#e more t"an offset t"e anti(ipated D94 billion
in(rease in spending for refundable ta; (redits5 4edi(aid5 4edi(are5 .o(ial
.e(urit+5 and food stamps for ne&l+ eligible immigrants and t"eir famil+ during
t"e same period) /E&ing 1193
!"e anal+sis of t"is bill states "o& effe(ti#e t"is bill (ould "a#e been if it &as appro#ed &"en it
&as suggested) !"e (reation of (ompre"ensi#e immigration reform seems to be t"e most
effe(ti#e and realisti( approa(" to "andle t"is (ommunit+ t"at (ontributes to t"e &ell?being of t"e
-nited .tates)
7n t"e &"ole5 t"e legali,ation of t"ose unaut"ori,ed immigrants t"at Cualif+ to obtain a
legal status t"roug" (ompre"ensi#e immigration reform &ould benefit t"e -). more t"an it
&ould (ost) !"oug"t t"e legali,ation of unaut"ori,ed lo&?s8ill immigrants5 and "ig"?s8illed
immigrants t"e e(onom+ (an be "ig"l+ benefited sin(e bot" groups (ontribute in t"eir o&n &a+s)
It &ould be impossible to deport all of t"e unaut"ori,ed immigrants5 or to ma8e t"em self?deport)
Instead of spending billions of dollars to tr+ to get rid of t"em5 it is more reasonable to gi#e t"em
legal status5 and allo& t"em to (ontribute in same &a+ legal immigrants "a#e done and (ontinue
to do) Not to mention5 t"e (ultural enri("ment t"at immigrants bring to Ameri(a)
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=or8s Cited
E&ing5 =alter A) M!"e 4an+ %a(ets of Effe(ti#e Immigration $eform)M Society 4<)2 /20103
110?1<) Springer Link) .pringer?Jerlag5 1: %eb) 2010) =eb) 20 4ar) 2014)
M%7.!E$ AIGALIGA!. C7N!$I6-!I7N. 7% I44IG$AN!.5 EC7N74IC 6ENE%I!.
7% I44IG$A!I7N $E%7$4)M States News Service 1: .ept) 2012 n) pag) Academic
OneFile) =eb) 11 Apr) 2014) N"ttpOOgo)galegroup)(om)db02)lin((&eb)orgOpsOi)doP
idQGALER
A2422882<2S#Q2)1SuQlin((linTb((SitQrSpQA7NESs&Q&SasidQ20((22ed21e2<2b>
e1d4:((<248:42edU)
Greenstone5 4i("ael5 and Adam Loone+) Poli(+ 6rief 1?1> Ten Economic Facts About
Immigration. !"e Aamilton Pro'e(t5 .ept) 2010) =eb) 20 4ar(" 2014)
N"ttpOO&&&)"amiltonpro'e(t)orgOpapersOtenTe(onomi(Tfa(tsTaboutTimmigrationOU
Greenstone5 4i("ael5 and Adam Loone+) M="at Immigration 4eans %or -).) Emplo+ment and
=ages)M Te !amilton "ro#ect) !"e Aamilton Pro'e(t5 4 4a+ 2012) =eb) 20 4ar) 2014)
Greenstone5 4i("ael5 Loone+5 Adam5 and Aarrison 4ar8s) Poli(+ 6rief 1?8 Te $.S.
Immigration System% "otential &ene'its o' (e'orm. !"e Aamilton Pro'e(t5 4a+ 2012)
=eb) 20 4ar(" 2014)
N"ttpOO&&&)"amiltonpro'e(t)orgOpapersOt"eTu)s)TimmigrationTs+stemTpotentialTbenefits
TofTreformOU
$osenblum5 4ar( $) MAlternati#es to 4igration in t"e -nited .tates Poli(+ Issues and
E(onomi( Impa(t)M American &eavioral Scientist 9>)8 /20123 1101?122) SA)E
*ournals) .AGE5 12 Apr) 2012) =eb) 20 4ar) 2014)
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=est5 Harrell 4) M!"e Costs and 6enefits of Immigration)M "olitical Science +uarterly 12>)2
/20113 42<) Academic OneFile) =eb) 11 Apr) 2014)
N"ttpOOgo)galegroup)(om)db02)lin((&eb)orgOpsOi)doPidQGALER
A2<0<209<4S#Q2)1SuQlin((linTb((SitQrSpQA7NESs&Q&SasidQ84d048d:::(a91:8
12((849840e(00<(U)