You are on page 1of 31

Materials Selection For Systems

Handling Water
Technical Seminar Series
Chemical Process Industry
Disclaimer
Disclaimer
The material presented in this presentation has been
prepared for the general information of the reader and
should not be used or relied on for specific
applications without first securing competent advice.
The Nickel Institute, its members, staff and
consultants do not represent or warrant its suitability
for any general or specific use and assume no liability
or responsibility of any kind in connection with the
information herein.
Summary
Scaling - Corrosion
Effects of Velocity
Biological Effects
High Chloride Waters
Water Chemistry Effects
Corrosion
Dissolved Oxygen
Chlorides
pH
Hardness
Temperature
Scale
Dissolved Solids
Calcium Ions
pH
Temperature
Water Chemistry Effects
Corrosion Of Carbon Steel
In Water
0
10
20
30
0 5 10 15
22 C (72 F)
40 C (104 F)
C
o
r
r
o
s
i
o
n

R
a
t
e
,

m
p
y
C
o
r
r
o
s
i
o
n

R
a
t
e
,

m
m
/
y
Corrosion Of Carbon Steel
In Low-velocity Water
Corrosion Of Carbon Steel
Effect Of Velocity In Seawater
0
25
50
0 5 10 15 20 25
~ 22C (72 F)
C
o
r
r
o
s
i
o
n

R
a
t
e
,

m
p
y
C
o
r
r
o
s
i
o
n

R
a
t
e
,

m
m
/
y
High-velocity Seawater
> 37 m/s (120 fps )
Corrosion Rate
Alloy Type mm/y mpy
625/C-276 Ni-Cr-Mo <0.03 <1
400/K-500 Ni-Cu < 0.03 <1
T-304/T-316 SS < 0.03 <1
C Steel Fe > 7.6 >300
Erosion-corrosion - Inlet
Erosion-corrosion
Flow
Erosion-corrosion
Tube Blockage
Flow
Biological Effects
Macrofouling
Mussels
Clams
Barnacles
Plant Life
Biological Effects
Macrofouling
Bacteria Effects - MIC
(Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion)
Species Oxygen Metals Corrosive
Desulfovibrio No Fe, Al, Cu Sulphide
Thiobacillus Yes Fe, Cu Sulphuric Acid
Gallionella Yes Fe Fe
++
to Fe
+++
Mn
++
to Mn
+++
Bacteria Effects - MIC
(Type 304, Before Cleaning)
Bacteria Effects - MIC
(After Cleaning)
3.8 mm (0.15 in.)
Max. Attack
Bacteria Effects - MIC
(After Cleaning - No Attack)
Prevention Of MIC
Keep The System Clean
Keep Water Flow > 2 m/s (6 fps)
Use Bactericide:
Chlorine
Chlorine Dioxide
Hypochlorite
Ozone
Non-oxidizing
Prevention Of MIC
Remove Heat Tints After Welding
Drain and Dry Equipment After Hydrotesting
Use Continuous Cleaning
Use High Pressure Hydrolancing
Use Stainless Steel Scrapers
(Hard to Remove or Heavy Deposits)
Use Alloy Resistant to MIC
Prevention Of MIC
6% Mo Alloy (N08367) Used
HIGH CHLORIDE
WATERS
Types of Waters
Potable Water
10-250 ppm Cl

Type 304 < 200 ppm Chlorides


Type 316 < 1000 ppm Chlorides
River Water
<250 ppm Cl

Risk of MIC if water is not treated.


Use type 316 or higher Mo grades:
2205, 904L, 2507, 6%Mo
Well Water
4-250 ppm Cl

Risk of MIC if water is not treated.


Use type 316 or higher Mo grades.
Brackish Water >1,000
Seawater 18,000 ppm Cl

Use higher Cr-Mo grades.


Consider PRE >40 for seawater.
Marine Corrosion of C Steel
Relative Corrosion Rates* Vary with Sea Conditions
Atmospheric
Splash
Tidal
Submerged
Subsoil
0.13 mm/y (5 mpy )
0.64 mm/y (25 mpy )
*Protected Harbor
Type 304 Fastener In Marine Tide
After 6 Months
Types Of Severe Crevices
Stationary O Rings
Flange Face Under Gasket
Non-Metallic Connector
Tube-to-Tubesheet Joint
Nickel Alloys PRE versus
Crevice Corrosion in Seawater
PRE = % Cr + (3.3 x %Mo)
0
20
40
60
0 20 40 60 80
Ambient Temperature
Max. Depth of Attack, mm (mils)
0.5 (20) 1.0 (40) 1.5 (60) 2.0 (80)
Corrosion Of 90 Cu-10 Ni
In Seawater
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
1 3 5 7 14
Time, Years
<0.3 m/s (1 fps) Tidal 0.9 m/s (3 fps)
C
o
r
r
o
s
i
o
n

R
a
t
e
,

m
p
y
C
o
r
r
o
s
i
o
n

R
a
t
e
,

m
m
/
y
Summary
Reviewed Problems with Waters
Good Corrosion Data Are Available
Successful Service Is Possible by
Proper Selection of Alloys
www.nickelinstitute.org