You are on page 1of 980

Relion

670 series
Line distance protection REL670
Technical reference manual
Document ID: 1MRK506275-UEN
Issued: June 2010
Revision: C
Product version: 1.1
Copyright 2010 ABB. All rights reserved
Copyright
This document and parts thereof must not be reproduced or copied without written
permission from ABB, and the contents thereof must not be imparted to a third
party, nor used for any unauthorized purpose.
The software or hardware described in this document is furnished under a license
and may be used or disclosed only in accordance with the terms of such license.
Trademarks
ABB and Relion are registered trademarks of ABB Group. All other brand or
product names mentioned in this document may be trademarks or registered
trademarks of their respective holders.
Warranty
Please inquire about the terms of warranty from your nearest ABB representative.
ABB AB
Substation Automation Products
SE-721 59 Vsters
Sweden
Telephone: +46 (0) 21 32 50 00
Facsimile: +46 (0) 21 14 69 18
http://www.abb.com/substationautomation
Disclaimer
The data, examples and diagrams in this manual are included solely for the concept
or product description and are not to be deemed as a statement of guaranteed
properties. All persons responsible for applying the equipment addressed in this
manual must satisfy themselves that each intended application is suitable and
acceptable, including that any applicable safety or other operational requirements
are complied with. In particular, any risks in applications where a system failure and/
or product failure would create a risk for harm to property or persons (including but
not limited to personal injuries or death) shall be the sole responsibility of the
person or entity applying the equipment, and those so responsible are hereby
requested to ensure that all measures are taken to exclude or mitigate such risks.
This document has been carefully checked by ABB but deviations cannot be
completely ruled out. In case any errors are detected, the reader is kindly requested
to notify the manufacturer. Other than under explicit contractual commitments, in
no event shall ABB be responsible or liable for any loss or damage resulting from
the use of this manual or the application of the equipment.
Conformity
This product complies with the directive of the Council of the European
Communities on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to
electromagnetic compatibility (EMC Directive 2004/108/EC) and concerning
electrical equipment for use within specified voltage limits (Low-voltage directive
2006/95/EC).
This conformity is proved by tests conducted by ABB AB in accordance with the
generic standard EN 50263 for the EMC directive, and with the standards EN
60255-5 and/or EN 50178 for the low voltage directive.
This product is designed and produced for industrial use.
Table of contents
Section 1 Introduction.....................................................................29
Introduction to the technical reference manual.................................29
About the complete set of manuals for an IED............................29
About the technical reference manual.........................................30
This manual.................................................................................31
Introduction.............................................................................31
Principle of operation..............................................................31
Input and output signals.........................................................34
Function block........................................................................34
Setting parameters.................................................................34
Technical data........................................................................35
Intended audience.......................................................................35
Related documents......................................................................35
Revision notes.............................................................................36
Section 2 Analog inputs..................................................................37
Introduction.......................................................................................37
Operation principle...........................................................................37
Function block..................................................................................38
Setting parameters...........................................................................39
Section 3 Local HMI.......................................................................45
Human machine interface ................................................................45
Small size HMI..................................................................................47
Small............................................................................................47
Design.........................................................................................47
Medium size graphic HMI.................................................................49
Medium........................................................................................49
Design.........................................................................................49
Keypad.............................................................................................51
LED...................................................................................................52
Introduction..................................................................................52
Status indication LEDs................................................................52
Indication LEDs...........................................................................52
Local HMI related functions..............................................................53
Introduction..................................................................................53
General setting parameters.........................................................54
Status indication LEDs................................................................54
Design....................................................................................54
Function block........................................................................54
Table of contents
1
Technical reference manual
Input and output signals.........................................................54
Indication LEDs...........................................................................55
Introduction.............................................................................55
Design....................................................................................55
Function block........................................................................62
Input and output signals.........................................................62
Setting parameters.................................................................62
Section 4 Basic IED functions........................................................65
Authorization.....................................................................................65
Principle of operation...................................................................65
Authorization handling in the IED...........................................67
Self supervision with internal event list.............................................67
Introduction..................................................................................67
Principle of operation...................................................................68
Internal signals.......................................................................69
Run-time model......................................................................71
Function block.............................................................................72
Output signals..............................................................................72
Setting parameters......................................................................72
Technical data.............................................................................73
Time synchronization........................................................................73
Introduction..................................................................................73
Principle of operation...................................................................73
General concepts...................................................................73
Real-time clock (RTC) operation............................................76
Synchronization alternatives..................................................77
Process bus IEC 61850-9-2LE synchronization.....................80
Function block.............................................................................80
Output signals..............................................................................81
Setting parameters......................................................................81
Technical data.............................................................................84
Parameter setting groups.................................................................84
Introduction..................................................................................84
Principle of operation...................................................................84
Function block.............................................................................85
Input and output signals..............................................................86
Setting parameters......................................................................86
ChangeLock function CHNGLCK.....................................................86
Introduction..................................................................................87
Principle of operation...................................................................87
Function block.............................................................................87
Input and output signals..............................................................87
Setting parameters......................................................................88
Table of contents
2
Technical reference manual
Test mode functionality TEST..........................................................88
Introduction..................................................................................88
Principle of operation...................................................................88
Function block.............................................................................90
Input and output signals..............................................................90
Setting parameters......................................................................91
IED identifiers...................................................................................91
Introduction..................................................................................91
Setting parameters......................................................................91
Product information..........................................................................92
Introduction..................................................................................92
Setting parameters......................................................................92
Application...................................................................................92
Factory defined settings.........................................................92
Signal matrix for binary inputs SMBI................................................93
Introduction..................................................................................93
Principle of operation...................................................................93
Function block.............................................................................93
Input and output signals..............................................................94
Signal matrix for binary outputs SMBO ...........................................94
Introduction..................................................................................94
Principle of operation...................................................................95
Function block.............................................................................95
Input and output signals..............................................................95
Signal matrix for mA inputs SMMI....................................................95
Introduction..................................................................................96
Principle of operation...................................................................96
Function block.............................................................................96
Input and output signals..............................................................96
Signal matrix for analog inputs SMAI...............................................97
Introduction..................................................................................97
Principle of operation...................................................................97
Frequency values........................................................................97
Function block.............................................................................98
Input and output signals..............................................................99
Setting parameters....................................................................100
Summation block 3 phase 3PHSUM..............................................102
Introduction................................................................................102
Principle of operation.................................................................102
Function block...........................................................................103
Input and output signals............................................................103
Setting parameters....................................................................103
Authority status ATHSTAT.............................................................104
Table of contents
3
Technical reference manual
Introduction................................................................................104
Principle of operation.................................................................104
Function block...........................................................................104
Output signals............................................................................104
Setting parameters....................................................................105
Section 5 Differential protection...................................................107
1Ph High impedance differential protection HZPDIF .....................107
Introduction................................................................................107
Principle of operation.................................................................107
Logic diagram.......................................................................107
Function block...........................................................................108
Input and output signals............................................................108
Setting parameters....................................................................109
Technical data...........................................................................109
Section 6 Impedance protection ..................................................111
Distance measuring zones, quadrilateral characteristic
ZMQPDIS, ZMQAPDIS, ZDRDIR...................................................111
Introduction................................................................................111
Principle of operation.................................................................112
Full scheme measurement...................................................112
Impedance characteristic.....................................................113
Minimum operating current...................................................117
Measuring principles............................................................117
Directional impedance element for quadrilateral
characteristics......................................................................120
Simplified logic diagrams......................................................122
Function block...........................................................................125
Input and output signals............................................................126
Setting parameters....................................................................127
Technical data...........................................................................129
Distance measuring zone, quadrilateral characteristic for
series compensated lines ZMCPDIS, ZMCAPDIS, ZDSRDIR.......130
Introduction................................................................................131
Principle of operation.................................................................132
Full scheme measurement...................................................132
Impedance characteristic.....................................................132
Minimum operating current...................................................136
Measuring principles............................................................136
Directionality for series compensation..................................139
Simplified logic diagrams......................................................141
Function block...........................................................................144
Input and output signals............................................................145
Table of contents
4
Technical reference manual
Setting parameters....................................................................147
Technical data...........................................................................150
Phase selection, quadrilateral characteristic with fixed angle
FDPSPDIS......................................................................................150
Introduction................................................................................151
Principle of operation.................................................................151
Phase-to-earth fault..............................................................153
Phase-to-phase fault............................................................155
Three-phase faults...............................................................156
Load encroachment..............................................................157
Minimum operate currents....................................................160
Simplified logic diagrams......................................................160
Function block...........................................................................165
Input and output signals............................................................166
Setting parameters....................................................................167
Technical data...........................................................................168
Full-scheme distance measuring, Mho characteristic
ZMHPDIS ......................................................................................168
Introduction................................................................................168
Principle of operation.................................................................169
Full scheme measurement...................................................169
Impedance characteristic.....................................................170
Basic operation characteristics.............................................171
Theory of operation..............................................................172
Function block...........................................................................182
Input and output signals............................................................182
Setting parameters....................................................................183
Technical data...........................................................................184
Full-scheme distance protection, quadrilateral for earth faults
ZMMPDIS, ZMMAPDIS..................................................................185
Introduction................................................................................185
Principle of operation.................................................................186
Full scheme measurement...................................................186
Impedance characteristic.....................................................187
Minimum operating current...................................................189
Measuring principles............................................................190
Directional lines....................................................................192
Simplified logic diagrams......................................................194
Function block...........................................................................197
Input and output signals............................................................197
Setting parameters....................................................................198
Technical data...........................................................................200
Table of contents
5
Technical reference manual
Directional impedance element for mho characteristic and
additional distance protection directional function for earth
faults ZDMRDIR, ZDARDIR...........................................................200
Introduction................................................................................201
Principle of operation.................................................................201
Directional impedance element for mho characteristic
ZDMRDIR.............................................................................201
Additional distance protection directional function for
earth faults ZDARDIR ..........................................................204
Function block...........................................................................206
Input and output signals............................................................206
Setting parameters....................................................................207
Mho impedance supervision logic ZSMGAPC................................208
Introduction................................................................................208
Principle of operation.................................................................209
Fault inception detection......................................................209
Function block...........................................................................210
Input and output signals............................................................210
Setting parameters....................................................................211
Faulty phase identification with load encroachment
FMPSPDIS.....................................................................................211
Introduction................................................................................212
Principle of operation.................................................................212
The phase selection function................................................212
Function block...........................................................................223
Input and output signals............................................................224
Setting parameters....................................................................224
Technical data...........................................................................225
Power swing detection ZMRPSB ...................................................225
Introduction................................................................................225
Principle of operation.................................................................226
Resistive reach in forward direction.....................................227
Resistive reach in reverse direction.....................................228
Reactive reach in forward and reverse direction..................228
Basic detection logic.............................................................229
Operating and inhibit conditions...........................................231
Function block...........................................................................232
Input and output signals............................................................232
Setting parameters....................................................................233
Technical data...........................................................................234
Power swing logic ZMRPSL ..........................................................234
Introduction................................................................................234
Principle of operation.................................................................234
Communication and tripping logic........................................234
Table of contents
6
Technical reference manual
Blocking logic.......................................................................235
Function block...........................................................................237
Input and output signals............................................................237
Setting parameters....................................................................238
Pole slip protection PSPPPAM ......................................................238
Introduction................................................................................238
Principle of operation.................................................................238
Function block...........................................................................242
Input and output signals............................................................242
Setting parameters....................................................................243
Technical data...........................................................................243
Automatic switch onto fault logic, voltage and current based
ZCVPSOF ......................................................................................244
Introduction................................................................................244
Principle of operation.................................................................244
Function block...........................................................................246
Input and output signals............................................................246
Setting parameters....................................................................246
Technical data...........................................................................247
Phase preference logic PPLPHIZ...................................................247
Introduction................................................................................247
Principle of operation.................................................................247
Function block...........................................................................250
Input and output signals............................................................250
Setting parameters....................................................................251
Section 7 Current protection.........................................................253
Instantaneous phase overcurrent protection PHPIOC ..................253
Introduction................................................................................253
Principle of operation.................................................................253
Function block...........................................................................254
Input and output signals............................................................254
Setting parameters....................................................................254
Technical data...........................................................................255
Four step phase overcurrent protection OC4PTOC ......................255
Introduction................................................................................255
Principle of operation.................................................................255
Function block...........................................................................260
Input and output signals............................................................260
Setting parameters....................................................................262
Technical data...........................................................................267
Instantaneous residual overcurrent protection EFPIOC ................267
Introduction................................................................................268
Principle of operation.................................................................268
Table of contents
7
Technical reference manual
Function block...........................................................................268
Input and output signals............................................................269
Setting parameters....................................................................269
Technical data...........................................................................269
Four step residual overcurrent protection EF4PTOC ....................270
Introduction................................................................................270
Principle of operation.................................................................271
Operating quantity within the function..................................271
Internal polarizing.................................................................272
External polarizing for earth-fault function............................274
Base quantities within the protection....................................274
Internal earth-fault protection structure................................274
Four residual overcurrent steps............................................274
Directional supervision element with integrated
directional comparison function............................................276
Second harmonic blocking element.....................................278
Switch on to fault feature......................................................280
Function block...........................................................................282
Input and output signals............................................................283
Setting parameters....................................................................284
Technical data...........................................................................289
Sensitive directional residual overcurrent and power protection
SDEPSDE .....................................................................................289
Introduction................................................................................290
Principle of operation.................................................................291
Function inputs.....................................................................291
Function block...........................................................................297
Input and output signals............................................................298
Setting parameters....................................................................299
Technical data...........................................................................301
Thermal overload protection, one time constant LPTTR ...............302
Introduction................................................................................302
Principle of operation.................................................................302
Function block...........................................................................305
Input and output signals............................................................305
Setting parameters....................................................................305
Technical data...........................................................................306
Breaker failure protection CCRBRF ..............................................306
Introduction................................................................................307
Principle of operation.................................................................307
Function block...........................................................................310
Input and output signals............................................................311
Setting parameters....................................................................311
Technical data...........................................................................312
Table of contents
8
Technical reference manual
Stub protection STBPTOC ............................................................313
Introduction................................................................................313
Principle of operation.................................................................313
Function block...........................................................................314
Input and output signals............................................................314
Setting parameters....................................................................315
Technical data...........................................................................315
Pole discordance protection CCRPLD ..........................................315
Introduction................................................................................316
Principle of operation.................................................................316
Pole discordance signaling from circuit breaker...................319
Unsymmetrical current detection..........................................319
Function block...........................................................................319
Input and output signals............................................................320
Setting parameters....................................................................320
Technical data...........................................................................321
Directional underpower protection GUPPDUP...............................321
Introduction................................................................................321
Principle of operation.................................................................322
Low pass filtering..................................................................324
Calibration of analog inputs..................................................324
Function block...........................................................................325
Input and output signals............................................................326
Setting parameters....................................................................326
Technical data...........................................................................327
Directional overpower protection GOPPDOP ................................328
Introduction................................................................................328
Principle of operation.................................................................329
Low pass filtering..................................................................331
Calibration of analog inputs..................................................331
Function block...........................................................................332
Input and output signals............................................................333
Setting parameters....................................................................333
Technical data...........................................................................335
Broken conductor check BRCPTOC .............................................335
Introduction................................................................................335
Principle of operation.................................................................335
Function block...........................................................................336
Input and output signals............................................................337
Setting parameters....................................................................337
Technical data...........................................................................337
Section 8 Voltage protection........................................................339
Two step undervoltage protection UV2PTUV ................................339
Table of contents
9
Technical reference manual
Introduction................................................................................339
Principle of operation.................................................................339
Measurement principle.........................................................340
Time delay............................................................................340
Blocking................................................................................345
Design..................................................................................346
Function block...........................................................................348
Input and output signals............................................................348
Setting parameters....................................................................349
Technical data...........................................................................351
Two step overvoltage protection OV2PTOV ..................................352
Introduction................................................................................352
Principle of operation.................................................................352
Measurement principle.........................................................353
Time delay............................................................................353
Blocking................................................................................359
Design..................................................................................359
Function block...........................................................................361
Input and output signals............................................................361
Setting parameters....................................................................362
Technical data...........................................................................364
Two step residual overvoltage protection ROV2PTOV .................364
Introduction................................................................................364
Principle of operation.................................................................365
Measurement principle.........................................................365
Time delay............................................................................365
Blocking................................................................................370
Design..................................................................................370
Function block...........................................................................371
Input and output signals............................................................372
Setting parameters....................................................................372
Technical data...........................................................................374
Overexcitation protection OEXPVPH ............................................374
Introduction................................................................................374
Principle of operation.................................................................375
Measured voltage.................................................................377
Operate time of the overexcitation protection.......................378
Cooling.................................................................................381
Overexcitation protection function measurands...................381
Overexcitation alarm............................................................382
Logic diagram.......................................................................383
Function block...........................................................................383
Input and output signals............................................................383
Table of contents
10
Technical reference manual
Setting parameters....................................................................384
Technical data...........................................................................385
Voltage differential protection VDCPTOV ......................................385
Introduction................................................................................385
Principle of operation.................................................................386
Function block...........................................................................387
Input and output signals............................................................388
Setting parameters....................................................................388
Technical data...........................................................................389
Loss of voltage check LOVPTUV ..................................................389
Introduction................................................................................389
Principle of operation.................................................................389
Function block...........................................................................391
Input and output signals............................................................392
Setting parameters....................................................................392
Technical data...........................................................................392
Section 9 Frequency protection....................................................393
Underfrequency protection SAPTUF .............................................393
Introduction................................................................................393
Principle of operation.................................................................393
Measurement principle.........................................................394
Time delay............................................................................394
Voltage dependent time delay..............................................394
Blocking................................................................................396
Design..................................................................................396
Function block...........................................................................397
Input and output signals............................................................397
Setting parameters....................................................................397
Technical data...........................................................................398
Overfrequency protection SAPTOF ...............................................398
Introduction................................................................................399
Principle of operation.................................................................399
Measurement principle.........................................................399
Time delay............................................................................399
Blocking................................................................................400
Design..................................................................................400
Function block...........................................................................401
Input and output signals............................................................401
Setting parameters....................................................................401
Technical data...........................................................................402
Rate-of-change frequency protection SAPFRC .............................402
Introduction................................................................................402
Principle of operation.................................................................402
Table of contents
11
Technical reference manual
Measurement principle.........................................................403
Time delay............................................................................403
Blocking................................................................................403
Design..................................................................................404
Function block...........................................................................405
Input and output signals............................................................405
Setting parameters....................................................................405
Technical data...........................................................................406
Section 10 Multipurpose protection................................................407
General current and voltage protection CVGAPC..........................407
Introduction................................................................................407
Principle of operation.................................................................407
Measured quantities within CVGAPC...................................407
Base quantities for CVGAPC function..................................410
Built-in overcurrent protection steps.....................................410
Built-in undercurrent protection steps...................................415
Built-in overvoltage protection steps....................................416
Built-in undervoltage protection steps..................................416
Logic diagram.......................................................................416
Function block...........................................................................421
Input and output signals............................................................422
Setting parameters....................................................................423
Technical data...........................................................................430
Section 11 Secondary system supervision.....................................433
Current circuit supervision CCSRDIF ............................................433
Introduction................................................................................433
Principle of operation.................................................................433
Function block...........................................................................435
Input and output signals............................................................435
Setting parameters....................................................................436
Technical data...........................................................................436
Fuse failure supervision SDDRFUF...............................................436
Introduction................................................................................436
Principle of operation.................................................................437
Zero and negative sequence detection................................437
Delta current and delta voltage detection.............................439
Dead line detection...............................................................442
Main logic.............................................................................442
Function block...........................................................................446
Input and output signals............................................................446
Setting parameters....................................................................446
Technical data...........................................................................447
Table of contents
12
Technical reference manual
Section 12 Control..........................................................................449
Synchrocheck, energizing check, and synchronizing
SESRSYN......................................................................................449
Introduction................................................................................449
Principle of operation.................................................................450
Basic functionality.................................................................450
Logic diagrams.....................................................................450
Function block...........................................................................459
Input and output signals............................................................459
Setting parameters....................................................................462
Technical data...........................................................................464
Autorecloser SMBRREC ...............................................................464
Introduction................................................................................465
Principle of operation.................................................................465
Logic Diagrams....................................................................465
Auto-reclosing operation Off and On....................................465
Auto-reclosing mode selection.............................................465
Start auto-reclosing and conditions for start of a
reclosing cycle......................................................................466
Control of the auto-reclosing open time for shot 1...............467
Long trip signal.....................................................................467
Time sequence diagrams.....................................................474
Function block...........................................................................477
Input and output signals............................................................477
Setting parameters....................................................................479
Technical data...........................................................................481
Apparatus control APC...................................................................481
Introduction................................................................................481
Principle of operation.................................................................481
Error handling............................................................................482
Bay control QCBAY...................................................................484
Introduction...........................................................................484
Principle of operation............................................................484
Function block......................................................................486
Input and output signals.......................................................486
Setting parameters...............................................................487
Local/Remote switch.................................................................487
Introduction...........................................................................487
Principle of operation............................................................487
Function block......................................................................488
Input and output signals.......................................................489
Setting parameters...............................................................490
Switch controller SCSWI...........................................................490
Table of contents
13
Technical reference manual
Introduction...........................................................................490
Principle of operation............................................................490
Function block......................................................................495
Input and output signals.......................................................495
Setting parameters...............................................................497
Circuit breaker SXCBR..............................................................497
Introduction...........................................................................497
Principle of operation............................................................497
Function block......................................................................501
Input and output signals.......................................................501
Setting parameters...............................................................502
Circuit switch SXSWI.................................................................502
Introduction...........................................................................503
Principle of operation............................................................503
Function block......................................................................507
Input and output signals.......................................................507
Setting parameters...............................................................508
Bay reserve QCRSV..................................................................508
Introduction...........................................................................508
Principle of operation............................................................508
Function block......................................................................510
Input and output signals.......................................................511
Setting parameters...............................................................512
Reservation input RESIN...........................................................512
Introduction...........................................................................512
Principle of operation............................................................512
Function block......................................................................514
Input and output signals.......................................................515
Setting parameters...............................................................516
Interlocking ....................................................................................516
Introduction................................................................................516
Principle of operation.................................................................516
Logical node for interlocking SCILO .........................................519
Introduction...........................................................................519
Logic diagram.......................................................................519
Function block......................................................................520
Input and output signals.......................................................520
Interlocking for busbar earthing switch BB_ES .........................520
Introduction...........................................................................521
Function block......................................................................521
Logic diagram.......................................................................521
Input and output signals.......................................................521
Interlocking for bus-section breaker A1A2_BS..........................522
Table of contents
14
Technical reference manual
Introduction...........................................................................522
Function block......................................................................523
Logic diagram.......................................................................524
Input and output signals.......................................................525
Interlocking for bus-section disconnector A1A2_DC ................526
Introduction...........................................................................527
Function block......................................................................527
Logic diagram.......................................................................528
Input and output signals.......................................................528
Interlocking for bus-coupler bay ABC_BC ................................529
Introduction...........................................................................529
Function block......................................................................530
Logic diagram.......................................................................531
Input and output signals.......................................................533
Interlocking for 1 1/2 CB BH .....................................................536
Introduction...........................................................................536
Function blocks....................................................................537
Logic diagrams.....................................................................539
Input and output signals.......................................................544
Interlocking for double CB bay DB ...........................................548
Introduction...........................................................................548
Function block......................................................................549
Logic diagrams.....................................................................551
Input and output signals ......................................................554
Interlocking for line bay ABC_LINE ..........................................557
Introduction...........................................................................557
Function block......................................................................558
Logic diagram.......................................................................559
Input and output signals.......................................................564
Interlocking for transformer bay AB_TRAFO ............................566
Introduction...........................................................................567
Function block......................................................................568
Logic diagram.......................................................................569
Input and output signals.......................................................570
Position evaluation POS_EVAL.................................................572
Introduction...........................................................................572
Logic diagram.......................................................................572
Function block......................................................................573
Input and output signals.......................................................573
Logic rotating switch for function selection and LHMI
presentation SLGGIO.....................................................................573
Introduction................................................................................573
Principle of operation.................................................................573
Table of contents
15
Technical reference manual
Functionality and behaviour ................................................575
Graphical display..................................................................575
Function block...........................................................................577
Input and output signals............................................................577
Setting parameters....................................................................578
Selector mini switch VSGGIO.........................................................579
Introduction................................................................................579
Principle of operation.................................................................579
Function block...........................................................................580
Input and output signals............................................................580
Setting parameters....................................................................581
Generic double point function block DPGGIO................................581
Introduction................................................................................581
Principle of operation.................................................................581
Function block...........................................................................582
Input and output signals............................................................582
Settings......................................................................................582
Single point generic control 8 signals SPC8GGIO.........................582
Introduction................................................................................582
Principle of operation.................................................................583
Function block...........................................................................583
Input and output signals............................................................583
Setting parameters....................................................................584
AutomationBits, command function for DNP3.0 AUTOBITS..........584
Introduction................................................................................585
Principle of operation.................................................................585
Function block...........................................................................586
Input and output signals............................................................586
Setting parameters....................................................................587
Single command, 16 signals SINGLECMD....................................601
Introduction................................................................................601
Principle of operation.................................................................601
Function block...........................................................................602
Input and output signals............................................................602
Setting parameters....................................................................603
Section 13 Scheme communication...............................................605
Scheme communication logic for distance or overcurrent
protection ZCPSCH .......................................................................605
Introduction................................................................................605
Principle of operation.................................................................606
Blocking scheme..................................................................606
Permissive underreaching scheme......................................606
Permissive overreaching scheme........................................607
Table of contents
16
Technical reference manual
Unblocking scheme..............................................................607
Intertrip scheme....................................................................608
Simplified logic diagram.......................................................608
Function block...........................................................................610
Input and output signals............................................................610
Setting parameters....................................................................611
Technical data...........................................................................611
Phase segregated scheme communication logic for distance
protection ZC1PPSCH ...................................................................612
Introduction................................................................................612
Principle of operation.................................................................612
Blocking scheme..................................................................613
Permissive underreach scheme...........................................613
Permissive overreach scheme.............................................614
Unblocking scheme..............................................................614
Intertrip scheme....................................................................614
Simplified logic diagram.......................................................615
Function block...........................................................................616
Input and output signals............................................................616
Setting parameters....................................................................618
Technical data...........................................................................618
Current reversal and weak-end infeed logic for distance
protection ZCRWPSCH .................................................................618
Introduction................................................................................618
Principle of operation.................................................................619
Current reversal logic...........................................................619
Weak-end infeed logic..........................................................619
Function block...........................................................................621
Input and output signals............................................................621
Setting parameters....................................................................622
Technical data...........................................................................622
Local acceleration logic ZCLCPLAL...............................................622
Introduction................................................................................623
Principle of operation.................................................................623
Zone extension.....................................................................623
Loss-of-Load acceleration....................................................624
Function block...........................................................................624
Input and output signals............................................................625
Setting parameters....................................................................625
Scheme communication logic for residual overcurrent
protection ECPSCH .......................................................................626
Introduction................................................................................626
Introduction...........................................................................626
Principle of operation.................................................................626
Table of contents
17
Technical reference manual
Blocking scheme..................................................................627
Permissive under/overreaching scheme..............................628
Unblocking scheme..............................................................629
Function block...........................................................................630
Input and output signals............................................................631
Setting parameters....................................................................631
Technical data...........................................................................632
Current reversal and weak-end infeed logic for residual
overcurrent protection ECRWPSCH ..............................................632
Introduction................................................................................632
Principle of operation.................................................................633
Directional comparison logic function...................................633
Fault current reversal logic...................................................633
Weak-end infeed logic..........................................................634
Function block...........................................................................635
Input and output signals............................................................635
Setting parameters....................................................................636
Technical data...........................................................................636
Current reversal and weak-end infeed logic for phase
segregated communication ZC1WPSCH ......................................637
Introduction................................................................................637
Principle of operation.................................................................637
Current reversal logic ..........................................................637
Function block...........................................................................639
Input and output signals............................................................640
Setting parameters....................................................................641
Technical data...........................................................................641
Section 14 Logic.............................................................................643
Tripping logic SMPPTRC ...............................................................643
Introduction................................................................................643
Principle of operation.................................................................643
Logic diagram.......................................................................645
Function block...........................................................................649
Input and output signals............................................................649
Setting parameters....................................................................650
Technical data...........................................................................651
Trip matrix logic TMAGGIO............................................................651
Introduction................................................................................651
Principle of operation.................................................................651
Function block...........................................................................653
Input and output signals............................................................653
Setting parameters....................................................................654
Configurable logic blocks................................................................655
Table of contents
18
Technical reference manual
Introduction................................................................................655
Inverter function block INV........................................................655
OR function block OR................................................................656
AND function block AND...........................................................657
Timer function block TIMER......................................................657
Pulse timer function block PULSETIMER..................................658
Exclusive OR function block XOR.............................................658
Loop delay function block LOOPDELAY...................................659
Set-reset with memory function block SRMEMORY.................659
Controllable gate function block GATE......................................660
Settable timer function block TIMERSET..................................661
Technical data...........................................................................662
Fixed signal function block FXDSIGN............................................662
Principle of operation.................................................................662
Function block...........................................................................663
Input and output signals............................................................663
Setting parameters....................................................................663
Boolean 16 to Integer conversion B16I..........................................663
Introduction................................................................................663
Principle of operation.................................................................664
Function block...........................................................................664
Input and output signals............................................................664
Setting parameters....................................................................665
Boolean 16 to Integer conversion with logic node
representation B16IGGIO...............................................................665
Introduction................................................................................665
Principle of operation.................................................................665
Function block...........................................................................666
Input and output signals............................................................666
Setting parameters....................................................................667
Integer to Boolean 16 conversion IB16..........................................667
Introduction................................................................................667
Principle of operation.................................................................667
Function block...........................................................................667
Input and output signals............................................................668
Setting parameters....................................................................668
Integer to Boolean 16 conversion with logic node
representation IB16GGIO...............................................................668
Introduction................................................................................669
Principle of operation.................................................................669
Function block...........................................................................669
Input and output signals............................................................669
Setting parameters....................................................................670
Table of contents
19
Technical reference manual
Section 15 Monitoring.....................................................................671
Measurements................................................................................671
Introduction................................................................................672
Principle of operation.................................................................673
Measurement supervision....................................................673
Measurements CVMMXU.....................................................677
Phase current measurement CMMXU.................................682
Phase-phase and phase-neutral voltage measurements
VMMXU, VNMMXU..............................................................683
Voltage and current sequence measurements VMSQI,
CMSQI..................................................................................683
Function block...........................................................................683
Input and output signals............................................................685
Setting parameters....................................................................688
Technical data...........................................................................701
Event counter CNTGGIO................................................................702
Introduction................................................................................702
Principle of operation.................................................................702
Reporting..............................................................................702
Design..................................................................................703
Function block...........................................................................703
Input signals..............................................................................703
Setting parameters....................................................................704
Technical data...........................................................................704
Event function EVENT....................................................................704
Introduction................................................................................704
Principle of operation.................................................................704
Function block...........................................................................706
Input and output signals............................................................706
Setting parameters....................................................................707
Logical signal status report BINSTATREP.....................................709
Introduction................................................................................709
Principle of operation.................................................................709
Function block...........................................................................710
Input and output signals............................................................710
Setting parameters....................................................................711
Fault locator LMBRFLO..................................................................711
Introduction................................................................................712
Principle of operation.................................................................712
Measuring Principle..............................................................713
Accurate algorithm for measurement of distance to fault.....713
The non-compensated impedance model............................717
IEC 60870-5-103..................................................................718
Table of contents
20
Technical reference manual
Function block...........................................................................718
Input and output signals............................................................718
Setting parameters....................................................................719
Technical data...........................................................................720
Measured value expander block RANGE_XP................................720
Introduction................................................................................720
Principle of operation.................................................................720
Function block...........................................................................721
Input and output signals............................................................721
Disturbance report DRPRDRE.......................................................721
Introduction................................................................................722
Principle of operation.................................................................722
Function block...........................................................................729
Input and output signals............................................................731
Setting parameters....................................................................732
Technical data...........................................................................742
Event list.........................................................................................742
Introduction................................................................................742
Principle of operation.................................................................742
Function block...........................................................................743
Input signals..............................................................................743
Technical data...........................................................................743
Indications......................................................................................743
Introduction................................................................................743
Principle of operation.................................................................744
Function block...........................................................................745
Input signals..............................................................................745
Technical data...........................................................................745
Event recorder ...............................................................................745
Introduction................................................................................745
Principle of operation.................................................................745
Function block...........................................................................746
Input signals..............................................................................746
Technical data...........................................................................746
Trip value recorder.........................................................................746
Introduction................................................................................746
Principle of operation.................................................................747
Function block...........................................................................747
Input signals..............................................................................747
Technical data...........................................................................748
Disturbance recorder......................................................................748
Introduction................................................................................748
Principle of operation.................................................................748
Table of contents
21
Technical reference manual
Memory and storage............................................................749
IEC 60870-5-103..................................................................750
Function block...........................................................................751
Input and output signals............................................................751
Setting parameters....................................................................751
Technical data...........................................................................751
Section 16 Metering.......................................................................753
Pulse-counter logic PCGGIO..........................................................753
Introduction................................................................................753
Principle of operation.................................................................753
Function block...........................................................................755
Input and output signals............................................................756
Setting parameters....................................................................756
Technical data...........................................................................757
Function for energy calculation and demand handling
ETPMMTR......................................................................................757
Introduction................................................................................757
Principle of operation.................................................................757
Function block...........................................................................758
Input and output signals............................................................758
Setting parameters....................................................................759
Section 17 Station communication.................................................761
Overview.........................................................................................761
IEC 61850-8-1 communication protocol.........................................761
Introduction................................................................................761
IEC 61850 generic communication I/O functions SPGGIO,
SP16GGIO................................................................................761
Introduction...........................................................................762
Principle of operation............................................................762
Function block......................................................................762
Input and output signals.......................................................762
Setting parameters...............................................................763
IEC 61850 generic communication I/O functions MVGGIO.......763
Principle of operation............................................................763
Function block......................................................................764
Input and output signals.......................................................764
Setting parameters...............................................................764
Setting parameters....................................................................765
Technical data...........................................................................765
IEC 61850-9-2LE communication protocol.....................................765
Introduction................................................................................765
Principle of operation.................................................................765
Table of contents
22
Technical reference manual
Function block...........................................................................767
Output signals............................................................................768
Setting parameters....................................................................768
Technical data...........................................................................769
LON communication protocol.........................................................769
Introduction................................................................................769
Principle of operation.................................................................769
Setting parameters....................................................................787
Technical data...........................................................................787
SPA communication protocol.........................................................787
Introduction................................................................................787
Principle of operation.................................................................788
Communication ports...........................................................795
Design.......................................................................................795
Setting parameters....................................................................796
Technical data...........................................................................796
IEC 60870-5-103 communication protocol.....................................796
Introduction................................................................................796
Principle of operation.................................................................796
General.................................................................................796
Communication ports...........................................................806
Function block...........................................................................806
Input and output signals............................................................809
Setting parameters....................................................................814
Technical data...........................................................................816
Horizontal communication via GOOSE for interlocking
GOOSEINTLKRCV.........................................................................817
Function block...........................................................................817
Input and output signals............................................................817
Setting parameters....................................................................819
Goose binary receive GOOSEBINRCV..........................................820
Function block...........................................................................820
Input and output signals............................................................820
Setting parameters....................................................................821
Multiple command and transmit MULTICMDRCV,
MULTICMDSND.............................................................................821
Introduction................................................................................822
Principle of operation.................................................................822
Design.......................................................................................822
General.................................................................................822
Function block...........................................................................823
Input and output signals............................................................824
Setting parameters....................................................................825
Table of contents
23
Technical reference manual
Section 18 Remote communication................................................827
Binary signal transfer......................................................................827
Introduction................................................................................827
Principle of operation.................................................................827
Function block...........................................................................829
Input and output signals............................................................829
Setting parameters....................................................................831
Transmission of analog data from LDCM LDCMTransmit..............833
Function block...........................................................................833
Input and output signals............................................................834
Section 19 Hardware......................................................................835
Overview.........................................................................................835
Variants of case and local HMI display size..............................835
Case from the rear side.............................................................838
Hardware modules.........................................................................843
Overview....................................................................................843
Combined backplane module (CBM).........................................844
Introduction...........................................................................844
Functionality.........................................................................844
Design..................................................................................844
Universal backplane module (UBM)..........................................846
Introduction...........................................................................846
Functionality.........................................................................846
Design..................................................................................846
Numeric processing module (NUM)..........................................848
Introduction...........................................................................848
Functionality.........................................................................849
Block diagram.......................................................................850
Power supply module (PSM).....................................................850
Introduction...........................................................................850
Design..................................................................................850
Technical data......................................................................851
Local human-machine interface (Local HMI).............................851
Transformer input module (TRM)..............................................851
Introduction...........................................................................852
Design..................................................................................852
Technical data......................................................................852
Analog digital conversion module, with time
synchronization (ADM) .............................................................853
Introduction...........................................................................853
Design..................................................................................853
Binary input module (BIM).........................................................855
Table of contents
24
Technical reference manual
Introduction...........................................................................855
Design..................................................................................855
Technical data......................................................................859
Binary output modules (BOM)...................................................859
Introduction...........................................................................859
Design..................................................................................859
Technical data......................................................................861
Static binary output module (SOM)...........................................862
Introduction...........................................................................862
Design..................................................................................862
Technical data......................................................................864
Binary input/output module (IOM)..............................................865
Introduction...........................................................................865
Design..................................................................................866
Technical data......................................................................868
mA input module (MIM).............................................................869
Introduction...........................................................................869
Design..................................................................................869
Technical data......................................................................870
Serial and LON communication module (SLM) ........................871
Introduction...........................................................................871
Design..................................................................................871
Technical data......................................................................872
Galvanic RS485 communication module...................................873
Introduction...........................................................................873
Design..................................................................................873
Technical data......................................................................875
Optical ethernet module (OEM).................................................875
Introduction...........................................................................875
Functionality.........................................................................875
Design..................................................................................875
Technical data......................................................................876
Line data communication module (LDCM)................................876
Introduction...........................................................................876
Design..................................................................................877
Technical data......................................................................878
Galvanic X.21 line data communication (X.21-LDCM)..............879
Introduction...........................................................................879
Design..................................................................................879
Functionality.........................................................................881
Technical data......................................................................882
GPS time synchronization module (GSM).................................882
Introduction...........................................................................882
Table of contents
25
Technical reference manual
Design..................................................................................882
Technical data......................................................................884
GPS antenna.............................................................................885
Introduction...........................................................................885
Design..................................................................................885
Technical data......................................................................886
IRIG-B time synchronization module IRIG-B.............................887
Introduction...........................................................................887
Design..................................................................................887
Technical data......................................................................888
Dimensions.....................................................................................889
Case without rear cover.............................................................889
Case with rear cover..................................................................891
Flush mounting dimensions.......................................................893
Side-by-side flush mounting dimensions...................................894
Wall mounting dimensions.........................................................895
External resistor unit for high impedance differential
protection...................................................................................895
Mounting alternatives.....................................................................896
Flush mounting..........................................................................896
Overview..............................................................................896
Mounting procedure for flush mounting................................898
19 panel rack mounting............................................................899
Overview..............................................................................899
Mounting procedure for 19 panel rack mounting.................900
Wall mounting............................................................................900
Overview..............................................................................900
Mounting procedure for wall mounting.................................901
How to reach the rear side of the IED..................................902
Side-by-side 19 rack mounting.................................................902
Overview..............................................................................902
Mounting procedure for side-by-side rack mounting............903
IED in the 670 series mounted with a RHGS6 case.............903
Side-by-side flush mounting......................................................904
Overview..............................................................................904
Mounting procedure for side-by-side flush mounting...........905
Technical data................................................................................905
Enclosure...................................................................................905
Connection system....................................................................906
Influencing factors.....................................................................906
Type tests according to standard..............................................907
Section 20 Labels...........................................................................911
Different labels................................................................................911
Table of contents
26
Technical reference manual
Section 21 Connection diagrams...................................................915
Section 22 Inverse time characteristics..........................................931
Application......................................................................................931
Principle of operation......................................................................934
Mode of operation......................................................................934
Inverse characteristics....................................................................939
Section 23 Glossary.......................................................................965
Table of contents
27
Technical reference manual
28
Section 1 Introduction
About this chapter
This chapter explains concepts and conventions used in this manual and provides
information necessary to understand the contents of the manual.
1.1 Introduction to the technical reference manual
1.1.1 About the complete set of manuals for an IED
The users manual (UM) is a complete set of five different manuals:
IEC09000744-1-en.vsd
P
l
a
n
n
i
n
g

&

p
u
r
c
h
a
s
e
d
i
s
p
o
s
a
l
E
n
g
i
n
e
e
r
i
n
g
I
n
s
t
a
l
l
i
n
g
C
o
m
m
i
s
s
i
o
n
i
n
g
O
p
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
M
a
i
n
t
e
n
a
n
c
e
D
e
c
o
m
m
i
s
s
i
o
n
i
n
g
d
e
i
n
s
t
a
l
l
i
n
g
&

Application manual
Operators manual
Installation and
Engineeringmanual
Commissioning manual
manual
Technical reference
IEC09000744 V1 EN
The Application Manual (AM) contains application descriptions, setting
guidelines and setting parameters sorted per function. The application manual
should be used to find out when and for what purpose a typical protection function
could be used. The manual should also be used when calculating settings.
The Technical Reference Manual (TRM) contains application and functionality
descriptions and it lists function blocks, logic diagrams, input and output signals,
setting parameters and technical data sorted per function. The technical reference
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 1
Introduction
29
Technical reference manual
manual should be used as a technical reference during the engineering phase,
installation and commissioning phase, and during normal service.
The Installation and Commissioning Manual (ICM) contains instructions on
how to install and commission the protection IED. The manual can also be used as
a reference during periodic testing. The manual covers procedures for mechanical
and electrical installation, energizing and checking of external circuitry, setting and
configuration as well as verifying settings and performing directional tests. The
chapters are organized in the chronological order (indicated by chapter/section
numbers) in which the protection IED should be installed and commissioned.
The Operators Manual (OM) contains instructions on how to operate the
protection IED during normal service once it has been commissioned. The
operators manual can be used to find out how to handle disturbances or how to
view calculated and measured network data in order to determine the cause of a fault.
The Engineering Manual (EM) contains instructions on how to engineer the IEDs
using the different tools in PCM600. The manual provides instructions on how to
set up a PCM600 project and insert IEDs to the project structure. The manual also
recommends a sequence for engineering of protection and control functions, LHMI
functions as well as communication engineering for IEC 61850 and DNP3.
1.1.2 About the technical reference manual
The following chapters are included in the technical reference manual.
Local HMI describes the control panel on the IED and explains display
characteristics, control keys and various local HMI features.
Basic IED functions presents functions for all protection types that are
included in all IEDs, for example, time synchronization, self supervision with
event list, test mode and other general functions.
Impedance protection describes functions for distance zones with their
quadrilateral characteristics, phase selection with load encroachment, power
swing detection and similar.
Current protection describes functions, for example, over current protection,
breaker failure protection and pole discordance.
Voltage protection describes functions for under voltage and over voltage
protection and residual over voltage protection.
Frequency protection describes functions for over frequency, under frequency
and rate of change of frequency protection.
Multipurpose protection describes the general protection function for current
and voltage.
Secondary system supervision describes current based functions for current
circuit supervision and fuse failure supervision.
Control describes control functions, for example, synchronization and
energizing check and other product specific functions.
Scheme communication describes functions related to current reversal and
weak end infeed logic.
Logic describes trip logic and related functions.
Section 1 1MRK506275-UEN C
Introduction
30
Technical reference manual
Monitoring describes measurement related functions that are used to provide
data regarding relevant quantities, events and faults, for example.
Metering describes pulse counter logic.
Station communication describes Ethernet based communication in general,
including the use of IEC 61850 and horizontal communication via GOOSE.
Remote communication describes binary and analog signal transfer, and the
associated hardware.
Hardware describes the IED and its components.
Connection diagrams provides terminal wiring diagrams and information
regarding connections to and from the IED.
Inverse time characteristics describes and explains inverse time delay, inverse
time curves and their effects.
Glossary is a list of terms, acronyms and abbreviations used in ABB technical
documentation.
1.1.3 This manual
The description of each IED related function follows the same structure (where
applicable). The different sections are outlined below.
1.1.3.1 Introduction
Outlines the implementation of a particular protection function.
1.1.3.2 Principle of operation
Describes how the function works, presents a general background to algorithms
and measurement techniques. Logic diagrams are used to illustrate functionality.
Logic diagrams
Logic diagrams describe the signal logic inside the function block and are bordered
by dashed lines.
Signal names
Input and output logic signals consist of two groups of letters separated by two
dashes. The first group consists of up to four letters and presents the abbreviated
name for the corresponding function. The second group presents the functionality
of the particular signal. According to this explanation, the meaning of the signal
BLKTR in figure 4 is as follows:
BLKTR informs the user that the signal will BLOCK the TRIP command from
the under-voltage function, when its value is a logical one (1).
Input signals are always on the left hand side, and output signals on the right hand
side. Settings are not displayed.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 1
Introduction
31
Technical reference manual
Input and output signals
In a logic diagram, input and output signal paths are shown as a lines that touch the
outer border of the diagram.
Input and output signals can be configured using the ACT tool. They can be
connected to the inputs and outputs of other functions and to binary inputs and
outputs. Examples of input signals are BLKTR, BLOCK and VTSU. Examples
output signals are TRIP, START, STL1, STL2, STL3.
Setting parameters
Signals in frames with a shaded area on their right hand side represent setting
parameter signals. These parameters can only be set via the PST or LHMI. Their
values are high (1) only when the corresponding setting parameter is set to the
symbolic value specified within the frame. Example is the signal Block TUV=Yes.
Their logical values correspond automatically to the selected setting value.
Internal signals
Internal signals are illustrated graphically and end approximately 2 mm from the
frame edge. If an internal signal path cannot be drawn with a continuous line, the
suffix -int is added to the signal name to indicate where the signal starts and
continues, see figure 1.
TEST
Block TUV=Yes
STUL1N
STUL2N
STUL3N
&
>1 &
TEST
>1
&
&
&
xx04000375.vsd
t
BLKTR
BLOCK
VTSU
TRIP
START
STL1
STL2
STL3
BLOCK-int.
BLOCK-int.
BLOCK-int.
BLOCK-int.
IEC04000375 V1 EN
Figure 1: Logic diagram example with -int signals
Section 1 1MRK506275-UEN C
Introduction
32
Technical reference manual
External signals
Signal paths that extend beyond the logic diagram and continue in another diagram
have the suffix -cont., see figure 2 and figure 3.
&
&
&
&
&
&
STCND
STNDL1L2-cont.
STNDL2L3-cont.
STNDL3L1-cont.
STNDL1N-cont.
STNDL2N-cont.
STNDL3N-cont.
STZMPP-cont.
STNDPE-cont.
&
1--BLOCK
1--VTSZ
1--STND
BLK-cont.
>1
>1
>1
>1
xx04000376.vsd
1L1L2
1L2L3
1L3L1
1L1N
1L2N
1L3N
IEC04000376 V1 EN
Figure 2: Logic diagram example with an outgoing -cont signal
xx04000377.vsd
STNDL1N-cont.
STNDL3N-cont.
STNDL1L2-cont.
STNDL2L3-cont.
STNDL3L1-cont.
>1
>1
>1
>1
&
&
&
&
BLK-cont.
t
15 ms
t
15 ms
t
15 ms
t
15 ms
START
STL3
STL2
STL1
STNDL2N-cont.
IEC04000377 V1 EN
Figure 3: Logic diagram example with an incoming -cont signal
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 1
Introduction
33
Technical reference manual
1.1.3.3 Input and output signals
Input and output signals are presented in two separate tables. Each table consists of
two columns. The first column contains the name of the signal and the second
column contains the description of the signal.
1.1.3.4 Function block
Each function block is illustrated graphically.
Input signals are always on the left hand side and output signals on the right hand
side. Settings are not displayed. Special kinds of settings are sometimes available.
These are supposed to be connected to constants in the configuration scheme and
are therefore depicted as inputs. Such signals will be found in the signal list but
described in the settings table.
The ^ character in front of an input or output signal name in the function block
symbol given for a function, indicates that the user can set a signal name of
their own in PCM600.
The * character after an input or output signal name in the function block
symbol given for a function, indicates that the signal must be connected to
another function block in the application configuration to achieve a valid
application configuration.
en05000511-1-en.vsd
IEC 61850 - 8 -1
Logical Node
Outputs Inputs
Diagram
Number
Mandatory
signal (*)
PCGGIO
BLOCK
READ_VAL
BI_PULSE*
RS_CNT
INVALID
RESTART
BLOCKED
NEW_VAL
^SCAL_VAL
User defined
name (^)
IEC05000511 V2 EN
Figure 4: Example of a function block
1.1.3.5 Setting parameters
These are presented in tables and include all parameters associated with the
function in question.
Section 1 1MRK506275-UEN C
Introduction
34
Technical reference manual
1.1.3.6 Technical data
The technical data section provides specific technical information about the
function or hardware described.
1.1.4 Intended audience
General
This manual addresses system engineers, installation and commissioning
personnel, who use technical data during engineering, installation and
commissioning, and in normal service.
Requirements
The system engineer must have a thorough knowledge of protection systems,
protection equipment, protection functions and the configured functional logics in
the protective devices. The installation and commissioning personnel must have a
basic knowledge in the handling electronic equipment.
1.1.5 Related documents
Documents related to REL670 Identity number
Operators manual 1MRK 506 276-UEN
Installation and commissioning manual 1MRK 506 277-UEN
Technical reference manual 1MRK 506 275-UEN
Application manual 1MRK 506 278-UEN
Buyers guide 1MRK 506 280-BEN
Sample specification SA2005-001282
Connection diagram, Single breaker arr. Three phase tripping arr. 1MRK 002 801-BA
Connection diagram, Single breaker arr. Single phase tripping arr. 1MRK 002 801-CA
Connection diagram, Multi breaker arr. Three phase tripping arr. 1MRK 002 801-DA
Connection diagram, Multi breaker arr. Single phase tripping arr. 1MRK 002 801-EA
Configuration diagram A, Single breaker with single or double busbar, 3 pole tripping (A31) 1MRK 004 500-86
Configuration diagram B, Single breaker with single or double busbar, 1/3 pole tripping (A32) 1MRK 004 500-87
Configuration diagram C, Multi breaker such as 1 1/2 or ring busbar arr. 3 pole tripping (B31) 1MRK 004 500-88
Configuration diagram D, Multi breaker such as 1 1/2 or ring busbar arr. 1/3 pole tripping (B32) 1MRK 004 500-89
Setting example 1, 400 kV Long overhead power line with 1 1/2 CB arr. Quadrilaterial characteristic. 1MRK 506 267-WEN
Setting example 2, Setting example 1, 400 kV Long overhead power line with 1 1/2 CB arr. Mho characteristic. 1MRK 506 291-WEN
Setting example 3, 230 kV Extremely long overhead power line, double bus, single CB arr. Quadrilaterial
characteristic.
1MRK 506 268-WEN
Setting example 4, 230 kV Extremely long overhead power line, double bus, single CB arr. Mho characteristic. 1MRK 506 292-WEN
Setting example 5, 132 kV Short overhead power line, double bus, single CB arr. Quadrilaterial characteristic. 1MRK 506 269-WEN
Setting example 6, 132 kV Short overhead power line, double bus, single CB arr. Mho characteristic. 1MRK 506 290-WEN
Setting example 7, 70 kV power line on a resonance earth system. Double bus, single breaker arrangement. 1MRK 506 293-WEN
Setting example 8, 400 kV long series compensated line. 1 1/2 breaker arrangement. 1MRK 506 294-WEN
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 1
Introduction
35
Technical reference manual
Connection and Installation components 1MRK 513 003-BEN
Test system, COMBITEST 1MRK 512 001-BEN
Accessories for IED 670 1MRK 514 012-BEN
Getting started guide IED 670 1MRK 500 080-UEN
SPA and LON signal list for IED 670, ver. 1.1 1MRK 500 083-WEN
IEC 61850 Data objects list for IED 670, ver. 1.1 1MRK 500 084-WEN
Generic IEC 61850 IED Connectivity package 1KHA001027-UEN
Protection and Control IED Manager PCM 600 Installation sheet 1MRS755552
Engineering guide IED 670 products 1MRK 511 179-UEN
More information can be found on www.abb.com/substationautomation.
1.1.6 Revision notes
Revision Description
C No functionality added. Changes made in content due to problem reports.
Section 1 1MRK506275-UEN C
Introduction
36
Technical reference manual
Section 2 Analog inputs
2.1 Introduction
Analog input channels must be configured and set properly to get correct
measurement results and correct protection operations. For power measuring and
all directional and differential functions the directions of the input currents must be
defined properly. Measuring and protection algorithms in the IED use primary
system quantities. Set values are done in primary quantities as well and it is
important to set the data about the connected current and voltage transformers
properly.
A reference PhaseAngleRef can be defined to facilitate service values reading. This
analog channels phase angle will always be fixed to zero degree and all other angle
information will be shown in relation to this analog input. During testing and
commissioning of the IED the reference channel can be changed to facilitate testing
and service values reading.
The IED has the ability to receive analog values from primary
equipment, that are sampled by Merging units (MU) connected to a
process bus, via the IEC 61850-9-2 LE protocol.
The availability of VT inputs depends on the ordered transformer
input module (TRM) type.
2.2 Operation principle
The direction of a current to the IED depends on the connection of the CT. The
main CTs are typically star connected and can be connected with the star point to
the object or from the object. This information must be set to the IED.
Directional conventions for current or power, for example
Positive value of current or power means quantity direction into the object.
Negative value of current or power means quantity direction out from the object.
Directional conventions for directional functions (see figure 5)
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 2
Analog inputs
37
Technical reference manual
Forward means direction into the object.
Reverse means direction out from the object.
Protected Object
Line, transformer, etc
Forward Reverse
Definition of direction
for directional functions
Measured quantity is
positive when flowing
towards the object
e.g. P, Q, I
Reverse Forward
Definition of direction
for directional functions
e.g. P, Q, I
Measured quantity is
positive when flowing
towards the object
Set parameter
CTStarPoint
Correct Setting is
"ToObject"
Set parameter
CTStarPoint
Correct Setting is
"FromObject"

en05000456.vsd
IEC05000456 V1 EN
Figure 5: Internal convention of the directionality in the IED
The correct setting of the primary CT direction
CTStarPoint is set to FromObject or ToObject.
Positive quantities flow towards the object.
Direction is defined as Forward and looks towards the object.
The ratios of the main CTs and VTs must be known to use primary system
quantities for settings and calculation in the IED, The user has to set the rated
secondary and primary currents and voltages of the CTs and VTs to provide the
IED with this information.
The CT and VT ratio and the name on respective channel is done under Main
menu/General settings/Analog module in the Parameter Settings tool.
2.3 Function block
The function blocks are not represented in the configuration tool.
The signals appear only in the SMT tool when a TRM is included in
the configuration with the function selector tool. In the SMT tool
they can be mapped to the desired virtual input (SMAI) of the IED
and used internally in the configuration.
Section 2 1MRK506275-UEN C
Analog inputs
38
Technical reference manual
2.4 Setting parameters
Dependent on ordered IED type.
Table 1: AISVBAS Non group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
PhaseAngleRef TRM40-Ch1
TRM40-Ch2
TRM40-Ch3
TRM40-Ch4
TRM40-Ch5
TRM40-Ch6
TRM40-Ch7
TRM40-Ch8
TRM40-Ch9
TRM40-Ch10
TRM40-Ch11
TRM40-Ch12
TRM41-Ch1
TRM41-Ch2
TRM41-Ch3
TRM41-Ch4
TRM41-Ch5
TRM41-Ch6
TRM41-Ch7
TRM41-Ch8
TRM41-Ch9
TRM41-Ch10
TRM41-Ch11
TRM41-Ch12
MU1-L1I
MU1-L2I
MU1-L3I
MU1-L4I
MU1-L1U
MU1-L2U
MU1-L3U
MU1-L4U
MU2-L1I
MU2-L2I
MU2-L3I
MU2-L4I
MU2-L1U
MU2-L2U
MU2-L3U
MU2-L4U
MU3-L1I
MU3-L2I
MU3-L3I
MU3-L4I
MU3-L1U
MU3-L2U
MU3-L3U
MU3-L4U
- - TRM40-Ch1 Reference channel for phase angle
presentation
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 2
Analog inputs
39
Technical reference manual
Table 2: TRM_6I_6U Non group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
CTStarPoint1 FromObject
ToObject
- - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object,
FromObject= the opposite
CTsec1 1 - 10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current
CTprim1 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current
CTStarPoint2 FromObject
ToObject
- - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object,
FromObject= the opposite
CTsec2 1 - 10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current
CTprim2 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current
CTStarPoint3 FromObject
ToObject
- - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object,
FromObject= the opposite
CTsec3 1 - 10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current
CTprim3 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current
CTStarPoint4 FromObject
ToObject
- - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object,
FromObject= the opposite
CTsec4 1 - 10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current
CTprim4 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current
CTStarPoint5 FromObject
ToObject
- - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object,
FromObject= the opposite
CTsec5 1 - 10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current
CTprim5 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current
CTStarPoint6 FromObject
ToObject
- - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object,
FromObject= the opposite
CTsec6 1 - 10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current
CTprim6 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current
VTsec7 0.001 - 999.999 V 0.001 110.000 Rated VT secondary voltage
VTprim7 0.05 - 2000.00 kV 0.05 400.00 Rated VT primary voltage
VTsec8 0.001 - 999.999 V 0.001 110.000 Rated VT secondary voltage
VTprim8 0.05 - 2000.00 kV 0.05 400.00 Rated VT primary voltage
VTsec9 0.001 - 999.999 V 0.001 110.000 Rated VT secondary voltage
VTprim9 0.05 - 2000.00 kV 0.05 400.00 Rated VT primary voltage
VTsec10 0.001 - 999.999 V 0.001 110.000 Rated VT secondary voltage
VTprim10 0.05 - 2000.00 kV 0.05 400.00 Rated VT primary voltage
VTsec11 0.001 - 999.999 V 0.001 110.000 Rated VT secondary voltage
VTprim11 0.05 - 2000.00 kV 0.05 400.00 Rated VT primary voltage
VTsec12 0.001 - 999.999 V 0.001 110.000 Rated VT secondary voltage
VTprim12 0.05 - 2000.00 kV 0.05 400.00 Rated VT primary voltage
Section 2 1MRK506275-UEN C
Analog inputs
40
Technical reference manual
Table 3: TRM_6I Non group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
CTStarPoint1 FromObject
ToObject
- - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object,
FromObject= the opposite
CTsec1 1 - 10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current
CTprim1 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current
CTStarPoint2 FromObject
ToObject
- - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object,
FromObject= the opposite
CTsec2 1 - 10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current
CTprim2 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current
CTStarPoint3 FromObject
ToObject
- - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object,
FromObject= the opposite
CTsec3 1 - 10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current
CTprim3 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current
CTStarPoint4 FromObject
ToObject
- - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object,
FromObject= the opposite
CTsec4 1 - 10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current
CTprim4 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current
CTStarPoint5 FromObject
ToObject
- - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object,
FromObject= the opposite
CTsec5 1 - 10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current
CTprim5 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current
CTStarPoint6 FromObject
ToObject
- - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object,
FromObject= the opposite
CTsec6 1 - 10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current
CTprim6 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current
Table 4: TRM_7I_5U Non group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
CTStarPoint1 FromObject
ToObject
- - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object,
FromObject= the opposite
CTsec1 1 - 10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current
CTprim1 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current
CTStarPoint2 FromObject
ToObject
- - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object,
FromObject= the opposite
CTsec2 1 - 10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current
CTprim2 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current
CTStarPoint3 FromObject
ToObject
- - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object,
FromObject= the opposite
CTsec3 1 - 10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current
CTprim3 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current
CTStarPoint4 FromObject
ToObject
- - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object,
FromObject= the opposite
CTsec4 1 - 10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current
Table continues on next page
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 2
Analog inputs
41
Technical reference manual
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
CTprim4 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current
CTStarPoint5 FromObject
ToObject
- - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object,
FromObject= the opposite
CTsec5 1 - 10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current
CTprim5 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current
CTStarPoint6 FromObject
ToObject
- - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object,
FromObject= the opposite
CTsec6 1 - 10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current
CTprim6 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current
CTStarPoint7 FromObject
ToObject
- - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object,
FromObject= the opposite
CTsec7 1 - 10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current
CTprim7 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current
VTsec8 0.001 - 999.999 V 0.001 110.000 Rated VT secondary voltage
VTprim8 0.05 - 2000.00 kV 0.05 400.00 Rated VT primary voltage
VTsec9 0.001 - 999.999 V 0.001 110.000 Rated VT secondary voltage
VTprim9 0.05 - 2000.00 kV 0.05 400.00 Rated VT primary voltage
VTsec10 0.001 - 999.999 V 0.001 110.000 Rated VT secondary voltage
VTprim10 0.05 - 2000.00 kV 0.05 400.00 Rated VT primary voltage
VTsec11 0.001 - 999.999 V 0.001 110.000 Rated VT secondary voltage
VTprim11 0.05 - 2000.00 kV 0.05 400.00 Rated VT primary voltage
VTsec12 0.001 - 999.999 V 0.001 110.000 Rated VT secondary voltage
VTprim12 0.05 - 2000.00 kV 0.05 400.00 Rated VT primary voltage
Table 5: TRM_9I_3U Non group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
CTStarPoint1 FromObject
ToObject
- - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object,
FromObject= the opposite
CTsec1 1 - 10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current
CTprim1 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current
CTStarPoint2 FromObject
ToObject
- - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object,
FromObject= the opposite
CTsec2 1 - 10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current
CTprim2 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current
CTStarPoint3 FromObject
ToObject
- - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object,
FromObject= the opposite
CTsec3 1 - 10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current
CTprim3 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current
CTStarPoint4 FromObject
ToObject
- - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object,
FromObject= the opposite
CTsec4 1 - 10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current
CTprim4 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current
Table continues on next page
Section 2 1MRK506275-UEN C
Analog inputs
42
Technical reference manual
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
CTStarPoint5 FromObject
ToObject
- - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object,
FromObject= the opposite
CTsec5 1 - 10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current
CTprim5 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current
CTStarPoint6 FromObject
ToObject
- - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object,
FromObject= the opposite
CTsec6 1 - 10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current
CTprim6 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current
CTStarPoint7 FromObject
ToObject
- - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object,
FromObject= the opposite
CTsec7 1 - 10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current
CTprim7 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current
CTStarPoint8 FromObject
ToObject
- - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object,
FromObject= the opposite
CTsec8 1 - 10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current
CTprim8 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current
CTStarPoint9 FromObject
ToObject
- - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object,
FromObject= the opposite
CTsec9 1 - 10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current
CTprim9 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current
VTsec10 0.001 - 999.999 V 0.001 110.000 Rated VT secondary voltage
VTprim10 0.05 - 2000.00 kV 0.05 400.00 Rated VT primary voltage
VTsec11 0.001 - 999.999 V 0.001 110.000 Rated VT secondary voltage
VTprim11 0.05 - 2000.00 kV 0.05 400.00 Rated VT primary voltage
VTsec12 0.001 - 999.999 V 0.001 110.000 Rated VT secondary voltage
VTprim12 0.05 - 2000.00 kV 0.05 400.00 Rated VT primary voltage
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 2
Analog inputs
43
Technical reference manual
44
Section 3 Local HMI
About this chapter
This chapter describes the structure and use of local HMI, which is the control
panel at the IED.
3.1 Human machine interface
The local human machine interface is available in a small and a medium sized
model. The difference between the two models is the size of the LCD. The small
size LCD can display seven lines of text and the medium size LCD can display the
single line diagram with up to 15 objects on each page. Up to 12 single line
diagram pages can be defined, depending on the product capability.
The local HMI is divided into zones with different functionality.
Status indication LEDs.
Alarm indication LEDs, which consist of 15 LEDs (6 red and 9 yellow) with
user printable label. All LEDs are configurable from PCM600.
Liquid crystal display (LCD).
Keypad with push buttons for control and navigation purposes, switch for
selection between local and remote control and reset.
Isolated RJ45 communication port.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 3
Local HMI
45
Technical reference manual
IEC05000055-LITEN V1 EN
Figure 6: Small, alpha numeric HMI
IEC05000056-LITEN V1 EN
Figure 7: Medium graphic HMI, 15 controllable objects
Section 3 1MRK506275-UEN C
Local HMI
46
Technical reference manual
3.2 Small size HMI
3.2.1 Small
The small sized HMI is available for 1/2, 3/4 and 1/1 x 19 case. The LCD on the
small HMI measures 32 x 90 mm and displays 7 lines with up to 40 characters per
line. The first line displays the product name and the last line displays date and
time. The remaining 5 lines are dynamic. This LCD has no graphic display potential.
3.2.2 Design
The local HMI is identical for both the 1/2, 3/4 and 1/1 cases. The different parts of
the small local HMI are shown in figure 8
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 3
Local HMI
47
Technical reference manual
1 2 3
4
5
6
7 8
en05000055.eps
IEC05000055-CALLOUT V1 EN
Figure 8: Small graphic HMI
1 Status indication LEDs
2 LCD
3 Indication LEDs
4 Label
5 Local/Remote LEDs
6 RJ45 port
7 Communication indication LED
8 Keypad
Section 3 1MRK506275-UEN C
Local HMI
48
Technical reference manual
3.3 Medium size graphic HMI
3.3.1 Medium
The following case sizes can be equipped with the medium size LCD:
1/2 x 19
3/4 x 19
1/1 x 19
This is a fully graphical monochrome LCD which measures 120 x 90 mm. It has 28
lines with up to 40 characters per line. To display the single line diagram, this LCD
is required.
3.3.2 Design
The different parts of the medium size local HMI are shown in figure 9. The local
HMI exists in an IEC version and in an ANSI version. The difference is on the
keypad operation buttons and the yellow LED designation.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 3
Local HMI
49
Technical reference manual
1 2 3
4
5
6
7 8
en05000056.eps
IEC05000056-CALLOUT V1 EN
Figure 9: Medium size graphic HMI
1 Status indication LEDs
2 LCD
3 Indication LEDs
4 Label
5 Local/Remote LEDs
6 RJ45 port
7 Communication indication LED
8 Keypad
Section 3 1MRK506275-UEN C
Local HMI
50
Technical reference manual
3.4 Keypad
The keypad is used to monitor and operate the IED. The keypad has the same look
and feel in all IEDs. LCD screens and other details may differ but the way the keys
function is identical.
IEC05000153 V1 EN
Figure 10: The HMI keypad.
Table 6 describes the HMI keys that are used to operate the IED.
Table 6: HMI keys on the front of the IED
Key Function
IEC05000101 V1 EN

Press to close or energize a breaker or disconnector.
IEC05000102 V1 EN

Press to open a breaker or disconnector.
IEC05000103 V1 EN

Press to open two sub menus: Key operation and IED information.
IEC05000104 V1 EN

Press to clear entries, cancel commands or edit.
IEC05000105 V1 EN

Press to open the main menu and to move to the default screen.
IEC05000106 V1 EN

Press to set the IED in local or remote control mode.
IEC05000107 V1 EN

Press to open the reset screen.
IEC05000108 V1 EN

Press to start the editing mode and confirm setting changes, when in editing mode.
Table continues on next page
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 3
Local HMI
51
Technical reference manual
Key Function
IEC05000109 V1 EN

Press to navigate forward between screens and move right in editing mode.
IEC05000110 V1 EN

Press to navigate backwards between screens and move left in editing mode.
IEC05000111 V1 EN

Press to move up in the single line diagram and in the menu tree.
IEC05000112 V1 EN

Press to move down in the single line diagram and in the menu tree.
3.5 LED
3.5.1 Introduction
The LED module is a unidirectional means of communicating. This means that
events may occur that activate a LED in order to draw the operators attention to
something that has occurred and needs some sort of action.
3.5.2 Status indication LEDs
The three LEDs above the LCD provide information as shown in the table below.
LED Indication Information
Green:
Steady In service
Flashing Internal failure
Dark No power supply
Yellow:
Steady Dist. rep. triggered
Flashing Terminal in test mode
Red:
Steady Trip command issued
3.5.3 Indication LEDs
The LED indication module comprising 15 LEDs is standard in 670 series. Its main
purpose is to present an immediate visual information for protection indications or
alarm signals.
Section 3 1MRK506275-UEN C
Local HMI
52
Technical reference manual
Alarm indication LEDs and hardware associated LEDs are located on the right
hand side of the front panel. Alarm LEDs are located on the right of the LCD
screen and show steady or flashing light.
Steady light indicates normal operation.
Flashing light indicates alarm.
Alarm LEDs can be configured in PCM600 and depend on the binary logic.
Therefore they can not be configured on the local HMI.
Typical examples of alarm LEDs
Bay controller failure
CB close blocked
Interlocking bypassed
SF6 Gas refill
Position error
CB spring charge alarm
Oil temperature alarm
Thermal overload trip
The RJ45 port has a yellow LED indicating that communication has been
established between the IED and a computer.
The Local/Remote key on the front panel has two LEDs indicating whether local or
remote control of the IED is active.
3.6 Local HMI related functions
3.6.1 Introduction
The local HMI can be adapted to the application configuration and to user preferences.
Function block LocalHMI
Function block LEDGEN
Setting parameters
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 3
Local HMI
53
Technical reference manual
3.6.2 General setting parameters
Table 7: SCREEN Non group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
Language English
OptionalLanguage
- - English Local HMI language
DisplayTimeout 10 - 120 Min 10 60 Local HMI display timeout
AutoRepeat Off
On
- - On Activation of auto-repeat (On) or not (Off)
ContrastLevel -10 - 20 % 1 0 Contrast level for display
DefaultScreen 0 - 0 - 1 0 Default screen
EvListSrtOrder Latest on top
Oldest on top
- - Latest on top Sort order of event list
SymbolFont IEC
ANSI
- - IEC Symbol font for Single Line Diagram
3.6.3 Status indication LEDs
3.6.3.1 Design
The function block LocalHMI controls and supplies information about the status of
the status indication LEDs. The input and output signals of local HMI are
configured with PCM600.
The function block can be used if any of the signals are required in a configuration
logic.
See section "Status indication LEDs" for information about the LEDs.
3.6.3.2 Function block
IEC05000773-2-en.vsd
LocalHMI
CLRLEDS HMI-ON
RED-S
YELLOW-S
YELLOW-F
CLRPULSE
LEDSCLRD
IEC05000773 V2 EN
Figure 11: LocalHMI function block
3.6.3.3 Input and output signals
Table 8: LocalHMI Input signals
Name Type Default Description
CLRLEDS BOOLEAN 0 Input to clear the LCD-HMI LEDs
Section 3 1MRK506275-UEN C
Local HMI
54
Technical reference manual
Table 9: LocalHMI Output signals
Name Type Description
HMI-ON BOOLEAN Backlight of the LCD display is active
RED-S BOOLEAN Red LED on the LCD-HMI is steady
YELLOW-S BOOLEAN Yellow LED on the LCD-HMI is steady
YELLOW-F BOOLEAN Yellow LED on the LCD-HMI is flashing
CLRPULSE BOOLEAN A pulse is provided when the LEDs on the LCD-
HMI are cleared
LEDSCLRD BOOLEAN Active when the LEDs on the LCD-HMI are not
active
3.6.4 Indication LEDs
3.6.4.1 Introduction
The function block LEDGEN controls and supplies information about the status of
the indication LEDs. The input and output signals of LEDGEN are configured with
PCM600. The input signal for each LED is selected individually with the Signal
Matrix Tool in PCM600.
LEDs (number 16) for trip indications are red.
LEDs (number 715) for start indications are yellow.
Each indication LED on the local HMI can be set individually to operate in six
different sequences
Two sequences operate as follow type.
Four sequences operate as latch type.
Two of the latching sequence types are intended to be used as a
protection indication system, either in collecting or restarting mode, with
reset functionality.
Two of the latching sequence types are intended to be used as signaling
system in collecting (coll) mode with an acknowledgment functionality.
The light from the LEDs can be steady (-S) or flashing (-F). See the technical
reference manual for more information.
3.6.4.2 Design
The information on the LEDs is stored at loss of the auxiliary power to the IED in
some of the modes of LEDGEN. The latest LED picture appears immediately after
the IED is successfully restarted.
Operating modes
Collecting mode
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 3
Local HMI
55
Technical reference manual
LEDs which are used in collecting mode of operation are accumulated
continuously until the unit is acknowledged manually. This mode is
suitable when the LEDs are used as a simplified alarm system.
Re-starting mode
In the re-starting mode of operation each new start resets all previous
active LEDs and activates only those which appear during one
disturbance. Only LEDs defined for re-starting mode with the latched
sequence type 6 (LatchedReset-S) will initiate a reset and a restart at a
new disturbance. A disturbance is defined to end a settable time after the
reset of the activated input signals or when the maximum time limit has
elapsed.
Acknowledgment/reset
From local HMI
Active indications can be acknowledged or reset manually. Manual
acknowledgment and manual reset have the same meaning and is a
common signal for all the operating sequences and LEDs. The function
is positive edge triggered, not level triggered. The acknowledged or reset
is performed via the reset button and menus on the local HMI. See the
operator's manual for more information.
From function input
Active indications can also be acknowledged or reset from an input,
RESET, to the function. This input can, for example, be configured to a
binary input operated from an external push button. The function is
positive edge triggered, not level triggered. This means that even if the
button is continuously pressed, the acknowledgment or reset only affects
indications active at the moment when the button is first pressed.
Automatic reset
Automatic reset can only be performed for indications defined for re-
starting mode with the latched sequence type 6 (LatchedReset-S). When
automatic reset of the LEDs has been performed, still persisting
indications will be indicated with a steady light.
Operating sequences
The operating sequences can be of type Follow or Latched.
For the Follow type the LED follows the input signal completely.
For the Latched type each LED latches to the corresponding input signal until
it is reset.
Section 3 1MRK506275-UEN C
Local HMI
56
Technical reference manual
Figure 12 show the function of available sequences that are selectable for each
LED separately.
The acknowledgment or reset function is not applicable for sequence 1 and 2
(Follow type).
Sequence 3 and 4 (Latched type with acknowledgement) are only working in
collecting mode.
Sequence 5 is working according to Latched type and collecting mode.
Sequence 6 is working according to Latched type and re-starting mode.
The letters S and F in the sequence names have the meaning S = Steady and F =
Flashing.
At the activation of the input signal, the indication operates according to the
selected sequence diagrams.
In the sequence diagrams the LEDs have the characteristics as shown in figure 12.
en05000506.vsd
= No indication = Steady light = Flash
IEC05000506 V1 EN
Figure 12: Symbols used in the sequence diagrams
Sequence 1 (Follow-S)
This sequence follows all the time, with a steady light, the corresponding input
signals. It does not react on acknowledgment or reset. Every LED is independent of
the other LEDs in its operation.
Activating
signal
LED
IEC01000228_2_en.vsd
IEC01000228 V2 EN
Figure 13: Operating sequence 1 (Follow-S)
Sequence 2 (Follow-F)
This sequence is the same as sequence 1, Follow-S, but the LEDs are flashing
instead of showing steady light.
Sequence 3 (LatchedAck-F-S)
This sequence has a latched function and works in collecting mode. Every LED is
independent of the other LEDs in its operation. At the activation of the input signal,
the indication starts flashing. After acknowledgment the indication disappears if
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 3
Local HMI
57
Technical reference manual
the signal is not present any more. If the signal is still present after
acknowledgment it gets a steady light.
Activating
signal
LED
Acknow.
en01000231.vsd
IEC01000231 V1 EN
Figure 14: Operating sequence 3 (LatchedAck-F-S)
Sequence 4 (LatchedAck-S-F)
This sequence has the same functionality as sequence 3, but steady and flashing
light have been alternated.
Sequence 5 (LatchedColl-S)
This sequence has a latched function and works in collecting mode. At the
activation of the input signal, the indication will light up with a steady light. The
difference to sequence 3 and 4 is that indications that are still activated will not be
affected by the reset that is, immediately after the positive edge of the reset has
been executed a new reading and storing of active signals is performed. Every LED
is independent of the other LEDs in its operation.
IEC01000235_2_en.vsd
Activating
signal
LED
Reset
IEC01000235 V2 EN
Figure 15: Operating sequence 5 (LatchedColl-S)
Sequence 6 (LatchedReset-S)
In this mode all activated LEDs, which are set to sequence 6 (LatchedReset-S), are
automatically reset at a new disturbance when activating any input signal for other
LEDs set to sequence 6 (LatchedReset-S). Also in this case indications that are still
activated will not be affected by manual reset, that is, immediately after the
positive edge of that the manual reset has been executed a new reading and storing
Section 3 1MRK506275-UEN C
Local HMI
58
Technical reference manual
of active signals is performed. LEDs set for sequence 6 are completely independent
in its operation of LEDs set for other sequences.
Definition of a disturbance
A disturbance is defined to last from the first LED set as LatchedReset-S is
activated until a settable time, tRestart, has elapsed after that all activating signals
for the LEDs set as LatchedReset-S have reset. However if all activating signals
have reset and some signal again becomes active before tRestart has elapsed, the
tRestart timer does not restart the timing sequence. A new disturbance start will be
issued first when all signals have reset after tRestart has elapsed. A diagram of this
functionality is shown in figure 16.
1
&
1
New
disturbance
t
tRestart
1
&
&
1
From
disturbance
length control
per LED
set to
sequence 6
en01000237.vsd
IEC01000237 V1 EN
Figure 16: Activation of new disturbance
In order not to have a lock-up of the indications in the case of a persisting signal
each LED is provided with a timer, tMax, after which time the influence on the
definition of a disturbance of that specific LED is inhibited. This functionality is
shown i diagram in figure 17.
Activating signal
t
tMax
AND
To disturbance
length control
To LED
en05000507.vsd
IEC05000507 V1 EN
Figure 17: Length control of activating signals
Timing diagram for sequence 6
Figure 18 shows the timing diagram for two indications within one disturbance.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 3
Local HMI
59
Technical reference manual
IEC01000239_2-en.vsd
Activating
signal 2
LED 2
Manual
reset
Activating
signal 1
Automatic
reset
LED 1
Disturbance
tRestart
IEC01000239 V2 EN
Figure 18: Operating sequence 6 (LatchedReset-S), two indications within
same disturbance
Figure 19 shows the timing diagram for a new indication after tRestart time has
elapsed.
IEC01000240_2_en.vsd
Activating
signal 2
LED 2
Manual
reset
Activating
signal 1
Automatic
reset
LED 1
Disturbance
tRestart
Disturbance
tRestart
IEC01000240 V2 EN
Figure 19: Operating sequence 6 (LatchedReset-S), two different disturbances
Section 3 1MRK506275-UEN C
Local HMI
60
Technical reference manual
Figure 20 shows the timing diagram when a new indication appears after the first
one has reset but before tRestart has elapsed.
IEC01000241_2_en.vsd
Activating
signal 2
LED 2
Manual
reset
Activating
signal 1
Automatic
reset
LED 1
Disturbance
tRestart
IEC01000241 V2 EN
Figure 20: Operating sequence 6 (LatchedReset-S), two indications within
same disturbance but with reset of activating signal between
Figure 21 shows the timing diagram for manual reset.
IEC01000242_2_en.vsd
Activating
signal 2
LED 2
Manual
reset
Activating
signal 1
Automatic
reset
LED 1
Disturbance
tRestart
IEC01000242 V2 EN
Figure 21: Operating sequence 6 (LatchedReset-S), manual reset
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 3
Local HMI
61
Technical reference manual
3.6.4.3 Function block
IEC05000508_2_en.vsd
LEDGEN
BLOCK
RESET
LEDTEST
NEWIND
ACK
IEC05000508 V2 EN
Figure 22: LEDGEN function block
3.6.4.4 Input and output signals
Table 10: LEDGEN Input signals
Name Type Default Description
BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Input to block the operation of the LED-unit
RESET BOOLEAN 0 Input to acknowledge/reset the indications of the
LED-unit
LEDTEST BOOLEAN 0 Input for external LED test
Table 11: LEDGEN Output signals
Name Type Description
NEWIND BOOLEAN A new signal on any of the indication inputs occurs
ACK BOOLEAN A pulse is provided when the LEDs are
acknowledged
3.6.4.5 Setting parameters
Table 12: LEDGEN Non group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
Operation Off
On
- - Off Operation mode for the LED function
tRestart 0.0 - 100.0 s 0.1 0.0 Defines the disturbance length
tMax 0.0 - 100.0 s 0.1 0.0 Maximum time for the definition of a
disturbance
SeqTypeLED1 Follow-S
Follow-F
LatchedAck-F-S
LatchedAck-S-F
LatchedColl-S
LatchedReset-S
- - Follow-S Sequence type for LED 1
SeqTypeLED2 Follow-S
Follow-F
LatchedAck-F-S
LatchedAck-S-F
LatchedColl-S
LatchedReset-S
- - Follow-S Sequence type for LED 2
Table continues on next page
Section 3 1MRK506275-UEN C
Local HMI
62
Technical reference manual
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
SeqTypeLED3 Follow-S
Follow-F
LatchedAck-F-S
LatchedAck-S-F
LatchedColl-S
LatchedReset-S
- - Follow-S Sequence type for LED 3
SeqTypeLED4 Follow-S
Follow-F
LatchedAck-F-S
LatchedAck-S-F
LatchedColl-S
LatchedReset-S
- - Follow-S Sequence type for LED 4
SeqTypeLED5 Follow-S
Follow-F
LatchedAck-F-S
LatchedAck-S-F
LatchedColl-S
LatchedReset-S
- - Follow-S Sequence type for LED 5
SeqTypeLED6 Follow-S
Follow-F
LatchedAck-F-S
LatchedAck-S-F
LatchedColl-S
LatchedReset-S
- - Follow-S Sequence type for LED 6
SeqTypeLED7 Follow-S
Follow-F
LatchedAck-F-S
LatchedAck-S-F
LatchedColl-S
LatchedReset-S
- - Follow-S Sequence type for LED 7
SeqTypeLED8 Follow-S
Follow-F
LatchedAck-F-S
LatchedAck-S-F
LatchedColl-S
LatchedReset-S
- - Follow-S sequence type for LED 8
SeqTypeLED9 Follow-S
Follow-F
LatchedAck-F-S
LatchedAck-S-F
LatchedColl-S
LatchedReset-S
- - Follow-S Sequence type for LED 9
SeqTypeLED10 Follow-S
Follow-F
LatchedAck-F-S
LatchedAck-S-F
LatchedColl-S
LatchedReset-S
- - Follow-S Sequence type for LED 10
SeqTypeLED11 Follow-S
Follow-F
LatchedAck-F-S
LatchedAck-S-F
LatchedColl-S
LatchedReset-S
- - Follow-S Sequence type for LED 11
Table continues on next page
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 3
Local HMI
63
Technical reference manual
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
SeqTypeLED12 Follow-S
Follow-F
LatchedAck-F-S
LatchedAck-S-F
LatchedColl-S
LatchedReset-S
- - Follow-S Sequence type for LED 12
SeqTypeLED13 Follow-S
Follow-F
LatchedAck-F-S
LatchedAck-S-F
LatchedColl-S
LatchedReset-S
- - Follow-S Sequence type for LED 13
SeqTypeLED14 Follow-S
Follow-F
LatchedAck-F-S
LatchedAck-S-F
LatchedColl-S
LatchedReset-S
- - Follow-S Sequence type for LED 14
SeqTypeLED15 Follow-S
Follow-F
LatchedAck-F-S
LatchedAck-S-F
LatchedColl-S
LatchedReset-S
- - Follow-S Sequence type for LED 15
Section 3 1MRK506275-UEN C
Local HMI
64
Technical reference manual
Section 4 Basic IED functions
About this chapter
This chapter presents functions that are basic to all 670 series IEDs. Typical
functions in this category are time synchronization, self supervision and test mode.
4.1 Authorization
To safeguard the interests of our customers, both the IED and the tools that are
accessing the IED are protected, subject of authorization handling. The concept of
authorization, as it is implemented in the IED and in PCM600 is based on the
following facts:
There are two types of access points to the IED:
local, through the local HMI
remote, through the communication ports
4.1.1 Principle of operation
There are different levels (or types) of users that can access or operate different
areas of the IED and tools functionality. The pre-defined user types are given in
table below.
Be sure that the user logged on to the IED has the access required
when writing particular data to the IED from PCM600.
The meaning of the legends used in the table:
R= Read
W= Write
- = No access rights
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 4
Basic IED functions
65
Technical reference manual
Table 13: Pre-defined user types
Access rights
Guest Super User SPA Guest
System
Operator
Protection
Engineer
Design
Engineer
User
Administrator
Basic setting possibilities (change
setting group, control settings,
limit supervision)
R R/W R R/W R/W R/W R
Advanced setting possibilities (for
example protection settings)
R R/W R R R/W R/W R
Basic control possibilities (process
control, no bypass)
R R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R
Advanced control possibilities
(process control including interlock
trigg)
R R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R
Basic command handling (for
example clear LEDs, manual trigg)
R R/W R R/W R/W R/W R
Advanced command handling (for
example clear disturbance record)
R R/W R R R/W R/W R/W
Basic configuration possibilities (I/
O-configuration in SMT)
R R/W R R R R/W R/W
Advanced configuration
possibilities (application
configuration including SMT, GDE
and CMT)
R R/W R R R R/W R/W
File loading (database loading
from XML-file)
- R/W - - - R/W R/W
File dumping (database dumping
to XML-file)
- R/W - - - R/W R/W
File transfer (FTP file transfer) - R/W - R/W R/W R/W R/W
File transfer (limited) (FTP file
transfer)
R R/W R R/W R/W R/W R/W
File Transfer (SPA File Transfer) - R/W - - - R/W -
Database access for normal user R R/W R R/W R/W R/W R/W
User administration (user
management FTP File Transfer)
R R/W R R R R R/W
User administration (user
management SPA File Transfer)
- R/W - - - - -
The IED users can be created, deleted and edited only with the User Management
Tool (UMT) within PCM600. The user can only LogOn or LogOff on the local
HMI on the IED, there are no users, groups or functions that can be defined on
local HMI.
Only characters A - Z, a - z and 0 - 9 should be used in user names
and passwords.
Section 4 1MRK506275-UEN C
Basic IED functions
66
Technical reference manual
At least one user must be included in the UserAdministrator group
to be able to write users, created in PCM600, to IED.
4.1.1.1 Authorization handling in the IED
At delivery the default user is the SuperUser. No Log on is required to operate the
IED until a user has been created with the User Management Tool.
Once a user is created and downloaded to the IED, that user can perform a Log on,
introducing the password assigned in the tool.
If there is no user created, an attempt to log on will display a message box: No
user defined!
If one user leaves the IED without logging off, then after the timeout (set in Main
menu/Settings/General Settings/HMI/Screen/Display Timeout) elapses, the IED
returns to Guest state, when only reading is possible. The display time out is set to
60 minutes at delivery.
If there are one or more users created with the User Management Tool and
downloaded into the IED, then, when a user intentionally attempts a Log on or
when the user attempts to perform an operation that is password protected, the Log
on window will appear.
The cursor is focused on the User identity field, so upon pressing the E key, the
user can change the user name, by browsing the list of users, with the up and
down arrows. After choosing the right user name, the user must press the E
key again. When it comes to password, upon pressing the E key, the following
character will show up: $. The user must scroll for every letter in the password.
After all the letters are introduced (passwords are case sensitive) choose OK and
press the E key again.
If everything is alright at a voluntary Log on, the local HMI returns to the
Authorization screen. If the Log on is OK, when required to change for example a
password protected setting, the local HMI returns to the actual setting folder. If the
Log on has failed, then the Log on window opens again, until either the user makes
it right or presses Cancel.
4.2 Self supervision with internal event list
4.2.1 Introduction
Self supervision with internal event list function listens and reacts to internal
system events, generated by the different built-in self-supervision elements. The
internal events are saved in an internal event list.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 4
Basic IED functions
67
Technical reference manual
4.2.2 Principle of operation
The self-supervision operates continuously and includes:
Normal micro-processor watchdog function.
Checking of digitized measuring signals.
Other alarms, for example hardware and time synchronization.
The self-supervision function status can be monitored from the local HMI, from the
Event Viewer in PCM600 or from a SMS/SCS system.
Under the Diagnostics menu in the local HMI the present information from the self-
supervision function can be reviewed. The information can be found under Main
menu/Diagnostics/Internal events or Main menu/Diagnostics/IED status/
General. The information from the self-supervision function is also available in the
Event Viewer in PCM600.
A self-supervision summary can be obtained by means of the potential free alarm
contact (INTERNAL FAIL) located on the power supply module. The function of
this output relay is an OR-function between the INT-FAIL signal see figure 24 and
a couple of more severe faults that can occur in the IED, see figure 23
IEC04000520 V1 EN
Figure 23: Hardware self-supervision, potential-free alarm contact
Section 4 1MRK506275-UEN C
Basic IED functions
68
Technical reference manual
TIMESYNCHERROR
e.g. BIM 1 Error
IO fail
IO stopped
IO started
OR
Set
Reset
OR
e.g. IOM2 Error
e.g. IO (n) Error
OR
OR
Internal
FAIL
Set
Reset
LON ERROR
Watchdog
RTE fatal error
RTE Appl-fail
RTE OK
IEC61850 not ready
RTCERROR
FTF fatal error
RTC OK
TIMESYNCHERROR
Time reset
SYNCH OK
Settings changed
NUMFAIL
Set
Reset
OR
Internal
WARN
Set
Reset
OR
NUMWARNING
OR
1 second pulse
SETCHGD
RTCERROR
en04000519-1.vsd
IEC04000519 V2 EN
Figure 24: Software self-supervision, IES (IntErrorSign) function block
Some signals are available from the INTERRSIG function block. The signals from
this function block are sent as events to the station level of the control system. The
signals from the INTERRSIG function block can also be connected to binary
outputs for signalization via output relays or they can be used as conditions for
other functions if required/desired.
Individual error signals from I/O modules can be obtained from respective module
in the Signal Matrix tool. Error signals from time synchronization can be obtained
from the time synchronization block TIME.
4.2.2.1 Internal signals
Self supervision provides several status signals, that tells about the condition of the
IED. As they provide information about the internal status of the IED, they are also
called internal signals. The internal signals can be divided into two groups.
Standard signals are always presented in the IED, see table 14.
Hardware dependent internal signals are collected depending on the hardware
configuration, see table 15.
Explanations of internal signals are listed in table 16.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 4
Basic IED functions
69
Technical reference manual
Table 14: Self-supervision's standard internal signals
Name of signal Description
FAIL Internal Fail status
WARNING Internal Warning status
NUMFAIL CPU module Fail status
NUMWARNING CPU module Warning status
RTCERROR Real Time Clock status
TIMESYNCHERROR Time Synchronization status
RTEERROR Runtime Execution Error status
IEC61850ERROR IEC 61850 Error status
WATCHDOG SW Watchdog Error status
LMDERROR LON/Mip Device Error status
APPERROR Runtime Application Error status
SETCHGD Settings changed
SETGRPCHGD Setting groups changed
FTFERROR Fault Tolerant Filesystem status
Table 15: Self-supervision's hardware dependent internal signals
Card Name of signal Description
PSM PSM-Error Power Supply Module Error status
ADOne ADOne-Error Analog In Module Error status
BIM BIM-Error Binary In Module Error status
BOM BOM-Error Binary Out Module Error status
IOM IOM-Error In/Out Module Error status
MIM MIM-Error Millampere Input Module Error status
LDCM LDCM-Error Line Differential Communication Error status
Table 16: Explanations of internal signals
Name of signal Reasons for activation
FAIL This signal will be active if one or more of the following internal
signals are active; NUMFAIL, LMDERROR, WATCHDOG,
APPERROR, RTEERROR, FTFERROR, or any of the HW
dependent signals
WARNING This signal will be active if one or more of the following internal
signals are active; RTCERROR, IEC61850ERROR,
TIMESYNCHERROR
NUMFAIL This signal will be active if one or more of the following internal
signals are active; WATCHDOG, APPERROR, RTEERROR,
FTFERROR
NUMWARNING This signal will be active if one or more of the following internal
signals are active; RTCERROR, IEC61850ERROR
RTCERROR This signal will be active when there is a hardware error with the
real time clock.
Table continues on next page
Section 4 1MRK506275-UEN C
Basic IED functions
70
Technical reference manual
Name of signal Reasons for activation
TIMESYNCHERROR This signal will be active when the source of the time
synchronization is lost, or when the time system has to make a
time reset.
RTEERROR This signal will be active if the Runtime Engine failed to do some
actions with the application threads. The actions can be loading
of settings or parameters for components, changing of setting
groups, loading or unloading of application threads.
IEC61850ERROR This signal will be active if the IEC 61850 stack did not succeed
in some actions like reading IEC 61850 configuration, startup,
for example
WATCHDOG This signal will be activated when the terminal has been under
too heavy load for at least 5 minutes. The operating systems
background task is used for the measurements.
LMDERROR LON network interface, MIP/DPS, is in an unrecoverable error
state.
APPERROR This signal will be active if one or more of the application threads
are not in the state that Runtime Engine expects. The states can
be CREATED, INITIALIZED, RUNNING, for example
SETCHGD This signal will generate an Internal Event to the Internal Event
list if any settings are changed.
SETGRPCHGD This signal will generate an Internal Event to the Internal Event
list if any setting groups are changed.
FTFERROR This signal will be active if both the working file and the backup
file are corrupted and can not be recovered.
4.2.2.2 Run-time model
The analog signals to the A/D converter is internally distributed into two different
converters, one with low amplification and one with high amplification, see figure
25.
u1
x2
x1
u1
x2
x1
Adx
Controller Adx_High
Adx_Low
ADx
en05000296-2-en.vsd
IEC05000296 V2 EN
Figure 25: Simplified drawing of A/D converter for the IED.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 4
Basic IED functions
71
Technical reference manual
The technique to split the analog input signal into two A/D converters with
different amplification makes it possible to supervise the incoming signals under
normal conditions where the signals from the two converters should be identical.
An alarm is given if the signals are out of the boundaries. Another benefit is that it
improves the dynamic performance of the A/D conversion.
The self-supervision of the A/D conversion is controlled by the ADx_Controller
function. One of the tasks for the controller is to perform a validation of the input
signals. This is done in a validation filter which has mainly two objects: First is the
validation part that checks that the A/D conversion seems to work as expected.
Secondly, the filter chooses which of the two signals that shall be sent to the CPU,
that is the signal that has the most suitable level, the ADx_LO or the 16 times
higherADx_HI.
When the signal is within measurable limits on both channels, a direct comparison
of the two channels can be performed. If the validation fails, the CPU will be
informed and an alarm will be given.
The ADx_Controller also supervise other parts of the A/D converter.
4.2.3 Function block
IEC09000787 V1 EN
Figure 26: INTERRSIG function block
4.2.4 Output signals
Table 17: INTERRSIG Output signals
Name Type Description
FAIL BOOLEAN Internal fail
WARNING BOOLEAN Internal warning
CPUFAIL BOOLEAN CPU fail
CPUWARN BOOLEAN CPU warning
4.2.5 Setting parameters
The function does not have any parameters available in the local HMI or PCM600.
Section 4 1MRK506275-UEN C
Basic IED functions
72
Technical reference manual
4.2.6 Technical data
Table 18: Self supervision with internal event list
Data Value
Recording manner Continuous, event controlled
List size 1000 events, first in-first out
4.3 Time synchronization
4.3.1 Introduction
Use the time synchronization source selector to select a common source of absolute
time for the IED when it is a part of a protection system. This makes comparison of
events and disturbance data between all IEDs in a station automation system
possible. A common source shall be used for IED and merging unit when IEC
61850-9-2LE process bus communication is used.
Micro SCADA OPC server should not be used as a time
synchronization source.
4.3.2 Principle of operation
4.3.2.1 General concepts
Time definitions
The error of a clock is the difference between the actual time of the clock, and the
time the clock is intended to have. The rate accuracy of a clock is normally called
the clock accuracy and means how much the error increases, that is how much the
clock gains or loses time. A disciplined (trained) clock knows its own faults and
tries to compensate for them.
Design of the time system (clock synchronization)
The time system is based on a software clock, which can be adjusted from external
time sources and a hardware clock. The protection and control modules will be
timed from a hardware clock, which runs independently from the software clock.
See figure 27.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 4
Basic IED functions
73
Technical reference manual
SW-time
Time-
Regulator
(fast or slow)
Time tagging and general synchronisation
Time-
Regulator
(Setting,
see
technical
reference
manual)
Comm-
unication
Events

Synchronization for differential protection
(ECHO-mode or GPS)
Diff.-
comm-
unication
*IEC 61850-9-2
Connected when GPS-time is
used for differential protection
IEC08000287-2-en.vsd
External
Synchronization
sources
Trans-
ducers*
LON
SPA
GPS
SNTP
IRIG-B
PPS
Off
Min. pulse
DNP
GPS
IRIG-B
PPS
Off
Protection
and control
functions
A/D
converter
HW-time
IEC08000287 V2 EN
Figure 27: Design of time system (clock synchronization)
All time tagging is performed by the software clock. When for example a status
signal is changed in the protection system with the function based on free running
hardware clock, the event is time tagged by the software clock when it reaches the
event recorder. Thus the hardware clock can run independently.
The echo mode for the differential protection is based on the hardware clock. Thus,
there is no need to synchronize the hardware clock and the software clock.
The synchronization of the hardware clock and the software clock is necessary only
when GPS or IRIG B 00X with optical fibre, IEEE 1344 is used for differential
protection. The two clock systems are synchronized by a special clock
synchronization unit with two modes, fast and slow. A special feature, an
automatic fast clock time regulator is used. The automatic fast mode makes the
synchronization time as short as possible during start-up or at interruptions/
disturbances in the GPS timing. The setting fast or slow is also available on the
local HMI.
If a GPS clock is used for other 670 series IEDs than line differential RED670, the
hardware and software clocks are not synchronized
Section 4 1MRK506275-UEN C
Basic IED functions
74
Technical reference manual
Fast clock synchronization mode
At startup and after interruptions in the GPS or IRIG B time signal, the clock
deviation between the GPS time and the internal differential time system can be
substantial. A new startup is also required after for example maintenance of the
auxiliary voltage system.
When the time difference is >16us, the differential function is blocked and the time
regulator for the hardware clock is automatically using a fast mode to synchronize
the clock systems. The time adjustment is made with an exponential function, i.e.
big time adjustment steps in the beginning, then smaller steps until a time deviation
between the GPS time and the differential time system of >16us has been reached.
Then the differential function is enabled and the synchronization remains in fast
mode or switches to slow mode, depending on the setting.
Slow clock synchronization mode
During normal service, a setting with slow synchronization mode is normally used,
which prevents the hardware clock to make too big time steps, >16s, emanating
from the differential protection requirement of correct timing.
Synchronization principle
From a general point of view synchronization can be seen as a hierarchical
structure. A function is synchronized from a higher level and provides
synchronization to lower levels.
Function
Synchronization from
a higher level
Optional synchronization of
modules at a lower level
IEC09000342-1-en.vsd
IEC09000342 V1 EN
Figure 28: Synchronization principle
A function is said to be synchronized when it periodically receives synchronization
messages from a higher level. As the level decreases, the accuracy of the
synchronization decreases as well. A function can have several potential sources of
synchronization, with different maximum errors, which give the function the
possibility to choose the source with the best quality, and to adjust its internal clock
after this source. The maximum error of a clock can be defined as:
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 4
Basic IED functions
75
Technical reference manual
The maximum error of the last used synchronization message
The time since the last used synchronization message
The rate accuracy of the internal clock in the function.
4.3.2.2 Real-time clock (RTC) operation
The IED has a built-in real-time clock (RTC) with a resolution of one second. The
clock has a built-in calendar that handles leap years through 2038.
Real-time clock at power off
During power off, the system time in the IED is kept by a capacitor-backed real-
time clock that will provide 35 ppm accuracy for 5 days. This means that if the
power is off, the time in the IED may drift with 3 seconds per day, during 5 days,
and after this time the time will be lost completely.
Real-time clock at startup
Time synchronization startup procedure
The first message that contains the full time (as for instance LON, SNTP and GPS)
gives an accurate time to the IED. After the initial setting of the clock, one of three
things happens with each of the coming synchronization messages configured as
fine:
If the synchronization message, which is similar to the other messages, has an
offset compared to the internal time in the IED, the message is used directly
for synchronization, that is, for adjusting the internal clock to obtain zero
offset at the next coming time message.
If the synchronization message has an offset that is large compared to the other
messages, a spike-filter in the IED removes this time-message.
If the synchronization message has an offset that is large, and the following
message also has a large offset, the spike filter does not act and the offset in
the synchronization message is compared to a threshold that defaults to 100
milliseconds. If the offset is more than the threshold, the IED is brought into a
safe state and the clock is set to the correct time. If the offset is lower than the
threshold, the clock is adjusted with 1000 ppm until the offset is removed.
With an adjustment of 1000 ppm, it takes 100 seconds or 1.7 minutes to
remove an offset of 100 milliseconds.
Synchronization messages configured as coarse are only used for initial setting of
the time. After this has been done, the messages are checked against the internal
time and only an offset of more than 10 seconds resets the time.
Rate accuracy
In the IED, the rate accuracy at cold start is 100 ppm but if the IED is synchronized
for a while, the rate accuracy is approximately 1 ppm if the surrounding
temperature is constant. Normally, it takes 20 minutes to reach full accuracy.
Section 4 1MRK506275-UEN C
Basic IED functions
76
Technical reference manual
Time-out on synchronization sources
All synchronization interfaces has a time-out and a configured interface must
receive time-messages regularly in order not to give an error signal (TSYNCERR).
Normally, the time-out is set so that one message can be lost without getting a
TSYNCERR, but if more than one message is lost, a TSYNCERR is given.
4.3.2.3 Synchronization alternatives
Three main alternatives of external time synchronization are available. Either the
synchronization message is applied via any of the communication ports of the IED
as a telegram message including date and time or as a minute pulse, connected to a
binary input, or via GPS. The minute pulse is used to fine tune already existing
time in the IEDs.
Synchronization via SNTP
SNTP provides a ping-pong method of synchronization. A message is sent from an
IED to an SNTP server, and the SNTP server returns the message after filling in a
reception time and a transmission time. SNTP operates via the normal Ethernet
network that connects IEDs together in an IEC 61850 network. For SNTP to
operate properly, there must be an SNTP-server present, preferably in the same
station. The SNTP synchronization provides an accuracy that gives 1 ms accuracy
for binary inputs. The IED itself can be set as an SNTP-time server.
SNTP server requirements
The SNTP server to be used is connected to the local network, that is not more than
4-5 switches or routers away from the IED. The SNTP server is dedicated for its
task, or at least equipped with a real-time operating system, that is not a PC with
SNTP server software. The SNTP server should be stable, that is, either
synchronized from a stable source like GPS, or local without synchronization.
Using a local SNTP server without synchronization as primary or secondary server
in a redundant configuration is not recommended.
Synchronization via Serial Communication Module (SLM)
On the serial buses (both LON and SPA) two types of synchronization messages
are sent.
Coarse message is sent every minute and comprises complete date and time,
that is, year, month, day, hours, minutes, seconds and milliseconds.
Fine message is sent every second and comprises only seconds and milliseconds.
IEC60870-5-103 is not used to synchronize the IED, but instead the offset between
the local time in the IED and the time received from 103 is added to all times (in
events and so on) sent via 103. In this way the IED acts as it is synchronized from
various 103 sessions at the same time. Actually, there is a local time for each 103
session.
The SLM module is located on the AD conversion Module (ADM).
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 4
Basic IED functions
77
Technical reference manual
Synchronization via Built-in-GPS
The built in GPS clock modules receives and decodes time information from the
global positioning system. The modules are located on the GPS time
synchronization Module (GSM).
Synchronization via binary input
The IED accepts minute pulses to a binary input. These minute pulses can be
generated from, for example station master clock. If the station master clock is not
synchronized from a world wide source, time will be a relative time valid for the
substation. Both positive and negative edge on the signal can be accepted. This
signal is also considered as a fine time synchronization signal.
The minute pulse is connected to any channel on any Binary Input Module in the
IED. The electrical characteristic is thereby the same as for any other binary input.
If the objective of synchronization is to achieve a relative time within the
substation and if no station master clock with minute pulse output is available, a
simple minute pulse generator can be designed and used for synchronization of the
IEDs. The minute pulse generator can be created using the logical elements and
timers available in the IED.
The definition of a minute pulse is that it occurs one minute after the last pulse. As
only the flanks are detected, the flank of the minute pulse shall occur one minute
after the last flank.
Binary minute pulses are checked with reference to frequency.
Pulse data:
Period time (a) should be 60 seconds.
Pulse length (b):
Minimum pulse length should be >50 ms.
Maximum pulse length is optional.
Amplitude (c) - please refer to section "Binary input module (BIM)".
Deviations in the period time larger than 50 ms will cause TSYNCERR.
Section 4 1MRK506275-UEN C
Basic IED functions
78
Technical reference manual
a
b
c
en05000251.vsd
IEC05000251 V1 EN
Figure 29: Binary minute pulses
The default time-out-time for a minute pulse is two minutes, and if no valid minute
pulse is received within two minutes a SYNCERR will be given.
If contact bounces occurs, only the first pulse will be detected as a minute pulse.
The next minute pulse will be registered first 60 s - 50 ms after the last contact bounce.
If the minute pulses are perfect, for example, it is exactly 60 seconds between the
pulses, contact bounces might occur 49 ms after the actual minute pulse without
effecting the system. If contact bounces occurs more than 50 ms, for example, it is
less than 59950 ms between the two most adjacent positive (or negative) flanks, the
minute pulse will not be accepted.
Binary synchronization example
An IED is configured to use only binary input, and a valid binary input is applied
to a binary input card. The HMI is used to tell the IED the approximate time and
the minute pulse is used to synchronize the IED thereafter. The definition of a
minute pulse is that it occurs one minute after the previous minute pulse, so the
first minute pulse is not used at all. The second minute pulse will probably be
rejected due to the spike filter. The third pulse will give the IED a good time and
will reset the time so that the fourth minute pulse will occur on a minute border.
After the first three minutes, the time in the IED will be good if the coarse time is
set properly via the HMI or the RTC backup still keeps the time since last up-time.
If the minute pulse is removed for instance for an hour, the internal time will drift
by maximum the error rate in the internal clock. If the minute pulse is returned, the
first pulse automatically is rejected. The second pulse will possibly be rejected due
to the spike filter. The third pulse will either synchronize the time, if the time offset
is more than 100 ms, or adjust the time, if the time offset is small enough. If the
time is set, the application will be brought to a safe state before the time is set. If
the time is adjusted, the time will reach its destination within 1.7 minutes.
Synchronization via IRIG-B
The DNP3 communication can be the source for the course time synchronization,
while the fine time synchronization needs a source with higher accuracy.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 4
Basic IED functions
79
Technical reference manual
IRIG-B is a protocol used only for time synchronization. A clock can provide local
time of the year in this format. The B in IRIG-B states that 100 bits per second
are transmitted, and the message is sent every second. After IRIG-B there numbers
stating if and how the signal is modulated and the information transmitted.
To receive IRIG-B there are two connectors in the IRIG-B module, one galvanic
BNC connector and one optical ST connector. IRIG-B 12x messages can be
supplied via the galvanic interface, and IRIG-B 00x messages can be supplied via
either the galvanic interface or the optical interface, where x (in 00x or 12x) means
a number in the range of 1-7.
00 means that a base band is used, and the information can be fed into the IRIG-
B module via the BNC contact or an optical fiber. 12 means that a 1 kHz
modulation is used. In this case the information must go into the module via the
BNC connector.
If the x in 00x or 12x is 4, 5, 6 or 7, the time message from IRIG-B contains
information of the year. If x is 0, 1, 2 or 3, the information contains only the time
within the year, and year information has to come from PCM600 or local HMI.
The IRIG-B module also takes care of IEEE1344 messages that are sent by IRIG-B
clocks, as IRIG-B previously did not have any year information. IEEE1344 is
compatible with IRIG-B and contains year information and information of the time-
zone.
It is recommended to use IEEE 1344 for supplying time information to the IRIG-B
module. In this case, send also the local time in the messages, as this local time
plus the TZ Offset supplied in the message equals UTC at all times.
4.3.2.4 Process bus IEC 61850-9-2LE synchronization
For the time synchronization of the process bus communication (IEC 61850-9-2LE
protocol) an optical PPS or IRIG-B signal can be used. This signal should emanate
from either an external GPS clock, or from the merging unit.
An optical PPS signal can be supplied to the optical interface of the IRIG-B module.
4.3.3 Function block
IEC05000425-2-en.vsd
TIMEERR
TSYNCERR
RTCERR
IEC05000425 V2 EN
Figure 30: TIMEERR function block
Section 4 1MRK506275-UEN C
Basic IED functions
80
Technical reference manual
4.3.4 Output signals
Table 19: TIMEERR Output signals
Name Type Description
TSYNCERR BOOLEAN Time synchronization error
RTCERR BOOLEAN Real time clock error
4.3.5 Setting parameters
Path in the local HMI is located under Main menu/Setting/Time
Path in PCM600 is located under Main menu/Settings/Time/Synchronization
Table 20: TIMESYNCHGEN Non group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
CoarseSyncSrc Off
SPA
LON
SNTP
DNP
- - Off Coarse time synchronization source
FineSyncSource Off
SPA
LON
BIN
GPS
GPS+SPA
GPS+LON
GPS+BIN
SNTP
GPS+SNTP
IRIG-B
GPS+IRIG-B
PPS
- - Off Fine time synchronization source
SyncMaster Off
SNTP-Server
- - Off Activate IEDas synchronization master
TimeAdjustRate Slow
Fast
- - Slow Adjust rate for time synchronization
Table 21: SYNCHBIN Non group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
ModulePosition 3 - 16 - 1 3 Hardware position of IO module for time
synchronization
BinaryInput 1 - 16 - 1 1 Binary input number for time
synchronization
BinDetection PositiveEdge
NegativeEdge
- - PositiveEdge Positive or negative edge detection
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 4
Basic IED functions
81
Technical reference manual
Table 22: SYNCHSNTP Non group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
ServerIP-Add 0 - 18 IP
Address
1 0.0.0.0 Server IP-address
RedServIP-Add 0 - 18 IP
Address
1 0.0.0.0 Redundant server IP-address
Table 23: DSTBEGIN Non group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
MonthInYear January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
- - March Month in year when daylight time starts
DayInWeek Sunday
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
Saturday
- - Sunday Day in week when daylight time starts
WeekInMonth Last
First
Second
Third
Fourth
- - Last Week in month when daylight time starts
UTCTimeOfDay 0 - 86400 s 1 3600 UTC Time of day in seconds when
daylight time starts
Section 4 1MRK506275-UEN C
Basic IED functions
82
Technical reference manual
Table 24: DSTEND Non group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
MonthInYear January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
- - October Month in year when daylight time ends
DayInWeek Sunday
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
Saturday
- - Sunday Day in week when daylight time ends
WeekInMonth Last
First
Second
Third
Fourth
- - Last Week in month when daylight time ends
UTCTimeOfDay 0 - 86400 s 1 3600 UTC Time of day in seconds when
daylight time ends
Table 25: TIMEZONE Non group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
NoHalfHourUTC -24 - 24 - 1 0 Number of half-hours from UTC
Table 26: SYNCHIRIG-B Non group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
SynchType BNC
Opto
- - Opto Type of synchronization
TimeDomain LocalTime
UTC
- - LocalTime Time domain
Encoding IRIG-B
1344
1344TZ
- - IRIG-B Type of encoding
TimeZoneAs1344 MinusTZ
PlusTZ
- - PlusTZ Time zone as in 1344 standard
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 4
Basic IED functions
83
Technical reference manual
4.3.6 Technical data
Table 27: Time synchronization, time tagging
Function Value
Time tagging resolution, events and sampled measurement values 1 ms
Time tagging error with synchronization once/min (minute pulse
synchronization), events and sampled measurement values
1.0 ms typically
Time tagging error with SNTP synchronization, sampled
measurement values
1.0 ms typically
4.4 Parameter setting groups
4.4.1 Introduction
Use the six sets of settings to optimize IED operation for different system
conditions. By creating and switching between fine tuned setting sets, either from
the local HMI or configurable binary inputs, results in a highly adaptable IED that
can cope with a variety of system scenarios.
4.4.2 Principle of operation
Parameter setting groups ActiveGroup function has six functional inputs, each
corresponding to one of the setting groups stored in the IED. Activation of any of
these inputs changes the active setting group. Seven functional output signals are
available for configuration purposes, so that up to date information on the active
setting group is always available.
A setting group is selected by using the local HMI, from a front connected personal
computer, remotely from the station control or station monitoring system or by
activating the corresponding input to the ActiveGroup function block.
Each input of the function block can be configured to connect to any of the binary
inputs in the IED. To do this PCM600 must be used.
The external control signals are used for activating a suitable setting group when
adaptive functionality is necessary. Input signals that should activate setting groups
must be either permanent or a pulse exceeding 400 ms.
More than one input may be activated at the same time. In such cases the lower
order setting group has priority. This means that if for example both group four and
group two are set to activate, group two will be the one activated.
Every time the active group is changed, the output signal SETCHGD is sending a
pulse.
The parameter MAXSETGR defines the maximum number of setting groups in use
to switch between.
Section 4 1MRK506275-UEN C
Basic IED functions
84
Technical reference manual
en05000119.vsd
IOx-Bly1
IOx-Bly2
IOx-Bly3
IOx-Bly4
+RL2

ACTIVATE GROUP 4
ACTIVATE GROUP 3
ACTIVATE GROUP 2
ACTIVATE GROUP 1
ACTGRP1
ACTGRP2
ACTGRP3
ACTGRP4
GRP1
GRP2
GRP3
GRP4
ActiveGroup
ACTGRP5
ACTGRP6
GRP5
GRP6
IOx-Bly5
IOx-Bly6

ACTIVATE GROUP 5
ACTIVATE GROUP 6
SETCHGD
IEC05000119 V2 EN
Figure 31: Connection of the function to external circuits
The above example also includes seven output signals, for confirmation of which
group that is active.
SETGRPS function block has an input where the number of setting groups used is
defined. Switching can only be done within that number of groups. The number of
setting groups selected to be used will be filtered so only the setting groups used
will be shown on the Parameter Setting Tool.
4.4.3 Function block
IEC05000433_2_en.vsd
ActiveGroup
ACTGRP1
ACTGRP2
ACTGRP3
ACTGRP4
ACTGRP5
ACTGRP6
GRP1
GRP2
GRP3
GRP4
GRP5
GRP6
SETCHGD
IEC05000433 V2 EN
Figure 32: ActiveGroup function block
IEC05000716_2_en.vsd
SETGRPS
MAXSETGR
IEC05000716 V2 EN
Figure 33: SETGRPS function block
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 4
Basic IED functions
85
Technical reference manual
4.4.4 Input and output signals
Table 28: ActiveGroup Input signals
Name Type Default Description
ACTGRP1 BOOLEAN 0 Selects setting group 1 as active
ACTGRP2 BOOLEAN 0 Selects setting group 2 as active
ACTGRP3 BOOLEAN 0 Selects setting group 3 as active
ACTGRP4 BOOLEAN 0 Selects setting group 4 as active
ACTGRP5 BOOLEAN 0 Selects setting group 5 as active
ACTGRP6 BOOLEAN 0 Selects setting group 6 as active
Table 29: ActiveGroup Output signals
Name Type Description
GRP1 BOOLEAN Setting group 1 is active
GRP2 BOOLEAN Setting group 2 is active
GRP3 BOOLEAN Setting group 3 is active
GRP4 BOOLEAN Setting group 4 is active
GRP5 BOOLEAN Setting group 5 is active
GRP6 BOOLEAN Setting group 6 is active
SETCHGD BOOLEAN Pulse when setting changed
4.4.5 Setting parameters
Table 30: ActiveGroup Non group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
t 0.0 - 10.0 s 0.1 1.0 Pulse length of pulse when setting
changed
Table 31: SETGRPS Non group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
ActiveSetGrp SettingGroup1
SettingGroup2
SettingGroup3
SettingGroup4
SettingGroup5
SettingGroup6
- - SettingGroup1 ActiveSettingGroup
MAXSETGR 1 - 6 No 1 1 Max number of setting groups 1-6
4.5 ChangeLock function CHNGLCK
Section 4 1MRK506275-UEN C
Basic IED functions
86
Technical reference manual
4.5.1 Introduction
Change lock function (CHNGLCK) is used to block further changes to the IED
configuration and settings once the commissioning is complete. The purpose is to
block inadvertent IED configuration changes beyond a certain point in time.
4.5.2 Principle of operation
The Change lock function (CHNGLCK) is configured using ACT.
The function, when activated, will still allow the following changes of the IED
state that does not involve reconfiguring of the IED:
Monitoring
Reading events
Resetting events
Reading disturbance data
Clear disturbances
Reset LEDs
Reset counters and other runtime component states
Control operations
Set system time
Enter and exit from test mode
Change of active setting group
The binary input signal LOCK controlling the function is defined in ACT or SMT:
Binary input Function
1 Activated
0 Deactivated
4.5.3 Function block
IEC09000946-1-en.vsd
CHNGLCK
LOCK
IEC09000946 V1 EN
Figure 34: CHNGLCK function block
4.5.4 Input and output signals
Table 32: CHNGLCK Input signals
Name Type Default Description
LOCK BOOLEAN 0 Parameter change lock
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 4
Basic IED functions
87
Technical reference manual
4.5.5 Setting parameters
Table 33: CHNGLCK Non group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
Operation LockHMI and Com
LockHMI,
EnableCom
EnableHMI,
LockCom
- - LockHMI and Com Operation mode of change lock
4.6 Test mode functionality TEST
4.6.1 Introduction
When the Test mode functionality TESTMODE function is activated, protection
functions in the IED are automatically blocked. It is then possible to unblock the
protection functions individually from the local HMI or the Parameter Setting tool
to perform required tests.
When leaving TESTMODE, all blockings are removed and the IED resumes
normal operation. However, if during TESTMODE operation, power is removed
and later restored, the IED will remain in TESTMODE with the same protection
functions blocked or unblocked as before the power was removed. All testing will
be done with actually set and configured values within the IED. No settings will be
changed, thus mistakes are avoided.
4.6.2 Principle of operation
Put the IED into test mode to test functions in the IED. Set the IED in test mode by
configuration, activating the input signal of the function block TESTMODE.
setting TestMode to On in the local HMI, under Main menu/TEST/IED test
mode.
While the IED is in test mode, the ACTIVE output of the function block
TESTMODE is activated. The other outputs of the function block TESTMODE
shows the generator of the Test mode: On state input from configuration
(OUTPUT output is activated) or setting from local HMI (SETTING output is
activated).
While the IED is in test mode, the yellow START LED will flash and all functions
are blocked. Any function can be unblocked individually regarding functionality
and event signalling.
Most of the functions in the IED can individually be blocked by means of settings
from the local HMI. To enable these blockings the IED must be set in test mode
(output ACTIVE is activated), see example in figure 35. When leaving the test
Section 4 1MRK506275-UEN C
Basic IED functions
88
Technical reference manual
mode, that is entering normal mode, these blockings are disabled and everything is
set to normal operation. All testing will be done with actually set and configured
values within the IED. No settings will be changed, thus no mistakes are possible.
The blocked functions will still be blocked next time entering the test mode, if the
blockings were not reset.
The blocking of a function concerns all output signals from the actual function, so
no outputs will be activated.
When a binary input is used to set the IED in test mode and a
parameter, that requires restart of the application, is changed, the
IED will re-enter test mode and all functions will be blocked, also
functions that were unblocked before the change. During the re-
entering to test mode, all functions will be temporarily unblocked
for a short time, which might lead to unwanted operations. This is
only valid if the IED is put in TEST mode by a binary input, not by
local HMI.
The TESTMODE function block might be used to automatically block functions
when a test handle is inserted in a test switch. A contact in the test switch (RTXP24
contact 29-30) can supply a binary input which in turn is configured to the
TESTMODE function block.
Each of the protection functions includes the blocking from the TESTMODE
function block. A typical example from the undervoltage function is shown in
figure 35.
The functions can also be blocked from sending events over IEC 61850 station bus
to prevent filling station and SCADA databases with test events, for example
during a maintenance test.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 4
Basic IED functions
89
Technical reference manual
Time
U
Normal voltage
U1<
U2<
IntBlkStVal1
IntBlkStVal2
Disconnection
tBlkUV1 <
t1,t1Min
tBlkUV2 <
t2,t2Min
Block step 1
Block step 2
en05000466.vsd
IEC05000466 V1 EN
Figure 35: Example of blocking the time delayed undervoltage protection
function.
4.6.3 Function block
TESTMODE
INPUT ACTIVE
OUTPUT
SETTING
NOEVENT
IEC09000219-1.vsd
IEC09000219 V1 EN
Figure 36: TESTMODE function block
4.6.4 Input and output signals
Table 34: TESTMODE Input signals
Name Type Default Description
INPUT BOOLEAN 0 Sets terminal in test mode when active
Section 4 1MRK506275-UEN C
Basic IED functions
90
Technical reference manual
Table 35: TESTMODE Output signals
Name Type Description
ACTIVE BOOLEAN Terminal in test mode when active
OUTPUT BOOLEAN Test input is active
SETTING BOOLEAN Test mode setting is (On) or not (Off)
NOEVENT BOOLEAN Event disabled during testmode
4.6.5 Setting parameters
Table 36: TESTMODE Non group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
TestMode Off
On
- - Off Test mode in operation (On) or not (Off)
EventDisable Off
On
- - Off Event disable during testmode
CmdTestBit Off
On
- - Off Command bit for test required or not
during testmode
4.7 IED identifiers
4.7.1 Introduction
IED identifiers (TERMINALID) function allows the user to identify the individual
IED in the system, not only in the substation, but in a whole region or a country.
Use only characters A-Z, a-z and 0-9 in station, object and unit names.
4.7.2 Setting parameters
Table 37: TERMINALID Non group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
StationName 0 - 18 - 1 Station name Station name
StationNumber 0 - 99999 - 1 0 Station number
ObjectName 0 - 18 - 1 Object name Object name
ObjectNumber 0 - 99999 - 1 0 Object number
UnitName 0 - 18 - 1 Unit name Unit name
UnitNumber 0 - 99999 - 1 0 Unit number
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 4
Basic IED functions
91
Technical reference manual
4.8 Product information
4.8.1 Introduction
The Product identifiers function identifies the IED. The function has seven pre-set,
settings that are unchangeable but nevertheless very important:
IEDProdType
ProductDef
FirmwareVer
SerialNo
OrderingNo
ProductionDate
The settings are visible on the local HMI , under Main menu/Diagnostics/IED
status/Product identifiers
They are very helpful in case of support process (such as repair or maintenance).
4.8.2 Setting parameters
The function does not have any parameters available in the local HMI or PCM600.
4.8.3 Application
4.8.3.1 Factory defined settings
The factory defined settings are very useful for identifying a specific version and
very helpful in the case of maintenance, repair, interchanging IEDs between
different Substation Automation Systems and upgrading. The factory made settings
can not be changed by the customer. They can only be viewed. The settings are
found in the local HMI under Main menu/Diagnostics/IED status/Product
identifiers
The following identifiers are available:
IEDProdType
Describes the type of the IED (like REL, REC or RET). Example: REL670
ProductDef
Describes the release number, from the production. Example: 1.1.r01
FirmwareVer
Describes the firmware version. Example: 1.4.51
Firmware versions numbers are running independently from the
release production numbers. For every release numbers (like 1.4.51)
Section 4 1MRK506275-UEN C
Basic IED functions
92
Technical reference manual
there can be one or more firmware versions, depending on the small
issues corrected in between releases.
IEDMainFunType
Main function type code according to IEC 60870-5-103. Example: 128
(meaning line protection).
SerialNo
OrderingNo
ProductionDate
4.9 Signal matrix for binary inputs SMBI
4.9.1 Introduction
The Signal matrix for binary inputs (SMBI) function is used within the Application
Configuration Tool (ACT) in direct relation with the Signal Matrix Tool (SMT),
see the application manual to get information about how binary inputs are brought
in for one IED configuration.
4.9.2 Principle of operation
The Signal matrix for binary inputs (SMBI) function , see figure 37, receives its
inputs from the real (hardware) binary inputs via the Signal Matrix Tool (SMT),
and makes them available to the rest of the configuration via its outputs, BI1 to
BI10. The inputs and outputs, as well as the whole block, can be given a user
defined name. These names will be represented in SMT as information which
signals shall be connected between physical IO and SMBI function. The input/
output user defined name will also appear on the respective output/input signal.
4.9.3 Function block
IEC05000434-2-en.vsd
SMBI
^VIN1
^VIN2
^VIN3
^VIN4
^VIN5
^VIN6
^VIN7
^VIN8
^VIN9
^VIN10
^BI1
^BI2
^BI3
^BI4
^BI5
^BI6
^BI7
^BI8
^BI9
^BI10
IEC05000434 V2 EN
Figure 37: SMBI function block
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 4
Basic IED functions
93
Technical reference manual
4.9.4 Input and output signals
Table 38: SMBI Input signals
Name Type Default Description
VIn1 BOOLEAN 0 SMT Connect input
VIn2 BOOLEAN 0 SMT Connect input
VIn3 BOOLEAN 0 SMT Connect input
VIn4 BOOLEAN 0 SMT Connect input
VIn5 BOOLEAN 0 SMT Connect input
VIn6 BOOLEAN 0 SMT Connect input
VIn7 BOOLEAN 0 SMT Connect input
VIn8 BOOLEAN 0 SMT Connect input
VIn9 BOOLEAN 0 SMT Connect input
VIn10 BOOLEAN 0 SMT Connect input
Table 39: SMBI Output signals
Name Type Description
BI1 BOOLEAN Binary input 1
BI2 BOOLEAN Binary input 2
BI3 BOOLEAN Binary input 3
BI4 BOOLEAN Binary input 4
BI5 BOOLEAN Binary input 5
BI6 BOOLEAN Binary input 6
BI7 BOOLEAN Binary input 7
BI8 BOOLEAN Binary input 8
BI9 BOOLEAN Binary input 9
BI10 BOOLEAN Binary input 10
4.10 Signal matrix for binary outputs SMBO
4.10.1 Introduction
The Signal matrix for binary outputs (SMBO) function is used within the
Application Configuration Tool (ACT) in direct relation with the Signal Matrix
Tool (SMT), see the application manual to get information about how binary inputs
are sent from one IED configuration.
Section 4 1MRK506275-UEN C
Basic IED functions
94
Technical reference manual
4.10.2 Principle of operation
The Signal matrix for binary outputs (SMBO) function , see figure 38, receives
logical signal from the IED configuration, which is transferring to the real
(hardware) outputs, via the Signal Matrix Tool (SMT). The inputs in SMBO are
BO1 to BO10 and they, as well as the whole function block, can be tag-named. The
name tags will appear in SMT as information which signals shall be connected
between physical IO and the SMBO.
4.10.3 Function block
IEC05000439-2-en.vsd
SMBO
BO1
BO2
BO3
BO4
BO5
BO6
BO7
BO8
BO9
BO10
^BO1
^BO2
^BO3
^BO4
^BO5
^BO6
^BO7
^BO8
^BO9
^BO10
IEC05000439 V2 EN
Figure 38: SMBO function block
4.10.4 Input and output signals
Table 40: SMBO Input signals
Name Type Default Description
BO1 BOOLEAN 1 Signal name for BO1 in Signal Matrix Tool
BO2 BOOLEAN 1 Signal name for BO2 in Signal Matrix Tool
BO3 BOOLEAN 1 Signal name for BO3 in Signal Matrix Tool
BO4 BOOLEAN 1 Signal name for BO4 in Signal Matrix Tool
BO5 BOOLEAN 1 Signal name for BO5 in Signal Matrix Tool
BO6 BOOLEAN 1 Signal name for BO6 in Signal Matrix Tool
BO7 BOOLEAN 1 Signal name for BO7 in Signal Matrix Tool
BO8 BOOLEAN 1 Signal name for BO8 in Signal Matrix Tool
BO9 BOOLEAN 1 Signal name for BO9 in Signal Matrix Tool
BO10 BOOLEAN 1 Signal name for BO10 in Signal Matrix Tool
4.11 Signal matrix for mA inputs SMMI
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 4
Basic IED functions
95
Technical reference manual
4.11.1 Introduction
The Signal matrix for mA inputs (SMMI) function is used within the Application
Configuration Tool (ACT) in direct relation with the Signal Matrix Tool (SMT),
see the application manual to get information about how milliamp (mA) inputs are
brought in for one IED configuration.
4.11.2 Principle of operation
The Signal matrix for mA inputs (SMMI) function, see figure 39, receives its
inputs from the real (hardware) mA inputs via the Signal Matrix Tool (SMT), and
makes them available to the rest of the configuration via its analog outputs, named
AI1 to AI6. The inputs, as well as the whole block, can be tag-named. These tags
will be represented in SMT.
The outputs on SMMI are normally connected to the IEC61850 generic
communication I/O functions (MVGGIO) function for further use of the mA signals.
4.11.3 Function block
IEC05000440-2-en.vsd
SMMI
^VIN1
^VIN2
^VIN3
^VIN4
^VIN5
^VIN6
AI1
AI2
AI3
AI4
AI5
AI6
IEC05000440 V2 EN
Figure 39: SMMI function block
4.11.4 Input and output signals
Table 41: SMMI Input signals
Name Type Default Description
VIn1 REAL 0 SMT connected milliampere input
VIn2 REAL 0 SMT connected milliampere input
VIn3 REAL 0 SMT connected milliampere input
VIn4 REAL 0 SMT connected milliampere input
VIn5 REAL 0 SMT connected milliampere input
VIn6 REAL 0 SMT connected milliampere input
Section 4 1MRK506275-UEN C
Basic IED functions
96
Technical reference manual
Table 42: SMMI Output signals
Name Type Description
AI1 REAL Analog milliampere input 1
AI2 REAL Analog milliampere input 2
AI3 REAL Analog milliampere input 3
AI4 REAL Analog milliampere input 4
AI5 REAL Analog milliampere input 5
AI6 REAL Analog milliampere input 6
4.12 Signal matrix for analog inputs SMAI
4.12.1 Introduction
Signal matrix for analog inputs function SMAI (or the pre-processing function) is
used within PCM600 in direct relation with the Signal Matrix tool or the
Application Configuration tool. Signal Matrix tool represents the way analog
inputs are brought in for one IED configuration.
4.12.2 Principle of operation
Every Signal matrix for analog inputs function (SMAI) can receive four analog
signals (three phases and one neutral value), either voltage or current, see figure 41
and figure 42. SMAI outputs give information about every aspect of the 3ph analog
signals acquired (phase angle, RMS value, frequency and frequency derivates etc.
244 values in total). The BLOCK input will reset all outputs to 0.
The output signal AI1 to AI4 are direct output of the, in SMT, connected input to
GRPxL1, GRPxL2, GRPxL3 and GRPxN, x=1-12. AIN is always the neutral
current, calculated residual sum or the signal connected to GRPxN. Note that
function block will always calculate the residual sum of current/voltage if the input
is not connected in SMT. Applications with a few exceptions shall always be
connected to AI3P.
4.12.3 Frequency values
The frequency functions includes a functionality based on level of positive
sequence voltage, IntBlockLevel, to validate if the frequency measurement is valid
or not. If positive sequence voltage is lower than IntBlockLevel the function is
blocked. IntBlockLevel, is set in % of UBase/3
If SMAI setting ConnectionType is Ph-Ph at least two of the inputs GRPxL1,
GRPxL2 and GRPxL3 must be connected in order to calculate positive sequence
voltage. If SMAI setting ConnectionType is Ph-N, all three inputs GRPxL1,
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 4
Basic IED functions
97
Technical reference manual
GRPxL2 and GRPxL3 must be connected in order to calculate positive sequence
voltage.
If only one phase-phase voltage is available and SMAI setting ConnectionType is
Ph-Ph the user is advised to connect two (not three) of the inputs GRPxL1,
GRPxL2 and GRPxL3 to the same voltage input as shown in figure 40 to make
SMAI calculating a positive sequence voltage (that is input voltage/3).
IEC10000060-1-en.vsd
IEC10000060 V1 EN
Figure 40: Connection example
The above described scenario does not work if SMAI setting
ConnectionType is Ph-N. If only one phase-earth voltage is
available, the same type of connection can be used but the SMAI
ConnectionType setting must still be Ph-Ph and this has to be
accounted for when setting IntBlockLevel. If SMAI setting
ConnectionType is Ph-N and the same voltage is connected to all
three SMAI inputs, the positive sequence voltage will be zero and
the frequency functions will not work properly.
The outputs from the above configured SMAI block shall only be
used for Overfrequency protection (SAPTOF), Underfrequency
protection (SAPTUF) and Rate-of-change frequency protection
(SAPFRC) due to that all other information except frequency and
positive sequence voltage might be wrongly calculated.
4.12.4 Function block
IEC05000705-2-en.vsd
SMAI1
BLOCK
DFTSPFC
^GRP1L1
^GRP1L2
^GRP1L3
^GRP1N
TYPE
SPFCOUT
AI3P
AI1
AI2
AI3
AI4
AIN
IEC05000705 V2 EN
Figure 41: SMAI1 function block
Section 4 1MRK506275-UEN C
Basic IED functions
98
Technical reference manual
IEC07000130-2-en.vsd
SMAI2
BLOCK
^GRP2L1
^GRP2L2
^GRP2L3
^GRP2N
TYPE
AI3P
AI1
AI2
AI3
AI4
AIN
IEC07000130 V2 EN
Figure 42: SMAI2 function block
4.12.5 Input and output signals
Table 43: SMAI1 Input signals
Name Type Default Description
BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block group 1
DFTSPFC REAL 20.0 Number of samples per fundamental cycle used
for DFT calculation
GRP1L1 STRING - Sample input to be used for group 1 phase L1
calculations
GRP1L2 STRING - Sample input to be used for group 1 phase L2
calculations
GRP1L3 STRING - Sample input to be used for group 1 phase L3
calculations
GRP1N STRING - Sample input to be used for group 1 residual
calculations
Table 44: SMAI1 Output signals
Name Type Description
SPFCOUT REAL Number of samples per fundamental cycle from
internal DFT reference function
AI3P GROUP SIGNAL Group 1 analog input 3-phase group
AI1 GROUP SIGNAL Group 1 analog input 1
AI2 GROUP SIGNAL Group 1 analog input 2
AI3 GROUP SIGNAL Group 1 analog input 3
AI4 GROUP SIGNAL Group 1 analog input 4
AIN GROUP SIGNAL Group 1 analog input residual for disturbance
recorder
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 4
Basic IED functions
99
Technical reference manual
Table 45: SMAI2 Input signals
Name Type Default Description
BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block group 2
GRP2L1 STRING - Sample input to be used for group 2 phase L1
calculations
GRP2L2 STRING - Sample input to be used for group 2 phase L2
calculations
GRP2L3 STRING - Sample input to be used for group 2 phase L3
calculations
GRP2N STRING - Sample input to be used for group 2 residual
calculations
Table 46: SMAI2 Output signals
Name Type Description
AI3P GROUP SIGNAL Group 2 analog input 3-phase group
AI1 GROUP SIGNAL Group 2 analog input 1
AI2 GROUP SIGNAL Group 2 analog input 2
AI3 GROUP SIGNAL Group 2 analog input 3
AI4 GROUP SIGNAL Group 2 analog input 4
AIN GROUP SIGNAL Group 2 analog input residual for disturbance
recorder
4.12.6 Setting parameters
Settings DFTRefExtOut and DFTReference shall be set to default
value InternalDFTRef if no VT inputs are available. Internal
nominal frequency DFT reference is then the reference.
Section 4 1MRK506275-UEN C
Basic IED functions
100
Technical reference manual
Table 47: SMAI1 Non group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
DFTRefExtOut InternalDFTRef
AdDFTRefCh1
AdDFTRefCh2
AdDFTRefCh3
AdDFTRefCh4
AdDFTRefCh5
AdDFTRefCh6
AdDFTRefCh7
AdDFTRefCh8
AdDFTRefCh9
AdDFTRefCh10
AdDFTRefCh11
AdDFTRefCh12
External DFT ref
- - InternalDFTRef DFT reference for external output
DFTReference InternalDFTRef
AdDFTRefCh1
AdDFTRefCh2
AdDFTRefCh3
AdDFTRefCh4
AdDFTRefCh5
AdDFTRefCh6
AdDFTRefCh7
AdDFTRefCh8
AdDFTRefCh9
AdDFTRefCh10
AdDFTRefCh11
AdDFTRefCh12
External DFT ref
- - InternalDFTRef DFT reference
ConnectionType Ph-N
Ph-Ph
- - Ph-N Input connection type
TYPE 1 - 2 Ch 1 1 1=Voltage, 2=Current
Table 48: SMAI1 Non group settings (advanced)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
Negation Off
NegateN
Negate3Ph
Negate3Ph+N
- - Off Negation
MinValFreqMeas 5 - 200 % 1 10 Limit for frequency calculation in % of
UBase
UBase 0.05 - 2000.00 kV 0.05 400.00 Base voltage
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 4
Basic IED functions
101
Technical reference manual
Table 49: SMAI2 Non group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
DFTReference InternalDFTRef
AdDFTRefCh1
AdDFTRefCh2
AdDFTRefCh3
AdDFTRefCh4
AdDFTRefCh5
AdDFTRefCh6
AdDFTRefCh7
AdDFTRefCh8
AdDFTRefCh9
AdDFTRefCh10
AdDFTRefCh11
AdDFTRefCh12
External DFT ref
- - InternalDFTRef DFT reference
ConnectionType Ph-N
Ph-Ph
- - Ph-N Input connection type
TYPE 1 - 2 Ch 1 1 1=Voltage, 2=Current
Table 50: SMAI2 Non group settings (advanced)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
Negation Off
NegateN
Negate3Ph
Negate3Ph+N
- - Off Negation
MinValFreqMeas 5 - 200 % 1 10 Limit for frequency calculation in % of
UBase
UBase 0.05 - 2000.00 kV 0.05 400.00 Base voltage
4.13 Summation block 3 phase 3PHSUM
4.13.1 Introduction
Summation block 3 phase function 3PHSUM is used to get the sum of two sets of
three-phase analog signals (of the same type) for those IED functions that might
need it.
4.13.2 Principle of operation
Summation block 3 phase 3PHSUM receives the three-phase signals from Signal
matrix for analog inputs function (SMAI). In the same way, the BLOCK input will
reset all the outputs of the function to 0.
Section 4 1MRK506275-UEN C
Basic IED functions
102
Technical reference manual
4.13.3 Function block
IEC05000441-2-en.vsd
3PHSUM
BLOCK
DFTSPFC
G1AI3P*
G2AI3P*
AI3P
AI1
AI2
AI3
AI4
IEC05000441 V2 EN
Figure 43: 3PHSUM function block
4.13.4 Input and output signals
Table 51: 3PHSUM Input signals
Name Type Default Description
BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block
DFTSPFC REAL 0 Number of samples per fundamental cycle used
for DFT calculation
G1AI3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Group 1 analog input 3-phase group
G2AI3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Group 2 analog input 3-phase group
Table 52: 3PHSUM Output signals
Name Type Description
AI3P GROUP SIGNAL Group analog input 3-phase group
AI1 GROUP SIGNAL Group 1 analog input
AI2 GROUP SIGNAL Group 2 analog input
AI3 GROUP SIGNAL Group 3 analog input
AI4 GROUP SIGNAL Group 4 analog input
4.13.5 Setting parameters
Settings DFTRefExtOut and DFTReference shall be set to default
value InternalDFTRef if no VT inputs are available.
Table 53: 3PHSUM Non group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
SummationType Group1+Group2
Group1-Group2
Group2-Group1
-(Group1+Group2)
- - Group1+Group2 Summation type
DFTReference InternalDFTRef
AdDFTRefCh1
External DFT ref
- - InternalDFTRef DFT reference
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 4
Basic IED functions
103
Technical reference manual
Table 54: 3PHSUM Non group settings (advanced)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
FreqMeasMinVal 5 - 200 % 1 10 Amplitude limit for frequency calculation
in % of Ubase
UBase 0.05 - 2000.00 kV 0.05 400.00 Base voltage
4.14 Authority status ATHSTAT
4.14.1 Introduction
Authority status (ATHSTAT) function is an indication function block for user log
on activity.
4.14.2 Principle of operation
Authority status (ATHSTAT) function informs about two events related to the IED
and the user authorization:
the fact that at least one user has tried to log on wrongly into the IED and it
was blocked (the output USRBLKED)
the fact that at least one user is logged on (the output LOGGEDON)
Whenever one of the two events occurs, the corresponding output (USRBLKED or
LOGGEDON) is activated. The output can for example, be connected on Event
(EVENT) function block for LON/SPA.The signals are also available on IEC
61850 station bus.
4.14.3 Function block
IEC06000503-2-en.vsd
ATHSTAT
USRBLKED
LOGGEDON
IEC06000503 V2 EN
Figure 44: ATHSTAT function block
4.14.4 Output signals
Table 55: ATHSTAT Output signals
Name Type Description
USRBLKED BOOLEAN At least one user is blocked by invalid password
LOGGEDON BOOLEAN At least one user is logged on
Section 4 1MRK506275-UEN C
Basic IED functions
104
Technical reference manual
4.14.5 Setting parameters
The function does not have any parameters available in the local HMI or PCM600.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 4
Basic IED functions
105
Technical reference manual
106
Section 5 Differential protection
About this chapter
This chapter describes the measuring principles, functions and parameters used in
differential protection.
5.1 1Ph High impedance differential protection HZPDIF
Function description
IEC 61850
identification
IEC 60617
identification
ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
1Ph High impedance differential
protection
HZPDIF
Id
SYMBOL-CC V2 EN
87
5.1.1 Introduction
The 1Ph High impedance differential protection HZPDIF function can be used
when the involved CT cores have the same turn ratio and similar magnetizing
characteristic. It utilizes an external summation of the phases and neutral current
and a series resistor and a voltage dependent resistor externally to the IED.
HZPDIFfunction can be used to protect tee-feeders or busbars. Six function blocks
allow protection of two three-phase zones.
5.1.2 Principle of operation
The 1Ph High impedance differential protection (HZPDIF) function is based on
one current input with external stabilizing resistors and voltage dependent resistors.
Three functions can be used to provide a three phase differential protection
function. The stabilizing resistor value is calculated from the IED operating value
UR calculated to achieve through fault stability. The supplied stabilizing resistor
has a link to allow setting of the correct resistance value.
See the application manual for operating voltage and sensitivity calculation.
5.1.2.1 Logic diagram
The logic diagram shows the operation principles for the 1Ph High impedance
differential protection function HZPDIF, see figure 45. It is a simple one step IED
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 5
Differential protection
107
Technical reference manual
with an additional lower alarm level. By activating inputs, the HZPDIF function
can either be blocked completely, or only the trip output.
IEC05000301 V1 EN
Figure 45: Logic diagram for 1Ph High impedance differential protection
HZPDIF
5.1.3 Function block
IEC05000363-2-en.vsd
HZPDIF
ISI*
BLOCK
BLKTR
TRIP
ALARM
MEASVOLT
IEC05000363 V2 EN
Figure 46: HZPDIF function block
5.1.4 Input and output signals
Table 56: HZPDIF Input signals
Name Type Default Description
ISI GROUP
SIGNAL
- Group signal for current input
BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function
BLKTR BOOLEAN 0 Block of trip
Table 57: HZPDIF Output signals
Name Type Description
TRIP BOOLEAN Trip signal
ALARM BOOLEAN Alarm signal
MEASVOLT REAL Measured RMS voltage on CT secondary side
Section 5 1MRK506275-UEN C
Differential protection
108
Technical reference manual
5.1.5 Setting parameters
Table 58: HZPDIF Group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
Operation Off
On
- - Off Operation Off / On
U>Alarm 2 - 500 V 1 10 Alarm voltage level in volts on CT
secondary side
tAlarm 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 5.000 Time delay to activate alarm
U>Trip 5 - 900 V 1 100 Operate voltage level in volts on CT
secondary side
SeriesResistor 10 - 20000 ohm 1 250 Value of series resistor in Ohms
5.1.6 Technical data
Table 59: HZPDIFtechnical data
Function Range or value Accuracy
Operate voltage (20-400) V 1.0% of U
r
for U < U
r
1.0% of U for U > U
r
Reset ratio >95% -
Maximum
continuous voltage
U>Trip
2
/series resistor 200 W -
Operate time 10 ms typically at 0 to 10 x U
d
-
Reset time 90 ms typically at 10 to 0 x U
d
-
Critical impulse time 2 ms typically at 0 to 10 x U
d
-
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 5
Differential protection
109
Technical reference manual
110
Section 6 Impedance protection
About this chapter
This chapter describes distance protection and associated functions. It includes
function blocks, logic diagrams and data tables with information about distance
protection, automatic switch onto fault, weak end in-feed and other associated
functions. Quadrilateral characteristics are also covered.
6.1 Distance measuring zones, quadrilateral
characteristic ZMQPDIS, ZMQAPDIS, ZDRDIR
Function description IEC 61850
identification
IEC 60617
identification
ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
Distance protection zone, quadrilateral
characteristic (zone 1)
ZMQPDIS
S00346 V1 EN
21
Distance protection zone, quadrilateral
characteristic (zone 2-5)
ZMQAPDIS
S00346 V1 EN
21
Directional impedance quadrilateral ZDRDIR
Z<->
IEC09000167 V1 EN
21D
6.1.1 Introduction
The line distance protection is a, up to five zone full scheme protection with three
fault loops for phase-to-phase faults and three fault loops for phase-to-earth fault
for each of the independent zones. Individual settings for each zone in resistive and
reactive reach gives flexibility for use as back-up protection for transformer
connected to overhead lines and cables of different types and lengths.
ZMQPDIS together with Phase selection with load encroachment FDPSPDIS has
functionality for load encroachment, which increases the possibility to detect high
resistive faults on heavily loaded lines, as shown in figure47.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
111
Technical reference manual
en05000034.vsd
R
X
Forward
operation
Reverse
operation
IEC05000034 V1 EN
Figure 47: Typical quadrilateral distance protection zone with Phase selection
with load encroachment function FDPSPDIS activated
The independent measurement of impedance for each fault loop together with a
sensitive and reliable built-in phase selection makes the function suitable in
applications with single-phase autoreclosing.
Built-in adaptive load compensation algorithm prevents overreaching of zone 1 at
load exporting end at phase-to-earth faults on heavily loaded power lines.
The distance protection zones can operate independently of each other in
directional (forward or reverse) or non-directional mode. This makes them suitable,
together with different communication schemes, for the protection of power lines
and cables in complex network configurations, such as parallel lines, multi-
terminal lines, and so on.
6.1.2 Principle of operation
6.1.2.1 Full scheme measurement
The execution of the different fault loops within the IED are of full scheme type,
which means that each fault loop for phase-to-earth faults and phase-to-phase faults
for forward and reverse faults are executed in parallel.
Figure 48 presents an outline of the different measuring loops for up to five,
impedance-measuring zones. There are 3 to 5 zones depending on product type and
variant.
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
112
Technical reference manual
en05000458.vsd
L1-N L2-N L3-N
L1-N L2-N L3-N
L1-N L2-N L3-N
L1-N L2-N L3-N
L1-L2 L2-L3 L3-L1
L1-L2 L2-L3 L3-L1
L1-L2 L2-L3 L3-L1
L1-L2 L2-L3 L3-L1
L1-N L2-N L3-N L1-L2 L2-L3 L3-L1
Zone 1
Zone 2
Zone 3
Zone 4
Zone 5
IEC05000458 V1 EN
Figure 48: The different measuring loops at phase-to-earth fault and phase-to-
phase fault.
The use of full scheme technique gives faster operation time compared to switched
schemes which mostly uses a start element to select correct voltages and current
depending on fault type. Each distance protection zone performs like one
independent distance protection IED with six measuring elements.
6.1.2.2 Impedance characteristic
The distance measuring zone includes six impedance measuring loops; three
intended for phase-to-earth faults, and three intended for phase-to-phase as well as,
three-phase faults.
The distance measuring zone will essentially operate according to the non-
directional impedance characteristics presented in figure 49 and figure 50. The phase-
to-earth characteristic is illustrated with the full loop reach while the phase-to-
phase characteristic presents the per phase reach.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
113
Technical reference manual
RFPE
X1PE+Xn
X1PE+Xn
RFPE
R1PE+Rn
RFPE
RFPE
RFPE
RFPE
R
R1PE+Rn
(Ohm/loop)
en08000280-2-en.vsd
X0PE-X1PE
Xn
3
=
R0PE-R1PE
Rn
3
=
jN jN
X (Ohm/loop)
IEC08000280 V1 EN
Figure 49: Characteristic for phase-to-earth measuring, ohm/loop domain
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
114
Technical reference manual
j
R1PP RFPP
X1PP
X1PP
RFPP R1PP RFPP
RFPP
RFPP
RFPP
R
X (Ohm/phase)
(Ohm/phase)
en07000062.vsd
j
0 1
3
X PE X RVPE
XNRV
-
=
0 1
3
X PE X FWPE
XNFW
-
=
0 1
3
X PG X FWPG
XNFW
-
=
0 1
3
X PG X RVPG
XNRV
-
=
0 1
3
X PE X RVPE
XNRV
-
=
0 1
3
X PE X FWPE
XNFW
-
=
2 2
2 2
2 2
IEC07000062 V2 EN
Figure 50: Characteristic for phase-to-phase measuring
The fault loop reach with respect to each fault type may also be presented as in
figure 51. Note in particular the difference in definition regarding the (fault)
resistive reach for phase-to-phase faults and three-phase faults.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
115
Technical reference manual
UL1
R1 + j X1
IL1
RFPE
Phase-to-earth
fault in phase L1
Phase-to-phase
fault in phase
L1-L2
Three-phase
fault
(Arc + tower
resistance)
0
(R0-R1)/3 +
j (X0-X1)/3 )
IN
UL1
R1 + j X1
IL1
UL2
R1 + j X1
IL2
RFPP
UL1
R1 + j X1
IL1
UL3
R1 + j X1
IL3
0.5RFPP
0.5RFPP
(Arc resistance)
Phase-to-earth
element
Phase-to-phase
element L1-L2
Phase-to-phase
element L1-L3
IEC08000282-2-en.vsd
IEC08000282 V2 EN
Figure 51: Fault loop model
The R1 and jX1 in figure 51 represents the positive sequence impedance from the
measuring point to the fault location. The settings RFPE and RFPP are the
eventual fault resistances in the faulty place.
Regarding the illustration of three-phase fault in figure 51, there is of course fault
current flowing also in the third phase during a three-phase fault. The illustration
merely reflects the loop measurement, which is made phase-to-phase.
The zone can be set to operate in Non-directional, Forward or Reverse direction
through the setting OperationDir. The result from respective set value is illustrated
in figure 52. The impedance reach is symmetric, in the sense that it conforms for
forward and reverse direction. Therefore, all reach settings apply to both directions.
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
116
Technical reference manual
en05000182.vsd
R
X
R
X
R
X
Non-directional Forward Reverse
IEC05000182 V1 EN
Figure 52: Directional operating modes of the distance measuring zones
6.1.2.3 Minimum operating current
The operation of Distance measuring zones, quadrilateral characteristic
(ZMQPDIS) is blocked if the magnitude of input currents fall below certain
threshold values.
The phase-to-earth loop Ln is blocked if ILn < IMinOpPE.
For zone 1 with load compensation feature the additional criterion applies, that all
phase-to-earth loops will be blocked when IN < IMinOpIN, regardless of the phase
currents.
ILn is the RMS value of the current in phase Ln. IN is the RMS value of the vector
sum of the three-phase currents, that is, residual current 3I
0
.
The phase-to-phase loop LmLn is blocked if ILmLn < IMinOpPP.
ILmLn is the RMS value of the vector difference between phase currents Lm and Ln.
All three current limits IMinOpPE, IMinOpIN and IMinOpPP are
automatically reduced to 75% of regular set values if the zone is set
to operate in reverse direction, that is, OperationDir = Reverse.
6.1.2.4 Measuring principles
Fault loop equations use the complex values of voltage, current, and changes in the
current. Apparent impedances are calculated and compared with the set limits. The
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
117
Technical reference manual
apparent impedances at phase-to-phase faults follow equation 1 (example for a
phase L1 to phase L2 fault).
Z
app
U
L1
U
L2

I
L1
I
L2

-------------------------
=
EQUATION1222 V1 EN (Equation 1)
Here U and I represent the corresponding voltage and current phasors in the
respective phase Ln (n = 1, 2, 3)
The earth return compensation applies in a conventional manner to phase-to-earth
faults (example for a phase L1 to earth fault) according to equation 2.
Z
app
U
L1
I
L1
I
N
KN +
= ------------------------------
EQUATION1223 V1 EN (Equation 2)
Where:
U
L1
, I
L1
and IN are the phase voltage, phase current and residual current present to the IED
KN is defined as:
Z0 Z1
KN
3 Z1
-
=

EQUATION 2105 V1 EN
0 0 0 Z R jX = +
EQUATION2106 V1 EN
1 1 1 Z R jX = +
EQUATION2107 V1 EN
Where
R0 is setting of the resistive zero sequence reach
X0 is setting of the reactive zero sequence reach
R1 is setting of the resistive positive sequence reach
X1 is setting of the reactive positive sequence reach
Here IN is a phasor of the residual current in IED point. This results in the same
reach along the line for all types of faults.
The apparent impedance is considered as an impedance loop with resistance R and
reactance X.
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
118
Technical reference manual
The formula given in equation 2 is only valid for radial feeder application without
load. When load is considered in the case of single phase-to-earth fault,
conventional distance protection might overreach at exporting end and underreach
at importing end. The IED has an adaptive load compensation which increases the
security in such applications.
Measuring elements receive current and voltage information from the A/D
converter. The check sums are calculated and compared, and the information is
distributed into memory locations. For each of the six supervised fault loops,
sampled values of voltage (U), current (I), and changes in current between samples
(DI) are brought from the input memory and fed to a recursive Fourier filter.
The filter provides two orthogonal values for each input. These values are related
to the loop impedance according to equation 3,
U R i
X
w
0
------
+
Di
Dt
-----
=
EQUATION1224 V1 EN (Equation 3)
in complex notation, or:
Re U ( ) R Re I ( )
X
w
0
------ +
DRe I ( )
Dt
------------------ =
EQUATION354 V1 EN (Equation 4)
Im U ( ) R Im I ( )
X
w
0
------ +
DIm I ( )
Dt
----------------- =
EQUATION355 V1 EN (Equation 5)
with
w
0
2 p f
0
=
EQUATION356 V1 EN (Equation 6)
where:
Re designates the real component of current and voltage,
Im designates the imaginary component of current and voltage and
f
0
designates the rated system frequency
The algorithm calculates R
m
measured resistance from the equation for the real
value of the voltage and substitutes it in the equation for the imaginary part. The
equation for the X
m
measured reactance can then be solved. The final result is
equal to:
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
119
Technical reference manual
R
m
Im U ( ) DRe I ( ) Re U ( ) DIm I ( )
DRe I ( ) Im I ( ) DIm I ( ) Re I ( )
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ =
EQUATION357 V1 EN (Equation 7)
X
m
w
0
Dt
Re U ( ) Im I ( ) Im U ( ) Re I ( )
DRe I ( ) Im I ( ) DIm I ( ) Re I ( )
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- =
EQUATION358 V1 EN (Equation 8)
The calculated R
m
and X
m
values are updated each sample and compared with the
set zone reach. The adaptive tripping counter counts the number of permissive
tripping results. This effectively removes any influence of errors introduced by the
capacitive voltage transformers or by other factors.
The directional evaluations are performed simultaneously in both forward and
reverse directions, and in all six fault loops. Positive sequence voltage and a phase
locked positive sequence memory voltage are used as a reference. This ensures
unlimited directional sensitivity for faults close to the IED point.
6.1.2.5 Directional impedance element for quadrilateral characteristics
The evaluation of the directionality takes place in Directional impedance
quadrilateral function ZDRDIR. Equation 9 and equation 10 are used to classify
that the fault is in forward direction for phase-to-earth fault and phase-to-phase fault.
1 1
1
0.8 1 0.2 1
arg Re
L L M
L
U U
ArgDir ArgNeg s
I
+
- < <
EQUATION725 V2 EN (Equation 9)
For the L1-L2 element, the equation in forward direction is according to.
1 2 1 2
1 2
0.8 1 0.2 1
arg Re
L L L L M
L L
U U
ArgDir ArgNeg s
I
+
- < <
EQUATION726 V2 EN (Equation 10)
where:
ArgDir is the setting for the lower boundary of the forward directional characteristic, by default
set to 15 (= -15 degrees) and
ArgNegRes is the setting for the upper boundary of the forward directional characteristic, by default
set to 115 degrees, see figure 53.
U1
L1
is positive sequence phase voltage in phase L1
U1
L1M
is positive sequence memorized phase voltage in phase L1
I
L1
is phase current in phase L1
U1
L1L2
is voltage difference between phase L1 and L2 (L2 lagging L1)
U1
L1L2M
is memorized voltage difference between phase L1 and L2 (L2 lagging L1)
I
L1L2
is current difference between phase L1 and L2 (L2 lagging L1)
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
120
Technical reference manual
The setting of ArgDir and ArgNegRes is by default set to 15 (= -15) and 115
degrees respectively (as shown in figure 53). It should not be changed unless
system studies have shown the necessity.
ZDRDIR gives binary coded directional information per measuring loop on the
output STDIRCND.
STDIR= STFWL1*1+STFWL2*2+STFWL3*4+STFWL1L2*8+
+STFWL2L3*16+STFWL3L1*32+STRVL1*64+STRVL2*128+
+STRVL3*256+STRVL1L2*512+STRVL2L3*1024+STRVL3L1*2048
R
X
ArgDir
ArgNegRes
en05000722.vsd
IEC05000722 V1 EN
Figure 53: Setting angles for discrimination of forward and reverse fault in
Directional impedance quadrilateral function ZDRDIR
The reverse directional characteristic is equal to the forward characteristic rotated
by 180 degrees.
The polarizing voltage is available as long as the positive sequence voltage exceeds
5% of the set base voltage UBase. So the directional element can use it for all
unsymmetrical faults including close-in faults.
For close-in three-phase faults, the U1
L1M
memory voltage, based on the same
positive sequence voltage, ensures correct directional discrimination.
The memory voltage is used for 100 ms or until the positive sequence voltage is
restored.
After 100ms the following occurs:
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
121
Technical reference manual
If the current is still above the set value of the minimum operating current
(between 10 and 30% of the set IED rated current IBase), the condition seals in.
If the fault has caused tripping, the trip endures.
If the fault was detected in the reverse direction, the measuring element
in the reverse direction remains in operation.
If the current decreases below the minimum operating value, the memory
resets until the positive sequence voltage exceeds 10% of its rated value.
6.1.2.6 Simplified logic diagrams
Distance protection zones
The design of the distance protection zones are presented for all measuring loops:
phase-to-earth as well as phase-to-phase.
Phase-to-earth related signals are designated by L1N, L2N and L3N. The phase-to-
phase signals are designated by L1L2, L2L3, and L3L1.
Fulfillment of two different measuring conditions is necessary to obtain the one
logical signal for each separate measuring loop:
Zone measuring condition, which follows the operating equations described
above.
Group functional input signal (STCND), as presented in figure 54.
Two types of function block, ZMQPDIS and ZMQAPDIS, are used in the IED.
ZMQPDIS is used for zone 1 and ZMQAPDIS for zone 2 - 5.
The STCND input signal represents a connection of six different integer values
from Phase selection with load encroachment, quadrilateral characteristic function
FDPSPDIS within the IED, which are converted within the zone measuring
function into corresponding boolean expressions for each condition separately.
Input signal STCND is connected to FDPSPDIS function output STCNDZ.
The input signal DIRCND is used to give condition for directionality for the
distance measuring zones. The signal contains binary coded information for both
forward and reverse direction. The zone measurement function filters out the
relevant signals depending on the setting of the parameter OperationDir. It must be
configured to the STDIR output on ZDRDIR function.
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
122
Technical reference manual
IEC99000557-TIFF V1 EN
Figure 54: Conditioning by a group functional input signal STCND, external
start condition
Composition of the phase start signals for a case, when the zone operates in a non-
directional mode, is presented in figure 55.
en00000488.vsd
STNDL1N
STNDL2N
STNDL3N
STNDL1L2
STNDL2L3
STNDL3L1
OR
OR
OR
OR
AND
AND
AND
AND
BLK
START
STL3
STL2
STL1
IEC00000488 V1 EN
Figure 55: Composition of starting signals in non-directional operating mode
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
123
Technical reference manual
Results of the directional measurement enter the logic circuits, when the zone
operates in directional (forward or reverse) mode, as shown in figure 56.
STNDL1N
DIRL1N
STNDL2N
DIRL2N
STNDL3N
DIRL3N
STNDL1L2
DIRL1L2
STNDL2L3
DIRL2L3
STNDL3L1
DIRL3L1
AND
AND
AND
AND
BLK
t
15 ms
STL3
START
STZMPP
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
OR
OR
OR
OR
OR
OR
en05000778.vsd
STZMPE
STL1
STL2
IEC05000778 V2 EN
Figure 56: Composition of start signals in directional operating mode
Tripping conditions for the distance protection zone one are symbolically presented
in figure 57.
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
124
Technical reference manual
en00000490-3.vsd
Timer tPP=On
STZMPP
AND
Timer tPE=On
STZMPE
AND
t
tPP
t
tPE
BLKTR
t
15ms
AND
AND
AND
STL1
STL2
STL3
TRIP
TRL1
TRL2
TRL3
AND
OR
OR
BLK
IEC00000490 2 V1 EN
Figure 57: Tripping logic for the distance protection zone
6.1.3 Function block
IEC06000256-2-en.vsd
ZMQPDIS
I3P*
U3P*
BLOCK
VTSZ
BLKTR
STCND
DIRCND
TRIP
TRL1
TRL2
TRL3
START
STL1
STL2
STL3
STND
IEC06000256 V2 EN
Figure 58: ZMQPDIS function block
IEC09000884-1-en.vsd
ZMQAPDIS
I3P*
U3P*
BLOCK
VTSZ
BLKTR
STCND
DIRCND
TRIP
TRL1
TRL2
TRL3
START
STL1
STL2
STL3
STND
IEC09000884 V1 EN
Figure 59: ZMQAPDIS function block (zone 2 - 5)
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
125
Technical reference manual
IEC05000681-2-en.vsd
ZDRDIR
I3P*
U3P*
STDIR
IEC05000681 V2 EN
Figure 60: ZDRDIR function block
6.1.4 Input and output signals
Table 60: ZMQPDIS Input signals
Name Type Default Description
I3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Group signal for current input
U3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Group signal for voltage input
BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function
VTSZ BOOLEAN 0 Blocks all output by fuse failure signal
BLKTR BOOLEAN 0 Blocks all trip outputs
STCND INTEGER 0 External start condition (loop enabler)
DIRCND INTEGER 0 External directional condition
Table 61: ZMQPDIS Output signals
Name Type Description
TRIP BOOLEAN General Trip, issued from any phase or loop
TRL1 BOOLEAN Trip signal from phase L1
TRL2 BOOLEAN Trip signal from phase L2
TRL3 BOOLEAN Trip signal from phase L3
START BOOLEAN General Start, issued from any phase or loop
STL1 BOOLEAN Start signal from phase L1
STL2 BOOLEAN Start signal from phase L2
STL3 BOOLEAN Start signal from phase L3
STND BOOLEAN Non-directional start, issued from any phase or
loop
Table 62: ZMQAPDIS Input signals
Name Type Default Description
I3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Group signal for current input
U3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Group signal for voltage input
BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function
VTSZ BOOLEAN 0 Blocks all output by fuse failure signal
Table continues on next page
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
126
Technical reference manual
Name Type Default Description
BLKTR BOOLEAN 0 Blocks all trip outputs
STCND INTEGER 0 External start condition (loop enabler)
DIRCND INTEGER 0 External directional condition
Table 63: ZMQAPDIS Output signals
Name Type Description
TRIP BOOLEAN General Trip, issued from any phase or loop
TRL1 BOOLEAN Trip signal from phase L1
TRL2 BOOLEAN Trip signal from phase L2
TRL3 BOOLEAN Trip signal from phase L3
START BOOLEAN General Start, issued from any phase or loop
STL1 BOOLEAN Start signal from phase L1
STL2 BOOLEAN Start signal from phase L2
STL3 BOOLEAN Start signal from phase L3
STND BOOLEAN Non-directional start, issued from any phase or
loop
Table 64: ZDRDIR Input signals
Name Type Default Description
I3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Group connection
U3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Group connection
Table 65: ZDRDIR Output signals
Name Type Description
STDIR INTEGER All start signals binary coded
6.1.5 Setting parameters
Signals and settings for ZMQPDIS are valid for zone 1 while
signals and settings for ZMQAPDIS are valid for zone 2 - 5
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
127
Technical reference manual
Table 66: ZMQPDIS Group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
Operation Off
On
- - On Operation Off / On
IBase 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 Base current, i.e. rated current
UBase 0.05 - 2000.00 kV 0.05 400.00 Base voltage, i.e. rated voltage
OperationDir Off
Non-directional
Forward
Reverse
- - Forward Operation mode of directionality NonDir /
Forw / Rev
X1 0.10 - 3000.00 ohm/p 0.01 30.00 Positive sequence reactance reach
R1 0.10 - 1000.00 ohm/p 0.01 5.00 Positive seq. resistance for zone
characteristic angle
X0 0.10 - 9000.00 ohm/p 0.01 100.00 Zero sequence reactance reach
R0 0.50 - 3000.00 ohm/p 0.01 15.00 Zero seq. resistance for zone
characteristic angle
RFPP 1.00 - 3000.00 ohm/l 0.01 30.00 Fault resistance reach in ohm/loop, Ph-Ph
RFPE 1.00 - 9000.00 ohm/l 0.01 100.00 Fault resistance reach in ohm/loop, Ph-E
OperationPP Off
On
- - On Operation mode Off / On of Phase-
Phase loops
Timer tPP Off
On
- - On Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer,
Ph-Ph
tPP 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.000 Time delay of trip, Ph-Ph
OperationPE Off
On
- - On Operation mode Off / On of Phase-Earth
loops
Timer tPE Off
On
- - On Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer,
Ph-E
tPE 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.000 Time delay of trip, Ph-E
IMinOpPP 10 - 30 %IB 1 20 Minimum operate delta current for Phase-
Phase loops
IMinOpPE 10 - 30 %IB 1 20 Minimum operate phase current for
Phase-Earth loops
IMinOpIN 5 - 30 %IB 1 5 Minimum operate residual current for
Phase-Earth loops
Table 67: ZMQAPDIS Group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
Operation Off
On
- - On Operation Off / On
IBase 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 Base current, i.e. rated current
UBase 0.05 - 2000.00 kV 0.05 400.00 Base voltage, i.e. rated voltage
OperationDir Off
Non-directional
Forward
Reverse
- - Forward Operation mode of directionality NonDir /
Forw / Rev
X1 0.50 - 3000.00 ohm/p 0.01 40.00 Positive sequence reactance reach
Table continues on next page
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
128
Technical reference manual
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
R1 0.10 - 1000.00 ohm/p 0.01 5.00 Positive seq. resistance for zone
characteristic angle
X0 0.50 - 9000.00 ohm/p 0.01 120.00 Zero sequence reactance reach
R0 0.50 - 3000.00 ohm/p 0.01 15.00 Zero seq. resistance for zone
characteristic angle
RFPP 1.00 - 3000.00 ohm/l 0.01 30.00 Fault resistance reach in ohm/loop, Ph-Ph
RFPE 1.00 - 9000.00 ohm/l 0.01 100.00 Fault resistance reach in ohm/loop, Ph-E
OperationPP Off
On
- - On Operation mode Off / On of Phase-
Phase loops
Timer tPP Off
On
- - On Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer,
Ph-Ph
tPP 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.000 Time delay of trip, Ph-Ph
OperationPE Off
On
- - On Operation mode Off / On of Phase-Earth
loops
Timer tPE Off
On
- - On Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer,
Ph-E
tPE 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.000 Time delay of trip, Ph-E
IMinOpPP 10 - 30 %IB 1 20 Minimum operate delta current for Phase-
Phase loops
IMinOpPE 10 - 30 %IB 1 20 Minimum operate phase current for
Phase-Earth loops
Table 68: ZDRDIR Group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
ArgNegRes 90 - 175 Deg 1 115 Angle to blinder in second quadrant for
forward direction
ArgDir 5 - 45 Deg 1 15 Angle to blinder in fourth quadrant for
forward direction
IMinOp 1 - 99999 %IB 1 10 Minimum operate current in % of IBase
IBase 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 Base Current
UBase 0.05 - 2000.00 kV 0.05 400.00 Base Voltage
6.1.6 Technical data
Table 69: ZMQPDIS technical data
Function Range or value Accuracy
Number of zones 5 with selectable
direction
-
Minimum operate residual
current, zone 1
(5-30)% of IBase -
Minimum operate current, phase-
to-phase and phase-to-earth
(10-30)% of IBase -
Table continues on next page
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
129
Technical reference manual
Function Range or value Accuracy
Positive sequence reactance,
zone 1
(0.10-3000.00) /
phase
2.0% static accuracy
2.0 degrees static angular accuracy
Conditions:
Voltage range: (0.1-1.1) x U
r
Current range: (0.5-30) x I
r
Angle: at 0 degrees and 85 degrees
Positive sequence reactance,
zone 2-
5
(0.50-3000.00) /
phase
Positive sequence resistance (0.10-1000.00) /
phase
Zero sequence reactance, zone 1 (0.10-9000.00) /
phase
Zero sequence reactance,
zone 2-
5
(0.50-9000.00) /
phase
Zero sequence resistance (0.50-3000.00) /
phase
Fault resistance, phase-to-earth (1.00-9000.00) /loop
Fault resistance, phase-to-phase (1.00-3000.00) /loop
Dynamic overreach <5% at 85 degrees
measured with CVTs
and 0.5<SIR<30
-
Impedance zone timers (0.000-60.000) s 0.5% 10 ms
Operate time 24 ms typically -
Reset ratio 105% typically -
Reset time 30 ms typically -
6.2 Distance measuring zone, quadrilateral
characteristic for series compensated lines
ZMCPDIS, ZMCAPDIS, ZDSRDIR
Function description IEC 61850
identification
IEC 60617
identification
ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
Distance measuring zone, quadrilateral
characteristic for series compensated
lines (zone 1)
ZMCPDIS
S00346 V1 EN
21
Distance measuring zone, quadrilateral
characteristic for series compensated
lines (zone 2-5)
ZMCAPDIS
S00346 V1 EN
21
Directional impedance quadrilateral,
including series compensation
ZDSRDIR
Z<->
IEC09000167 V1 EN
21D
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
130
Technical reference manual
6.2.1 Introduction
The line distance protection is a, up to five zone full scheme protection with three
fault loops for phase-to-phase faults and three fault loops for phase-to-earth fault
for each of the independent zones. Individual settings for each zone resistive and
reactive reach give flexibility for use on overhead lines and cables of different
types and lengths.
Quadrilateral characteristic is available.
ZMCPDIS function has functionality for load encroachment which increases the
possibility to detect high resistive faults on heavily loaded lines.
en05000034.vsd
R
X
Forward
operation
Reverse
operation
IEC05000034 V1 EN
Figure 61: Typical quadrilateral distance protection zone with load
encroachment function activated
The independent measurement of impedance for each fault loop together with a
sensitive and reliable built in phase selection makes the function suitable in
applications with single phase auto-reclosing.
Built-in adaptive load compensation algorithm for the quadrilateral function
prevents overreaching of zone1 at load exporting end at phase to earth-faults on
heavily loaded power lines.
The distance protection zones can operate, independent of each other, in directional
(forward or reverse) or non-directional mode. This makes them suitable, together
with different communication schemes, for the protection of power lines and cables
in complex network configurations, such as parallel lines, multi-terminal lines.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
131
Technical reference manual
6.2.2 Principle of operation
6.2.2.1 Full scheme measurement
The execution of the different fault loops within the IED are of full scheme type,
which means that earth fault loop for phase-to-earth faults and phase-to-phase
faults for forward and reverse faults are executed in parallel.
Figure 62 presents an outline of the different measuring loops for the basic five,
impedance-measuring zones.
en05000458.vsd
L1-N L2-N L3-N
L1-N L2-N L3-N
L1-N L2-N L3-N
L1-N L2-N L3-N
L1-L2 L2-L3 L3-L1
L1-L2 L2-L3 L3-L1
L1-L2 L2-L3 L3-L1
L1-L2 L2-L3 L3-L1
L1-N L2-N L3-N L1-L2 L2-L3 L3-L1
Zone 1
Zone 2
Zone 3
Zone 4
Zone 5
IEC05000458 V1 EN
Figure 62: The different measuring loops at phase-to-earth fault and phase-to-
phase fault
The use of full scheme technique gives faster operation time compared to switched
schemes which mostly uses a start element to select correct voltages and current
depending on fault type. Each distance protection zone performs like one
independent distance protection IED with six measuring elements.
6.2.2.2 Impedance characteristic
Distance measuring zone, quadrilateral characteristic for series compensated lines
(ZMCPDIS) include six impedance measuring loops; three intended for phase-to-
earth faults, and three intended for phase-to-phase as well as, three-phase faults.
The distance measuring zone operates according to the non-directional impedance
characteristics presented in figure 63 and figure 64. The phase-to-earth
characteristic is illustrated with the full loop reach while the phase-to-phase
characteristic presents the per-phase reach.
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
132
Technical reference manual
R1PE+RNFw
RFFwPE
X1FwPE+XNFw
X1RvPE+XNRv
RFFwPE RFRvPE
RFFwPE
RFRvPE
RFRvPE
R
X (Ohm/loop)
(Ohm/loop)
IEC09000625-1-en.vsd
jN
0 1
3
X PE X RVPE
XNRV
-
=
0 1
3
X PE X FWPE
XNFW
-
=
0 1
3
X PG X FWPG
XNFW
-
=
0 1
3
X PG X RVPG
XNRV
-
=
0 1
3
X PE X FwPE
XNFw
-
=
0 1
3
R PE R PE
RNFw
-
=
jN
jN
1
1
X RvPE
XNRv XNFw
X FwPE
=
IEC09000625 V1 EN
Figure 63: Characteristic for the phase-to-earth measuring loops, ohm/loop
domain
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
133
Technical reference manual
j
R1PP RFFwPP
X1FwPP
X1RvPP
RFFwPP RFRvPP
RFFwPP
RFRvPP
RFRvPP
R
X (Ohm/phase)
(Ohm/phase)
IEC09000632-1-en.vsd
j
0 1
3
X PE X RVPE
XNRV
-
=
0 1
3
X PE X FWPE
XNFW
-
=
0 1
3
X PG X FWPG
XNFW
-
=
0 1
3
X PG X RVPG
XNRV
-
=
0 1
3
X PE X RVPE
XNRV
-
=
0 1
3
X PE X FWPE
XNFW
-
=
2 2
2 2
2 2
j N
N j
IEC09000632 V1 EN
Figure 64: Characteristic for the phase-to-phase measuring loops
The fault loop reach with respect to each fault type may also be presented as in
figure 65. Note in particular the difference in definition regarding the (fault)
resistive reach for phase-to-phase faults and three-phase faults.
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
134
Technical reference manual
UL1
R1 + j X1
IL1
RFPE
Phase-to-earth
fault in phase L1
Phase-to-phase
fault in phase
L1-L2
Three-phase
fault
(Arc + tower
resistance)
0
(R0-R1)/3 +
j (X0-X1)/3 )
IN
UL1
R1 + j X1
IL1
UL2
R1 + j X1
IL2
RFPP
UL1
R1 + j X1
IL1
UL3
R1 + j X1
IL3
0.5RFPP
0.5RFPP
(Arc resistance)
Phase-to-earth
element
Phase-to-phase
element L1-L2
Phase-to-phase
element L1-L3
IEC08000282-2-en.vsd
IEC08000282 V2 EN
Figure 65: Fault loop model
The R1 and jX1 in figure 65 represents the positive sequence impedance from the
measuring point to the fault location. The RFPE and RFPP is the eventual fault
resistance in the fault place.
Regarding the illustration of three-phase fault in figure 65, there is of course fault
current flowing also in the third phase during a three-phase fault. The illustration
merely reflects the loop measurement, which is made phase-to-phase.
The zone may be set to operate in Non-directional, Forward or Reverse direction
through the setting OperationDir. The result from respective set value is illustrated
in figure 66. It may be convenient to once again mention that the impedance reach
is symmetric, forward and reverse direction. Therefore, all reach settings apply to
both directions.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
135
Technical reference manual
en05000182.vsd
R
X
R
X
R
X
Non-directional Forward Reverse
IEC05000182 V1 EN
Figure 66: Directional operating modes of the distance measuring zone
6.2.2.3 Minimum operating current
The operation of Distance measuring zone, quadrilateral characteristic for series
compensated lines (ZMCPDIS,ZMCAPDIS) is blocked if the magnitude of input
currents fall below certain threshold values.
The phase-to-earth loop Ln is blocked if ILn < IMinOpPE.
For zone 1 with load compensation feature the additional criterion applies, that all
phase-to-earth loops will be blocked when IN < IMinOpIN, regardless of the phase
currents.
ILn is the RMS value of the current in phase Ln. IN is the RMS value of the vector
sum of the three phase currents, that is, residual current 3I0.
The phase-to-phase loop LmLn is blocked if ILmLn
AB (BC or CA)
< IMinOpPP.
ILmLn is the RMS value of the vector difference between phase currents Lm and Ln.
All three current limits IMinOpPE, IMinOpIN and IMinOpPP are
automatically reduced to 75% of regular set values if the zone is set
to operate in reverse direction, that is, OperationDir=Reverse.
6.2.2.4 Measuring principles
Fault loop equations use the complex values of voltage, current, and changes in the
current. Apparent impedances are calculated and compared with the set limits. The
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
136
Technical reference manual
calculation of the apparent impedances at ph-ph faults follows equation 11
(example for a phase L1 to phase L2 fault).
Z
app
U
L1
U
L2

I
L1
I
L2

-------------------------
=
EQUATION1222 V1 EN (Equation 11)
Here U and I represent the corresponding voltage and current phasors in the
respective phase.
The earth return compensation applies in a conventional manner to ph-E faults
(example for a phase L1 to earth fault) according to equation 12.
Z
app
U
L1
I
L1
I
N
KN +
= ------------------------------
EQUATION1223 V1 EN (Equation 12)
Where:
UL1, IL1 and IN are the phase voltage, phase current and residual current present to the IED
KN is defined as:
Z0 Z1
KN
3 Z1
-
=

EQUATION 2105 V1 EN
0 0 0 Z R jX = +
EQUATION2106 V1 EN
1 1 1 Z R jX = +
EQUATION2107 V1 EN
Where
R0 is setting of the resistive zero sequence reach
X0 is setting of the reactive zero sequence reach
R1 is setting of the resistive positive sequence reach
X1 is setting of the reactive positive sequence reach
Here IN is a phasor of the residual current at the IED point. This results in the same
reach along the line for all types of faults.
The apparent impedance is considered as an impedance loop with resistance R and
reactance X.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
137
Technical reference manual
The formula given in equation 12 is only valid for no loaded radial feeder
applications. When load is considered in the case of single phase-to-earth fault,
conventional distance protection might overreach at exporting end and underreach
at importing end. IED has an adaptive load compensation which increases the
security in such applications.
Measuring elements receive current and voltage information from the A/D
converter. The check sums are calculated and compared, and the information is
distributed into memory locations. For each of the six supervised fault loops,
sampled values of voltage (U), current (I), and changes in current between samples
(DI) are brought from the input memory and fed to a recursive Fourier filter.
The filter provides two orthogonal values for each input. These values are related
to the loop impedance according to equation 13,
U R i
X
w
0
------
+
Di
Dt
-----
=
EQUATION1224 V1 EN (Equation 13)
in complex notation, or:
Re U ( ) R Re I ( )
X
w
0
------ +
DRe I ( )
Dt
------------------ =
EQUATION354 V1 EN (Equation 14)
Im U ( ) R Im I ( )
X
w
0
------ +
DIm I ( )
Dt
----------------- =
EQUATION355 V1 EN (Equation 15)
with
w
0
2 p f
0
=
EQUATION356 V1 EN (Equation 16)
where:
Re designates the real component of current and voltage,
Im designates the imaginary component of current and voltage and
f
0
designates the rated system frequency
The algorithm calculates Rm measured resistance from the equation for the real
value of the voltage and substitute it in the equation for the imaginary part. The
equation for the Xm measured reactance can then be solved. The final result is
equal to:
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
138
Technical reference manual
R
m
Im U ( ) DRe I ( ) Re U ( ) DIm I ( )
DRe I ( ) Im I ( ) DIm I ( ) Re I ( )
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ =
EQUATION357 V1 EN (Equation 17)
X
m
w
0
Dt
Re U ( ) Im I ( ) Im U ( ) Re I ( )
DRe I ( ) Im I ( ) DIm I ( ) Re I ( )
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- =
EQUATION358 V1 EN (Equation 18)
The calculated R
m
and X
m
values are updated each sample and compared with the
set zone reach. The adaptive tripping counter counts the number of permissive
tripping results. This effectively removes any influence of errors introduced by the
capacitive voltage transformers or by other factors.
The directional evaluations are performed simultaneously in both forward and
reverse directions, and in all six fault loops. Positive sequence voltage and a phase
locked positive sequence memory voltage are used as a reference. This ensures
unlimited directional sensitivity for faults close to the IED point.
6.2.2.5 Directionality for series compensation
In the basic distance protection function, the control of the memory for polarizing
voltage is performed by an under voltage control. In case of series compensated
line, a voltage reversal can occur with a relatively high voltage also when the
memory must be locked. Thus, a simple undervoltage type of voltage memory
control can not be used in case of voltage reversal. In the option for series
compensated network the polarizing quantity and memory are controlled by an
impedance measurement criterion.
The polarizing voltage is a memorized positive sequence voltage. The memory is
continuously synchronized via a positive sequence filter. The memory is starting to
run freely instantaneously when a voltage change is detected in any phase. A non-
directional impedance measurement is used to detect a fault and identify the faulty
phase or phases.
At a three phase fault when no positive sequence voltage remains (all three phases
are disconnected) the memory is used for direction polarization during 100 ms.
The memory predicts the phase of the positive sequence voltage with the pre-fault
frequency. This extrapolation is made with a high accuracy and it is not the
accuracy of the memory that limits the time the memory can be used. The network
is at a three phase fault under way to a new equilibrium and the post-fault condition
can only be predicted accurately for a limited time from the pre-fault condition.
In case of a three phase fault after 100 ms the phase of the memorized voltage can
not be relied upon and the directional measurement has to be blocked. The
achieved direction criteria are sealed-in when the directional measurement is
blocked and kept until the impedance fault criteria is reset (the direction is stored
until the fault is cleared).
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
139
Technical reference manual
This memory control allows in the time domain unlimited correct directional
measurement for all unsymmetrical faults also at voltage reversal. Only at three
phase fault within the range of the set impedance reach of the criteria for control of
the polarization voltage the memory has to be used and the measurement is limited
to 100 ms and thereafter the direction is sealed-in. The special impedance
measurement to control the polarization voltage is set separately and has only to
cover (with some margin) the impedance to fault that can cause the voltage reversal.
The evaluation of the directionality takes place in Directional impedance
quadrilateral, including series compensation (ZDSRDIR) function. Equation 19 and
equation 20 are used to classify that the fault is in forward direction for phase-to-
earth fault and phase-to-phase fault.
1
1
1
arg Re
L M
L
U
ArgDir ArgNeg s
I
- < <
EQUATION2004 V2 EN (Equation 19)
For the L1-L2 element, the equation in forward direction is according to:
1 2
1 2
1
arg Re
L L M
L L
U
ArgDir ArgNeg s
I
- < <
EQUATION2006 V2 EN (Equation 20)
where:
ArgDir is the setting for the lower boundary of the forward directional characteristic, by default
set to 15 (= -15 degrees) and
ArgNegRes is the setting for the upper boundary of the forward directional characteristic, by default
set to 115 degrees, see figure 67.
U1
L1M
is positive sequence memorized phase voltage in phase L1
I
L1
is phase current in phase L1
U1
L1L2M
is memorized voltage difference between phase L1 and L2 (L2 lagging L1)
I
L1L2
is current difference between phase L1 and L2 (L2 lagging L1)
The setting of ArgDir and ArgNegRes is by default set to 15 (= -15) and 115
degrees respectively, see figure 67, and it should not be changed unless system
studies have shown the necessity.
ZDSRDIR generates a binary coded signal on the output STDIR depending on the
evaluation where STFWL1N=1 adds 1, STRVL1N=1 adds 2, STFWL2N=1 adds 4.
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
140
Technical reference manual
R
X
ArgDir
ArgNegRes
en05000722.vsd
IEC05000722 V1 EN
Figure 67: Setting angles for discrimination of forward and reverse fault
The reverse directional characteristic is equal to the forward characteristic rotated
by 180 degrees.
6.2.2.6 Simplified logic diagrams
Distance protection zones
The design of distance protection zones are presented for all measuring loops: phase-
to-earth as well as phase-to-phase.
Phase-to-earth related signals are designated by Ln, where n represents the
corresponding phase number (L1, L2, and L3). The phase-to-phase signals are
designated by LnLm, where n and m represent the corresponding phase numbers
(L1L2, L2L3, and L3L1).
Fulfillment of two different measuring conditions is necessary to obtain the one
logical signal for each separate measuring loop:
Zone measuring condition, which follows the operating equations described
above.
Group functional input signal (STCND), as presented in figure 68.
Two types of function block, ZMCPDIS and ZMCAPDIS , are used in the IED.
ZMQPDIS is used for zone 1 and ZMQAPDIS for zone 2 - 5.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
141
Technical reference manual
The STCND input signal represents a connection of six different integer values
from the phase selection function within the IED, which are converted within the
zone measuring function into corresponding boolean expressions for each
condition separately. It is connected to Phase selection with load enchroachment,
quadrilateral characteristic (FDPSPDIS) function output STCDZ.
IEC99000557-TIFF V1 EN
Figure 68: Conditioning by a group functional input signal STCND
Composition of the phase starting signals for a case, when the zone operates in a non-
directional mode, is presented in figure 69.
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
142
Technical reference manual
IEC00000488-TIFF V1 EN
Figure 69: Composition of starting signals in non-directional operating mode
Results of the directional measurement enter the logic circuits, when the zone
operates in directional (forward or reverse) mode, as shown in figure 70.
STNDL1N
DIRL1N
STNDL2N
DIRL2N
STNDL3N
DIRL3N
STNDL1L2
DIRL1L2
STNDL2L3
DIRL2L3
STNDL3L1
DIRL3L1
AND
AND
AND
AND
BLK
t
15 ms
STL3
START
STZMPP
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
OR
OR
OR
OR
OR
OR
en05000778.vsd
STZMPE
STL1
STL2
IEC05000778 V2 EN
Figure 70: Composition of starting signals in directional operating mode
Tripping conditions for the distance protection zone one are symbolically presented
in figure 71.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
143
Technical reference manual
en00000490-3.vsd
Timer tPP=On
STZMPP
AND
Timer tPE=On
STZMPE
AND
t
tPP
t
tPE
BLKTR
t
15ms
AND
AND
AND
STL1
STL2
STL3
TRIP
TRL1
TRL2
TRL3
AND
OR
OR
BLK
IEC00000490 2 V1 EN
Figure 71: Tripping logic for the distance protection zone one
6.2.3 Function block
IEC07000036-2-en.vsd
ZMCPDIS
I3P*
U3P*
BLOCK
VTSZ
BLKTR
STCND
DIRCND
TRIP
TRL1
TRL2
TRL3
START
STL1
STL2
STL3
STND
IEC07000036 V2 EN
Figure 72: ZMCPDIS function block
IEC09000890-1-en.vsd
ZMCAPDIS
I3P*
U3P*
BLOCK
VTSZ
BLKTR
STCND
DIRCND
TRIP
TRL1
TRL2
TRL3
START
STL1
STL2
STL3
STND
IEC09000890 V1 EN
Figure 73: ZMCAPDIS function block
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
144
Technical reference manual
IEC07000035-2-en.vsd
ZDSRDIR
I3P*
U3P*
STFW
STRV
STDIRCND
IEC07000035 V2 EN
Figure 74: ZDSRDIR function block
6.2.4 Input and output signals
Input and output signals is shown for zone 1, zone 2 - 5 are equal.
Table 70: ZMCPDIS Input signals
Name Type Default Description
I3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Group signal for current input
U3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Group signal for voltage input
BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function
VTSZ BOOLEAN 0 Blocks all output by fuse failure signal
BLKTR BOOLEAN 0 Blocks all trip outputs
STCND INTEGER 0 External start condition (loop enabler)
DIRCND INTEGER 0 External directional condition
Table 71: ZMCPDIS Output signals
Name Type Description
TRIP BOOLEAN General Trip, issued from any phase or loop
TRL1 BOOLEAN Trip signal from phase L1
TRL2 BOOLEAN Trip signal from phase L2
TRL3 BOOLEAN Trip signal from phase L3
START BOOLEAN General Start, issued from any phase or loop
STL1 BOOLEAN Start signal from phase L1
STL2 BOOLEAN Start signal from phase L2
STL3 BOOLEAN Start signal from phase L3
STND BOOLEAN Non-directional start, issued from any phase or
loop
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
145
Technical reference manual
Table 72: ZMCAPDIS Input signals
Name Type Default Description
I3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Group signal for current input
U3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Group signal for voltage input
BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function
VTSZ BOOLEAN 0 Blocks all output by fuse failure signal
BLKTR BOOLEAN 0 Blocks all trip outputs
STCND INTEGER 0 External start condition (loop enabler)
DIRCND INTEGER 0 External directional condition
Table 73: ZMCAPDIS Output signals
Name Type Description
TRIP BOOLEAN General Trip, issued from any phase or loop
TRL1 BOOLEAN Trip signal from phase L1
TRL2 BOOLEAN Trip signal from phase L2
TRL3 BOOLEAN Trip signal from phase L3
START BOOLEAN General Start, issued from any phase or loop
STL1 BOOLEAN Start signal from phase L1
STL2 BOOLEAN Start signal from phase L2
STL3 BOOLEAN Start signal from phase L3
STND BOOLEAN Non-directional start, issued from any phase or
loop
Table 74: ZDSRDIR Input signals
Name Type Default Description
I3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Group connection for current
U3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Group connection for voltage
Table 75: ZDSRDIR Output signals
Name Type Description
STFW BOOLEAN Start in forward direction
STRV BOOLEAN Start in reverse direction
STDIRCND INTEGER Binary coded directional information per
measuring loop
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
146
Technical reference manual
6.2.5 Setting parameters
Settings for ZMCPDIS are valid for zone 1, while settings for
ZMCAPDIS are valid for zone 2 - 5
Table 76: ZMCPDIS Group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
Operation Off
On
- - On Operation Off / On
IBase 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 Base current, i.e. rated current
UBase 0.05 - 2000.00 kV 0.05 400.00 Base voltage, i.e. rated voltage
OperationDir Off
Non-directional
Forward
Reverse
- - Forward Operation mode of directionality NonDir /
Forw / Rev
OperationPP Off
On
- - On Operation mode Off / On of Phase-
Phase loops
X1FwPP 0.50 - 3000.00 ohm/p 0.01 30.00 Positive sequence reactance reach, Ph-
Ph, forward
R1PP 0.10 - 1000.00 ohm/p 0.01 5.00 Positive seq. resistance for characteristic
angle, Ph-Ph
RFFwPP 1.00 - 3000.00 ohm/l 0.01 30.00 Fault resistance reach, Ph-Ph, forward
X1RvPP 0.50 - 3000.00 ohm/p 0.01 30.00 Positive sequence reactance reach, Ph-
Ph, reverse
RFRvPP 1.00 - 3000.00 ohm/l 0.01 30.00 Fault resistance reach, Ph-Ph, reverse
Timer tPP Off
On
- - On Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer,
Ph-Ph
tPP 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.000 Time delay of trip, Ph-Ph
OperationPE Off
On
- - On Operation mode Off / On of Phase-Earth
loops
X1FwPE 0.50 - 3000.00 ohm/p 0.01 30.00 Positive sequence reactance reach, Ph-
E, forward
R1PE 0.10 - 1000.00 ohm/p 0.01 5.00 Positive seq. resistance for characteristic
angle, Ph-E
X0PE 0.50 - 9000.00 ohm/p 0.01 100.00 Zero sequence reactance reach, Ph-E
R0PE 0.50 - 3000.00 ohm/p 0.01 47.00 Zero seq. resistance for zone
characteristic angle, Ph-E
RFFwPE 1.00 - 9000.00 ohm/l 0.01 100.00 Fault resistance reach, Ph-E, forward
X1RvPE 0.50 - 3000.00 ohm/p 0.01 30.00 Positive sequence reactance reach, Ph-
E, reverse
RFRvPE 1.00 - 9000.00 ohm/l 0.01 100.00 Fault resistance reach, Ph-E, reverse
Timer tPE Off
On
- - On Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer,
Ph-E
tPE 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.000 Time delay of trip, Ph-E
Table continues on next page
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
147
Technical reference manual
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
IMinOpPP 10 - 30 %IB 1 20 Minimum operate delta current for Phase-
Phase loops
IMinOpPE 10 - 30 %IB 1 20 Minimum operate phase current for
Phase-Earth loops
IMinOpIN 5 - 30 %IB 1 5 Minimum operate residual current for
Phase-Earth loops
Table 77: ZMCAPDIS Group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
Operation Off
On
- - On Operation Off / On
IBase 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 Base current, i.e. rated current
UBase 0.05 - 2000.00 kV 0.05 400.00 Base voltage, i.e. rated voltage
OperationDir Off
Non-directional
Forward
Reverse
- - Forward Operation mode of directionality NonDir /
Forw / Rev
OperationPP Off
On
- - On Operation mode Off / On of Phase-
Phase loops
X1FwPP 0.50 - 3000.00 ohm/p 0.01 30.00 Positive sequence reactance reach, Ph-
Ph, forward
R1PP 0.10 - 1000.00 ohm/p 0.01 5.00 Positive seq. resistance for characteristic
angle, Ph-Ph
RFFwPP 1.00 - 3000.00 ohm/l 0.01 30.00 Fault resistance reach, Ph-Ph, forward
X1RvPP 0.50 - 3000.00 ohm/p 0.01 30.00 Positive sequence reactance reach, Ph-
Ph, reverse
RFRvPP 1.00 - 3000.00 ohm/l 0.01 30.00 Fault resistance reach, Ph-Ph, reverse
Timer tPP Off
On
- - On Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer,
Ph-Ph
tPP 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.000 Time delay of trip, Ph-Ph
OperationPE Off
On
- - On Operation mode Off / On of Phase-Earth
loops
X1FwPE 0.50 - 3000.00 ohm/p 0.01 30.00 Positive sequence reactance reach, Ph-
E, forward
R1PE 0.10 - 1000.00 ohm/p 0.01 5.00 Positive seq. resistance for characteristic
angle, Ph-E
X0PE 0.50 - 9000.00 ohm/p 0.01 100.00 Zero sequence reactance reach, Ph-E
R0PE 0.50 - 3000.00 ohm/p 0.01 47.00 Zero seq. resistance for zone
characteristic angle, Ph-E
RFFwPE 1.00 - 9000.00 ohm/l 0.01 100.00 Fault resistance reach, Ph-E, forward
X1RvPE 0.50 - 3000.00 ohm/p 0.01 30.00 Positive sequence reactance reach, Ph-
E, reverse
RFRvPE 1.00 - 9000.00 ohm/l 0.01 100.00 Fault resistance reach, Ph-E, reverse
Timer tPE Off
On
- - On Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer,
Ph-E
Table continues on next page
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
148
Technical reference manual
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
tPE 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.000 Time delay of trip, Ph-E
IMinOpPP 10 - 30 %IB 1 20 Minimum operate delta current for Phase-
Phase loops
IMinOpPE 10 - 30 %IB 1 20 Minimum operate phase current for
Phase-Earth loops
Table 78: ZDSRDIR Group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
OperationSC NoSeriesComp
SeriesComp
- - SeriesComp Special directional criteria for voltage
reversal
IBase 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 Base setting for current level
UBase 0.05 - 2000.00 kV 0.05 400.00 Base setting for voltage level
IMinOpPE 5 - 30 %IB 1 5 Minimum operate phase current for
Phase-Earth loops
IMinOpPP 5 - 30 %IB 1 10 Minimum operate delta current for Phase-
Phase loops
ArgNegRes 90 - 175 Deg 1 130 Angle of blinder in second quadrant for
forward direction
ArgDir 5 - 45 Deg 1 15 Angle of blinder in fourth quadrant for
forward direction
INReleasePE 10 - 100 %IPh 1 20 3I0 limit for releasing phase-to-earth
measuring loops
INBlockPP 10 - 100 %IPh 1 40 3I0 limit for blocking phase-to-phase
measuring loops
OperationLdCh Off
On
- - On Operation of load discrimination
characteristic
RLdFw 1.00 - 3000.00 ohm/p 0.01 80.00 Forward resistive reach within the load
impedance area
RLdRv 1.00 - 3000.00 ohm/p 0.01 80.00 Reverse resistive reach within the load
impedance area
ArgLd 5 - 70 Deg 1 30 Load angle determining the load
impedance area
X1FwPP 0.50 - 3000.00 ohm/p 0.01 40.00 Positive sequence reactance reach, Ph-
Ph, forward
R1PP 0.10 - 1000.00 ohm/p 0.01 7.00 Positive seq. resistance for characteristic
angle, Ph-Ph
RFFwPP 0.50 - 3000.00 ohm/l 0.01 30.00 Fault resistance reach, Ph-Ph, forward
X1RvPP 0.50 - 3000.00 ohm/p 0.01 40.00 Positive sequence reactance reach, Ph-
Ph, reverse
RFRvPP 0.50 - 3000.00 ohm/l 0.01 30.00 Fault resistance reach, Ph-Ph, reverse
X1FwPE 0.50 - 3000.00 ohm/p 0.01 40.00 Positive sequence reactance reach, Ph-
E, forward
R1PE 0.10 - 1000.00 ohm/p 0.01 7.00 Positive seq. resistance for characteristic
angle, Ph-E
X0FwPE 0.50 - 9000.00 ohm/p 0.01 120.00 Zero sequence reactance reach, Ph-E,
forward
Table continues on next page
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
149
Technical reference manual
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
R0PE 0.50 - 3000.00 ohm/p 0.01 20.00 Zero seq. resistance for zone
characteristic angle, Ph-E
RFFwPE 1.00 - 9000.00 ohm/l 0.01 100.00 Fault resistance reach, Ph-E, forward
X1RvPE 0.50 - 3000.00 ohm/p 0.01 40.00 Positive sequence reactance reach, Ph-
E, reverse
X0RvPE 0.50 - 9000.00 ohm/p 0.01 120.00 Zero sequence reactance reach, Ph-E,
reverse
RFRvPE 1.00 - 9000.00 ohm/l 0.01 100.00 Fault resistance reach, Ph-E, reverse
6.2.6 Technical data
Table 79: ZMCPDIS, ZMCAPDIS technical data
Function Range or value Accuracy
Number of zones 5 with selectable direction -
Minimum operate residual
current, zone 1
(5-30)% of IBase -
Minimum operate current, Ph-Ph
and Ph-E
(10-30)% of IBase -
Positive sequence reactance (0.50-3000.00) /phase 2.0% static accuracy
2.0 degrees static angular
accuracy
Conditions:
Voltage range: (0.1-1.1) x U
r
Current range: (0.5-30) x I
r
Angle: at 0 degrees and 85
degrees
Positive sequence resistance (0.10-1000.00) /phase
Zero sequence reactance (0.50-9000.00) /phase
Zero sequence resistance (0.50-3000.00) /phase
Fault resistance, Ph-E (1.00-9000.00) /loop
Fault resistance, Ph-Ph (1.00-3000.00) /loop
Dynamic overreach <5% at 85 degrees measured
with CCVTs and 0.5<SIR<30
-
Impedance zone timers (0.000-60.000) s 0.5% 10 ms
Operate time 24 ms typically -
Reset ratio 105% typically -
Reset time 30 ms typically -
6.3 Phase selection, quadrilateral characteristic with
fixed angle FDPSPDIS
Function description IEC 61850
identification
IEC 60617
identification
ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
Phase selection with load
encroachment, quadrilateral
characteristic
FDPSPDIS
Z<phs
SYMBOL-DD V1 EN
21
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
150
Technical reference manual
6.3.1 Introduction
The operation of transmission networks today is in many cases close to the stability
limit. Due to environmental considerations, the rate of expansion and
reinforcement of the power system is reduced, for example, difficulties to get
permission to build new power lines. The ability to accurately and reliably classify
the different types of fault, so that single pole tripping and autoreclosing can be
used plays an important role in this matter. Phase selection, quadrilateral
characteristic with fixed angle FDPSPDIS is designed to accurately select the
proper fault loop in the distance function dependent on the fault type.
The heavy load transfer that is common in many transmission networks may make
fault resistance coverage difficult to achieve. Therefore, FDPSPDIS has a built-in
algorithm for load encroachment, which gives the possibility to enlarge the
resistive setting of both the phase selection and the measuring zones without
interfering with the load.
The extensive output signals from the phase selection gives also important
information about faulty phase(s), which can be used for fault analysis.
6.3.2 Principle of operation
The basic impedance algorithm for the operation of the phase selection measuring
elements is the same as for the distance zone measuring function. Phase selection
with load encroachment, quadrilateral characteristic FDPSPDIS includes six
impedance measuring loops; three intended for phase-to-earth faults, and three
intended for phase-to-phase faults as well as for three-phase faults.
The difference, compared to the distance zone measuring function, is in the
combination of the measuring quantities (currents and voltages) for different types
of faults.
A current-based phase selection is also included. The measuring elements
continuously measure three phase currents and the residual current, and compare
them with the set values. The current signals are filtered by Fourier's recursive
filter, and separate trip counter prevents too high overreaching of the measuring
elements.
The characteristic is basically non-directional, but FDPSPDIS uses information
from the directional function to discriminate whether the fault is in forward or
reverse direction.
The start condition STCNDZ is essentially based on the following criteria:
1. Residual current criteria, that is, separation of faults with and without earth
connection
2. Regular quadrilateral impedance characteristic
3. Load encroachment characteristics is always active but can be switched off by
selecting a high setting.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
151
Technical reference manual
The current start condition STCNDI is based on the following criteria:
1. Residual current criteria
2. No quadrilateral impedance characteristic. The impedance reach outside the
load area is theoretically infinite. The practical reach, however, will be
determined by the minimum operating current limits.
3. Load encroachment characteristic is always active, but can be switched off by
selecting a high setting.
The STCNDI output is non-directional. The directionality is determined by the
distance zones directional function. There are outputs from FDPSPDIS that
indicate whether a start is in forward or reverse direction or non-directional, for
example STFWL1, STRVL1 and STNDL1.
These directional indications are based on the sector boundaries of the directional
function and the impedance setting of FDPSPDIS function. Their operating
characteristics are illustrated in figure 75.
en08000286.vsd
R
X
R
X
R
X
Non-directional (ND) Forward (FW) Reverse (RV)
IEC08000286 V1 EN
Figure 75: Characteristics for non-directional, forward and reverse operation
of Phase selection with load encroachment, quadrilateral
characteristic FDPSPDIS
The setting of the load encroachment function may influence the total operating
characteristic, (for more information, refer to section "Load encroachment").
The input DIRCND contains binary coded information about the directional
coming from the directional function . It shall be connected to the STDIR output on
ZDRDIR, directional measuring block. This information is also transferred to the
input DIRCND on the distance measuring zones, that is, the ZMQPDIS, distance
measuring block.
The code built up for the directionality is as follows:
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
152
Technical reference manual
STDIR= STFWL1*1+STFWL2*2+STFWL3*4+STFWL1L2*8+
+STFWL2L3*16+STFWL3L1*32+STRVL1*64+STRVL2*128+
+STRVL3*256+STRVL1L2*512+STRVL2L3*1024+STRVL3L1*2048
If the binary information is 1 then it will be considered that we have start in
forward direction in phase L1. If the binary code is 3 then we have start in forward
direction in phase L1 and L2, binary code 192 means start in reverse direction in
phase L1 and L2A and B etc.
The STCNDZ or STCNDI output contains, in a similar way as DIRCND, binary
coded information, in this case information about the condition for opening correct
fault loop in the distance measuring element. It shall be connected to the STCND
input on the ZMQPDIS, distance measuring block.
The code built up for release of the measuring fault loops is as follows:
STCND = L1N*1 + L2N*2 + L3N*4 + L1L2*8 + L2L3*16 + L3L1*32
6.3.2.1 Phase-to-earth fault
For a phase-to-earth fault, the measured impedance by FDPSPDIS will be
according to equation 21.
Index PHS in images and equations reference settings for Phase
selection with load encroachment function FDPSPDIS.
PHSn
ULn
Z
ILn
=
EQUATION1255 V1 EN (Equation 21)
where:
n corresponds to the particular phase (n=1, 2 or 3)
The characteristic for FDPSPDIS function at phase-to-earth fault is according to
figure 76. The characteristic has a fixed angle for the resistive boundary in the first
quadrant of 60.
The resistance RN and reactance XN are the impedance in the earth-return path
defined according to equation 22 and equation 23.
0 1
3
R R
RN
-
=
EQUATION1256 V1 EN (Equation 22)
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
153
Technical reference manual
0 1
3
X X
XN
-
=
EQUATION1257 V1 EN (Equation 23)
en06000396.vsd
RFFwPE
X1+XN
R (Ohm/loop)
X (ohm/loop)
RFRvPE
RFRvPE
RFFwPE
Kr(X1+XN)
RFRvPE
Kr(X1+XN)
X1+XN
RFFwPE
60 deg
60 deg
=
1
Kr
tan(60deg)
IEC06000396 V2 EN
Figure 76: Characteristic of FDPSPDIS for phase-to-earth fault (setting
parameters in italic), ohm/loop domain (directional lines are drawn
as "line-dot-dot-line")
Besides this, the 3I
0
residual current must fulfil the conditions according to
equation 24 and equation 25.
0 3 I 0.5 IMinOpPE
EQUATION2108 V1 EN (Equation 24)
3 I0
INReleasePE
100
------------------------------------
Iphmax
EQUATION766 V1 EN (Equation 25)
where:
IMinOpPE is the minimum operation current for forward zones
INReleasePE is the setting for the minimum residual current needed to enable operation in the phase-
to-earth fault loops (in %).
Iphmax is the maximum phase current in any of three phases.
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
154
Technical reference manual
6.3.2.2 Phase-to-phase fault
For a phase-to-phase fault, the measured impedance by FDPSPDIS will be
according to equation 26.
2
ULm ULn
ZPHS
ILn
-
=
-
EQUATION1258 V1 EN (Equation 26)
ULm is the leading phase voltage, ULn the lagging phase voltage and ILn the
phase current in the lagging phase n.
The operation characteristic is shown in figure 77.
IEC09000047-2-en.vsd
X1
R
X
0.5RFFwPP
KrX1
KrX1
X1
60 deg
60 deg
0.5RFFwPP 0.5RFRvPP
0.5RFRvPP
0.5RFRvPP 0.5RFFwPP
1
Kr
tan(60deg)
=
) / ( phase W
) / ( phase W
IEC09000047 V2 EN
Figure 77: The operation characteristics for FDPSPDIS at phase-to-phase
fault (setting parameters in italic, directional lines drawn as "line-dot-
dot-line"), ohm/phase domain
In the same way as the condition for phase-to-earth fault, there are current
conditions that have to be fulfilled in order to release the phase-to-phase loop.
Those are according to equation 27 or equation 28.
0 3I IMinOpPE <
EQUATION2109 V1 EN (Equation 27)
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
155
Technical reference manual
0 max 3
100
INBlockPP
I Iph <
EQUATION2110 V1 EN (Equation 28)
where:
IMinOpPE is the minimum operation current for earth measuring loops,
INBlockPP is 3I
0
limit for blocking phase-to-phase measuring loop and
Iphmax is maximal magnitude of the phase currents.
6.3.2.3 Three-phase faults
The operation conditions for three-phase faults are the same as for phase-to-phase
fault, that is equation 26, equation 27 and equation 28 are used to release the
operation of the function.
However, the reach is expanded by a factor 2/3 (approximately 1.1547) in all
directions. At the same time the characteristic is rotated 30 degrees, counter-
clockwise. The characteristic is shown in figure 78.
0.5RFFwPPK3
K3 = 2 / v(3)
X1K3
90 deg
0.5RFRvPPK3
30 deg
R (O/phase)
X (O/phase)
4 X1
3

4 RFFwPP
6

IEC05000671-3-en.vsd
IEC05000671 V3 EN
Figure 78: The characteristic of FDPSPDIS for three-phase fault (setting
parameters in italic)
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
156
Technical reference manual
6.3.2.4 Load encroachment
Each of the six measuring loops has its own load encroachment characteristic based
on the corresponding loop impedance. The load encroachment functionality is
always active, but can be switched off by selecting a high setting.
The outline of the characteristic is presented in figure 79. As illustrated, the
resistive blinders are set individually in forward and reverse direction while the
angle of the sector is the same in all four quadrants.
R
X
RLdFw
RLdRv
ArgLd
ArgLd ArgLd
ArgLd
IEC09000042-1-en.vsd
IEC09000042 V1 EN
Figure 79: Characteristic of load encroachment function
The influence of load encroachment function on the operation characteristic is
dependent on the chosen operation mode of FDPSPDIS function. When output
signal STCNDZ is selected, the characteristic for FDPSPDIS (and also zone
measurement depending on settings) will be reduced by the load encroachment
characteristic (see figure 80, left illustration).
When output signal STCNDI is selected, the operation characteristic will be as the
right illustration in figure 80. The reach will in this case be limit by the minimum
operation current and the distance measuring zones.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
157
Technical reference manual
R
X
STCNDZ STCNDI
R
X
en05000197.vsd
IEC05000197 V1 EN
Figure 80: Difference in operating characteristic depending on operation
mode when load encroachment is activated
When FDPSPDIS is set to operate together with a distance measuring zone the
resultant operate characteristic could look like in figure 81. The figure shows a
distance measuring zone operating in forward direction. Thus, the operating area is
highlighted in black.
R
X
Distance measuring zone
Directional line
Load encroachment
characteristic
"Phase selection"
"quadrilateral" zone
en05000673.vsd
IEC05000673 V1 EN
Figure 81: Operating characteristic in forward direction when load
encroachment is activated
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
158
Technical reference manual
Figure 81 is valid for phase-to-earth. During a three-phase fault, or load, when the
quadrilateral phase-to-phase characteristic is subject to enlargement and rotation
the operate area is transformed according to figure 82. Notice in particular what
happens with the resistive blinders of the "phase selection" "quadrilateral" zone.
Due to the 30-degree rotation, the angle of the blinder in quadrant one is now 90
degrees instead of the original 60 degrees. The blinder that is nominally located to
quadrant four will at the same time tilt outwards and increase the resistive reach
around the R-axis. Consequently, it will be more or less necessary to use the load
encroachment characteristic in order to secure a margin to the load impedance.
R
X
Distance measuring zone
Phase selection
Quadrilateral zone
IEC09000049-1-en.vsd
) / ( phase W
) / ( phase W
IEC09000049 V1 EN
Figure 82: Operating characteristic for FDPSPDIS in forward direction for three-
phase fault, ohm/phase domain
The result from rotation of the load characteristic at a fault between two phases is
presented in fig 83. Since the load characteristic is based on the same measurement
as the quadrilateral characteristic, it will rotate with the quadrilateral characteristic
clockwise by 30 degrees when subject to a pure phase-to-phase fault. At the same
time the characteristic will "shrink" by 2/3, from the full RLdFw and RLdRv
reach, which is valid at load or three-phase fault.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
159
Technical reference manual
R
X
IEC08000437.vsd
IEC08000437 V1 EN
Figure 83: Rotation of load characteristic for a fault between two phases
There is a gain in selectivity by using the same measurement as for the
quadrilateral characteristic since not all phase-to-phase loops will be fully affected
by a fault between two phases. It should also provide better fault resistive coverage
in quadrant one. The relative loss of fault resistive coverage in quadrant four
should not be a problem even for applications on series compensated lines.
6.3.2.5 Minimum operate currents
The operation of the Phase selection with load encroachment function (FDPSPDIS)
is blocked if the magnitude of input currents falls below certain threshold values.
The phase-to-earth loop Ln is blocked if ILn<IMinOpPE, where ILn is the RMS
value of the current in phase Ln.
The phase-to-phase loop LmLn is blocked if (2ILn<IMinOpPP).
6.3.2.6 Simplified logic diagrams
Figure 84 presents schematically the creation of the phase-to-phase and phase-to-
earth operating conditions. Consider only the corresponding part of measuring and
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
160
Technical reference manual
logic circuits, when only a phase-to-earth or phase-to-phase measurement is
available within the IED.
IEC08000439_1_en.vsd
&
& t
10 ms
t
20 ms & t
15 ms
t
15 ms
Bool to
integer
STCNDI
STPE
STPP
IRELPE
IRELPP
BLOCK
&
Load encroachment block
0 3I IMinOpPE <
0 max 3
100
INBlockPP
I Iph <
&
OR
0 3 0.5 I IMinOpPE
0 3
100
phmax
INReleasePE
I I
IEC08000439 1 EN V1 EN
Figure 84: Phase-to-phase and phase-to-earth operating conditions (residual
current criteria)
A special attention is paid to correct phase selection at evolving faults. A STCNDI
output signal is created as a combination of the load encroachment characteristic
and current criteria, refer to figure 84. This signal can be configured to STCND
functional input signals of the distance protection zone and this way influence the
operation of the phase-to-phase and phase-to-earth zone measuring elements and
their phase related starting and tripping signals.
Figure 85 presents schematically the composition of non-directional phase
selective signals STNDLn. Internal signals ZMLnN and ZMLmLn (m and n
change between one and three according to the phase number) represent the
fulfilled operating criteria for each separate loop measuring element, that is, within
the characteristic.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
161
Technical reference manual
IEC00000545_2_en.vsd
ZML1N
ZML2N
AND
AND
AND
ZML3N
IRELPE
AND
AND
AND
ZML1L2
ZML2L3
ZML3L1
IRELPP
INDL1N
INDL2N
INDL3N
OR
OR
OR
OR
INDL3L1
INDL2L3
INDL1L2
t
15 ms
t
15 ms
t
15 ms
t
15 ms
STNDPE
STNDL1
STNDL2
STNDL3
OR t
15 ms
STNDPP
IEC00000545-TIFF V2 EN
Figure 85: Composition on non-directional phase selection signals
Composition of the directional (forward and reverse) phase selective signals is
presented schematically in figure 87 and figure 86. The directional criteria appears
as a condition for the correct phase selection in order to secure a high phase
selectivity for simultaneous and evolving faults on lines within the complex
network configurations. Internal signals DFWLn and DFWLnLm present the
corresponding directional signals for measuring loops with phases Ln and Lm.
Designation FW (figure 87) represents the forward direction as well as the
designation RV (figure 86) represents the reverse direction. All directional signals
are derived within the corresponding digital signal processor.
Figure 86 presents additionally a composition of a STCNDZ output signal, which
is created on the basis of impedance measuring conditions. This signal can be
configured to STCND functional input signals of the distance protection zone and
this way influence the operation of the phase-to-phase and phase-to-earth zone
measuring elements and their phase related starting and tripping signals.
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
162
Technical reference manual
IEC00000546_2_en.vsd
INDL1N
DRVL1N
AND
AND
INDL1L2
DRVL1L2
AND
INDL3L1
DRVL3L1
AND
INDL2N
DRVL2N
AND
INDL1L2
DRVL2L3
AND
INDL2L3
AND
INDL3N
DRVL3N
AND
INDL2L3
AND
INDL3L1
OR
OR
OR
OR
t
15 ms
t
15 ms
t
15 ms
t
15 ms
STRVL1
STRVPE
STRVL2
STRVL3
INDL1N
INDL2N
INDL3N
INDL1L2
INDL2L3
INDL3L1
Bool to
integer
STCNDZ
OR t
15 ms
STRVPP
IEC00000546-TIFF V2 EN
Figure 86: Composition of phase selection signals for reverse direction
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
163
Technical reference manual
INDL1N
DFWL1N
AND
AND
INDL1L2
DFWL1L2
AND
INDL3L1
DFWL3L1
AND
INDL2N
DFWL2N
AND
INDL1L2
DFWL2L3
AND
INDL2L3
AND
INDL3N
DFWL3N
AND
INDL2L3
AND
INDL3L1
OR
OR
OR
OR
t
15 ms
t
15 ms
t
15 ms
t
15 ms
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
OR
OR
t
15 ms
t
15 ms
t
15 ms
t
15 ms
t
15 ms
STFW1PH
STFWL1
STFWPE
STFWL2
STFW2PH
STFWL3
STFW3PH
OR t
15 ms
STFWPP
IEC05000201_2_en.vsd
IEC05000201 V2 EN
Figure 87: Composition of phase selection signals for forward direction
Figure 88 presents the composition of output signals TRIP and START, where
internal signals STNDPP, STFWPP and STRVPP are the equivalent to internal
signals STNDPE, STFWPE and STRVPE, but for the phase-to-phase loops.
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
164
Technical reference manual
IEC08000441_2_en.vsd
AND
AND
OR
t
tPP
t
tPE
TRIP
TimerPP=Off
AND
TimerPE=Off
AND
OR
STFWPE
STRVPE
STNDPE
STFWPP
STRVPP
STNDPP
OR
OR
OR
START
IEC08000441 1 V2 EN
Figure 88: TRIP and START signal logic
6.3.3 Function block
IEC06000258-2-en.vsd
FDPSPDIS
I3P*
U3P*
BLOCK
DIRCND
TRIP
START
STFWL1
STFWL2
STFWL3
STFWPE
STRVL1
STRVL2
STRVL3
STRVPE
STNDL1
STNDL2
STNDL3
STNDPE
STFW1PH
STFW2PH
STFW3PH
STPE
STPP
STCNDZ
STCNDI
IEC06000258 V2 EN
Figure 89: FDPSPDIS function block
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
165
Technical reference manual
6.3.4 Input and output signals
Table 80: FDPSPDIS Input signals
Name Type Default Description
I3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Group signal for current input
U3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Group signal for voltage input
BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function
DIRCND INTEGER 0 External directional condition
Table 81: FDPSPDIS Output signals
Name Type Description
TRIP BOOLEAN Trip output
START BOOLEAN Start in any phase or loop
STFWL1 BOOLEAN Fault detected in phase L1 - forward direction
STFWL2 BOOLEAN Fault detected in phase L2 - forward direction
STFWL3 BOOLEAN Fault detected in phase L3 - forward direction
STFWPE BOOLEAN Earth fault detected in forward direction
STRVL1 BOOLEAN Fault detected in phase L1 - reverse direction
STRVL2 BOOLEAN Fault detected in phase L2 - reverse direction
STRVL3 BOOLEAN Fault detected in phase L3 - reverse direction
STRVPE BOOLEAN Earth fault detected in reverse direction
STNDL1 BOOLEAN Non directional start in L1
STNDL2 BOOLEAN Non directional start in L2
STNDL3 BOOLEAN Non directional start in L3
STNDPE BOOLEAN Non directional start, phase-earth
STFW1PH BOOLEAN Start in forward direction for single-phase fault
STFW2PH BOOLEAN Start in forward direction for two- phase fault
STFW3PH BOOLEAN Start in forward direction for thre-phase fault
STPE BOOLEAN Current conditions release of phase-earth
measuring elements
STPP BOOLEAN Current conditions release of phase-phase
measuring elements
STCNDZ INTEGER Start condition (PHS,LE and I based)
STCNDI INTEGER Start condition (LE and I based)
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
166
Technical reference manual
6.3.5 Setting parameters
Table 82: FDPSPDIS Group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
IBase 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 Base current, i.e. rated current
UBase 0.05 - 2000.00 kV 0.01 400.00 Base voltage, i.e. rated voltage
INBlockPP 10 - 100 %IPh 1 40 3I0 limit for blocking phase-to-phase
measuring loops
INReleasePE 10 - 100 %IPh 1 20 3I0 limit for releasing phase-to-earth
measuring loops
RLdFw 1.00 - 3000.00 ohm/p 0.01 80.00 Forward resistive reach within the load
impedance area
RLdRv 1.00 - 3000.00 ohm/p 0.01 80.00 Reverse resistive reach within the load
impedance area
ArgLd 5 - 70 Deg 1 30 Load angle determining the load
impedance area
X1 0.50 - 3000.00 ohm/p 0.01 40.00 Positive sequence reactance reach
X0 0.50 - 9000.00 ohm/p 0.01 120.00 Zero sequence reactance reach
RFFwPP 0.50 - 3000.00 ohm/l 0.01 30.00 Fault resistance reach, Ph-Ph, forward
RFRvPP 0.50 - 3000.00 ohm/l 0.01 30.00 Fault resistance reach, Ph-Ph, reverse
RFFwPE 1.00 - 9000.00 ohm/l 0.01 100.00 Fault resistance reach, Ph-E, forward
RFRvPE 1.00 - 9000.00 ohm/l 0.01 100.00 Fault resistance reach, Ph-E, reverse
IMinOpPP 5 - 30 %IB 1 10 Minimum operate delta current for Phase-
Phase loops
IMinOpPE 5 - 30 %IB 1 5 Minimum operate phase current for
Phase-Earth loops
Table 83: FDPSPDIS Group settings (advanced)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
TimerPP Off
On
- - Off Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer,
Ph-Ph
tPP 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 3.000 Time delay to trip, Ph-Ph
TimerPE Off
On
- - Off Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer,
Ph-E
tPE 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 3.000 Time delay to trip, Ph-E
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
167
Technical reference manual
6.3.6 Technical data
Table 84: FDPSPDIS technical data
Function Range or value Accuracy
Minimum operate current (5-30)% of IBase -
Reactive reach, positive
sequence, forward and reverse
(0.503000.00) /phase 2.0% static accuracy
2.0 degrees static angular
accuracy
Conditions:
Voltage range: (0.1-1.1) x U
r
Current range: (0.5-30) x I
r
Angle: at 0 degrees and 85
degrees
Resistive reach, positive
sequence
(0.101000.00) /phase
Reactive reach, zero sequence,
forward and reverse
(0.509000.00) /phase
Resistive reach, zero sequence (0.503000.00) /phase
Fault resistance, phase-to-earth
faults, forward and reverse
(1.009000.00) /loop
Fault resistance, phase-to-
phase faults, forward and reverse
(0.503000.00) /loop
Load encroachment criteria:
Load resistance, forward and
reverse
Safety load impedance angle

(1.003000.00) /phase
(5-70) degrees
Reset ratio 105% typically -
6.4 Full-scheme distance measuring, Mho
characteristic ZMHPDIS
Function description IEC 61850
identification
IEC 60617 identification ANSI/IEEE
C37.2 device
number
Full-scheme distance protection, mho
characteristic
ZMHPDIS
S00346 V1 EN
21
6.4.1 Introduction
The numerical mho line distance protection is a, up to five zone full scheme
protection for back-up detection of short circuit and earth faults. The full scheme
technique provides back-up protection of power lines with high sensitivity and low
requirement on remote end communication. The five zones have fully independent
measuring and settings, which gives high flexibility for all types of lines.
The IED can be used up to the highest voltage levels. It is suitable for the
protection of heavily loaded lines and multi-terminal lines where the requirement
for tripping is one-, two- and/or three-pole.
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
168
Technical reference manual
The independent measurement of impedance for each fault loop together with a
sensitive and reliable built in phase selection makes the function suitable in
applications with single phase autoreclosing.
Built-in adaptive load compensation algorithm prevents overreaching at phase-to-
earth faults on heavily loaded power lines, see figure 90.
en07000117.vsd
jX
Operation area Operation area
R
Operation area
No operation area No operation area
IEC07000117 V1 EN
Figure 90: Load encroachment influence on the offset mho characteristic
The distance protection zones can operate, independent of each other, in directional
(forward or reverse) or non-directional mode (offset). This makes them suitable,
together with different communication schemes, for the protection of power lines
and cables in complex network configurations, such as parallel lines, multi-
terminal lines and so on.
The possibility to use the phase-to-earth quadrilateral impedance characteristic
together with the mho characteristic increases the possibility to overcome eventual
lack of sensitivity of the mho element due to the shaping of the curve at remote end
faults.
The integrated control and monitoring functions offer effective solutions for
operating and monitoring all types of transmission and sub-transmission lines.
6.4.2 Principle of operation
6.4.2.1 Full scheme measurement
The execution of the different fault loops within the IED are of full scheme type,
which means that each fault loop for phase-to-earth faults and phase-to-phase faults
are executed in parallel.
The use of full scheme technique gives faster operation time compared to switched
schemes which mostly uses a start element to select correct voltages and current
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
169
Technical reference manual
depending on fault type. So each distance protection zone performs like one
independent distance protection function with six measuring elements.
6.4.2.2 Impedance characteristic
The distance function consists of five instances. Each instance can be selected to be
either forward or reverse with positive sequence polarized mho characteristic
alternatively self polarized offset mho characteristics with reverse offset. The
operating characteristic is in accordance to figure 91 where zone 5 is selected offset
mho.
R
jx
Mho, zone4
Mho, zone3
Mho, zone2
Mho, zone1
Offset mho, zone5
X
Zs=0
R
Zs=Z1
Zs=2Z1
IEC09000143-1-en.vsd
IEC09000143 V1 EN
Figure 91: Mho, offset mho characteristic and the source impedance influence on the mho characteristic
The mho characteristic has a dynamic expansion due to the source impedance.
Instead of crossing the origin as for the mho to the left of figure 91, which is only
valid where the source impedance is zero, the crossing point is moved to the
coordinates of the negative source impedance given an expansion of the circle
shown to the right of figure 91.
The polarization quantities used for the mho circle are 100% memorized positive
sequence voltages. This will give a somewhat less dynamic expansion of the mho
circle during faults. However, if the source impedance is high, the dynamic
expansion of the mho circle might lower the security of the function too much with
high loading and mild power swing conditions.
The mho distance element has a load encroachment function which cuts off a
section of the characteristic when enabled. The function is enabled by setting the
setting parameter LoadEnchMode to On. Enabling of the load encroachment
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
170
Technical reference manual
function increases the possibility to detect high resistive faults without interfering
with the load impedance. The algorithm for the load encroachment is located in the
Faulty phase identification with load encroachment for mho function FMPSPDIS,
where also the relevant settings can be found. Information about the load
encroachment from FMPSPDIS to the zone measurement is given in binary format
to the input signal LDCND.
6.4.2.3 Basic operation characteristics
Each impedance zone can be switched On and Off by the setting parameter
Operation.
Each zone can also be set to Non-directional, Forward or Reverse by setting the
parameter DirMode.
The operation for phase-to-earth and phase-to-phase fault can be individually
switched On and Off by the setting parameter OpModePE and OpModePP.
For critical applications such as for lines with high SIRs as well as CVTs, it is
possible to improve the security by setting the parameter ReachMode to
Underreach. In this mode the reach for faults close to the zone reach is reduced by
20% and the filtering is also introduced to increase the accuracy in the measuring.
If the ReachMode is set to Overreach no reduction of the reach is introduced and
no extra filtering introduced. The latter setting is recommended for overreaching
pilot zone, zone 2 or zone 3 elements and reverse zone where overreaching on
transients is not a major issue either because of less likelihood of overreach with
higher settings or the fact that these elements do not initiate tripping unconditionally.
The offset mho characteristic can be set in Non-directional, Forward or Reverse by
the setting parameter OffsetMhoDir. When Forward or Reverse is selected a
directional line is introduced. Information about the directional line is given from
the directional element and given to the measuring element as binary coded signal
to the input DIRCND.
The zone reach for phase-to-earth fault and phase-to-phase fault is set individually
in polar coordinates.
The impedance is set by the parameters ZPE and ZPP and the corresponding
arguments by the parameters ZAngPE and ZAngPP.
Compensation for earth-return path for faults involving earth is done by setting the
parameter KNMag and KNAng where KNMag is the magnitude of the earth-return
path and KNAng is the difference of angles between KNMag and ZPE.
Z0-Z1
3 Z1
KNMag =

EQUATION1579 V1 EN (Equation 29)


1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
171
Technical reference manual
( )
0 1
arg
3 1
Z Z
KNAng
Z
-
=

EQUATION1580 V1 EN (Equation 30)


where
Z0 is the complex zero sequence impedance of the line in /phase
Z1 is the complex positive sequence impedance of the line in /phase
The phase-to-earth and phase-to-phase measuring loops can be time delayed
individually by setting the parameter tPE and tPP respectively. To release the time
delay, the operation mode for the timers, OpModetPE and OpModetPP, has to be
set to On. This is also the case for instantaneous operation.
The function can be blocked in the following ways:
activating of input BLOCK blocks the whole function
activating of the input BLKZ (fuse failure) blocks all output signals
activating of the input BLKZMTD blocks the delta based algorithm
activating of the input BLKHSIR blocks the instantaneous part of the
algorithm for high SIR values
activating of the input BLKTRIP blocks all output signals
activating the input BLKPE blocks the phase-to-earth fault loop outputs
activating the input BLKPP blocks the phase-to-phase fault loop outputs
The activation of input signal BLKZ can be made by external fuse failure function
or from the loss of voltage check in the Mho supervision logic (ZSMGAPC). In
both cases the output BLKZ in the Mho supervision logic shall be connected to the
input BLKZ in the Mho distance function block (ZMHPDIS)
The input signal BLKZMTD is activated during some ms after fault has been
detected by ZSMGAPC to avoid unwanted operations due to transients. It shall be
connected to the BLKZMTD output signal of ZSMGAPC function.
At SIR values >10, the use of electronic CVT might cause overreach due to the built-
in resonance circuit in the CVT, which reduce the secondary voltage for a while.
The input BLKHSIR shall be connected to the output signal HSIR on ZSMGAPC
for increasing of the filtering and high SIR values. This is valid only when
permissive underreach scheme is selected by setting ReachMode=Underreach.
6.4.2.4 Theory of operation
The mho algorithm is based on phase comparison of a operating phasor and a
polarizing phasor. When the operating phasor leads the reference phasor by more
than 90 degrees, the function will operate and give a trip output.
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
172
Technical reference manual
Phase-to-phase fault
Mho
The plain mho circle has the characteristic as in figure 92. The condition for
deriving the angle is according to equation 31.
1 2 1 2 arg( ) arg( ) L L L L
pol
U I ZPP U b = - -
EQUATION1789 V1 EN (Equation 31)
where
U L1L2
EQUATION1790 V2
EN

is the voltage vector difference between phases L1 and L2
I L1L2
EQUATION1791 V2
EN

is the current vector difference between phases L1 and L2
ZPP is the positive sequence impedance setting for phase-to-phase fault
U
pol
is the polarizing voltage
The polarized voltage consists of 100% memorized positive sequence voltage
(UL1L2 for phase L1 to L2 fault). The memorized voltage will prevent collapse of
the mho circle for close in faults.
Operation occurs if 90270
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
173
Technical reference manual
ZPP I 2 L 1 L
L1L2
comp U = U

IL1L2X
IL1L2R
-
ZPP I
2 L 1 L

2 L 1 L U
pol U
en07000109.vsd
IEC07000109 V1 EN
Figure 92: Simplified mho characteristic and vector diagram for phase L1-to-
L2 fault
Offset Mho
The characteristic for offset mho is a circle where two points on the circle are the
setting parameters ZPP and ZRevPP. The vector ZPP in the impedance plane has
the settable angle AngZPP and the angle for ZRevPP is AngZPP+180.
The condition for operation at phase-to-phase fault is that the angle between the
two compensated voltages Ucomp1 and Ucomp2 is greater than or equal to 90
(figure 93). The angle will be 90 for fault location on the boundary of the circle.
The angle for L1-to-L2 fault can be defined according to equation 32.
L1L2
L1L2
-I ZPP
arg
U-(-I ZRevPP)
U

b =



EQUATION1792 V1 EN (Equation 32)
where
U
EQUATION1800 V1 EN

is the U
L1L2
voltage
ZRevPP is the positive sequence impedance setting for phase-to-phase fault in reverse direction
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
174
Technical reference manual
ZPP I 2 L 1 L
L1L2
comp1 U = U

IL1L2jX
IL1L2R
-
ZPP I
2 L 1 L

vPP Re Z 2 L 1 L I
U
U 2 Ucomp = =
-
IFZF=UL1L2
en07000110.vsd
IEC07000110 V1 EN
Figure 93: Simplified offset mho characteristic and voltage vectors for phase
L1-to-L2 fault.
Operation occurs if 90270.
Offset mho, forward direction
When forward direction has been selected for the offset mho, an extra criteria
beside the one for offset mho (90<<270) is introduced, that is the angle between
the voltage and the current must lie between the blinders in second quadrant and
fourth quadrant. See figure 94. Operation occurs if 90270 and
ArgDirArgNegRes.
where
ArgDir is the setting parameter for directional line in fourth quadrant in the directional element,
ZDMRDIR.
ArgNegRes is the setting parameter for directional line in second quadrant in the directional element,
ZDMRDIR.
is calculated according to equation 32
The directional information is brought to the mho distance measurement from the
mho directional element as binary coded information to the input DIRCND. See
Directional impedance element for mho characteristic (ZDMRDIR) for information
about the mho directional element.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
175
Technical reference manual
IL1L2jX
UL1L2
f
ArgDir
IL1L2
ArgNegRes
ZPP
en07000111.vsd
IEC07000111 V1 EN
Figure 94: Simplified offset mho characteristic in forward direction for phase
L1-to-L2 fault
Offset mho, reverse direction
The operation area for offset mho in reverse direction is according to figure 95.
The operation area in second quadrant is ArgNegRes+180.
Operation occurs if 90270 and 180 - ArgDir ArgNegRes + 180
The is derived according to equation 32 for the mho circle and is the angle
between the voltage and current.
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
176
Technical reference manual
X
R
ArgDir
ArgNegRes
ZPP
ZRevPP
UL1L2

IL1L2
en06000469.eps
IEC06000469 V1 EN
Figure 95: Operation characteristic for reverse phase L1-to-L2 fault
Phase-to-earth fault
Mho
The measuring of earth faults uses earth-return compensation applied in a
conventional way. The compensation voltage is derived by considering the
influence from the earth-return path.
For an earth fault in phase L1, the compensation voltage Ucomp can be derived, as
shown in figure 96.
1 L loop pol Ucomp U I Z = -
EQUATION1793 V1 EN (Equation 33)
where
U
pol
is the polarizing voltage (memorized UL1 for Phase L1-to- earth fault)
Z
loop
is the loop impedance, which in general terms can be expressed as
( )
1 1 Z +ZN 1 Z KN = +
EQUATION1799 V1 EN (Equation 34)
Table continues on next page
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
177
Technical reference manual
where
Z
1
is the positive sequence impedance of the line (Ohm/phase)
KN is the zero-sequence compensator factor
The angle between the Ucomp and the polarize voltage Upol for a L1-to-earth
fault is
b = arg [U
L1
-(I
L1
+3
I0
KN) ZPE] - arg( Upol)
GUID-A9492CDF-D3B7-4DC5-8E06-6638BEE2540B V1 EN (Equation 35)
where
U
L1
is the phase voltage in faulty phase L1
I
L1
is the phase current in faulty phase L1
I
A
is the phase current in faulty phase A
3I
0
is the zero-sequence current in faulty phase L1
KN
EQUATION1593 V1 EN
Z0-Z1
3 Z1
EQUATION1594 V1 EN
the setting parameter for the zero sequence compensation consisting of the
magnitude KN and the angle KNAng.
U
pol
is the 100% of positive sequence memorized voltage U
L1
V
pol
is the 100% of positive sequence memorized voltage V
A
comp U

IL1X
IL1R
IL1ZPE
IL1ZN
loop L1 Z I
f
Upol
IL1 (Ref)
en06000472_2.vsd
IEC06000472 V2 EN
Figure 96: Simplified offset mho characteristic and vector diagram for phase
L1-to-earth fault
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
178
Technical reference manual
Operation occurs if 90270.
Offset mho
The characteristic for offset mho at earth fault is a circle containing the two vectors
from the origin ZPE and ZRevPE where ZPE and ZrevPE are the setting reach for
the positive sequence impedance in forward respective reverse direction. The
vector ZPE in the impedance plane has the settable angle AngZPE and the angle for
ZRevPP is AngZPE+180.
The condition for operation at phase-to-earth fault is that the angle between the
two compensated voltages Ucomp1 and Ucomp2 is greater or equal to 90 see
figure 97. The angle will be 90 for fault location on the boundary of the circle.
The angle for L1-to-earth fault can be defined as
L1 L1L
L1 L1
U - I
arg
U -(- I Re )
ZPE
Z vPE

b =




EQUATION1802 V1 EN (Equation 38)
where
1 L
U
EQUATION1
805 V1 EN
is the phase L1 voltage
ZPE I 1 L
ZPE L1 I - U = U
L1
comp1

jX
IL1L2 R
vPe Re Z I - L1
UL1
)
L1 = ZRevPE (-I - 1 L 2 comp U U
en 06000465. vsd
2 I 1 L L

IEC06000465 V1 EN
Figure 97: Simplified offset mho characteristic and voltage vector for phase L1-
to-L2 fault
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
179
Technical reference manual
Operation occurs if 90270.
Offset mho, forward direction
In the same way as for phase-to-phase fault, selection of forward direction of offset
mho will introduce an extra criterion for operation. Beside the basic criteria for
offset mho according to equation 38 and 90270, also the criteria that the angle
between the voltage and the current must lie between the blinders in second and
fourth quadrant. See figure 98. Operation occurs if 90270 and
ArgDirArgNegRes.
where
ArgDir is the setting parameter for directional line in fourth quadrant in the directional element,
ZDMRDIR.
ArgNegRes is the setting parameter for directional line in second quadrant in the directional element,
ZDMRDIR.
is calculated according to equation 38
IL1jX
UL1
f
ArgDir
IL1
ArgNegRes
IL1R
en 06000466. vsd
IEC06000466 V1 EN
Figure 98: Simplified characteristic for offset mho in forward direction for L1-to-
earth fault
Offset mho, reverse direction
In the same way as for offset in forward direction, the selection of offset mho in
reverse direction will introduce an extra criterion for operation compare to the
normal offset mho. The extra is that the angle between the fault voltage and the
fault current shall lie between the blinders in second and fourth quadrant. The
operation area in second quadrant is limited by the blinder defined as 180 -ArgDir
and in fourth quadrant ArgNegRes+180, see figure 99.
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
180
Technical reference manual
The conditions for operation of offset mho in reverse direction for L1-to-earth fault
is 90270 and 180-ArgdirArgNegRes+180.
The is derived according to equation 38 for the offset mho circle and is the
angle between the voltage and current.
X
R
ArgDir
ArgNegRes
ZPE
ZRevPE
UL1

IL1
en06000470.eps
IEC06000470 V1 EN
Figure 99: Simplified characteristic for offset mho in reverse direction for L1-to-
earth fault
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
181
Technical reference manual
6.4.3 Function block
IEC06000423_2_en.vsd
ZMHPDIS
I3P*
U3P*
CURR_INP*
VOLT_INP*
POL_VOLT*
BLOCK
BLKZ
BLKZMTD
BLKHSIR
BLKTRIP
BLKPE
BLKPP
DIRCND
STCND
LDCND
TRIP
TRL1
TRL2
TRL3
TRPE
TRPP
START
STL1
STL2
STL3
STPE
STPP
IEC06000423 V2 EN
Figure 100: ZMHPDIS function block
6.4.4 Input and output signals
Table 85: ZMHPDIS Input signals
Name Type Default Description
I3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Connection for current sample signals
U3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Connection for voltage sample signals
CURR_INP GROUP
SIGNAL
- Connection for current signals
VOLT_INP GROUP
SIGNAL
- Connection for voltage signals
POL_VOLT GROUP
SIGNAL
- Connection for polarizing voltage
BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function
BLKZ BOOLEAN 0 Block due to fuse failure
BLKZMTD BOOLEAN 0 Block signal for blocking of time domaine function
BLKHSIR BOOLEAN 0 Blocks time domain function at high SIR
BLKTRIP BOOLEAN 0 Blocks all operate output signals
BLKPE BOOLEAN 0 Blocks phase-to-earth operation
BLKPP BOOLEAN 0 Blocks phase-to-phase operation
DIRCND INTEGER 0 External directional condition
STCND INTEGER 0 External start condition (loop enabler)
LDCND INTEGER 0 External load condition (loop enabler)
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
182
Technical reference manual
Table 86: ZMHPDIS Output signals
Name Type Description
TRIP BOOLEAN Trip General
TRL1 BOOLEAN Trip phase L1
TRL2 BOOLEAN Trip phase L2
TRL3 BOOLEAN Trip phase L3
TRPE BOOLEAN Trip phase-to-earth
TRPP BOOLEAN Trip phase-to-phase
START BOOLEAN Start General
STL1 BOOLEAN Start phase L1
STL2 BOOLEAN Start phase L2
STL3 BOOLEAN Start phase L3
STPE BOOLEAN Start phase-to-earth
STPP BOOLEAN Start phase-to-phase
6.4.5 Setting parameters
Table 87: ZMHPDIS Group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
Operation Off
On
- - On Operation Off/On
IBase 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 Base current
UBase 0.05 - 2000.00 kV 0.05 400.00 Base voltage
DirMode Off
Offset
Forward
Reverse
- - Forward Direction mode
LoadEnchMode Off
On
- - Off Load enchroachment mode Off/On
ReachMode Overreach
Underreach
- - Overreach Reach mode Over/Underreach
OpModePE Off
On
- - On Operation mode Off / On of Phase-Earth
loops
ZPE 0.005 - 3000.000 ohm/p 0.001 30.000 Positive sequence impedance setting for
Phase-Earth loop
ZAngPE 10 - 90 Deg 1 80 Angle for positive sequence line
impedance for Phase-Earth loop
KN 0.00 - 3.00 - 0.01 0.80 Magnitud of earth return compensation
factor KN
KNAng -180 - 180 Deg 1 -15 Angle for earth return compensation
factor KN
ZRevPE 0.005 - 3000.000 ohm/p 0.001 30.000 Reverse reach of the phase to earth
loop(magnitude)
tPE 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.000 Delay time for operation of phase to
earth elements
Table continues on next page
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
183
Technical reference manual
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
IMinOpPE 10 - 30 %IB 1 20 Minimum operation phase to earth current
OpModePP Off
On
- - On Operation mode Off / On of Phase-
Phase loops
ZPP 0.005 - 3000.000 ohm/p 0.001 30.000 Impedance setting reach for phase to
phase elements
ZAngPP 10 - 90 Deg 1 85 Angle for positive sequence line
impedance for Phase-Phase elements
ZRevPP 0.005 - 3000.000 ohm/p 0.001 30.000 Reverse reach of the phase to phase
loop(magnitude)
tPP 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.000 Delay time for operation of phase to phase
IMinOpPP 10 - 30 %IB 1 20 Minimum operation phase to phase
current
Table 88: ZMHPDIS Group settings (advanced)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
OffsetMhoDir Non-directional
Forward
Reverse
- - Non-directional Direction mode for offset mho
OpModetPE Off
On
- - On Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer,
Ph-E
OpModetPP Off
On
- - On Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer,
Ph-ph
6.4.6 Technical data
Table 89: ZMHPDIS technical data
Function Range or value Accuracy
Number of zones with selectable
directions
Max 5 with selectable direction -
Minimum operate current (1030)% of I
Base
-
Positive sequence impedance,
phase-to-earth loop
(0.0053000.000) W/phase 2.0% static accuracy
Conditions:
Voltage range: (0.1-1.1) x U
r
Current range: (0.5-30) x I
r
Angle: at 0 degrees and 85
degrees
Positive sequence impedance
angle, phase-to-earth loop
(1090) degrees
Reverse reach, phase-to-earth
loop (Magnitude)
(0.0053000.000) /phase
Magnitude of earth return
compensation factor KN
(0.003.00)
Angle for earth compensation
factor KN
(-180180) degrees
Dynamic overreach <5% at 85 degrees measured
with CVTs and 0.5<SIR<30
-
Timers (0.000-60.000) s 0.5% 10 ms
Table continues on next page
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
184
Technical reference manual
Function Range or value Accuracy
Operate time 20 ms typically (with static
outputs)
-
Reset ratio 105% typically -
Reset time 30 ms typically -
6.5 Full-scheme distance protection, quadrilateral for
earth faults ZMMPDIS, ZMMAPDIS
Function description IEC 61850
identification
IEC 60617
identification
ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
Fullscheme distance protection,
quadrilateral for earth faults (zone 1)
ZMMPDIS
S00346 V1 EN
21
Fullscheme distance protection,
quadrilateral for earth faults (zone 2-5)
ZMMAPDIS
S00346 V1 EN
21
6.5.1 Introduction
The line distance protection is a , up to five zone protection with three fault loops
for phase-to-earth fault for each of the independent zones. Individual settings for
each zone resistive and reactive reach give flexibility for use on overhead lines and
cables of different types and lengths.
The Full-scheme distance protection, quadrilateral for earth faults functions
ZMMDPIS and ZMMAPDIS have functionality for load encroachment, which
increases the possibility to detect high resistive faults on heavily loaded lines , see
figure 47.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
185
Technical reference manual
en05000034.vsd
R
X
Forward
operation
Reverse
operation
IEC05000034 V1 EN
Figure 101: Typical quadrilateral distance protection zone with Phase selection,
quadrilateral characteristic with settable angle function FRPSPDIS
activated
The independent measurement of impedance for each fault loop together with a
sensitive and reliable built in phase selection makes the function suitable in
applications with single phase auto-reclosing.
Built-in adaptive load compensation algorithm prevents overreaching of zone1 at
load exporting end at phase to earth faults on heavily loaded power lines.
The distance protection zones can operate, independent of each other, in directional
(forward or reverse) or non-directional mode. This makes them suitable, together
with different communication schemes, for the protection of power lines and cables
in complex network configurations, such as parallel lines, multi-terminal lines.
6.5.2 Principle of operation
6.5.2.1 Full scheme measurement
The different fault loops within the IED are operating in parallel in the same
principle as a full scheme measurement.
Figure 102 presents an outline of the different measuring loops for the basic five,
impedance-measuring zones l.
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
186
Technical reference manual
en07000080.vsd
L1-N L2-N L3-N
L1-N L2-N L3-N
L1-N L2-N L3-N
L1-N L2-N L3-N
L1-N L2-N L3-N
Zone 1
Zone 2
Zone 3
Zone 4
Zone 5
IEC07000080 V1 EN
Figure 102: The different measuring loops at line-earth fault and phase-phase
fault.
6.5.2.2 Impedance characteristic
The distance measuring zone include three impedance measuring loops; one fault
loop for each phase.
The distance measuring zone will essentially operate according to the non-
directional impedance characteristics presented in figure 103. The characteristic is
illustrated with the full loop reach.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
187
Technical reference manual
RFPE
X1PE+Xn
X1PE+Xn
RFPE
R1PE+Rn
RFPE
RFPE
RFPE
RFPE
R
R1PE+Rn
(Ohm/loop)
en08000280-2-en.vsd
X0PE-X1PE
Xn
3
=
R0PE-R1PE
Rn
3
=
jN jN
X (Ohm/loop)
IEC08000280 V1 EN
Figure 103: Characteristic for the phase-to-earth measuring loops, ohm/loop
domain.
The fault loop reach may also be presented as in figure 104.
UL1
R1 + j X1
ILn
RFPE
Phase-to-earth
fault in phase L1
(Arc + tower
resistance)
0
(R0-R1)/3 +
j (X0-X1)/3 )
IN
Phase-to-earth
element
en06000412.vsd
IEC06000412 V1 EN
Figure 104: Fault loop model
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
188
Technical reference manual
The R1 and jX1 in figure 104 represents the positive sequence impedance from the
measuring point to the fault location. The RFPE is presented in order to convey
the fault resistance reach.
The zone may be set to operate in Non-directional, Forward, Off or Reverse
direction through the setting OperationDir. The result from respective set value is
illustrated in figure 105. It may be convenient to once again mention that the
impedance reach is symmetric, in the sense that it is conform for forward and
reverse direction. Therefore, all reach settings apply to both directions.
en05000182.vsd
R
X
R
X
R
X
Non-directional Forward Reverse
IEC05000182 V1 EN
Figure 105: Directional operating modes of the distance measuring zone
6.5.2.3 Minimum operating current
The operation of the distance measuring zone is blocked if the magnitude of input
currents fall below certain threshold values.
The phase-to-earth loop Ln is blocked if ILn < IMinOpPE.
For zone 1 with load compensation feature the additional criterion applies, that all
phase-to-earth loops will be blocked when IN < IMinOpIN, regardless of the phase
currents.
ILn is the RMS value of the current in phase Ln. IN is the RMS value of the vector
sum of the three phase currents, that is, residual current 3I0.
Both current limits IMinOpPE and IMinOpIN are automatically
reduced to 75% of regular set values if the zone is set to operate in
reverse direction, that is, OperationDir=Reverse.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
189
Technical reference manual
6.5.2.4 Measuring principles
Fault loop equations use the complex values of voltage, current, and changes in the
current. Apparent impedances are calculated and compared with the set limits.
Here U and I represent the corresponding voltage and current phasors in the
respective phase Ln (n = 1, 2, 3).
The calculation of the apparant impedances at phase-to-earth fault follow equation
39
The earth return compensation applies in a conventional manner.
Z
app
U
L1
I
L1
I
N
KN +
= ------------------------------
EQUATION1223 V1 EN (Equation 39)
Where:
UL1, IL1 and IN are the phase voltage, phase current and residual current present to the IED
KN is defined as:
Z0 Z1
KN
3 Z1
-
=

EQUATION 2105 V1 EN
0 0 0 Z R jX = +
EQUATION2106 V1 EN
1 1 1 Z R jX = +
EQUATION2107 V1 EN
Where
R0 is setting of the resistive zero sequence reach
X0 is setting of the reactive zero sequence reach
R1 is setting of the resistive positive sequence reach
X1 is setting of the reactive positive sequence reach
Here IN is a phasor of the residual current in IED point. This results in the same
reach along the line for all types of faults.
The apparent impedance is considered as an impedance loop with resistance R and
reactance X.
The formula given in equation 39 is only valid for no loaded radial feeder
applications. When load is considered in the case of single line-to-earth fault,
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
190
Technical reference manual
conventional distance protection might overreach at exporting end and underreach
at importing end. IED has an adaptive load compensation which increases the
security in such applications.
Measuring elements receive current and voltage information from the A/D
converter. The check sums are calculated and compared, and the information is
distributed into memory locations. For each of the six supervised fault loops,
sampled values of voltage (U), current (I), and changes in current between samples
(DI) are brought from the input memory and fed to a recursive Fourier filter.
The filter provides two orthogonal values for each input. These values are related
to the loop impedance according to equation 40,
U R i
X
w
0
------
+
Di
Dt
-----
=
EQUATION1224 V1 EN (Equation 40)
in complex notation, or:
Re U ( ) R Re I ( )
X
w
0
------ +
DRe I ( )
Dt
------------------ =
EQUATION354 V1 EN (Equation 41)
Im U ( ) R Im I ( )
X
w
0
------ +
DIm I ( )
Dt
----------------- =
EQUATION355 V1 EN (Equation 42)
with
w
0
2 p f
0
=
EQUATION356 V1 EN (Equation 43)
where:
Re designates the real component of current and voltage,
Im designates the imaginary component of current and voltage and
f
0
designates the rated system frequency
The algorithm calculates Rm measured resistance from the equation for the real
value of the voltage and substitute it in the equation for the imaginary part. The
equation for the Xm measured reactance can then be solved. The final result is
equal to:
R
m
Im U ( ) DRe I ( ) Re U ( ) DIm I ( )
DRe I ( ) Im I ( ) DIm I ( ) Re I ( )
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ =
EQUATION357 V1 EN (Equation 44)
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
191
Technical reference manual
X
m
w
0
Dt
Re U ( ) Im I ( ) Im U ( ) Re I ( )
DRe I ( ) Im I ( ) DIm I ( ) Re I ( )
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- =
EQUATION358 V1 EN (Equation 45)
The calculated R
m
and X
m
values are updated each sample and compared with the
set zone reach. The adaptive tripping counter counts the number of permissive
tripping results. This effectively removes any influence of errors introduced by the
capacitive voltage transformers or by other factors.
The directional evaluations are performed simultaneously in both forward and
reverse directions, and in all six fault loops. Positive sequence voltage and a phase
locked positive sequence memory voltage are used as a reference. This ensures
unlimited directional sensitivity for faults close to the IED point.
6.5.2.5 Directional lines
The evaluation of the directionality takes place in the Directional impedance
element for mho characteristic ZDMRDIR function. Equation 46 is used to classify
that the fault is in forward direction for line-to-earth fault.
L1 L1M
L1
0.85 U1 0.15 U1
ArgDir arg ArgNeg Res
I
+
- < <
EQUATION1617 V1 EN (Equation 46)
where:
ArgDir is the setting for the lower boundary of the forward directional characteristic, by default
set to 15 (= -15 degrees) and
ArgNegRes is the setting for the upper boundary of the forward directional characteristic, by default
set to 115 degrees, see figure 106.
U1
L1
is positive sequence phase voltage in phase L1
U1
L1M
is positive sequence memorized phase voltage in phase L1
I
L1
is phase current in phase L1
The setting of ArgDir and ArgNegRes is by default set to 15 (= -15) and 115
degrees respectively (see figure 106) and it should not be changed unless system
studies have shown the necessity.
ZDMRDIR gives a binary coded signal on the output STDIRCND depending on
the evaluation where STFWL1N=1 adds 1, STRVL1N=1 adds 2, STFWL2N=1
adds 4 etc.
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
192
Technical reference manual
R
X
ArgDir
ArgNegRes
en05000722.vsd
IEC05000722 V1 EN
Figure 106: Setting angles for discrimination of forward and reverse fault
The reverse directional characteristic is equal to the forward characteristic rotated
by 180 degrees.
The polarizing voltage is available as long as the positive-sequence voltage
exceeds 5% of the set base voltage UBase. So the directional element can use it for
all unsymmetrical faults including close-in faults.
For close-in three-phase faults, the U1
L1M
memory voltage, based on the same
positive sequence voltage, ensures correct directional discrimination.
The memory voltage is used for 100 ms or until the positive sequence voltage is
restored.
After 100 ms, the following occurs:
If the current is still above the set value of the minimum operating current
(between 10 and 30% of the set IED rated current IBase), the condition seals in.
If the fault has caused tripping, the trip endures.
If the fault was detected in the reverse direction, the measuring element
in the reverse direction remains in operation.
If the current decreases below the minimum operating value, the memory
resets until the positive sequence voltage exceeds 10% of its rated value.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
193
Technical reference manual
6.5.2.6 Simplified logic diagrams
Distance protection zones
The design of distance protection zone 1 is presented for all measuring: phase-to-
earth loops.
Phase-to-earth related signals are designated by LnE, where n represents the
corresponding phase number (L1E, L2E, and L3E).
Fulfillment of two different measuring conditions is necessary to obtain the one
logical signal for each separate measuring loop:
Zone measuring condition, which follows the operating equations described
above.
Group functional input signal (STCND), as presented in figure 107.
The STCND input signal represents a connection of six different integer values
from the phase selection function within the IED, which are converted within the
zone measuring function into corresponding boolean expressions for each
condition separately. It is connected to the Phase selection with load
enchroachment, quadrilateral characteristic (FDPSPDIS) function output STCNDZ.
The input signal DIRCND is used to give condition for directionality for the
distance measuring zones. The signal contains binary coded information for both
forward and reverse direction. The zone measurement function filter out the
relevant signals on the DIRCND input depending on the setting of the parameter
OperationDir. It shall be configured to the DIRCND output on the Directional
impedance element for mho characteristic (ZDMRDIR) function.
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
194
Technical reference manual
en06000408.vsd
AND
AND
AND
L1N
L2N
L3N
STCND
STNDL1N
STNDL2N
STNDL3N
STNDPE
AND
BLOCK
VTSZ
STND
BLK
OR
OR
OR
IEC06000408 V1 EN
Figure 107: Conditioning by a group functional input signal STCND
Composition of the phase starting signals for a case, when the zone operates in a non-
directional mode, is presented in figure 108.
en06000409.vsd
STNDL1N
STNDL2N
STNDL3N
OR
AND
AND
AND
AND
BLK
t
15 ms
t
15 ms
t
15 ms
t
15 ms
START
STL3
STL2
STL1
IEC06000409 V1 EN
Figure 108: Composition of starting signals in non-directional operating mode
Results of the directional measurement enter the logic circuits, when the zone
operates in directional (forward or reverse) mode, see figure 109.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
195
Technical reference manual
STNDL1N
DIRL1N
STNDL2N
DIRL2N
STNDL3N
DIRL3N
&
&
&
&
&
BLK
t
15 ms
t
15 ms
t
15 ms
t
15 ms
STZMPE.
STL1
STL2
STL3
START
AND
AND
AND
OR
OR
en07000081.vsd
IEC07000081 V1 EN
Figure 109: Composition of starting signals in directional operating mode
Tripping conditions for the distance protection zone one are symbolically presented
in figure 110.
en07000082.vsd
Timer tPE=On
STZMPE
AND t
tPE
BLKTR t
15ms
AND
AND
AND
STL1
STL2
STL3
TRIP
TRL1
TRL2
TRL3
AND
IEC07000082 V1 EN
Figure 110: Tripping logic for the distance protection zone one
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
196
Technical reference manual
6.5.3 Function block
IEC06000454-2-en.vsd
ZMMPDIS
I3P*
U3P*
BLOCK
BLKZ
BLKTR
STCND
DIRCND
TRIP
TRL1
TRL2
TRL3
START
STL1
STL2
STL3
STND
IEC06000454 V2 EN
Figure 111: ZMMPDIS function block
IEC09000947-1-en.vsd
ZMMAPDIS
I3P*
U3P*
BLOCK
BLKZ
BLKTR
STCND
DIRCND
TRIP
TRL1
TRL2
TRL3
START
STL1
STL2
STL3
STND
IEC09000947 V1 EN
Figure 112: ZMMAPDIS function block
6.5.4 Input and output signals
Table 90: ZMMPDIS Input signals
Name Type Default Description
I3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Group signal for current input
U3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Group signal for voltage input
BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function
BLKZ BOOLEAN 0 Blocks all output by fuse failure signal
BLKTR BOOLEAN 0 Blocks all trip outputs
STCND INTEGER 0 External start condition (loop enabler)
DIRCND INTEGER 0 External directional condition
Table 91: ZMMPDIS Output signals
Name Type Description
TRIP BOOLEAN General Trip, issued from any phase or loop
TRL1 BOOLEAN Trip signal from phase L1
TRL2 BOOLEAN Trip signal from phase L2
TRL3 BOOLEAN Trip signal from phase L3
Table continues on next page
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
197
Technical reference manual
Name Type Description
START BOOLEAN General Start, issued from any phase or loop
STL1 BOOLEAN Start signal from phase L1
STL2 BOOLEAN Start signal from phase L2
STL3 BOOLEAN Start signal from phase L3
STND BOOLEAN Non-directional start, issued from any phase or
loop
Table 92: ZMMAPDIS Input signals
Name Type Default Description
I3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Group signal for current input
U3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Group signal for voltage input
BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function
BLKZ BOOLEAN 0 Blocks all output by fuse failure signal
BLKTR BOOLEAN 0 Blocks all trip outputs
STCND INTEGER 0 External start condition (loop enabler)
DIRCND INTEGER 0 External directional condition
Table 93: ZMMAPDIS Output signals
Name Type Description
TRIP BOOLEAN General Trip, issued from any phase or loop
TRL1 BOOLEAN Trip signal from phase L1
TRL2 BOOLEAN Trip signal from phase L2
TRL3 BOOLEAN Trip signal from phase L3
START BOOLEAN General Start, issued from any phase or loop
STL1 BOOLEAN Start signal from phase L1
STL2 BOOLEAN Start signal from phase L2
STL3 BOOLEAN Start signal from phase L3
STND BOOLEAN Non-directional start, issued from any phase or
loop
6.5.5 Setting parameters
Table 94: ZMMPDIS Group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
Operation Off
On
- - On Operation Off / On
IBase 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 Base current, i.e. rated current
UBase 0.05 - 2000.00 kV 0.05 400.00 Base voltage, i.e. rated voltage
Table continues on next page
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
198
Technical reference manual
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
OperationDir Off
Non-directional
Forward
Reverse
- - Forward Operation mode of directionality NonDir /
Forw / Rev
X1 0.50 - 3000.00 ohm/p 0.01 30.00 Positive sequence reactance reach
R1 0.10 - 1000.00 ohm/p 0.01 5.00 Positive seq. resistance for zone
characteristic angle
X0 0.50 - 9000.00 ohm/p 0.01 100.00 Zero sequence reactance reach
R0 0.50 - 3000.00 ohm/p 0.01 15.00 Zero seq. resistance for zone
characteristic angle
RFPE 1.00 - 9000.00 ohm/l 0.01 100.00 Fault resistance reach in ohm/loop, Ph-E
Timer tPE Off
On
- - On Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer,
Ph-E
tPE 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.000 Time delay of trip, Ph-E
IMinOpPE 10 - 30 %IB 1 20 Minimum operate phase current for
Phase-Earth loops
IMinOpIN 5 - 30 %IB 1 5 Minimum operate residual current for
Phase-Earth loops
Table 95: ZMMAPDIS Group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
Operation Off
On
- - On Operation Off / On
IBase 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 Base current, i.e. rated current
UBase 0.05 - 2000.00 kV 0.05 400.00 Base voltage, i.e. rated voltage
OperationDir Off
Non-directional
Forward
Reverse
- - Forward Operation mode of directionality NonDir /
Forw / Rev
X1 0.50 - 3000.00 ohm/p 0.01 40.00 Positive sequence reactance reach
R1 0.10 - 1000.00 ohm/p 0.01 5.00 Positive seq. resistance for zone
characteristic angle
X0 0.50 - 9000.00 ohm/p 0.01 120.00 Zero sequence reactance reach
R0 0.50 - 3000.00 ohm/p 0.01 15.00 Zero seq. resistance for zone
characteristic angle
RFPE 1.00 - 9000.00 ohm/l 0.01 100.00 Fault resistance reach in ohm/loop, Ph-E
Timer tPE Off
On
- - On Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer,
Ph-E
tPE 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.000 Time delay of trip, Ph-E
IMinOpPE 10 - 30 %IB 1 20 Minimum operate phase current for
Phase-Earth loops
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
199
Technical reference manual
6.5.6 Technical data
Table 96: ZMMPDIS technical data
Function Range or value Accuracy
Number of zones Max 5 with selectable direction -
Minimum operate current (10-30)% of IBase -
Positive sequence reactance (0.50-3000.00) W/phase 2.0% static accuracy
2.0 degrees static angular
accuracy
Conditions:
Voltage range: (0.1-1.1) x U
r
Current range: (0.5-30) x I
r
Angle: at 0 degrees and 85
degrees
Positive sequence resistance (0.10-1000.00) /phase
Zero sequence reactance (0.50-9000.00) /phase
Zero sequence resistance (0.50-3000.00) /phase
Fault resistance, Ph-E (1.00-9000.00) W/loop
Dynamic overreach <5% at 85 degrees measured
with CCVTs and 0.5<SIR<30
-
Impedance zone timers (0.000-60.000) s 0.5% 10 ms
Operate time 24 ms typically -
Reset ratio 105% typically -
Reset time 30 ms typically -
6.6 Directional impedance element for mho
characteristic and additional distance protection
directional function for earth faults ZDMRDIR,
ZDARDIR
Function description IEC 61850
identification
IEC 60617
identification
ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
Directional impedance element for mho
characteristic
ZDMRDIR
S00346 V1 EN
21D
Function description IEC 61850
identification
IEC 60617
identification
ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
Additional distance protection
directional function for earth faults
ZDARDIR
S00346 V1 EN
-
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
200
Technical reference manual
6.6.1 Introduction
The phase-to-earth impedance elements can be optionally supervised by a phase
unselective directional function based on symmetrical components.
6.6.2 Principle of operation
6.6.2.1 Directional impedance element for mho characteristic ZDMRDIR
The evaluation of the directionality takes place in Directional impedance element
for mho characteristic (ZDMRDIR). Equation 47 and equation 48 are used to
classify that the fault is in the forward direction for phase-to-earth fault and phase-
to-phase fault respectively.
L1 L1M
L1
0.85 U1 0.15 U1
ArgDir arg ArgNeg Res
I
+
- < <
EQUATION1617 V1 EN (Equation 47)
L1L2 L1L2M
L1L2
0.85 U1 0.15 U1
ArgDir arg ArgNeg Res
I
+
- < <
EQUATION1619 V1 EN (Equation 48)
Where:
ArgDir Setting for the lower boundary of the forward directional characteristic, by default set to
15 (= -15 degrees)
ArgNegRes Setting for the upper boundary of the forward directional characteristic, by default set to
115 degrees, see figure 113 for mho characteristics.
U1
L1
Positive sequence phase voltage in phase L1
U1
L1M
Positive sequence memorized phase voltage in phase L1
I
L1
Phase current in phase L1
U1
L1L2
Voltage difference between phase L1 and L2 (L2 lagging L1)
U1
L1L2M
Memorized voltage difference between phase L1 and L2 (L2 lagging L1)
I
L1L2
Current difference between phase L1 and L2 (L2 lagging L1)
The default settings for ArgDir and ArgNegRes are 15 (= -15) and 115 degrees
respectively (see figure 113) and they should not be changed unless system studies
show the necessity.
If one sets DirEvalType to Comparator (which is recommended when using the
mho characteristic) then the directional lines are computed by means of a comparator-
type calculation, meaning that the directional lines are based on mho-circles (of
infinite radius). The default setting value Impedance otherwise means that the
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
201
Technical reference manual
directional lines are implemented based on an impedance calculation equivalent to
the one used for the quadrilateral impedance characteristics.
When Directional impedance element for mho characteristic
(ZDMRDIR) is used together with Fullscheme distance protection,
mho characteristic (ZMHPDIS) the following settings for
parameter DirEvalType is vital:
alternative Comparator is strongly recommended
alternative Imp/Comp should generally not be used
alternative Impedance should not be used. This altenative is
intended for use together with Distance protection zone,
quadrilateral characteristic (ZMQPDIS)
X
R
-ArgDir
ArgNegRes
Zset reach point
-Zs
en06000416.vsd
IEC06000416 V1 EN
Figure 113: Setting angles for discrimination of forward fault
The reverse directional characteristic is equal to the forward characteristic rotated
by 180 degrees.
The polarizing voltage is available as long as the positive-sequence voltage
exceeds 5% of the set base voltage UBase. So the directional element can use it for
all unsymmetrical faults including close-in faults.
For close-in three-phase faults, the U1
L1M
memory voltage, based on the same
positive sequence voltage, ensures correct directional discrimination.
The memory voltage is used for 100ms or until the positive sequence voltage is
restored. After 100ms, the following occurs:
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
202
Technical reference manual
If the current is still above the set value of the minimum operating current the
condition seals in.
If the fault has caused tripping, the trip endures.
If the fault was detected in the reverse direction, the measuring element
in the reverse direction remains in operation.
If the current decreases below the minimum operating value, no directional
indications will be given until the positive sequence voltage exceeds 10% of
its rated value.
The Directional impedance element for mho characteristic (ZDMRDIR) function
has the following output signals:
The STDIRCND output provides an integer signal that depends on the evaluation
and is derived from a binary coded signal as follows:
bit 11
(2048)
bit 10
(1024)
bit 9
(512)
bit 8
(256)
bit 7
(128)
bit 6
(64)
STRVL3L1=
1
STRVL2L3=
1
STRVL1L2=
1
STRVL3N=1 STRVL2N=1 STRVL1N=1
bit 5
(32)
bit 4
(16)
bit 3
(8)
bit 2
(4)
bit 1
(2)
bit 0
(1)
STFWL3L1=
1
STFWL2L3=
1
STFWL1L2=
1
STFWL3N=1 STFWL2N=1 STFWL1N=1
The STFW output is a logical signal with value 1 or 0. It is made up as an OR-
function of all the forward starting conditions, that is, STFWL1N, STFWL2N,
STFWL3N, STFWL1L2, STFWL2L3 and STFWL3L1. The STRV output is
similar to the STFW output, the only difference being that it is made up as an OR-
function of all the reverse starting conditions, that is, STRVL1N, STRVL2N,
STRVL3N, STRVL1L2, STRVL2L3 and STRVL3L1.
Values for the following parameters are calculated, and may be viewed as service
values:
resistance phase L1
reactance phase L1
resistance phase L2
reactance phase L2
resistance phase L3
reactance phase L3
direction phase L1
direction phase L2
direction phase L3
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
203
Technical reference manual
6.6.2.2 Additional distance protection directional function for earth faults
ZDARDIR
A Mho element needs a polarizing voltage for its operation. The positive-sequence
memory-polarized elements are generally preferred. The benefits include:
The greatest amount of expansion for improved resistive coverage. These
elements always expand back to the source.
Memory action for all fault types. This is very important for close-in three-
phase faults.
A common polarizing reference for all six distance-measuring loops. This is
important for single-pole tripping, during a pole-open period.
There are however some situations that can cause security problems like reverse
phase to phase faults and double phase-to-earth faults during high load periods. To
solve these, additional directional element is used.
For phase-to-earth faults, directional elements using sequence components are very
reliable for directional discrimination. The directional element can be based on one
of following types of polarization:
Zero-sequence voltage
Negative-sequence voltage
Zero-sequence current
These additional directional criteria are evaluated in the Additional distance
protection directional function for earth faults (ZDARDIR).
Zero-sequence voltage polarization is utilizing the phase relation between the zero-
sequence voltage and the zero-sequence current at the location of the protection.
The measurement principle is illustrated in figure 114.
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
204
Technical reference manual

- 3U
0

3I
0
AngleRCA
AngleOp
en06000417.vsd
IEC06000417 V1 EN
Figure 114: Principle for zero-sequence voltage polarized additional directional
element
Negative-sequence voltage polarization is utilizing the phase relation between the
negative-sequence voltage and the negative-sequence current at the location of the
protection.
Zero-sequence current polarization is utilizing the phase relation between the zero-
sequence current at the location of the protection and some reference zero-
sequence current, for example, the current in the neutral of a power transformer.
The principle of zero-sequence voltage polarization with zero-sequence current
compensation is described in figure 115. The same also applies for the negative-
sequence function.

Z0 SA
Z0 SB
Z0 Line
U0
I0
IF
I0
U0
K*I0
U0 + K*I0
Characteris tic
angle
en06000418.vsd
IEC06000418 V1 EN
Figure 115: Principle for zero sequence compensation
Note that the sequence based additional directional element cannot give per phase
information about direction to fault. This is why it is an AND-function with the
normal directional element that works on a per phase base. The release signals are
per phase and to have a release of a measuring element in a specific phase both the
additional directional element, and the normal directional element, for that phase
must indicate correct direction.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
205
Technical reference manual
en06000419.vsd
Normal
directional
element
L1N, L2N, L3N
Additional
directional
element

Release of distance
measuring element
L1N, L2N, L3N
AND per
phase
AND
IEC06000419 V1 EN
Figure 116: Earth distance element directional supervision
6.6.3 Function block
IEC06000422_2_en.vsd
ZDMRDIR
I3P*
U3P*
DIR_CURR
DIR_VOLT
DIR_POL
STFW
STRV
STDIRCND
IEC06000422 V2 EN
Figure 117: ZDMRDIR function block
IEC06000425-2-en.vsd
ZDARDIR
I3P*
U3P*
I3PPOL*
DIRCND
STFWPE
STRVPE
DIREFCND
IEC06000425 V2 EN
Figure 118: ZDARDIR function block
6.6.4 Input and output signals
Table 97: ZDMRDIR Input signals
Name Type Default Description
I3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- group connection for current abs 1
U3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- group connection for voltage abs 1
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
206
Technical reference manual
Table 98: ZDMRDIR Output signals
Name Type Description
DIR_CURR GROUP SIGNAL Group connection
DIR_VOLT GROUP SIGNAL Group connection
DIR_POL GROUP SIGNAL Group connection
STFW BOOLEAN Start in forward direction
STRV BOOLEAN Start in reverse direction
STDIRCND INTEGER Binary coded directional information per
measuring loop
Table 99: ZDARDIR Input signals
Name Type Default Description
I3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Current signals
U3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Voltage signals
I3PPOL GROUP
SIGNAL
- Polarisation current signals
DIRCND INTEGER 0 Binary coded directional signal
Table 100: ZDARDIR Output signals
Name Type Description
STFWPE BOOLEAN Forward start signal from phase-to-ground
directional element
STRVPE BOOLEAN Reverse start signal from phase-to-ground
directional element
DIREFCND INTEGER Start direction Binary coded
6.6.5 Setting parameters
Table 101: ZDMRDIR Group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
IBase 1 - 99999 - 1 3000 Base setting for current level
UBase 0.05 - 2000.00 - 0.05 400.00 Base setting for voltage level
DirEvalType Impedance
Comparator
Imp/Comp
- - Comparator Directional evaluation mode Impedance /
Comparator
ArgNegRes 90 - 175 Deg 1 115 Angle of blinder in second quadrant for
forward direction
ArgDir 5 - 45 Deg 1 15 Angle of blinder in fourth quadrant for
forward direction
IMinOpPE 5 - 30 %IB 1 5 Minimum operate phase current for
Phase-Earth loops
IMinOpPP 5 - 30 %IB 1 10 Minimum operate delta current for Phase-
Phase loops
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
207
Technical reference manual
Table 102: ZDARDIR Group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
IBase 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 Base setting for current values
UBase 0.05 - 2000.00 kV 0.05 400.00 Base setting for voltage level in kV
PolMode -3U0
-U2
IPol
Dual
-3U0Comp
-U2comp
- - -3U0 Polarization quantity for opt dir function
for P-E faults
AngleRCA -90 - 90 Deg 1 75 Characteristic relay angle (= MTA or
base angle)
I> 1 - 200 %IB 1 5 Minimum operation current in % of IBase
UPol> 1 - 100 %UB 1 1 Minimum polarizing voltage in % of UBase
IPol> 5 - 100 %IB 1 10 Minimum polarizing current in % of IBase
Table 103: ZDARDIR Group settings (advanced)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
AngleOp 90 - 180 Deg 1 160 Operation sector angle
Kmag 0.50 - 3000.00 ohm 0.01 40.00 Boost-factor in -U0comp and -U2comp
polarization
6.7 Mho impedance supervision logic ZSMGAPC
Function description IEC 61850
identification
IEC 60617
identification
ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
Mho Impedance supervision logic ZSMGAPC - -
6.7.1 Introduction
The Mho impedance supervision logic (ZSMGAPC) includes features for fault
inception detection and high SIR detection. It also includes the functionality for
loss of potential logic as well as for the pilot channel blocking scheme.
ZSMGAPC can mainly be decomposed in two different parts:
1. A fault inception detection logic
2. High SIR detection logic
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
208
Technical reference manual
6.7.2 Principle of operation
6.7.2.1 Fault inception detection
The aim for the fault inception detector is to detect quickly that a fault has occurred
on the system.
The fault inception detection detects instantaneous changes in any phase currents
or zero sequence current in combination with a change in the corresponding phase
voltage or zero sequence voltage. If the change of any phase current and
corresponding phase voltage or 3U0 and 3I0 exceeds the settings DeltaI and
DeltaU respectively. Delta3U0 and Delta3I0 and the input signal BLOCK is not
activated, the output signal FLTDET is activated indicating that a system fault has
occurred.
If the setting PilotMode is set to On in blocking scheme and the fault inception
function has detected a system fault, a block signal BLKCHST will be issued and
send to remote end in order to block the overreaching zones. Different criteria has
to be fulfilled for sending the BLKCHST signal:
1. The setting PilotMode has to be set to On
2. The breaker has to be closed, that is, the input signal CBOPEN has to be
deactivated
3. A reverse fault should have been detected while the carrier send signal is not
blocked, that is, input signal REVSTART is activated and input signal
BLOCKCS is not activated
Or
A fault inception is detected
If it is later detected that it was an internal fault that made the function issue the
BLKCHST signal, the function will issue a CHSTOP signal to unblock the remote
end. The criteria that have to be fulfilled for this are:
1. The function has to be in pilot mode, that is, the setting PilotMode has to be
set to On
2. The carrier send signal should be blocked, that is, input signal BLOCKCS is
On and,
3. A reverse fault should not have been detected while the carrier send signal was
not blocked, that is, input signals REVSTART and BLOCKCS is not activated.
ZSMGAPC function has a built in loss of voltage detection based on the evaluation
of the change in phase voltage or the change in zero sequence voltage (3U0). It
operates if the change in phase voltages exceeds the setting DeltaU or 3U0 exceeds
the setting Delta3U0.
If loss of voltage is detected, but not a fault inception, the distance protection
function will be blocked. This is also the case if a fuse failure is detected by the
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
209
Technical reference manual
external fuse failure function and activate the input FUSEFAIL. Those blocks are
generated by activating the output BLKZ, which shall be connected to the input
BLKZ on the distance Mho function block.
During fault inception a lot of transients will be developed which in turn might
cause the distance function to overreach. The Mho supervision logic (ZSMGAPC)
will increase the filtering during the most transient period of the fault. This is done
by activating the output BLKZMD, which shall be connected to the input
BLKZMTD on mho distance function block.
High SIR detection
High SIR values increases the likelihood that CVT will introduce a prolonged and
distorted transient, increasing the risk for overreach of the distance function.
The SIR function calculates the SIR value as the source impedance divided by the
setting Zreach and activates the output signal HSIR if the calculated value for any
of the six basic shunt faults exceed the setting SIRLevel. The HSIR signal is
intended to block the delta based mho impedance function.
6.7.3 Function block
IEC06000426-2-en.vsd
ZSMGAPC
I3P*
U3P*
BLOCK
REVSTART
BLOCKCS
CBOPEN
BLKZMTD
BLKCHST
CHSTOP
HSIR
IEC06000426 V2 EN
Figure 119: ZSMGAPC function block
6.7.4 Input and output signals
Table 104: ZSMGAPC Input signals
Name Type Default Description
I3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Three phase current samples and DFT magnitude
U3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Three phase phase-neutral voltage samples and
DFT magnitude
BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of the function
REVSTART BOOLEAN 0 Indication of reverse start
BLOCKCS BOOLEAN 0 Blocks the blocking carrier signal to remote end
CBOPEN BOOLEAN 0 Indicates that the breaker is open
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
210
Technical reference manual
Table 105: ZSMGAPC Output signals
Name Type Description
BLKZMTD BOOLEAN Block signal for blocking of time domained mho
BLKCHST BOOLEAN Blocking signal to remote end to block
overreaching zone
CHSTOP BOOLEAN Stops the blocking signal to remote end
HSIR BOOLEAN Indication of source impedance ratio above set limit
6.7.5 Setting parameters
Table 106: ZSMGAPC Group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
IBase 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 Base value for current measurement
UBase 0.05 - 2000.00 kV 0.05 400.00 Base value for voltage measurement
PilotMode Off
On
- - Off Pilot mode Off/On
Zreach 0.1 - 3000.0 ohm 0.1 38.0 Line impedance
IMinOp 10 - 30 %IB 1 20 Minimum operating current for SIR
measurement
Table 107: ZSMGAPC Group settings (advanced)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
DeltaI 0 - 200 %IB 1 10 Current change level in %IB for fault
inception detection
Delta3I0 0 - 200 %IB 1 10 Zero seq current change level in % of IB
DeltaU 0 - 100 %UB 1 5 Voltage change level in %UB for fault
inception detection
Delta3U0 0 - 100 %UB 1 5 Zero seq voltage change level in % of UB
SIRLevel 5 - 15 - 1 10 Settable level for source impedance ratio
6.8 Faulty phase identification with load encroachment
FMPSPDIS
Function description IEC 61850
identification
IEC 60617
identification
ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
Faulty phase identification with load
encroachment for mho
FMPSPDIS
S00346 V1 EN
21
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
211
Technical reference manual
6.8.1 Introduction
The operation of transmission networks today is in many cases close to the stability
limit. Due to environmental considerations the rate of expansion and reinforcement
of the power system is reduced, for example difficulties to get permission to build
new power lines. The ability to accurate and reliable classifying the different types
of fault so that single phase tripping and autoreclosing can be used plays an
important roll in this matter.
The phase selection function is design to accurate select the proper fault loop in the
distance function dependent on the fault type.
The heavy load transfer that is common in many transmission networks may in
some cases interfere with the distance protection zone reach and cause unwanted
operation. Therefore the function has a built in algorithm for load encroachment,
which gives the possibility to enlarge the resistive setting of the measuring zones
without interfering with the load.
The output signals from the phase selection function produce important
information about faulty phase(s), which can be used for fault analysis as well.
6.8.2 Principle of operation
6.8.2.1 The phase selection function
Faulty phase identification with load encroachment for mho (FMPSPDIS) function
can be decomposed into six different parts:
1. A high speed delta based current phase selector
2. A high speed delta based voltage phase selector
3. A symmetrical components based phase selector
4. Fault evaluation and selection logic
5. A load encroachment logic
6. A blinder logic
The total function can be blocked by activating the input BLOCK.
Delta based current and voltages
The delta based fault detection function uses adaptive technique and is based on
patent US4409636.
The aim of the delta based phase selector is to provide very fast and reliable phase
selection for releasing of tripping from the high speed Mho measuring element and
is essential to Directional Comparison Blocking scheme (DCB), which uses Power
Line Carrier (PLC) communication system across the protected line.
The current and voltage samples for each phase passes through a notch filter that
filters out the fundamental components. Under steady state load conditions or when
no fault is present, the output of the filter is zero or close to zero. When a fault
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
212
Technical reference manual
occurs, currents and voltages change resulting in sudden changes in the currents
and voltages resulting in non-fundamental waveforms being introduced on the line.
At this point the notch filter produces significant non-zero output. The filter output
is processed by the delta function. The algorithm uses an adaptive relationship
between phases to determine if a fault has occurred, and determines the faulty phases.
The current and voltage delta based phase selector gives a real output signal if the
following criterion is fulfilled (only phase L1 shown):
Max(UL1,UL2,UL3)>DeltaUMinOp
Max(IL1,IL2,IL3)>DeltaIMinOp
where:
UL1, UL2 and UL3 are the voltage change between sample t and sample t-1
DeltaUMinOp and DeltaIMinOp are the minimum harmonic level settings for the voltage and current
filters to decide that a fault has occurred. A slow evolving fault may not
produce sufficient harmonics to detect the fault; however, in such a
case speed is no longer the issue and the sequence components
phase selector will operate.
The delta voltages ULn and delta current ILn (n prefix for phase order) are the
voltage and current between sample t and sample t-1.
The delta phase selector employs adaptive techniques to determine the fault type.
The logic determines the fault type by summing up all phase values and dividing
by the largest value. Both voltages and currents are filtered out and evaluated. The
condition for fault type classification for the voltages and currents can be expressed
as:
( UL1, UL2, UL3)
Fa ulType
Max( IL1, IL2, UL3)
S D D D
=
D D D
EQUATION1621 V1 EN (Equation 49)
( IL1, IL2, IL3)
Fa ultType
Max( IL1, IL2, IL3)
S D D D
=
D D D
EQUATION1622 V1 EN (Equation 50)
The value of FaultType for different shunt faults are as follows:
Under ideal conditions: (Patent pending)
Single phase-to-earth; FaultType=1
Phase-to-phase fault FaultType=2
Three-phase fault; FaultType=3
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
213
Technical reference manual
The output signal is 1 for single phase-to-earth fault, 2 for phase-to-phase fault and
3 for three-phase fault. At this point the filter does not know if earth was involved
or not.
Typically there are induced harmonics in the non-faulted lines that will affect the
result. This method allows for a significant tolerance in the evaluation of FaultType
over its entire range.
When a single phase-to-earth fault has been detected, the logic determines the
largest quantity, and asserts that phase. If phase-to-phase fault is detected, the two
largest phase quantities will be detected and asserted as outputs.
The faults detected by the delta based phase selector are coordinated in a separate
block. Different phases of faults may be detected at slightly different times due to
differences in the angles of incidence of fault on the wave shape. Therefore the
output is forced to wait a certain time by means of a timer. If the timer expires, and
a fault is detected in one phase only, the fault is deemed as phase-to-earth. This
way a premature single phase-to-earth fault detection is not released for a phase-to-
phase fault. If, however, earth current is detected before the timer expires, the phase-
to-earth fault is released sooner.
If another phase picks up during the time delay, the wait time is reduced by a
certain amount. Each detection of either earth-to-phase or additional phases further
reduce the initial time delay and allow the delta phase selector output to be faster.
There is no time delay, if for example, all three phases are faulty.
The delta function is released if the input DELTAREL is activated at the same time
as input DELTABLK is not activated. Activating the DELTABLK input will block
the delta function. The release signal has an internal pulse timer of 100 ms. When
the DELTAREL signal has disappeared the delta logic is reset. In order not to get
too abrupt change, the reset is decayed in pre-defined steps.
Symmetrical component based phase selector
The symmetrical component phase selector uses preprocessed calculated sequence
voltages and currents as inputs. It also uses sampled values of the phase currents.
All the symmetrical quantities mentioned further in this section are with reference
to phase L1.
The function is made up of four main parts:
A Detection of the presence of earth fault
B A phase-to-phase logic block based on U
1
/U
2
angle relationship
C A phase-to-earth component based on patent US5390067 where the angle relationships
between U
2
/I
0
and U
2
/U
1
is evaluated to determine earth fault or phase- to-phase to earth fault
D Logic for detection of three-phase fault
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
214
Technical reference manual
Presence of earth-fault detection
This detection of earth fault is performed in two levels, first by evaluation of the
magnitude of zero sequence current, and secondly by the evaluation of the zero and
negative sequence voltage. It is a complement to the earth-fault signal built-in in
the Symmetrical component based phase selector.
The complementary based zero-sequence current function evaluates the presence of
earth fault by calculating the 3I
0
and comparing the result with the setting
parameter INRelPE. The output signal is used to release the earth-fault loop. It is a
complement to the earth-fault signal built-in in the sequence based phase selector.
The condition for releasing the phase-to-earth loop is as follows:
The output from this detection is used to release the earth-fault loop.
|3I
0
|>maxIph: INRelPE
where:
|3I
0
| is the magnitude of the zero sequence current 3I
0
maxIph is the maximum magnitude of the phase currents
INRelPE is a setting parameter for the relation between the magnitude of 3I
0
and the
maximum phase current
The earth-fault loop is also released if the evaluation of the zero sequence current
by the main sequence function meets the following conditions:
|3I
0
|>IBase 0.5
|3I
0
|>maxIph INRelPE
where:
maxIph is the maximal current magnitude found in any of the three phases
INRelPE is the setting of 3I0 limit for release of phase-to-earth measuring loop in % of IBase
IBase is the global setting of the base current (A)
In systems where the source impedance for zero sequence is high the change of
zero sequence current may not be significant and the above detection may fail. In
those cases the detection enters the second level, with evaluation of zero and
negative sequence voltage. The release of the earth-fault loops can then be
achieved if all of the following conditions are fulfilled:
|3U
0
|>|U
2
| 0.5
|3U
0
|>|U
1
| 0.2
|U
1
|> UBase 0.2/(3)
and
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
215
Technical reference manual
3I
0
> 0.1 IBase
or
3I
0
<maxIph INRelPE
where:
3U
0
is the magnitude of the zero sequence voltage
U
2
is the magnitude of the negative sequence voltage at the relay measuring point of
phase L1
k5 is design parameter
ILmax is the maximal phase current
IMinOp is the setting of minimum operate phase current in % of IBase
Phase-to-phase fault detection
The detection of phase-to-phase fault is performed by evaluation of the angle
difference between the sequence voltages U
2
and U
1
.
0
300
180
L1-L2 sector
L2-L3 sector
L3-L1 sector
60
en06000383.vsd
U1L1 (Ref)
UL3
UL2
UL1
IEC06000383 V1 EN
Figure 120: Definition of fault sectors for phase-to-phase fault
The phase-to-phase loop for the faulty phases will be determined if the angle
between the sequence voltages U
2
and U
1
lies within the sector defined according
to figure 120 and the following conditions are fulfilled:
|U
1
|>U1MinOP
|U
2
|>U2MinOp
where:
U1MinOP and U2MinOp are the setting parameters for positive sequence and negative sequence
minimum operate voltages
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
216
Technical reference manual
The positive sequence voltage U
1
L1 in figure 120 above is reference.
If there is a three-phase fault, there will not be any release of the individual phase
signals, even if the general conditions for U
2
and U
1
are fulfilled.
Phase-to-earth and phase-to-phase-to-earth-fault detection
The detection of phase-to-earth and phase-to-phase-to-earth fault (US patent
5390067) is based on two conditions:
1. Angle relationship between U
2
and I
0
2. Angle relationship between U
2
and U
1
The condition 1 determines faulty phase at single phase-to-earth fault by determine
the argument between U
2
and I
0
.
320
200
80
L1-E sector
L3-E sector L2-E sector
IEC06000384-2-en.vsd
IEC06000384 V2 EN
Figure 121: Condition 1: Definition of faulty phase sector as angle between U
2
and I
0
The angle is calculated in a directional function block and gives the angle in
radians as input to the U
2
and I
0
function block. The input angle is released only if
the fault is in forward direction. This is done by the directional element. The fault
is classified as forward direction if the angle between U
0
and I
0
lies between 20 to
200 degrees, see figure 122.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
217
Technical reference manual
200
Reverse
Forward 20
en06000385.vsd
IEC06000385 V1 EN
Figure 122: Directional element used to release the measured angle between
U
o
and I
0
The input radians are summarized with an offset angle and the result evaluated. If
the angle is within the boundaries for a specific sector, the phase indication for that
sector will be active see figure 121. Only one sector signal is allowed to be
activated at the same time.
The sector function for condition 1 has an internal release signal which is active if
the main sequence function has classified the angle between U
0
and I
0
as valid. The
following conditions must be fulfilled for activating the release signals:
|U
2
|>U2MinOp
|3I
0
|> 0.05 IBase
|3I
0
|>maxIph INRelPE
where:
U
2
and IN are the magnitude of the negative sequence voltage and zero-
sequence current (3I
0
)
U2MinOp is the setting parameter for minimum operating negative sequence
voltage
maxIph is the maximum phase current
INRelPE is the setting parameter for 3I
0
limit for releasing phase-to-earth loop
The angle difference is phase shifted by 180 degrees if the fault is in reverse direction.
The condition 2 looks at the angle relationship between the negative sequence
voltage U
2
and the positive sequence voltage U
1
. Since this is a phase-to-phase
voltage relationship, there is no need for shifting phases if the fault is in reverse
direction. A phase shift is introduced so that the fault sectors will have the same
angle boarders as for condition 1. If the calculated angle between U
2
and U
1
lies
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
218
Technical reference manual
within one sector, the corresponding phase for that sector will be activated. The
condition 2 is released if both the following conditions are fulfilled:
|U
2
|>U2MinOp
|U
1
|>U1MinOP
where:
|U
1
| and |U
2
| are the magnitude of the positive and negative sequence voltages.
U1MinOP and U2MinOp are the setting parameters for positive sequence and negative sequence
minimum operating voltages.
20
140
260
L1-E sector
L3-E sector
L2-E sector
U1L1
(Ref)
IEC06000413_2_en.vsd
IEC06000413 V2 EN
Figure 123: Condition 2: U
2
and U
1
angle relationship
If both conditions are true and there is sector match, the fault is deemed as single
phase-to-earth. If the sectors, however, do not match the fault is determined to be
the complement of the second condition, that is, a phase-to-phase-to- earth fault.
Condition 1 and Condition 2 Fault type
L3-E L3-E L3-E
L2-E L1-E L2-L3-E
The sequence phase selector is blocked when earth is not involved or if a three-
phase fault is detected.
Three-phase fault detection
Unless it has been categorized as a single or two-phase fault, the function classifies
it as a three-phase fault if the following conditions are fulfilled:
|U
1
|<U1Level
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
219
Technical reference manual
and
|I
1
|>I1LowLevel
or
|I
1
|>IMaxLoad
where:
|U
1
| and |I
1
| are the positive sequence voltage and current magnitude
U1Level ,
I1LowLevel
are the setting of limits for positive sequence voltage and current
IMaxLoad is the setting of the maximum load current
The output signal for detection of three-phase fault is only released if not earth
fault and phase-to-phase fault in the main sequence function is detected.
The conditions for not detecting earth fault are the inverse of equation 5 to 10.
The condition for not detecting phase-to-phase faults is determined by three
conditions. Each of them gives condition for not detecting phase-to-phase fault.
Those are:
1:
earth fault is detected
or
|3I
0
IN|> 0.05 IBase
and
|3I
0
IN|>maxIph INRelPE
2:
phase-to-earth and phase-to-phase faults are not fulfilled
and
maxIph<0.1 IBase
and
|I
2
|<0.1 maxIph
3:
|3I
0
IN|>maxIph INBlockPP
or
|I
2
|<maxIph I2maxIL
where:
maxIph is the maximum of the phase currents IL1, IL2 and IL3
INRelPE is the setting parameter for 3I0 limit for release of phase-to-earth fault loops
Table continues on next page
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
220
Technical reference manual
|I
2
| is the magnitude of the negative sequence current
I2ILmax is the setting parameter for the relation between negative sequence current
to the maximum phase current in percent of IBase
INBlockPP is the setting parameter for 3I
0
limit for blocking phase to phase measuring
loops
Fault evaluation and selection logic
The phase selection logic has an evaluation procedure that can be simplified
according to figure 124. Only phase L1 is shown in the figure. If the internal signal
3 Phase fault is activated, all four outputs START, STL1, STL2 and STL3 gets
activated.
a
b
a>b
then c=a
else c=a
c
DeltaIL1
DeltaUL1
FaultPriority
Adaptive release
dependent on result
from Delta logic
a
b
a<b
then c=b
else c=a
c
OR
L1L2 fault
L1N fault
Sequence based
function
OR
3 Phase fault
IL1Valid &
BLOCK
STL1
en06000386.vsd
IEC06000386 V1 EN
Figure 124: Simplified diagram for fault evaluation, phase L1
Load encroachment logic
Each of the six measuring loops has its own load (encroachment) characteristic
based on the corresponding loop impedance. The load encroachment functionality
is always activated in faulty phase identification with load encroachment for mho
(FMPSPDIS) function but the influence on the zone measurement can be switched
On/Offin the respective impedance measuring function.
The outline of the characteristic is presented in figure 125. As illustrated, the
resistive reach in forward and reverse direction and the angle of the sector is the
same in all four quadrants. The reach for the phase selector will be reduced by the
load encroachment function, as shown in figure 125.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
221
Technical reference manual
Blinder
Blinder provides a mean to discriminate high load from a fault. The operating
characteristic is illustrated in figure 125. There are six individual measuring loops
with the blinder functionality. Three phase-to-earth loops which estimate the
impedance according to
Zn = Uph / Iph
and three phase-to-phase loops according to
Zph-ph = Uph-ph / Iph-ph
The start operations from respective loop are binary coded into one word and
provides an output signal STCNDPLE.
RLd
RLd
ArgLd
ArgLd
ArgLd
ArgLd
R
X
jX
Operation area Operation area
R
Operation area
No operation area No operation area
en06000414.vsd
IEC06000414 V1 EN
Figure 125: Influence on the characteristic by load encroachment logic
Outputs
The output of the sequence components based phase selector and the delta logic
phase selector activates the output signals STL1, STL2 and STL3. If an earth fault
is detected the signal STPE gets activated.
The phase selector also gives binary coded signals that are connected to the zone
measuring element for opening the correct measuring loop(s). This is done by the
signal STCNDPHS. If only one phase is started (L1, L2 or L3), the corresponding
phase-to- element is enabled. STPE is expected to be made available for two-phase
and three-phase faults for the correct output to be selected. The fault loop is
indicated by one of the decimal numbers below.
The output STCNDPHS provides release information from the phase selection part
only. STCNDLE provides release information from the load encroachment part
only. STCNDPLE provides release information from the phase selection part and
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
222
Technical reference manual
the load encroachment part combined, that is, both parts have to issue a release at
the same time (this signal is normally not used in the zone measuring element). In
these signals, each fault type has an associated value, which represents the
corresponding zone measuring loop to be released. The values are presented in
table 107.
0= no faulted phases
1= L1E
2= L2E
3= L3E
4= -L1L2E
5= -L2L3E
6= -L3L1E
7= -L1L2L3E
8= -L1L2
9= -L2L3
10= -L3L1
11= L1L2L3
An additional logic is applied to handle the cases when phase-to-earth outputs are
to be asserted when the earth input G is not asserted.
The output signal STCNDPLE is activated when the load encroachment is operating.
STCNDPLE is connected to the input STCND for selected quadrilateral impedance
measuring zones to be blocked. The signal must be connected to the input LDCND
for selected mho impedance measuring zones .
The load encroachment at the measuring zone must be activated to
release the blocking from the load encroachment function.
6.8.3 Function block
IEC06000429-2-en.vsd
FMPSPDIS
I3P*
U3P*
BLOCK
ZSTART
TR3PH
1POLEAR
STL1
STL2
STL3
STPE
STCNDPHS
STCNDPLE
STCNDLE
START
IEC06000429 V2 EN
Figure 126: FMPSPDIS function block
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
223
Technical reference manual
6.8.4 Input and output signals
Table 108: FMPSPDIS Input signals
Name Type Default Description
I3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Group signal for current
U3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Group signal for voltage
BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function
ZSTART BOOLEAN 0 Start from underimpdeance function
TR3PH BOOLEAN 0 Three phase tripping initiated
1POLEAR BOOLEAN 0 Single pole autoreclosing in progress
Table 109: FMPSPDIS Output signals
Name Type Description
STL1 BOOLEAN Fault detected in phase L1
STL2 BOOLEAN Fault detected in phase L2
STL3 BOOLEAN Fault detected in phase L3
STPE BOOLEAN Earth fault detected
STCNDPHS INTEGER Binary coded starts from phase selection
STCNDPLE INTEGER Binary coded starts from ph sel with load
encroachment
STCNDLE INTEGER Binary coded starts from load encroachment only
START BOOLEAN Indicates that something has started
6.8.5 Setting parameters
Table 110: FMPSPDIS Group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
IBase 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 Base current
UBase 0.05 - 2000.00 kV 0.05 400.00 Base voltage
IMaxLoad 10 - 5000 %IB 1 200 Maximum load for identification of three
phase fault in % of IBase
RLd 1.00 - 3000.00 ohm/p 0.01 80.00 Load encroachment resistive reach in
ohm/phase
ArgLd 5 - 70 Deg 1 20 Load encroachment inclination of load
angular sector
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
224
Technical reference manual
Table 111: FMPSPDIS Group settings (advanced)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
DeltaIMinOp 5 - 100 %IB 1 10 Delta current level in % of IBase
DeltaUMinOp 5 - 100 %UB 1 20 Delta voltage level in % of UBase
U1Level 5 - 100 %UB 1 80 Pos seq voltage limit for identification of 3-
ph fault
I1LowLevel 5 - 200 %IB 1 10 Pos seq current level for identification of
3-ph fault in % of IBase
U1MinOp 5 - 100 %UB 1 20 Minimum operate positive sequence
voltage for ph sel
U2MinOp 1 - 100 %UB 1 5 Minimum operate negative sequence
voltage for ph sel
INRelPE 10 - 100 %IB 1 20 3I0 limit for release ph-e measuring
loops in % of max phase current
INBlockPP 10 - 100 %IB 1 40 3I0 limit for blocking phase-to-phase
measuring loops in % of max phase
current
6.8.6 Technical data
Table 112: FMPSPDIS technical data
Function Range or value Accuracy
Minimum operate current (5-30)% of IBase 1.0% of I
r
Load encroachment criteria:
Load resistance, forward and
reverse
(0.53000) W/phase
(570) degrees
2.0% static accuracy
Conditions:
Voltage range: (0.11.1) x U
n
Current range: (0.530) x I
n
Angle: at 0 degrees and 85 degrees
6.9 Power swing detection ZMRPSB
Function description IEC 61850
identification
IEC 60617
identification
ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
Power swing detection ZMRPSB
Zpsb
SYMBOL-EE V1 EN
68
6.9.1 Introduction
Power swings may occur after disconnection of heavy loads or trip of big
generation plants.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
225
Technical reference manual
Power swing detection function (ZMRPSB) is used to detect power swings and
initiate block of selected distance protection zones. Occurrence of earth-fault
currents during a power swing can block ZMRPSB function to allow fault clearance.
6.9.2 Principle of operation
Power swing detection (ZMRPSB ) function comprises an inner and an outer
quadrilateral measurement characteristic with load encroachment, as shown in
figure 127.
Its principle of operation is based on the measurement of the time it takes for a
power swing transient impedance to pass through the impedance area between the
outer and the inner characteristics. Power swings are identified by transition times
longer than a transition time set on corresponding timers. The impedance
measuring principle is the same as that used for the distance protection zones. The
impedance and the characteristic passing times are measured in all three phases
separately.
One-out-of-three or two-out-of-three operating modes can be selected according to
the specific system operating conditions.
R
jX
ArgLd
ArgLd
RLdOutFw
RLdInFw
R1FInFw R1FInRv
RLdInRv
RLdOutRv
X1InFw
X1OutFw
ZL
R1LIn
X1InRv
X1OutRv
IEC09000222_1_en.vsd
DRv
DRv
DRv
DRv
DRv
DFw
DFw
DFw
DFw
DFw
DFw
j
j
j
IEC09000222 V1 EN
Figure 127: Operating characteristic for ZMRPSB function (setting parameters
in italic)
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
226
Technical reference manual
The impedance measurement within ZMRPSB function is performed by solving
equation 51 and equation 52 (n = 1, 2, 3 for each corresponding phase L1, L2 and
L3).
R
set
Re
n
n
I
U
L
L

EQUATION1183 V2 EN (Equation 51)


Im
n
n
X
set
I
U
L
L

EQUATION1184 V2 EN (Equation 52)


The R
set
and X
set
are R and X boundaries.
6.9.2.1 Resistive reach in forward direction
To avoid load encroachment, the resistive reach is limited in forward direction by
setting the parameter RLdOutFw which is the outer resistive load boundary value
while the inner resistive boundary is calculated according to equation 53.
RLdInFw = kLdRFwRLdOutFw
EQUATION1185 V2 EN (Equation 53)
where:
kLdRFw is a settable multiplication factor less than 1
The slope of the load encroachment inner and outer boundary is defined by setting
the parameter ArgLd.
The load encroachment in the fourth quadrant uses the same settings as in the first
quadrant (same ArgLd and RLdOutFw and calculated value RLdInFw).
The quadrilateral characteristic in the first quadrant is tilted to get a better
adaptation to the distance measuring zones. The angle is the same as the line angle
and derived from the setting of the reactive reach inner boundary X1InFw and the
line resistance for the inner boundary R1LIn. The fault resistance coverage for the
inner boundary is set by the parameter R1FInFw.
From the setting parameter RLdOutFw and the calculated value RLdInFw a
distance between the inner and outer boundary, DFw, is calculated. This value is
valid for R direction in first and fourth quadrant and for X direction in first and
second quadrant.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
227
Technical reference manual
6.9.2.2 Resistive reach in reverse direction
To avoid load encroachment in reverse direction, the resistive reach is limited by
setting the parameter RLdOutRv for the outer boundary of the load encroachment
zone. The distance to the inner resistive load boundary RLdInRv is determined by
using the setting parameter kLdRRv in equation 54.
RLdInRv = kLdRRvRLdOutRv
EQUATION1187 V2 EN (Equation 54)
where:
kLdRRv is a settable multiplication factor less than 1
From the setting parameter RLdOutRv and the calculated value RLdInRv, a
distance between the inner and outer boundary, DRv, is calculated. This value is
valid for R direction in second and third quadrant and for X direction in third and
fourth quadrant.
The inner resistive characteristic in the second quadrant outside the load
encroachment part corresponds to the setting parameter R1FInRv for the inner
boundary. The outer boundary is internally calculated as the sum of DRv+R1FInRv.
The inner resistive characteristic in the third quadrant outside the load
encroachment zone consist of the sum of the settings R1FInRv and the line
resistance R1LIn. The argument of the tilted lines outside the load encroachment is
the same as the tilted lines in the first quadrant. The distance between the inner and
outer boundary is the same as for the load encroachment in reverse direction, that is
DRv.
6.9.2.3 Reactive reach in forward and reverse direction
The inner characteristic for the reactive reach in forward direction correspond to
the setting parameter X1InFw and the outer boundary is defined as X1InFw + DFw,
where:
DFw = RLdOutFw - KLdRFw RLdOutFw
The inner characteristic for the reactive reach in reverse direction correspond to the
setting parameter X1InRv for the inner boundary and the outer boundary is defined
as X1InRv + DRv.
where:
DRv = RLdOutRv - KLdRRv RLdOutRv
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
228
Technical reference manual
6.9.2.4 Basic detection logic
The operation of the Power swing detection ZMRPSB is only released if the
magnitude of the current is above the setting of the min operating current,
IMinOpPE.
ZMRPSB function can operate in two operating modes:
The 1 out of 3 operating mode is based on detection of power swing in any of
the three phases. Figure 128 presents a composition of an internal detection
signal DET-L1 in this particular phase.
The 2 out of 3 operating mode is based on detection of power swing in at least
two out of three phases. Figure 129 presents a composition of the detection
signals DET1of3 and DET2of3.
Signals ZOUTLn (outer boundary) and ZINLn (inner boundary) in figure 128 are
related to the operation of the impedance measuring elements in each phase
separately (n represents the corresponding L1, L2 and L3). They are internal
signals, calculated by ZMRPSB function.
The tP1 timer in figure 128 serve as detection of initial power swings, which are
usually not as fast as the later swings are. The tP2 timer become activated for the
detection of the consecutive swings, if the measured impedance exit the operate
area and returns within the time delay, set on the tW waiting timer. The upper part
of figure 128 (internal input signal ZOUTL1, ZINL1, AND-gates and tP-timers)
are duplicated for phase L2 and L3. All tP1 and tP2 timers in the figure have the
same settings.
IEC05000113-2-en.vsd
AND
ZINL1
AND
DET-L1
OR
AND AND
ZOUTL1
-loop
ZOUTL2
ZOUTL3
OR
detected
OR
-loop
0-tP1
0
0-tP2
0
0
0-tW
IEC05000113 V2 EN
Figure 128: Detection of power swing in phase L1
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
229
Technical reference manual
IEC01000057-2-en.vsd
DET-L1
DET-L2
DET-L3
DET1of3 - int.
DET2of3 - int.
&
&
&
>1
>1
IEC01000057-TIFF V2 EN
Figure 129: Detection of power swing for 1-of-3 and 2-of-3 operating mode
en05000114.vsd
TRSP
t
tEF
I0CHECK
AND
BLKI02
t
10 ms
AND BLKI01
BLOCK
INHIBIT
ZOUTL3
ZOUTL2
ZOUTL1
DET1of3 - int.
REL1PH
BLK1PH
AND
DET2of3 - int.
REL2PH
BLK2PH
AND
EXTERNAL
AND
START
ZOUT
ZINL1
ZINL2
ZINL3
ZIN
AND
t
tR1
t
tR2
OR
AND
AND
OR
OR
OR
OR
OR
t
tH
-loop
-loop
IEC05000114 V1 EN
Figure 130: Simplified block diagram for ZMRPSB function
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
230
Technical reference manual
6.9.2.5 Operating and inhibit conditions
Figure 130 presents a simplified logic diagram for the Power swing detection
function ZMRPSB. The internal signals DET1of3 and DET2of3 relate to the
detailed logic diagrams in figure 128 and figure 129 respectively.
Selection of the operating mode is possible by the proper configuration of the
functional input signals REL1PH, BLK1PH, REL2PH, and BLK2PH.
The load encroachment characteristic can be switched off by setting the parameter
OperationLdCh = Off, but notice that the DFw and DRv will still be calculated from
RLdOutFw and RLdOutRv. The characteristic will in this case be only quadrilateral.
There are four different ways to form the internal INHIBIT signal:
Logical 1 on functional input BLOCK inhibits the output START signal
instantaneously.
The INHIBIT internal signal is activated, if the power swing has been detected
and the measured impedance remains within its operate characteristic for the
time, which is longer than the time delay set on tR2 timer. It is possible to
disable this condition by connecting the logical 1 signal to the BLKI01
functional input.
The INHIBIT internal signal is activated after the time delay, set on tR1 timer,
if an earth-fault appears during the power swing (input IOCHECK is high) and
the power swing has been detected before the earth-fault (activation of the
signal I0CHECK). It is possible to disable this condition by connecting the
logical 1 signal to the BLKI02 functional input.
The INHIBIT logical signals becomes logical 1, if the functional input
I0CHECK appears within the time delay, set on tEF timer and the impedance
has been seen within the outer characteristic of ZMRPSB operate
characteristic in all three phases. This function prevents the operation of
ZMRPSB function in cases, when the circuit breaker closes onto persistent
single-phase fault after single-phase autoreclosing dead time, if the initial single-
phase fault and single-phase opening of the circuit breaker causes the power
swing in the remaining two phases.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
231
Technical reference manual
6.9.3 Function block
IEC06000264-2-en.vsd
ZMRPSB
I3P*
U3P*
BLOCK
BLKI01
BLKI02
BLK1PH
REL1PH
BLK2PH
REL2PH
I0CHECK
TRSP
EXTERNAL
START
ZOUT
ZIN
IEC06000264 V2 EN
Figure 131: ZMRPSB function block
6.9.4 Input and output signals
Table 113: ZMRPSB Input signals
Name Type Default Description
I3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Group signal for current input
U3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Group signal for voltage input
BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function
BLKI01 BOOLEAN 0 Block inhibit of start output for slow swing condition
BLKI02 BOOLEAN 0 Block inhibit of start output for subsequent
residual current detection
BLK1PH BOOLEAN 0 Block one-out-of-three-phase operating mode
REL1PH BOOLEAN 0 Release one-out-of-three-phase operating mode
BLK2PH BOOLEAN 0 Block two-out-of-three-phase operating mode
REL2PH BOOLEAN 0 Release two-out-of-three-phase operating mode
I0CHECK BOOLEAN 0 Residual current (3I0) detection used to inhibit
start output
TRSP BOOLEAN 0 Single-pole tripping command issued by tripping
function
EXTERNAL BOOLEAN 0 Input for external detection of power swing
Table 114: ZMRPSB Output signals
Name Type Description
START BOOLEAN Power swing detected
ZOUT BOOLEAN Measured impedance within outer impedance
boundary
ZIN BOOLEAN Measured impedance within inner impedance
boundary
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
232
Technical reference manual
6.9.5 Setting parameters
Table 115: ZMRPSB Group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
Operation Off
On
- - Off Operation Mode On / Off
X1InFw 0.10 - 3000.00 ohm 0.01 30.00 Inner reactive boundary, forward
R1LIn 0.10 - 1000.00 ohm 0.01 30.00 Line resistance for inner characteristic
angle
R1FInFw 0.10 - 1000.00 ohm 0.01 30.00 Fault resistance coverage to inner
resistive line, forward
X1InRv 0.10 - 3000.00 ohm 0.01 30.00 Inner reactive boundary, reverse
R1FInRv 0.10 - 1000.00 ohm 0.01 30.00 Fault resistance line to inner resistive
boundary, reverse
OperationLdCh Off
On
- - On Operation of load discrimination
characteristic
RLdOutFw 0.10 - 3000.00 ohm 0.01 30.00 Outer resistive load boundary, forward
ArgLd 5 - 70 Deg 1 25 Load angle determining load impedance
area
RLdOutRv 0.10 - 3000.00 ohm 0.01 30.00 Outer resistive load boundary, reverse
kLdRFw 0.50 - 0.90 Mult 0.01 0.75 Multiplication factor for inner resistive
load boundary, forward
kLdRRv 0.50 - 0.90 Mult 0.01 0.75 Multiplication factor for inner resistive
load boundary, reverse
tEF 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 3.000 Timer for overcoming single-pole
reclosing dead time
IMinOpPE 5 - 30 %IB 1 10 Minimum operate current in % of IBase
IBase 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 Base setting for current level settings
Table 116: ZMRPSB Group settings (advanced)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
tP1 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.045 Timer for detection of initial power swing
tP2 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.015 Timer for detection of subsequent power
swings
tW 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.250 Waiting timer for activation of tP2 timer
tH 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.500 Timer for holding power swing START
output
tR1 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.300 Timer giving delay to inhibit by the
residual current
tR2 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 2.000 Timer giving delay to inhibit at very slow
swing
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
233
Technical reference manual
6.9.6 Technical data
Table 117: ZMRPSB technical data
Function Range or value Accuracy
Reactive reach (0.10-3000.00) W/phase



2.0% static accuracy
Conditions:
Voltage range: (0.1-1.1) x U
r
Current range: (0.5-30) x I
r
Angle: at 0 degrees and 85
degrees
Resistive reach (0.101000.00)W/loop
Timers (0.000-60.000) s 0.5% 10 ms
6.10 Power swing logic ZMRPSL
Function description IEC 61850
identification
IEC 60617
identification
ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
Power swing logic ZMRPSL - -
6.10.1 Introduction
Power Swing Logic (ZMRPSL) is a complementary function to Power Swing
Detection (ZMRPSB) function. It provides possibility for selective tripping of
faults on power lines during system oscillations (power swings or pole slips), when
the distance protection function should normally be blocked. The complete logic
consists of two different parts:
Communication and tripping part: provides selective tripping on the basis of
special distance protection zones and a scheme communication logic, which
are not blocked during the system oscillations.
Blocking part: blocks unwanted operation of instantaneous distance protection
zone 1 for oscillations, which are initiated by faults and their clearing on the
adjacent power lines and other primary elements.
6.10.2 Principle of operation
6.10.2.1 Communication and tripping logic
Communication and tripping logic as used by the power swing distance protection
zones is schematically presented in figure 132.
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
234
Technical reference manual
STDEF
AR1P1 &
STPSD
BLOCK & t
tCS
&
CSUR
CS
t
tBlkTr
&
t
tTrip
CR
CACC
>1
&
BLKZMPS
TRIP
en06000236.vsd
IEC06000236 V1 EN
Figure 132: Simplified logic diagram power swing communication and tripping
logic
The complete logic remains blocked as long as there is a logical one on the
BLOCK functional input signal. Presence of the logical one on the STDEF
functional input signal also blocks the logic as long as this block is not released by
the logical one on the AR1P1 functional input signal. The functional output signal
BLKZMPS remains logical one as long as the function is not blocked externally
(BLOCK is logical zero) and the earth-fault is detected on protected line (STDEF
is logical one), which is connected in three-phase mode (AR1P1 is logical zero).
Timer tBlkTr prolongs the duration of this blocking condition, if the measured
impedance remains within the operate area of the Power Swing Detection
(ZMRPSB) function (STPSD input active). The BLKZMPS can be used to block
the operation of the power-swing zones.
Logical one on functional input CSUR, which is normally connected to the TRIP
functional output of a power swing carrier sending zone, activates functional output
CS, if the function is not blocked by one of the above conditions. It also activates
the TRIP functional output.
Initiation of the CS functional output is possible only, if the STPSD input has been
active longer than the time delay set on the security timer tCS.
Simultaneous presence of the functional input signals PLTR_CRD and CR (local
trip condition) also activates the TRIP functional output, if the function is not
blocked by one of the above conditions and the STPSD signal has been present
longer then the time delay set on the trip timer tTrip.
6.10.2.2 Blocking logic
Figure 133 presents the logical circuits, which control the operation of the
underreaching zone (zone 1) at power swings, caused by the faults and their
clearance on the remote power lines.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
235
Technical reference manual
STZML
BLOCK
&
STMZH
STZMPSD
STPSD
t
tDZ
t
tZL
&
>1
&
&
&
-loop
>1
STZMLL
BLKZMH
&
en06000237.vsd
IEC06000237 V1 EN
Figure 133: Control of underreaching distance protection (Zone 1) at power
swings caused by the faults and their clearance on adjacent lines
and other system elements
The logic is disabled by a logical one on functional input BLOCK. It can start only
if the following conditions are simultaneously fulfilled:
STPSD functional input signal must be a logical zero. This means, that Power
swing detection (ZMRPSB) function must not detect power swinging over the
protected power line.
STZMPSD functional input must be a logical one. This means that the
impedance must be detected within the external boundary of ZMRPSB function.
STZMOR functional input must be a logical one. This means that the fault
must be detected by the overreaching distance protection zone, for example
zone 2.
The STZMURPS functional output, which can be used in complete terminal logic
instead of a normal distance protection zone 1, becomes active under the following
conditions:
If the STZMUR signal appears at the same time as the STZMOR or if it
appears with a time delay, which is shorter than the time delay set on timer
tDZ.
If the STZMUR signal appears after the STZMOR signal with a time delay
longer than the delay set on the tDZ timer, and remains active longer than the
time delay set on the tZL timer.
The BLKZMOR functional output signal can be used to block the operation of the
higher distance protection zone, if the fault has moved into the zone 1 operate area
after tDZ time delay.
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
236
Technical reference manual
6.10.3 Function block
IEC07000026-2-en.vsd
ZMRPSL
BLOCK
STZMUR
STZMOR
STPSD
STDEF
STZMPSD
CACC
AR1P1
CSUR
CR
TRIP
STZMURPS
BLKZMUR
BLKZMOR
CS
IEC07000026 V2 EN
Figure 134: ZMRPSL function block
6.10.4 Input and output signals
Table 118: ZMRPSL Input signals
Name Type Default Description
BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function
STZMUR BOOLEAN 0 Start of the underreaching zone
STZMOR BOOLEAN 0 Start of the overreaching zone
STPSD BOOLEAN 0 Power swing detected
STDEF BOOLEAN 0 Start from Earth Fault Protection in forward or
reverse direction
STZMPSD BOOLEAN 0 Operation of Power Swing Detection external
characteristic
CACC BOOLEAN 0 Overreaching ZM zone to be accelerated
AR1P1 BOOLEAN 0 Single pole auto-reclosing in progress
CSUR BOOLEAN 0 Carrier send by the underreaching power-swing
zone
CR BOOLEAN 0 Carrier receive signal during power swing
detection operation
Table 119: ZMRPSL Output signals
Name Type Description
TRIP BOOLEAN Trip through Power Swing Logic
STZMURPS BOOLEAN Start of Underreaching zone controlled by PSL to
be used in configuration
BLKZMUR BOOLEAN Block trip of underreaching impedance zone
BLKZMOR BOOLEAN Block trip of overreaching distance protection
zones
CS BOOLEAN Carrier send signal controlled by the power swing
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
237
Technical reference manual
6.10.5 Setting parameters
Table 120: ZMRPSL Group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
Operation Off
On
- - Off Operation Off / On
tDZ 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.050 Permitted max oper time diff between
higher and lower zone
tDZMUR 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.200 Delay for oper of underreach zone with
detected diff in oper time
tCS 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.100 Conditional timer for sending the CS at
power swings
tTrip 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.100 Conditional timer for tripping at power
swings
tBlkTr 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.300 Timer for blocking the overreaching
zones trip
6.11 Pole slip protection PSPPPAM
Function description IEC 61850
identification
IEC 60617
identification
ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
Pole slip protection PSPPPAM
<
SYMBOL-MM V1 EN
78
6.11.1 Introduction
Sudden events in an electrical power system such as large changes in load, fault
occurrence or fault clearance, can cause power oscillations referred to as power
swings. In a non-recoverable situation, the power swings become so severe that the
synchronism is lost, a condition referred to as pole slipping. The main purpose of
the pole slip protection (PSPPPAM) is to detect, evaluate, and take the required
action for pole slipping occurrences in the power system. The electrical system
parts swinging to each other can be separated with the line/s closest to the centre of
the power swing allowing the two systems to be stable as separated islands.
6.11.2 Principle of operation
If the generator is faster than the power system, the rotor movement in the
impedance and voltage diagram is from right to left and generating is signalled. If
the generator is slower than the power system, the rotor movement is from left to
right and motoring is signalled (the power system drives the generator as if it were
a motor).
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
238
Technical reference manual
The movements in the impedance plain can be seen in figure 135. The transient
behaviour is described by the transient EMF's E
A
and E
B
, and by X'
d
, X
T
and the
transient system impedance Z
S
.
IEC06000437_2_en.vsd
IED
B A
E
B
E
A
X
d
X
T
X
S
Zone 1 Zone 2
jX
R
X
d
X
T
X
S
B
A
d
Apparent generator
impedance
Pole slip
impedance
movement
IEC06000437 V2 EN
Figure 135: Movements in the impedance plain
where:
X'
d
= transient reactance of the generator
X
T
= short-circuit reactance of the step-up transformer
Z
S
= impedance of the power system A
The detection of rotor angle is enabled when:
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
239
Technical reference manual
the minimum current exceeds 0.10 I
N
(I
N
is IBase parameter set under general
setting).
the maximum voltage falls below 0.92 UBase
the voltage Ucos (the voltage in phase with the generator current) has an
angular velocity of 0.2...8 Hz and
the corresponding direction is not blocked.

en07000004.vsd
IEC07000004 V1 EN
Figure 136: Different generator quantities as function of the angle between the
equivalent generators
An alarm is given when movement of the rotor is detected and the rotor angle
exceeds the angle set for 'WarnAngle'.
Slipping is detected when:
a change of rotor angle of min. 50 ms is recognized
the slip line is crossed between Z
A
and Z
B
.
When the impedance crosses the slip line between Z
B
and Z
C
it counts as being in
zone 1 and between Z
C
and Z
A
in zone 2. The entire distance ZA-ZB becomes zone
1 when signal EXTZONE1 is high (external device detects the direction of the
centre of slipping).
After the first slip, the signals ZONE1 or ZONE2 and depending on the direction
of slip - either GEN or MOTOR are issued.
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
240
Technical reference manual
Every time pole slipping is detected, the impedance of the point where the slip line
is crossed and the instantaneous slip frequency are displayed as measurements.
Further slips are only detected, if they are in the same direction and if the rate of
rotor movement has reduced in relation to the preceding slip or the slip line is
crossed in the opposite direction outside ZA-ZB. A further slip in the opposite
direction within Z
A
-Z
B
resets all the signals and is then signalled itself as a first slip.
The TRIP1 tripping command and signal are generated after N1 slips in zone 1,
providing the rotor angle is less than TripAngle. The TRIP2 signal is generated
after N2 slips in zone 2, providing the rotor angle is less than TripAngle.
All signals are reset if:
the direction of movement reverses
the rotor angle detector resets without a slip being counted or
no rotor relative movement was detected during the time ResetTime.
Ucosj < 0.92 UBase
en07000005.vsd
Imin > 0.10 IBase
0.2 Slip.Freq. 8 Hz
AND
d startAngle
AND
START
Z cross line ZA - ZC
Z cross line ZC - ZB
AND
AND
ZONE1
ZONE2
Counter
N1Limit
a
b
a b
d tripAngle
AND
TRIP1
Counter
N2Limit
a
b
a b
AND
TRIP2
OR
TRIP
IEC07000005 V1 EN
Figure 137: Simplified logic diagram for pole slip protection PSPPPAM
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
241
Technical reference manual
6.11.3 Function block
IEC07000030-2-en.vsd
PSPPPAM
I3P*
U3P*
BLOCK
BLKGEN
BLKMOTOR
EXTZONE1
TRIP
TRIP1
TRIP2
START
ZONE1
ZONE2
GEN
MOTOR
SFREQ
SLIPZOHM
SLIPZPER
UCOSKV
UCOSPER
IEC07000030 V2 EN
Figure 138: PSPPPAM function block
6.11.4 Input and output signals
Table 121: PSPPPAM Input signals
Name Type Default Description
I3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Current group connection
U3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Voltage group connection
BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function
BLKGEN BOOLEAN 0 Block operation in generating direction
BLKMOTOR BOOLEAN 0 Block operation in motor direction
EXTZONE1 BOOLEAN 0 Extension of zone1 with zone2 region
Table 122: PSPPPAM Output signals
Name Type Description
TRIP BOOLEAN Common trip signal
TRIP1 BOOLEAN Trip1 after the N1Limit slip in zone1
TRIP2 BOOLEAN Trip2 after the N2Limit slip in zone2
START BOOLEAN Common start signal
ZONE1 BOOLEAN First slip in zone1 region
ZONE2 BOOLEAN First slip in zone2 region
GEN BOOLEAN Generator is faster then the system
MOTOR BOOLEAN Generator is slower then the system
SFREQ REAL Slip frequency
SLIPZOHM REAL Slip impedance in ohms
SLIPZPER REAL Slip impedance in percent of ZBase
UCOSKV REAL UCosPhi voltage in kV
UCOSPER REAL UCosPhi voltage in percent of UBase
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
242
Technical reference manual
6.11.5 Setting parameters
Table 123: PSPPPAM Group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
Operation Off
On
- - Off Operation On / Off
OperationZ1 Off
On
- - On Operation Zone1 On / Off
OperationZ2 Off
On
- - On Operation Zone2 On / Off
ImpedanceZA 0.00 - 1000.00 % 0.01 10.00 Forward impedance in % of Zbase
ImpedanceZB 0.00 - 1000.00 % 0.01 10.00 Reverse impedance in % of Zbase
ImpedanceZC 0.00 - 1000.00 % 0.01 10.00 Impedance of zone1 limit in % of Zbase
AnglePhi 72.00 - 90.00 Deg 0.01 85.00 Angle of the slip impedance line
StartAngle 0.0 - 180.0 Deg 0.1 110.0 Rotor angle for the start signal
TripAngle 0.0 - 180.0 Deg 0.1 90.0 Rotor angle for the trip1 and trip2 signals
N1Limit 1 - 20 - 1 1 Count limit for the trip1 signal
N2Limit 1 - 20 - 1 3 Count limit for the trip2 signal
Table 124: PSPPPAM Group settings (advanced)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
ResetTime 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 5.000 Time without slip to reset all signals
Table 125: PSPPPAM Non group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
IBase 0.1 - 99999.9 A 0.1 3000.0 Base Current (primary phase current in
Amperes)
UBase 0.1 - 9999.9 kV 0.1 20.0 Base Voltage (primary phase-to-phase
voltage in kV)
MeasureMode PosSeq
L1L2
L2L3
L3L1
- - PosSeq Measuring mode (PosSeq, L1L2, L2L3,
L3L1)
InvertCTcurr No
Yes
- - No Invert current direction
6.11.6 Technical data
Table 126: PSPPPAM technical data
Function Range or value Accuracy
Impedance reach (0.001000.00)% of Zbase 2.0% of Ur/Ir
Characteristic angle (72.0090.00) degrees 5.0 degrees
Start and trip angles (0.0180.0) degrees 5.0 degrees
Zone 1 and Zone 2 trip counters (1-20) -
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
243
Technical reference manual
6.12 Automatic switch onto fault logic, voltage and
current based ZCVPSOF
Function description IEC 61850
identification
IEC 60617
identification
ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
Automatic switch onto fault logic,
voltage and current based
ZCVPSOF - -
6.12.1 Introduction
Automatic switch onto fault logic, voltage and current based (ZCVPSOF) is a
function that gives an instantaneous trip at closing of breaker onto a fault. A dead
line detection check is provided to activate the function when the line is dead.
Mho distance protections can not operate for switch onto fault condition when the
phase voltages are close to zero. An additional logic based on UI Level is used for
this purpose.
6.12.2 Principle of operation
Automatic switch onto fault logic, voltage and current based function (ZCVPSOF)
can be activated externally by Breaker Closed Input or internally (automatically)
by using UI Level Based Logic see figure 139.
The activation from the Dead line detection function is released if the internal
signal deadLine from the UILevel function is activated at the same time as the
input ZACC is not activated during at least for a duration tDLD and the setting
parameter AutoInit is set to On.
When the setting AutoInit is Off, the function is activated by an external binary
input BC. To get a trip one of the following operation modes must also be selected
by the parameter Mode:
Mode = Impedance; trip is released if the input ZACC is activated (normal
connected to non directional distance protection zone).
Mode = UILevel; trip is released if UILevel detector is activated.
Mode = UILvl&Imp; trip is initiated based on impedance measured criteria or
UILevel detection.
The internal signal deadLine from the UILevel detector is activated if all three
phase currents and voltages are below the setting IPh< and UPh<.
UI Level based measurement detects the switch onto fault condition even though
the voltage is very low. The logic is based on current and voltage levels. The
internal signal SOTF UILevel is activated if a phase voltage is below the setting
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
244
Technical reference manual
UPh< and corresponding phase current is above the setting IPh< longer than the
time tDuration.
ZCVPSOF can be activated externally from input BC and thus setting AutoInit is
bypassed.
The function is released during a settable time tSOTF.
The function can be blocked by activating the input BLOCK.
AND
AND
BLOCK
AutiInit=On
ZACC
OR
1000
200
t
t
15
TRIP
en07000084.vsd
UILevel detector
IL1
IL2
IL3
UL1
UL2
UL3
Iph<
Uph<
deadLine
AND
AND
OR
AND
OR
SOTFU ILevel
t
BC
Mode = Impedance
Mode = UILevel
Mode = UILvl&Imp
IEC07000084 V2 EN
Figure 139: Simplified logic diagram for Automatic switch onto fault logic,
voltage and current based.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
245
Technical reference manual
6.12.3 Function block
IEC06000459-2-en.vsd
ZCVPSOF
I3P*
U3P*
BLOCK
BC
ZACC
TRIP
IEC06000459 V2 EN
Figure 140: ZCVPSOF function block
6.12.4 Input and output signals
Table 127: ZCVPSOF Input signals
Name Type Default Description
I3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Current DFT
U3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Voltage DFT
BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function
BC BOOLEAN 0 External enabling of SOTF
ZACC BOOLEAN 0 Distance zone to be accelerated by SOTF
Table 128: ZCVPSOF Output signals
Name Type Description
TRIP BOOLEAN Trip output
6.12.5 Setting parameters
Table 129: ZCVPSOF Group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
Operation Off
On
- - On Operation Off / On
IBase 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 Base current (A)
UBase 0.05 - 2000.00 kV 0.05 400.00 Base voltage L-L (kV)
Mode Impedance
UILevel
UILvl&Imp
- - UILevel Mode of operation of SOTF Function
AutoInit Off
On
- - Off Automatic switchonto fault initialization
IPh< 1 - 100 %IB 1 20 Current level for detection of dead line in
% of IBase
UPh< 1 - 100 %UB 1 70 Voltage level for detection of dead line in
% of UBase
Table continues on next page
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
246
Technical reference manual
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
tDuration 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.020 Time delay for UI detection (s)
tSOTF 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 1.000 Drop off delay time of switch onto fault
function
tDLD 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.200 Delay time for activation of dead line
detection
6.12.6 Technical data
Table 130: ZCVPSOF technical data
Parameter Range or value Accuracy
Operate voltage, detection of dead line (1100)% of
UBase
1.0% of U
r
Operate current, detection of dead line (1100)% of
IBase
1.0% of I
r
Delay following dead line detection input before
Automatic switch into fault logic function is
automatically turned On
(0.00060.000) s 0.5% 10 ms
Time period after circuit breaker closure in which
Automatic switch into fault logic function is active
(0.00060.000) s 0.5% 10 ms
6.13 Phase preference logic PPLPHIZ
Function description IEC 61850
identification
IEC 60617
identification
ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
Phase preference logic PPLPHIZ - -
6.13.1 Introduction
Phase preference logic function PPLPHIZ is intended to be used in isolated or high
impedance earthed networks where there is a requirement to trip only one of the
faulty lines at cross-country fault.
Phase preference logic inhibits tripping for single phase-to-earth faults in isolated
and high impedance earthed networks, where such faults are not to be cleared by
distance protection. For cross-country faults, the logic selects either the leading or
the lagging phase-earth loop for measurement and initiates tripping of the preferred
fault based on the selected phase preference. A number of different phase
preference combinations are available for selection.
6.13.2 Principle of operation
Phase preference logic PPLPHIZ has 10 operation modes, which can be set by the
parameter OperMode. The different modes and their explanation are shown in
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
247
Technical reference manual
table 131 below. The difference between cyclic and acyclic operation can be
explained by the following example. Assume a L1 fault on one line and a L3 fault
on another line. For OperMode = 1231c the line with L3 fault will be tripped (L3
before L1) while for OperMode = 123a the line with L1 1 fault will be tripped (L1
before L3).
Table 131: Operation modes for Phase preference logic
OperMode Description
No filter No filter, phase-to-phase measuring loops are not blocked during single phase-to-
earth faults. Tripping is allowed without any particular phase preference at cross-
country faults
No pref No preference, trip is blocked during single phase-to-earth faults, trip is allowed
without any particular phase preference at cross-country fault
1231 c Cyclic 1231c; L1 before L2 before L3 before L1
1321 c Cyclic 1321c; L1 before L3 before L2 before L1
123 a Acyclic 123a; L1 before L2before L3
132 a Acyclic 132a; L1 before L3 before L2
213 a Acyclic 213a; L2 before L1 before L3
231 a Acyclic 231a; L2 before L3 before L1
312 a Acyclic 312a; L3 before L1 before L2
321 a Acyclic 321a; L3 before L2 before L1
The function can be divided into two parts; one labeled voltage and current
discrimination and the second one labeled phase preference evaluation, see
figure 141.
The aim with the voltage and current discrimination part is to discriminate faulty
phases and to determine if there is a cross-country fault. If cross-country fault is
detected, an internal signal Detected cross-country fault is created and sent to the
phase preference part to be used in the evaluation process for determining the
condition for trip.
The voltage and current discrimination part gives phase segregated start signals if
the respective measured phase voltage is below the setting parameter UPN< at the
same time as the zero sequence voltage is above the setting parameter 3U0>. If
there is a start in any phase the START out put signal will be activated.
The internal signal for detection of cross-country fault, DetectCrossCountry, that
come from the voltage and current discrimination part of the function can be
achieved in three different ways:
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
248
Technical reference manual
1. The magnitude of 3I
0
has been above the setting parameter IN> for a time
longer than the setting of pick-up timer tIN.
2. The magnitude of 3I
0
has been above the setting parameter IN> at the same
time as the magnitude of 3U
0
has been above the setting parameter 3U0>
during a time longer than the setting of pick-up timer tUN.
3. The magnitude of 3I
0
has been above the setting parameter IN> at the same
time as one of the following conditions are fulfilled:
the measured phase-to-phase voltage in at least one of the phase
combinations has been below the setting parameter UPP< for more than
20 ms.
At least two of the phase voltages are below the setting parameter UPN<
for more than 20 ms.
The second part, phase preference evaluation, uses the internal signal
DetectCrossCountry from the voltage and current evaluation together with the
input signal STCND together with phase selection start condition (from phase
selection functions) connected to input STCND, and the information from the
setting parameter OperMode are used to determine the condition for trip. To
release the Phase preference logic, at least two out of three phases must be faulty.
The fault classification whether it is a single phase-to-earth, two-phase or cross-
country fault and which phase to be tripped at cross-country fault is converted into
a binary coded signal and sent to the distance protection measuring zone to release
the correct measuring zone according to the setting of OperMode. This is done by
activating the output ZREL and it shall be connected to the input STCND on the
distance zone measuring element.
The release signals from phase selection will only be gated with the cross-country
check from I
N
and U
N
but without time delay. If no phase selection start has
occurred, the release is based on current and voltage discriminating part only.
The input signal STCND consist of binary information of fault type and is
connected to the output STCND on phase selection function. The fault must be
activated in at least two phases to be classified as a cross-country fault in the phase
preference part of the logic.
The input signals RELxxx are additional fault release signals that can be connected
to external protection functions through binary input.
The output START and trip signals can be blocked by activating the input BLOCK
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
249
Technical reference manual
UL1
UL2
UL3
UPN<
IN
UN
UL1UL2
UL2UL3
UL3UL1
OperMode
RELL1N
RELL2N
RELL3N
Phase Preference
Evaluation
START
IN>
UN0>
UPP<
Voltage and
Current
Discrimination
Detect Cross-
Country fault
STCND
IEC09000220_1_en.vsd
BLOCK
ZREL
AND
AND
IEC09000220 V2 EN
Figure 141: Simplified block diagram for Phase preference logic
6.13.3 Function block
IEC07000029-2-en.vsd
PPLPHIZ
I3P*
U3P*
BLOCK
RELL1N
RELL2N
RELL3N
STCND
START
ZREL
IEC07000029 V2 EN
Figure 142: PPLPHIZ function block
6.13.4 Input and output signals
Table 132: PPLPHIZ Input signals
Name Type Default Description
I3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Group signal for current input
U3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Group signal for voltage input
BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function
Table continues on next page
Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
250
Technical reference manual
Name Type Default Description
RELL1N BOOLEAN 0 Release condition for the L1 to earth loop
RELL2N BOOLEAN 0 Release condition for the L2 to earth loop
RELL3N BOOLEAN 0 Release condition for the L3 to earth loop
STCND INTEGER 0 Integer coded external release signals
Table 133: PPLPHIZ Output signals
Name Type Description
START BOOLEAN Indicates start for earth fault(s), regardless of
direction
ZREL INTEGER Integer coded output release signal
6.13.5 Setting parameters
Table 134: PPLPHIZ Group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
IBase 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 Base current
UBase 0.05 - 2000.00 kV 0.01 400.00 Base voltage
OperMode No Filter
NoPref
1231c
1321c
123a
132a
213a
231a
312a
321a
- - No Filter Operating mode (c=cyclic,a=acyclic)
UPN< 10.0 - 100.0 %UB 1.0 70.0 Operate value of phase undervoltage (%
of UBase)
UPP< 10.0 - 100.0 %UB 1.0 50.0 Operate value of line to line
undervoltage (% of UBase)
3U0> 5.0 - 70.0 %UB 1.0 20.0 Operate value of residual voltage (% of
UBase)
IN> 10 - 200 %IB 1 20 Operate value of residual current (% of
IBase)
tUN 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.100 Pickup-delay for residual voltage
tOffUN 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.100 Dropoff-delay for residual voltage
tIN 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.150 Pickup-delay for residual current
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 6
Impedance protection
251
Technical reference manual
Table 135: PPLPHIZ technical data
Function Range or value Accuracy
Operate value, phase-to-phase
and phase-to-neutral
undervoltage
(10.0 - 100.0)% of UBase 0,5% of U
r
Reset ratio, undervoltage < 105% -
Operate value, residual voltage (5.0 - 70.0)% of UBase 0,5% of U
r
Reset ratio, residual voltage > 95% -
Operate value, residual current (10 - 200)% of IBase 1,0% of I
r
for I < I
r
1,0% of I for I > I
r
Reset ratio, residual current > 95% -
Timers (0.000 - 60.000) s 0,5% 10ms
Operating mode No Filter, NoPref
Cyclic: 1231c, 1321c
Acyclic: 123a, 132a, 213a, 231a,
312a, 321a

Section 6 1MRK506275-UEN C
Impedance protection
252
Technical reference manual
Section 7 Current protection
About this chapter
This chapter describes current protection functions. These include functions like
Instantaneous phase overcurrent protection, Four step phase overcurrent protection,
Pole discordance protection and Residual overcurrent protection.
7.1 Instantaneous phase overcurrent protection PHPIOC
Function description IEC 61850
identification
IEC 60617
identification
ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
Instantaneous phase overcurrent
protection
PHPIOC
3I>>
SYMBOL-Z V1 EN
50
7.1.1 Introduction
The instantaneous three phase overcurrent function has a low transient overreach
and short tripping time to allow use as a high set short-circuit protection function.
7.1.2 Principle of operation
The sampled analogue phase currents are pre-processed in a discrete Fourier filter
(DFT) block. The RMS value of each phase current is derived from the
fundamental frequency components, as well as sampled values of each phase
current. These phase current values are fed to the instantaneous phase overcurrent
protection function PHPIOC. In a comparator the RMS values are compared to the
set operation current value of the function (IP>>). If a phase current is larger than
the set operation current a signal from the comparator for this phase is set to true.
This signal will, without delay, activate the output signal TRLn (n=1,2,3) for this
phase and the TRIP signal that is common for all three phases.
There is an operation mode (OpMode) setting: 1 out of 3 or 2 out of 3. If the
parameter is set to 1 out of 3 any phase trip signal will be activated. If the
parameter is set to 2 out of 3 at least two phase signals must be activated for trip.
There is also a possibility to activate a preset change of the set operation current
(StValMult) via a binary input (ENMULT). In some applications the operation
value needs to be changed, for example due to transformer inrush currents.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 7
Current protection
253
Technical reference manual
PHPIOC can be blocked from the binary input BLOCK.
7.1.3 Function block
IEC04000391-2-en.vsd
PHPIOC
I3P*
BLOCK
ENMULT
TRIP
TRL1
TRL2
TRL3
IEC04000391 V2 EN
Figure 143: PHPIOC function block
7.1.4 Input and output signals
Table 136: PHPIOC Input signals
Name Type Default Description
I3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Three phase current
BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function
ENMULT BOOLEAN 0 Enable current start value multiplier
Table 137: PHPIOC Output signals
Name Type Description
TRIP BOOLEAN Trip signal from any phase
TRL1 BOOLEAN Trip signal from phase L1
TRL2 BOOLEAN Trip signal from phase L2
TRL3 BOOLEAN Trip signal from phase L3
7.1.5 Setting parameters
Table 138: PHPIOC Group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
Operation Off
On
- - Off Operation Off / On
IBase 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 Base current
OpMode 2 out of 3
1 out of 3
- - 1 out of 3 Select operation mode 2-out of 3 / 1-out
of 3
IP>> 1 - 2500 %IB 1 200 Operate phase current level in % of IBase
Table 139: PHPIOC Group settings (advanced)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
StValMult 0.5 - 5.0 - 0.1 1.0 Multiplier for operate current level
Section 7 1MRK506275-UEN C
Current protection
254
Technical reference manual
7.1.6 Technical data
Table 140: PHPIOC technical data
Function Range or value Accuracy
Operate current (1-2500)% of lBase 1.0% of I
r
at I I
r
1.0% of I at I > I
r
Reset ratio > 95% -
Operate time 25 ms typically at 0 to 2 x I
set
-
Reset time 25 ms typically at 2 to 0 x I
set
-
Critical impulse time 10 ms typically at 0 to 2 x I
set
-
Operate time 10 ms typically at 0 to 10 x I
set
-
Reset time 35 ms typically at 10 to 0 x I
set
-
Critical impulse time 2 ms typically at 0 to 10 x I
set
-
Dynamic overreach < 5% at t = 100 ms -
7.2 Four step phase overcurrent protection OC4PTOC
Function description IEC 61850
identification
IEC 60617
identification
ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
Four step phase overcurrent protection OC4PTOC
4
4
alt
3I>
TOC-REVA V1 EN
51/67
7.2.1 Introduction
The four step phase overcurrent protection function OC4PTOC has an inverse or
definite time delay independent for each step separately.
All IEC and ANSI time delayed characteristics are available together with an
optional user defined time characteristic.
The directional function is voltage polarized with memory. The function can be set
to be directional or non-directional independently for each of the steps.
A 2nd harmonic blocking can be set individually for each step.
7.2.2 Principle of operation
The Four step overcurrent protection function OC4PTOC is divided into four
different sub-functions, one for each step. For each step x , where x is step 1, 2, 3
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 7
Current protection
255
Technical reference manual
and 4, an operation mode is set by DirModex: Off/Non-directional/Forward/
Reverse.
The protection design can be decomposed in four parts:
The direction element
The harmonic Restraint Blocking function
The four step over current function
The mode selection
If VT inputs are not available or not connected, setting parameter
DirModex shall be left to default value, Non-directional.
en05000740.vsd
Direction
Element
4 step over current
element
One element for each
step
Harmonic
Restraint
Mode Selection
dirPh1Flt
dirPh2Flt
dirPh3Flt
harmRestrBlock
enableDir
enableStep1-4
DirectionalMode1-4
faultState
Element
faultState
I3P
U3P
I3P
START
TRIP
IEC05000740 V1 EN
Figure 144: Functional overview of OC4PTOC
A common setting for all steps, StartPhSel, is used to specify the number of phase
currents to be high to enable operation. The settings can be chosen: 1 out of 3, 2 out
of 3 or 3 out of 3.
Section 7 1MRK506275-UEN C
Current protection
256
Technical reference manual
The sampled analogue phase currents are processed in a pre-processing function
block. Using a parameter setting MeasType within the general settings for the four
step phase overcurrent protection function OC4PTOC, it is possible to select the
type of the measurement used for all overcurrent stages. It is possible to select
either discrete Fourier filter (DFT) or true RMS filter (RMS).
If DFT option is selected then only the RMS value of the fundamental frequency
components of each phase current is derived. Influence of DC current component
and higher harmonic current components are almost completely suppressed. If
RMS option is selected then the true RMS values is used. The true RMS value in
addition to the fundamental frequency component includes the contribution from
the current DC component as well as from higher current harmonic. The selected
current values are fed to OC4PTOC.
In a comparator, for each phase current, the DFT or RMS values are compared to
the set operation current value of the function (I1>, I2>, I3> or I4>). If a phase
current is larger than the set operation current, outputs START, STx, STL1, STL2
and STL3 are, without delay, activated. Output signals STL1, STL2 and STL3 are
common for all steps. This means that the lowest set step will initiate the
activation. The START signal is common for all three phases and all steps. It shall
be noted that the selection of measured value (DFT or RMS) do not influence the
operation of directional part of OC4PTOC.
Service value for individually measured phase currents are also available on the
local HMI for OC4PTOC function, which simplifies testing, commissioning and in
service operational checking of the function.
A harmonic restrain of the function can be chosen. A set 2nd harmonic current in
relation to the fundamental current is used. The 2nd harmonic current is taken from
the pre-processing of the phase currents and the relation is compared to a set
restrain current level.
The function can be directional. The direction of the fault current is given as
current angle in relation to the voltage angle. The fault current and fault voltage for
the directional function is dependent of the fault type. To enable directional
measurement at close in faults, causing low measured voltage, the polarization
voltage is a combination of the apparent voltage (85%) and a memory voltage
(15%). The following combinations are used.
Phase-phase short circuit:
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
= - = -
refL L L L dirL L L L
U U U I I I
EQUATION1449 V1 EN (Equation 55)
2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3
= - = -
refL L L L dirL L L L
U U U I I I
EQUATION1450 V1 EN (Equation 56)
3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1
= - = -
refL L L L dirL L L L
U U U I I I
EQUATION1451 V1 EN (Equation 57)
Table continues on next page
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 7
Current protection
257
Technical reference manual

Phase-earth short circuit:
1 1 1 1
= =
refL L dirL L
U U I I
EQUATION1452 V1 EN (Equation 58)
2 2 2 2
= =
refL L dirL L
U U I I
EQUATION1453 V1 EN (Equation 59)
3 3 3 3
= =
refL L dirL L
U U I I
EQUATION1454 V1 EN (Equation 60)
The polarizing voltage is available as long as the positive-sequence voltage
exceeds 4% of the set base voltage UBase. So the directional element can use it for
all unsymmetrical faults including close-in faults.
For close-in three-phase faults, the U1
L1M
memory voltage, based on the same
positive sequence voltage, ensures correct directional discrimination.
The memory voltage is used for 100 ms or until the positive sequence voltage is
restored.
After 100 ms, the following occurs:
If the current is still above the set value of the minimum operating current
(between 10 and 30% of the set terminal rated current IBase), the condition
seals in.
If the fault has caused tripping, the trip endures.
If the fault was detected in the reverse direction, the measuring element
in the reverse direction remains in operation.
If the current decreases below the minimum operating value, the memory
resets until the positive sequence voltage exceeds 10% of its rated value.
The directional setting is given as a characteristic angle AngleRCA for the function
and an angle window AngleROA.
Section 7 1MRK506275-UEN C
Current protection
258
Technical reference manual
U
ref
I
dir
RCA
ROA
Forward
Reverse
ROA
en05000745.vsd
IEC05000745 V1 EN
Figure 145: Directional characteristic of the phase overcurrent protection
The default value of AngleRCA is 65. The parameters AngleROA gives the angle
sector from AngleRCA for directional borders.
A minimum current for directional phase start current signal can be set:
IminOpPhSel.
If no blockings are given the start signals will start the timers of the step. The time
characteristic for each step can be chosen as definite time delay or inverse time
characteristic. A wide range of standardized inverse time characteristics is
available. It is also possible to create a tailor made time characteristic. The
possibilities for inverse time characteristics are described in section "Inverse
characteristics".
All four steps in OC4PTOC can be blocked from the binary input BLOCK. The
binary input BLKSTx (x=1, 2, 3 or 4) blocks the operation of respective step.
Different types of reset time can be selected as described in section "Inverse
characteristics".
There is also a possibility to activate a preset change (IxMult x= 1, 2, 3 or 4) of the
set operation current via a binary input (enable multiplier). In some applications the
operation value needs to be changed, for example due to changed network
switching state. The function can be blocked from the binary input BLOCK. The
start signals from the function can be blocked from the binary input BLKST. The
trip signals from the function can be blocked from the binary input BLKTR.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 7
Current protection
259
Technical reference manual
7.2.3 Function block
IEC06000187-2-en.vsd
OC4PTOC
I3P*
U3P*
BLOCK
BLKTR
BLKST1
BLKST2
BLKST3
BLKST4
ENMULT1
ENMULT2
ENMULT3
ENMULT4
TRIP
TR1
TR2
TR3
TR4
TRL1
TRL2
TRL3
TR1L1
TR1L2
TR1L3
TR2L1
TR2L2
TR2L3
TR3L1
TR3L2
TR3L3
TR4L1
TR4L2
TR4L3
START
ST1
ST2
ST3
ST4
STL1
STL2
STL3
ST1L1
ST1L2
ST1L3
ST2L1
ST2L2
ST2L3
ST3L1
ST3L2
ST3L3
ST4L1
ST4L2
ST4L3
2NDHARM
DIRL1
DIRL2
DIRL3
IEC06000187 V2 EN
Figure 146: OC4PTOC function block
7.2.4 Input and output signals
Table 141: OC4PTOC Input signals
Name Type Default Description
I3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Group signal for current input
U3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Group signal for voltage input
BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function
BLKTR BOOLEAN 0 Block of trip
BLKST1 BOOLEAN 0 Block of Step1
BLKST2 BOOLEAN 0 Block of Step2
Table continues on next page
Section 7 1MRK506275-UEN C
Current protection
260
Technical reference manual
Name Type Default Description
BLKST3 BOOLEAN 0 Block of Step3
BLKST4 BOOLEAN 0 Block of Step4
ENMULT1 BOOLEAN 0 When activated, the current multiplier is in use for
step1
ENMULT2 BOOLEAN 0 When activated, the current multiplier is in use for
step2
ENMULT3 BOOLEAN 0 When activated, the current multiplier is in use for
step3
ENMULT4 BOOLEAN 0 When activated, the current multiplier is in use for
step4
Table 142: OC4PTOC Output signals
Name Type Description
TRIP BOOLEAN Trip
TR1 BOOLEAN Common trip signal from step1
TR2 BOOLEAN Common trip signal from step2
TR3 BOOLEAN Common trip signal from step3
TR4 BOOLEAN Common trip signal from step4
TRL1 BOOLEAN Trip signal from phase L1
TRL2 BOOLEAN Trip signal from phase L2
TRL3 BOOLEAN Trip signal from phase L3
TR1L1 BOOLEAN Trip signal from step1 phase L1
TR1L2 BOOLEAN Trip signal from step1 phase L2
TR1L3 BOOLEAN Trip signal from step1 phase L3
TR2L1 BOOLEAN Trip signal from step2 phase L1
TR2L2 BOOLEAN Trip signal from step2 phase L2
TR2L3 BOOLEAN Trip signal from step2 phase L3
TR3L1 BOOLEAN Trip signal from step3 phase L1
TR3L2 BOOLEAN Trip signal from step3 phase L2
TR3L3 BOOLEAN Trip signal from step3 phase L3
TR4L1 BOOLEAN Trip signal from step4 phase L1
TR4L2 BOOLEAN Trip signal from step4 phase L2
TR4L3 BOOLEAN Trip signal from step4 phase L3
START BOOLEAN General start signal
ST1 BOOLEAN Common start signal from step1
ST2 BOOLEAN Common start signal from step2
ST3 BOOLEAN Common start signal from step3
ST4 BOOLEAN Common start signal from step4
STL1 BOOLEAN Start signal from phase L1
STL2 BOOLEAN Start signal from phase L2
Table continues on next page
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 7
Current protection
261
Technical reference manual
Name Type Description
STL3 BOOLEAN Start signal from phase L3
ST1L1 BOOLEAN Start signal from step1 phase L1
ST1L2 BOOLEAN Start signal from step1 phase L2
ST1L3 BOOLEAN Start signal from step1 phase L3
ST2L1 BOOLEAN Start signal from step2 phase L1
ST2L2 BOOLEAN Start signal from step2 phase L2
ST2L3 BOOLEAN Start signal from step2 phase L3
ST3L1 BOOLEAN Start signal from step3 phase L1
ST3L2 BOOLEAN Start signal from step3 phase L2
ST3L3 BOOLEAN Start signal from step3 phase L3
ST4L1 BOOLEAN Start signal from step4 phase L1
ST4L2 BOOLEAN Start signal from step4 phase L2
ST4L3 BOOLEAN Start signal from step4 phase L3
2NDHARM BOOLEAN Block from second harmonic detection
DIRL1 INTEGER Direction for phase1
DIRL2 INTEGER Direction for phase2
DIRL3 INTEGER Direction for phase3
7.2.5 Setting parameters
Table 143: OC4PTOC Group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
Operation Off
On
- - Off Operation Off / On
IBase 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 Base current
UBase 0.05 - 2000.00 kV 0.05 400.00 Base voltage
AngleRCA 40 - 65 Deg 1 55 Relay characteristic angle (RCA)
AngleROA 40 - 89 Deg 1 80 Relay operation angle (ROA)
StartPhSel Not Used
1 out of 3
2 out of 3
3 out of 3
- - 1 out of 3 Number of phases required for op (1 of
3, 2 of 3, 3 of 3)
DirMode1 Off
Non-directional
Forward
Reverse
- - Non-directional Directional mode of step 1 (off, nodir,
forward, reverse)
Table continues on next page
Section 7 1MRK506275-UEN C
Current protection
262
Technical reference manual
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
Characterist1 ANSI Ext. inv.
ANSI Very inv.
ANSI Norm. inv.
ANSI Mod. inv.
ANSI Def. Time
L.T.E. inv.
L.T.V. inv.
L.T. inv.
IEC Norm. inv.
IEC Very inv.
IEC inv.
IEC Ext. inv.
IEC S.T. inv.
IEC L.T. inv.
IEC Def. Time
Reserved
Programmable
RI type
RD type
- - ANSI Def. Time Selection of time delay curve type for
step 1
I1> 1 - 2500 %IB 1 1000 Phase current operate level for step1 in
% of IBase
t1 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.000 Definitive time delay of step 1
k1 0.05 - 999.00 - 0.01 0.05 Time multiplier for the inverse time delay
for step 1
t1Min 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.000 Minimum operate time for inverse curves
for step 1
I1Mult 1.0 - 10.0 - 0.1 2.0 Multiplier for current operate level for
step 1
DirMode2 Off
Non-directional
Forward
Reverse
- - Non-directional Directional mode of step 2 (off, nodir,
forward, reverse)
Characterist2 ANSI Ext. inv.
ANSI Very inv.
ANSI Norm. inv.
ANSI Mod. inv.
ANSI Def. Time
L.T.E. inv.
L.T.V. inv.
L.T. inv.
IEC Norm. inv.
IEC Very inv.
IEC inv.
IEC Ext. inv.
IEC S.T. inv.
IEC L.T. inv.
IEC Def. Time
Reserved
Programmable
RI type
RD type
- - ANSI Def. Time Selection of time delay curve type for
step 2
I2> 1 - 2500 %IB 1 500 Phase current operate level for step2 in
% of IBase
t2 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.400 Definitive time delay of step 2
k2 0.05 - 999.00 - 0.01 0.05 Time multiplier for the inverse time delay
for step 2
Table continues on next page
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 7
Current protection
263
Technical reference manual
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
I2Mult 1.0 - 10.0 - 0.1 2.0 Multiplier for current operate level for
step 2
t2Min 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.000 Minimum operate time for inverse curves
for step 2
DirMode3 Off
Non-directional
Forward
Reverse
- - Non-directional Directional mode of step 3 (off, nodir,
forward, reverse)
Characterist3 ANSI Ext. inv.
ANSI Very inv.
ANSI Norm. inv.
ANSI Mod. inv.
ANSI Def. Time
L.T.E. inv.
L.T.V. inv.
L.T. inv.
IEC Norm. inv.
IEC Very inv.
IEC inv.
IEC Ext. inv.
IEC S.T. inv.
IEC L.T. inv.
IEC Def. Time
Reserved
Programmable
RI type
RD type
- - ANSI Def. Time Selection of time delay curve type for
step 3
I3> 1 - 2500 %IB 1 250 Phase current operate level for step3 in
% of IBase
t3 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.800 Definitive time delay of step 3
k3 0.05 - 999.00 - 0.01 0.05 Time multiplier for the inverse time delay
for step 3
t3Min 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.000 Minimum operate time for inverse curves
for step 3
I3Mult 1.0 - 10.0 - 0.1 2.0 Multiplier for current operate level for
step 3
DirMode4 Off
Non-directional
Forward
Reverse
- - Non-directional Directional mode of step 4 (off, nodir,
forward, reverse)
Characterist4 ANSI Ext. inv.
ANSI Very inv.
ANSI Norm. inv.
ANSI Def. Time
L.T.E. inv.
L.T.V. inv.
L.T. inv.
IEC Norm. inv.
IEC Very inv.
IEC inv.
IEC Ext. inv.
IEC S.T. inv.
IEC L.T. inv.
IEC Def. Time
Reserved
Programmable
RI type
RD type
- - ANSI Def. Time Selection of time delay curve type for
step 4
Table continues on next page
Section 7 1MRK506275-UEN C
Current protection
264
Technical reference manual
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
I4> 1 - 2500 %IB 1 175 Phase current operate level for step4 in
% of IBase
t4 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 2.000 Definitive time delay of step 4
k4 0.05 - 999.00 - 0.01 0.05 Time multiplier for the inverse time delay
for step 4
t4Min 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.000 Minimum operate time for inverse curves
for step 4
I4Mult 1.0 - 10.0 - 0.1 2.0 Multiplier for current operate level for
step 4
Table 144: OC4PTOC Group settings (advanced)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
IMinOpPhSel 1 - 100 %IB 1 7 Minimum current for phase selection in
% of IBase
2ndHarmStab 5 - 100 %IB 1 20 Operate level of 2nd harm restrain op in
% of Fundamental
ResetTypeCrv1 Instantaneous
IEC Reset
ANSI reset
- - Instantaneous Selection of reset curve type for step 1
tReset1 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.020 Reset time delay used in IEC Definite
Time curve step 1
tPCrv1 0.005 - 3.000 - 0.001 1.000 Parameter P for customer programmable
curve for step 1
tACrv1 0.005 - 200.000 - 0.001 13.500 Parameter A for customer programmable
curve for step 1
tBCrv1 0.00 - 20.00 - 0.01 0.00 Parameter B for customer programmable
curve for step 1
tCCrv1 0.1 - 10.0 - 0.1 1.0 Parameter C for customer
programmable curve for step 1
tPRCrv1 0.005 - 3.000 - 0.001 0.500 Parameter PR for customer
programmable curve for step 1
tTRCrv1 0.005 - 100.000 - 0.001 13.500 Parameter TR for customer
programmable curve for step 1
tCRCrv1 0.1 - 10.0 - 0.1 1.0 Parameter CR for customer
programmable curve for step 1
HarmRestrain1 Off
On
- - Off Enable block of step 1 from harmonic
restrain
ResetTypeCrv2 Instantaneous
IEC Reset
ANSI reset
- - Instantaneous Selection of reset curve type for step 2
tReset2 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.020 Reset time delay used in IEC Definite
Time curve step 2
tPCrv2 0.005 - 3.000 - 0.001 1.000 Parameter P for customer programmable
curve for step 2
tACrv2 0.005 - 200.000 - 0.001 13.500 Parameter A for customer programmable
curve for step 2
tBCrv2 0.00 - 20.00 - 0.01 0.00 Parameter B for customer programmable
curve for step 2
Table continues on next page
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 7
Current protection
265
Technical reference manual
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
tCCrv2 0.1 - 10.0 - 0.1 1.0 Parameter C for customer
programmable curve for step 2
tPRCrv2 0.005 - 3.000 - 0.001 0.500 Parameter PR for customer
programmable curve for step 2
tTRCrv2 0.005 - 100.000 - 0.001 13.500 Parameter TR for customer
programmable curve for step 2
tCRCrv2 0.1 - 10.0 - 0.1 1.0 Parameter CR for customer
programmable curve for step 2
HarmRestrain2 Off
On
- - Off Enable block of step 2 from harmonic
restrain
ResetTypeCrv3 Instantaneous
IEC Reset
ANSI reset
- - Instantaneous Selection of reset curve type for step 3
tReset3 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.020 Reset time delay used in IEC Definite
Time curve step 3
tPCrv3 0.005 - 3.000 - 0.001 1.000 Parameter P for customer programmable
curve for step 3
tACrv3 0.005 - 200.000 - 0.001 13.500 Parameter A for customer programmable
curve for step 3
tBCrv3 0.00 - 20.00 - 0.01 0.00 Parameter B for customer programmable
curve for step 3
tCCrv3 0.1 - 10.0 - 0.1 1.0 Parameter C for customer
programmable curve for step 3
tPRCrv3 0.005 - 3.000 - 0.001 0.500 Parameter PR for customer
programmable curve for step 3
tTRCrv3 0.005 - 100.000 - 0.001 13.500 Parameter TR for customer
programmable curve for step 3
tCRCrv3 0.1 - 10.0 - 0.1 1.0 Parameter CR for customer
programmable curve for step 3
HarmRestrain3 Off
On
- - Off Enable block of step3 from harmonic
restrain
ResetTypeCrv4 Instantaneous
IEC Reset
ANSI reset
- - Instantaneous Selection of reset curve type for step 4
tReset4 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.020 Reset time delay used in IEC Definite
Time curve step 4
tPCrv4 0.005 - 3.000 - 0.001 1.000 Parameter P for customer programmable
curve for step 4
tACrv4 0.005 - 200.000 - 0.001 13.500 Parameter A for customer programmable
curve for step 4
tBCrv4 0.00 - 20.00 - 0.01 0.00 Parameter B for customer programmable
curve for step 4
tCCrv4 0.1 - 10.0 - 0.1 1.0 Parameter C for customer
programmable curve for step 4
tPRCrv4 0.005 - 3.000 - 0.001 0.500 Parameter PR for customer
programmable curve for step 4
Table continues on next page
Section 7 1MRK506275-UEN C
Current protection
266
Technical reference manual
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
tTRCrv4 0.005 - 100.000 - 0.001 13.500 Parameter TR for customer
programmable curve for step 4
tCRCrv4 0.1 - 10.0 - 0.1 1.0 Parameter CR for customer
programmable curve for step 4
HarmRestrain4 Off
On
- - Off Enable block of step 4 from harmonic
restrain
Table 145: OC4PTOC Non group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
MeasType DFT
RMS
- - DFT Selection between DFT and RMS
measurement
7.2.6 Technical data
Table 146: OC4PTOC technical data
Function Setting range Accuracy
Operate current (1-2500)% of lBase 1.0% of I
r
at I I
r
1.0% of I at I > I
r
Reset ratio > 95% -
Min. operating current (1-100)% of lBase 1.0% of I
r
Relay characteristic angle (RCA) (-70.0 -50.0) degrees 2.0 degrees
Maximum forward angle (40.070.0) degrees 2.0 degrees
Minimum forward angle (75.090.0) degrees 2.0 degrees
2nd harmonic blocking (5100)% of fundamental 2.0% of I
r
Independent time delay (0.000-60.000) s 0.5% 10 ms
Minimum operate time (0.000-60.000) s 0.5% 10 ms
Inverse characteristics, see
table 619, table 620 and table
621
19 curve types See table 619, table 620 and
table 621
Operate time, start function 25 ms typically at 0 to 2 x I
set
-
Reset time, start function 25 ms typically at 2 to 0 x I
set
-
Critical impulse time 10 ms typically at 0 to 2 x I
set
-
Impulse margin time 15 ms typically -
7.3 Instantaneous residual overcurrent protection
EFPIOC
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 7
Current protection
267
Technical reference manual
Function description IEC 61850
identification
IEC 60617
identification
ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
Instantaneous residual overcurrent
protection
EFPIOC
IN>>
IEF V1 EN
50N
7.3.1 Introduction
The Instantaneous residual overcurrent protection EFPIOC has a low transient
overreach and short tripping times to allow the use for instantaneous earth-fault
protection, with the reach limited to less than typical eighty percent of the line at
minimum source impedance. EFPIOC can be configured to measure the residual
current from the three-phase current inputs or the current from a separate current
input. EFPIOC can be blocked by activating the input BLOCK.
7.3.2 Principle of operation
The sampled analog residual currents are pre-processed in a discrete Fourier filter
(DFT) block. From the fundamental frequency components of the residual current,
as well as from the sample values the equivalent RMS value is derived. This
current value is fed to the Instantaneous residual overcurrent protection (EFPIOC).
In a comparator the RMS value is compared to the set operation current value of
the function (IN>>). If the residual current is larger than the set operation current a
signal from the comparator is set to true. This signal will, without delay, activate
the output signal TRIP.
There is also a possibility to activate a preset change of the set operation current
via a binary input (enable multiplier MULTEN). In some applications the operation
value needs to be changed, for example due to transformer inrush currents.
EFPIOC function can be blocked from the binary input BLOCK. The trip signals
from the function can be blocked from the binary input BLKAR, that can be
activated during single pole trip and autoreclosing sequences.
7.3.3 Function block
IEC06000269-2-en.vsd
EFPIOC
I3P*
BLOCK
BLKAR
MULTEN
TRIP
IEC06000269 V2 EN
Figure 147: EFPIOC function block
Section 7 1MRK506275-UEN C
Current protection
268
Technical reference manual
7.3.4 Input and output signals
Table 147: EFPIOC Input signals
Name Type Default Description
I3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Three phase currents
BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function
BLKAR BOOLEAN 0 Block input for auto reclose
MULTEN BOOLEAN 0 Enable current multiplier
Table 148: EFPIOC Output signals
Name Type Description
TRIP BOOLEAN Trip signal
7.3.5 Setting parameters
Table 149: EFPIOC Group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
Operation Off
On
- - Off Operation Off / On
IBase 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 Base current
IN>> 1 - 2500 %IB 1 200 Operate residual current level in % of
IBase
Table 150: EFPIOC Group settings (advanced)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
StValMult 0.5 - 5.0 - 0.1 1.0 Multiplier for operate current level
7.3.6 Technical data
Table 151: EFPIOC technical data
Function Range or value Accuracy
Operate current (1-2500)% of lBase 1.0% of I
r
at I I
r
1.0% of I at I > I
r
Reset ratio > 95% -
Operate time 25 ms typically at 0 to 2 x I
set
-
Reset time 25 ms typically at 2 to 0 x I
set
-
Critical impulse time 10 ms typically at 0 to 2 x I
set
-
Operate time 10 ms typically at 0 to 10 x I
set
-
Table continues on next page
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 7
Current protection
269
Technical reference manual
Function Range or value Accuracy
Reset time 35 ms typically at 10 to 0 x I
set
-
Critical impulse time 2 ms typically at 0 to 10 x I
set
-
Dynamic overreach < 5% at t = 100 ms -
7.4 Four step residual overcurrent protection EF4PTOC
Function description IEC 61850
identification
IEC 60617
identification
ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
Four step residual overcurrent
protection
EF4PTOC
4
4
alt
IN
TEF-REVA V1 EN
51N/67N
7.4.1 Introduction
The four step residual overcurrent protection EF4PTOC has an inverse or definite
time delay independent for each step separately.
All IEC and ANSI time delayed characteristics are available together with an
optional user defined characteristic.
The directional function is voltage polarized, current polarized or dual polarized.
EF4PTOC can be set directional or non-directional independently for each of the
steps.
A second harmonic blocking can be set individually for each step.
EF4PTOC can be used as main protection for phase-to-earth faults.
EF4PTOC can also be used to provide a system back-up for example, in the case of
the primary protection being out of service due to communication or voltage
transformer circuit failure.
Directional operation can be combined together with corresponding
communication logic in permissive or blocking teleprotection scheme. Current
reversal and weak-end infeed functionality are available as well.
EF4PTOC can be configured to measure the residual current from the three-phase
current inputs or the current from a separate current input.
Section 7 1MRK506275-UEN C
Current protection
270
Technical reference manual
7.4.2 Principle of operation
This function has the following three Analog Inputs on its function block in the
configuration tool:
1. I3P, input used for Operating Quantity.
2. U3P, input used for Voltage Polarizing Quantity.
3. I3PPOL, input used for Current Polarizing Quantity.
These inputs are connected from the corresponding pre-processing function blocks
in the Configuration Tool within PCM600.
7.4.2.1 Operating quantity within the function
The function always uses Residual Current (3I
0
) for its operating quantity. The
residual current can be:
1. directly measured (when a dedicated CT input of the IED is connected in
PCM600 to the fourth analog input of the pre-processing block connected to
EF4PTOC function input I3P). This dedicated IED CT input can be for
example, connected to:
parallel connection of current instrument transformers in all three phases
(Holm-Green connection).
one single core balance, current instrument transformer (cable CT).
one single current instrument transformer located between power system
star point and earth (that is, current transformer located in the star point
of a star connected transformer winding).
one single current instrument transformer located between two parts of a
protected object (that is, current transformer located between two star
points of double star shunt capacitor bank).
2. calculated from three-phase current input within the IED (when the fourth
analog input into the pre-processing block connected to EF4PTOC function
Analog Input I3P is not connected to a dedicated CT input of the IED in
PCM600). In such case the pre-processing block will calculate 3I
0
from the
first three inputs into the pre-processing block by using the following formula:
Iop 3I IL1 IL2 IL3
0
= = + +
EQUATION1874 V2 EN (Equation 61)
where:
IL1, IL2 and IL3 are fundamental frequency phasors of three individual phase currents.
The residual current is pre-processed by a discrete Fourier filter. Thus the phasor of
the fundamental frequency component of the residual current is derived. The
phasor magnitude is used within the EF4PTOC protection to compare it with the
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 7
Current protection
271
Technical reference manual
set operation current value of the four steps (IN1>, IN2>, IN3> or IN4>). If the
residual current is larger than the set operation current and the step is used in non-
directional mode a signal from the comparator for this step is set to true. This
signal will, without delay, activate the output signal STINx (x=step 1-4) for this
step and a common START signal.
7.4.2.2 Internal polarizing
A polarizing quantity is used within the protection in order to determine the
direction to the earth fault (Forward/Reverse).
The function can be set to use voltage polarizing, current polarizing or dual polarizing.
Voltage polarizing
When voltage polarizing is selected the protection will use the residual voltage
-3U
0
as polarizing quantity U3P. This voltage can be:
1. directly measured (when a dedicated VT input of the IED is connected in
PCM600 to the fourth analog input of the pre-processing block connected to
EF4PTOC function input U3P). This dedicated IED VT input shall be then
connected to open delta winding of a three phase main VT.
2. calculated from three phase voltage input within the IED (when the fourth
analog input into the pre-processing block connected to EF4PTOC analog
function input U3P is NOT connected to a dedicated VT input of the IED in
PCM600). In such case the pre-processing block will calculate -3U
0
from the
first three inputs into the pre-processing block by using the following formula:
UPol = -3U
0
= -(UL1 + UL2 + UL3)
EQUATION1875 V2 EN (Equation 62)
where:
UL1, UL2 and UL3 are fundamental frequency phasors of three individual phase voltages.
Note! In order to use this all three phase-to-earth voltages must be connected to three IED VT inputs.
The residual voltage is pre-processed by a discrete fourier filter. Thus, the phasor
of the fundamental frequency component of the residual voltage is derived. This
phasor is used together with the phasor of the operating current, in order to
determine the direction to the earth fault (Forward/Reverse). In order to enable
voltage polarizing the magnitude of polarizing voltage shall be bigger than a
minimum level defined by setting parameter UpolMin.
It shall be noted that 3U
0
is used to determine the location of the earth fault. This
insures the required inversion of the polarizing voltage within the earth-fault function.
Section 7 1MRK506275-UEN C
Current protection
272
Technical reference manual
Current polarizing
When current polarizing is selected the function will use the residual current (3I
0
)
as polarizing quantity IPol. This current can be:
1. directly measured (when a dedicated CT input of the IED is connected in
PCM600 to the fourth analog input of the pre-processing block connected to
EF4PTOC function input I3PPOL). This dedicated IED CT input is then
typically connected to one single current transformer located between power
system star point and earth (current transformer located in the star point of a
star connected transformer winding).
For some special line protection applications this dedicated IED CT
input can be connected to parallel connection of current transformers in
all three phases (Holm-Green connection)
2. calculated from three phase current input within the IED (when the fourth
analog input into the pre-processing block connected to EF4PTOC function
analog input I3PPOL is NOT connected to a dedicated CT input of the IED in
PCM600). In such case the pre-processing block will calculate 3I
0
from the
first three inputs into the pre-processing block by using the following formula:
IPol 3I IL1 IL2 IL3
0
= = + +
EQUATION2018 V2 EN (Equation 63)
where:
IL1, IL2 and IL3 are fundamental frequency phasors of three individual phase currents.
The residual polarizing current is pre-processed by a discrete fourier filter. Thus
the phasor of the fundamental frequency component of the residual current is
derived. This phasor is then multiplied with pre-set equivalent zero-sequence
source Impedance in order to calculate equivalent polarizing voltage UIPol in
accordance with the following formula:
0s
UIPol Z IPol (RNPol j XNPol) IPol = = +
EQUATION1877 V2 EN (Equation 64)
, which will be then used, together with the phasor of the operating current, in order
to determine the direction to the earth fault (Forward/Reverse). In order to enable
current polarizing the magnitude of polarizing current shall be bigger than a
minimum level defined by setting parameter IPolMin.
Dual polarizing
When dual polarizing is selected the function will use the vectorial sum of the
voltage based and current based polarizing in accordance with the following formula:
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 7
Current protection
273
Technical reference manual
( )
0 0 0
3 3
s
UTotPol UUPol UIPol U Z IPol U RNPol jXNPol IPol = + = - + = - + +
EQUATION1878 V3 EN (Equation 65)
Then the phasor of the total polarizing voltage UTotPol will be used, together with
the phasor of the operating current, to determine the direction of the earth fault
(Forward/Reverse).
7.4.2.3 External polarizing for earth-fault function
The individual steps within the protection can be set as non-directional. When this
setting is selected it is then possible via function binary input BLKSTx to provide
external directional control (that is, torque control) by for example using one of the
following functions if available in the IED:
1. Distance protection directional function.
2. Negative sequence polarized General current and voltage multi purpose
protection function.
7.4.2.4 Base quantities within the protection
The base quantities shall be entered as setting parameters for every earth-fault
function. Base current (IBase) shall be entered as rated phase current of the
protected object in primary amperes. Base voltage (UBase) shall be entered as
rated phase-to-phase voltage of the protected object in primary kV.
7.4.2.5 Internal earth-fault protection structure
The protection is internally divided into the following parts:
1. Four residual overcurrent steps.
2. Directional supervision element for residual overcurrent steps with integrated
directional comparison step for communication based earth-fault protection
schemes (permissive or blocking).
3. Second harmonic blocking element with additional feature for sealed-in
blocking during switching of parallel transformers.
4. Switch on to fault feature with integrated Under-Time logic for detection of
breaker problems during breaker opening or closing sequence.
Each part is described separately in the following sections.
7.4.2.6 Four residual overcurrent steps
Each overcurrent step uses operating quantity Iop (residual current) as measuring
quantity. Each of the four residual overcurrent steps has the following built-in
facilities:
Directional mode can be set to Off/Non-directional/Forward/Reverse. By this
parameter setting the directional mode of the step is selected. It shall be noted
Section 7 1MRK506275-UEN C
Current protection
274
Technical reference manual
that the directional decision (Forward/Reverse) is not made within the residual
overcurrent step itself. The direction of the fault is determined in common
directional supervision element.
Residual current pickup value.
Type of operating characteristic (inverse or definite time). By this parameter
setting it is possible to select inverse or definite time delay for the earth-fault
protection. Most of the standard IEC and ANSI inverse characteristics are
available. For the complete list of available inverse curves please refer to
section "Inverse characteristics".
Type of reset characteristic (Instantaneous / IEC Reset / ANSI Reset). By this
parameter setting it is possible to select the reset characteristic of the step. For
the complete list of available reset curves please refer to section "Inverse time
characteristics".
Time delay related settings. By these parameter settings the properties like
definite time delay, minimum operating time for inverse curves, reset time
delay and parameters to define user programmable inverse curve are defined.
Supervision by second harmonic blocking feature (On/Off). By this parameter
setting it is possible to prevent operation of the step if the second harmonic
content in the residual current exceeds the preset level.
Multiplier for scaling of the set residual current pickup value by external
binary signal. By this parameter setting it is possible to increase residual
current pickup value when function binary input ENMULTx has logical value
1.
Simplified logic diagram for one residual overcurrent step is shown in figure 148.
X
a
b
a>b
ENMULTx
Inverse
tx
OR
|I
OP
|
STINx
TRINx
AND
AND
T
F
HarmRestrain1=Disabled
INx>
BLKSTx
BLOCK
OR
2ndH_BLOCK_Int
INxMult
Characteristx=Inverse
Characteristx=DefTime
DirModex=Off
DirModex=Non-directional
DirModex=Forward
DirModex=Reverse
AND
AND
FORWARD_Int
REVERSE_Int
OR
BLKTR
OR STAGEx_DIR_Int
en07000064.vsd
IEC07000064 V1 EN
Figure 148: Simplified logic diagram for residual overcurrent step x, where x =
step 1, 2, 3 or 4
The protection can be completely blocked from the binary input BLOCK. Output
signals for respective step, STINx and TRINx, can be blocked from the binary
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 7
Current protection
275
Technical reference manual
input BLKSTx. The trip signals from the function can be blocked from the binary
input BLKTR.
7.4.2.7 Directional supervision element with integrated directional
comparison function
It shall be noted that at least one of the four residual overcurrent
steps shall be set as directional in order to enable execution of the
directional supervision element and the integrated directional
comparison function.
The protection has integrated directional feature. As the operating quantity current
Iop is always used. The polarizing method is determined by the parameter setting
polMethod. The polarizing quantity will be selected by the function in one of the
following three ways:
1. When polMethod = Voltage, UVPol will be used as polarizing quantity.
2. When polMethod = Current, UIpol will be used as polarizing quantity.
3. WhenpolMethod = Dual, UTotPol will be used as polarizing quantity.
The operating and polarizing quantity are then used inside the directional element,
as shown in figure 149, in order to determine the direction of the earth fault.
Section 7 1MRK506275-UEN C
Current protection
276
Technical reference manual
AngleRCA
Forward
Area
Iop=3I
o
Upol=-3U
o
IEC07000066-3-en.vsd
0.6IN>Dir
IN>Dir
Reverse
Area
IEC07000066 V3 EN
Figure 149: Operating characteristic for earth-fault directional element
Two relevant setting parameters for directional supervision element are:
Directional element will be internally enabled to operate as soon as Iop is
bigger than 40% of IN>Dir and directional condition is fulfilled in set direction.
Relay characteristic angle AngleRCA, which defines the position of forward
and reverse areas in the operating characteristic.
Directional comparison step, built-in within directional supervision element, will
set EF4PTOC function output binary signals:
1. STFW=1 when operating quantity magnitude Iop x cos( - AngleRCA) is
bigger than setting parameterIN>Dir and directional supervision element
detects fault in forward direction.
2. STRV=1 when operating quantity magnitude Iop x cos( - AngleRCA) is
bigger than 60% of setting parameter IN>Dir and directional supervision
element detects fault in reverse direction.
These signals shall be used for communication based earth-fault teleprotection
communication schemes (permissive or blocking).
Simplified logic diagram for directional supervision element with integrated
directional comparison step is shown in figure 150:
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 7
Current protection
277
Technical reference manual
X
a
a>b
b IN>Dir
polMethod=Voltage
polMethod=Dual
OR
FORWARD_Int
REVERSE_Int
BLOCK
STAGE1_DIR_Int
0.6
X
0.4
AND
STAGE3_DIR_Int
STAGE4_DIR_Int
STAGE2_DIR_Int
OR
STRV
UPolMin
IPolMin
AngleRCA
T
F
0.0
X
T
F
RNPol
XNPol
0.0
D
i
r
e
c
t
i
o
n
a
l

C
h
a
r
a
c
t
e
r
i
s
t
i
c
FWD
RVS
AND
AND
AND
STFW
FORWARD_Int
REVERSE_Int
AND
IEC07000067-3-en.vsd
| |
UPol
UIPol
IPol
Iop
UTotPol
Iop
Complex
Number
a
a>b
b
IEC07000067 V3 EN
Figure 150: Simplified logic diagram for directional supervision element with integrated directional
comparison step
7.4.2.8 Second harmonic blocking element
A harmonic restrain of the Four step residual overcurrent protection function
EF4PTOC can be chosen. If the ratio of the 2
nd
harmonic component in relation to
the fundamental frequency component in the residual current exceeds the pre-set
level (defined by parameter setting 2ndHarmStab) any of the four residual
overcurrent stages can be selectively blocked by a parameter setting
HarmRestrainx. When 2
nd
harmonic restraint feature is active the EF4PTOC
function output signal 2NDHARMD will be set to logical value one.
In addition to the basic functionality explained above the 2
nd
harmonic blocking
can be set in such way to seal-in until residual current disappears. This feature
might be required to stabilize EF4PTOC during switching of parallel transformers
in the station. In case of parallel transformers there is a risk of sympathetic inrush
current. If one of the transformers is in operation, and the parallel transformer is
Section 7 1MRK506275-UEN C
Current protection
278
Technical reference manual
switched in, the asymmetric inrush current of the switched in transformer will
cause partial saturation of the transformer already in service. This is called
transferred saturation. The 2
nd
harmonic of the inrush currents of the two
transformers will be in phase opposition. The summation of the two currents will
thus give a small 2
nd
harmonic current. The residual fundamental current will
however be significant. The inrush current of the transformer in service before the
parallel transformer energizing, will be a little delayed compared to the first
transformer. Therefore we will have high 2
nd
harmonic current component initially.
After a short period this current will however be small and the normal 2
nd
harmonic blocking will reset. If the BlkParTransf function is activated the 2
nd
harmonic restrain signal will be latched as long as the residual current measured by
the relay is larger than a selected step current level.
This feature has been called Block for Parallel Transformers. This 2
nd
harmonic seal-
in feature will be activated when all of the following three conditions are
simultaneously fulfilled:
1. Feature is enabled by entering setting parameter BlkParTransf = On.
2.
Basic 2
nd
harmonic restraint feature has been active for at least 70ms.
3. Residual current magnitude is higher than the set start value for one of the four
residual overcurrent stages. By a parameter setting UseStartValue it is possible
to select which one of the four start values that will be used (IN1> or IN2> or
IN3> or IN4>).
Once Block for Parallel Transformers is activated the basic 2
nd
harmonic blocking
signal will be sealed-in until the residual current magnitude falls below a value
defined by parameter setting UseStartValue (see condition 3 above).
Simplified logic diagram for 2
nd
harmonic blocking feature is shown in figure 151.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 7
Current protection
279
Technical reference manual
I
OP 2NDHARMD
Extract second
harmonic current
component
Extract
fundamental
current component
a
b
a>b
BLOCK
OR
UseStartValue
IN1>
IN2>
IN3>
IN4>
a
b
a>b
|I
OP
|
t
t=70ms
OR
AN
D
BlkParTransf=On
q
-1
OR 2ndH_BLOCK_Int
en07000068-2.vsd
X
2ndHarmStab
IEC07000068 V2 EN
Figure 151: Simplified logic diagram for 2nd harmonic blocking feature and Block for Parallel Transformers
feature
7.4.2.9 Switch on to fault feature
Integrated in the four step residual overcurrent protection are Switch on to fault
logic (SOTF) and Under-Time logic. The setting parameter SOTF is set to activate
either SOTF or Under-Time logic or both. When the circuit breaker is closing there
is a risk to close it onto a permanent fault, for example during an autoreclosing
sequence. The SOTF logic will enable fast fault clearance during such situations.
The time during which SOTF and Under-Time logics will be active after activation
is defined by the setting parameter t4U.
The SOTF logic uses the start signal from step 2 or step 3 for its operation, selected
by setting parameter StepForSOTF. The SOTF logic can be activated either from
change in circuit breaker position or from circuit breaker close command pulse.
The setting parameter ActivationSOTF can be set for activation of CB position
open change, CB position closed change or CB close command. In case of a
residual current start from step 2 or 3 (dependent on setting) the function will give
a trip after a set delay tSOTF. This delay is normally set to a short time (default 200
ms).
The Under-Time logic always uses the start signal from the step 4. The Under-
Time logic will normally be set to operate for a lower current level than the SOTF
Section 7 1MRK506275-UEN C
Current protection
280
Technical reference manual
function. The Under-Time logic can also be blocked by the 2
nd
harmonic restraint
feature. This enables high sensitivity even if power transformer inrush currents can
occur at breaker closing. This logic is typically used to detect asymmetry of CB
poles immediately after switching of the circuit breaker. The Under-Time logic is
activated either from change in circuit breaker position or from circuit breaker
close and open command pulses. This selection is done by setting parameter
ActUnderTime. In case of a start from step 4 this logic will give a trip after a set
delay tUnderTime. This delay is normally set to a relatively short time (default 300
ms). Practically the Under-Time logic acts as circuit breaker pole-discordance
protection, but it is only active immediately after breaker switching. The Under-
Time logic can only be used in solidly or low impedance grounded systems.
UNDERTIME
HarmResSOFT
ActUnderTime
tPulse
AND
t
tUnderTime
OR
Open
Closed
Close command
ActivationSOTF
tPulse
StepForSOTF
STIN2
STIN3
AND
t
tSOTF
AND
BLOCK
2nd Harmonic
AND
Open
Close
Close command
STIN4
SOTF
SOTF or
UnderTime
TRIP
OFF
OR
UnderTime
SOTF
OperationMode
IEC06000643-2-en.vsd
IEC06000643 V2 EN
Figure 152: Simplified logic diagram for SOTF and Under-Time features
EF4PTOC Logic Diagram Simplified logic diagram for the complete EF4PTOC
function is shown in figure 153:
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 7
Current protection
281
Technical reference manual
en06000376.vsd
Direction
Element
4 step over current
element
One element for each
step
Harmonic
Restraint
Mode
Selection
earthFaultDirection
harmRestrBlock
enableDir
enableStep1-4
DirectionalMode1-4
TRIP
Element
enableDir
angleValid
Directional Check
operatingCurrent
SwitchOnToFault
start step 2, 3 and
4
signal to
communication
scheme
TRIP
3U0
3I0
Blocking at parallel
transformers
1
CB
pos
or cmd
Element
3I0
DirMode
DirMode
INPol
IEC06000376 V1 EN
Figure 153: Functional overview of EF4PTOC
7.4.3 Function block
IEC06000424-2-en.vsd
EF4PTOC
I3P*
U3P*
I3PPOL*
BLOCK
BLKTR
BLKST1
BLKST2
BLKST3
BLKST4
ENMULT1
ENMULT2
ENMULT3
ENMULT4
CBPOS
CLOSECB
OPENCB
TRIP
TRIN1
TRIN2
TRIN3
TRIN4
TRSOTF
START
STIN1
STIN2
STIN3
STIN4
STSOTF
STFW
STRV
2NDHARMD
IEC06000424 V2 EN
Figure 154: EF4PTOC function block
Section 7 1MRK506275-UEN C
Current protection
282
Technical reference manual
7.4.4 Input and output signals
Table 152: EF4PTOC Input signals
Name Type Default Description
I3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Current connection
U3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Polarizing voltage connection
I3PPOL GROUP
SIGNAL
- Polarizing current connection
BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function
BLKTR BOOLEAN 0 Block of trip
BLKST1 BOOLEAN 0 Block of step 1 (Start and trip)
BLKST2 BOOLEAN 0 Block of step 2 (Start and trip)
BLKST3 BOOLEAN 0 Block of step 3 (Start and trip)
BLKST4 BOOLEAN 0 Block of step 4 (Start and trip)
ENMULT1 BOOLEAN 0 When activated, the current multiplier is in use for
step1
ENMULT2 BOOLEAN 0 When activated, the current multiplier is in use for
step2
ENMULT3 BOOLEAN 0 When activated, the current multiplier is in use for
step3
ENMULT4 BOOLEAN 0 When activated, the current multiplier is in use for
step4
CBPOS BOOLEAN 0 Breaker position
CLOSECB BOOLEAN 0 Breaker close command
OPENCB BOOLEAN 0 Breaker open command
Table 153: EF4PTOC Output signals
Name Type Description
TRIP BOOLEAN Trip
TRIN1 BOOLEAN Trip signal from step 1
TRIN2 BOOLEAN Trip signal from step 2
TRIN3 BOOLEAN Trip signal from step 3
TRIN4 BOOLEAN Trip signal from step 4
TRSOTF BOOLEAN Trip signal from earth fault switch onto fault function
START BOOLEAN General start signal
STIN1 BOOLEAN Start signal step 1
STIN2 BOOLEAN Start signal step 2
STIN3 BOOLEAN Start signal step 3
STIN4 BOOLEAN Start signal step 4
STSOTF BOOLEAN Start signal from earth fault switch onto fault
function
Table continues on next page
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 7
Current protection
283
Technical reference manual
Name Type Description
STFW BOOLEAN Forward directional start signal
STRV BOOLEAN Reverse directional start signal
2NDHARMD BOOLEAN 2nd harmonic block signal
7.4.5 Setting parameters
Table 154: EF4PTOC Group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
Operation Off
On
- - Off Operation Off / On
IBase 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 Base value for current settings
UBase 0.05 - 2000.00 kV 0.05 400.00 Base value for voltage settings
AngleRCA -180 - 180 Deg 1 65 Relay characteristic angle (RCA)
polMethod Voltage
Current
Dual
- - Voltage Type of polarization
UPolMin 1 - 100 %UB 1 1 Minimum voltage level for polarization in
% of UBase
IPolMin 2 - 100 %IB 1 5 Minimum current level for polarization in
% of IBase
RNPol 0.50 - 1000.00 ohm 0.01 5.00 Real part of source Z to be used for
current polarisation
XNPol 0.50 - 3000.00 ohm 0.01 40.00 Imaginary part of source Z to be used for
current polarisation
IN>Dir 1 - 100 %IB 1 10 Residual current level for Direction
release in % of IBase
2ndHarmStab 5 - 100 % 1 20 Second harmonic restrain operation in %
of IN amplitude
BlkParTransf Off
On
- - Off Enable blocking at parallel transformers
UseStartValue IN1>
IN2>
IN3>
IN4>
- - IN4> Current level blk at parallel transf (step1,
2, 3 or 4)
SOTF Off
SOTF
UnderTime
SOTF+UnderTime
- - Off SOTF operation mode (Off/SOTF/
Undertime/SOTF+undertime)
ActivationSOTF Open
Closed
CloseCommand
- - Open Select signal that shall activate SOTF
StepForSOTF Step 2
Step 3
- - Step 2 Selection of step used for SOTF
HarmResSOTF Off
On
- - Off Enable harmonic restrain function in
SOTF
tSOTF 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.200 Time delay for SOTF
t4U 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 1.000 Switch-onto-fault active time
Table continues on next page
Section 7 1MRK506275-UEN C
Current protection
284
Technical reference manual
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
DirMode1 Off
Non-directional
Forward
Reverse
- - Non-directional Directional mode of step 1 (off, nodir,
forward, reverse)
Characterist1 ANSI Ext. inv.
ANSI Very inv.
ANSI Norm. inv.
ANSI Mod. inv.
ANSI Def. Time
L.T.E. inv.
L.T.V. inv.
L.T. inv.
IEC Norm. inv.
IEC Very inv.
IEC inv.
IEC Ext. inv.
IEC S.T. inv.
IEC L.T. inv.
IEC Def. Time
Reserved
Programmable
RI type
RD type
- - ANSI Def. Time Time delay curve type for step 1
IN1> 1 - 2500 %IB 1 100 Operate residual current level for step 1
in % of IBase
t1 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.000 Independent (defenite) time delay of step
1
k1 0.05 - 999.00 - 0.01 0.05 Time multiplier for the dependent time
delay for step 1
IN1Mult 1.0 - 10.0 - 0.1 2.0 Multiplier for scaling the current setting
value for step 1
t1Min 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.000 Minimum operate time for inverse curves
for step 1
HarmRestrain1 Off
On
- - On Enable block of step 1 from harmonic
restrain
DirMode2 Off
Non-directional
Forward
Reverse
- - Non-directional Directional mode of step 2 (off, nodir,
forward, reverse)
Characterist2 ANSI Ext. inv.
ANSI Very inv.
ANSI Norm. inv.
ANSI Mod. inv.
ANSI Def. Time
L.T.E. inv.
L.T.V. inv.
L.T. inv.
IEC Norm. inv.
IEC Very inv.
IEC inv.
IEC Ext. inv.
IEC S.T. inv.
IEC L.T. inv.
IEC Def. Time
Reserved
Programmable
RI type
RD type
- - ANSI Def. Time Time delay curve type for step 2
Table continues on next page
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 7
Current protection
285
Technical reference manual
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
IN2> 1 - 2500 %IB 1 50 Operate residual current level for step 2
in % of IBase
t2 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.400 Independent (definitive) time delay of
step 2
k2 0.05 - 999.00 - 0.01 0.05 Time multiplier for the dependent time
delay for step 2
IN2Mult 1.0 - 10.0 - 0.1 2.0 Multiplier for scaling the current setting
value for step 2
t2Min 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.000 Minimum operate time for inverse curves
step 2
HarmRestrain2 Off
On
- - On Enable block of step 2 from harmonic
restrain
DirMode3 Off
Non-directional
Forward
Reverse
- - Non-directional Directional mode of step 3 (off, nodir,
forward, reverse)
Characterist3 ANSI Ext. inv.
ANSI Very inv.
ANSI Norm. inv.
ANSI Mod. inv.
ANSI Def. Time
L.T.V. inv.
L.T. inv.
IEC Norm. inv.
IEC Very inv.
IEC inv.
IEC Ext. inv.
IEC S.T. inv.
IEC L.T. inv.
IEC Def. Time
Reserved
Programmable
RI type
RD type
- - ANSI Def. Time Time delay curve type for step 3
IN3> 1 - 2500 %IB 1 33 Operate residual current level for step 3
in % of IBase
t3 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.800 Independent time delay of step 3
k3 0.05 - 999.00 - 0.01 0.05 Time multiplier for the dependent time
delay for step 3
IN3Mult 1.0 - 10.0 - 0.1 2.0 Multiplier for scaling the current setting
value for step 3
t3Min 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.000 Minimum operate time for inverse curves
for step 3
HarmRestrain3 Off
On
- - On Enable block of step 3 from harmonic
restrain
DirMode4 Off
Non-directional
Forward
Reverse
- - Non-directional Directional mode of step 4 (off, nodir,
forward, reverse)
Table continues on next page
Section 7 1MRK506275-UEN C
Current protection
286
Technical reference manual
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
Characterist4 ANSI Ext. inv.
ANSI Very inv.
ANSI Norm. inv.
ANSI Mod. inv.
ANSI Def. Time
L.T.E. inv.
L.T.V. inv.
L.T. inv.
IEC Norm. inv.
IEC Very inv.
IEC inv.
IEC Ext. inv.
IEC S.T. inv.
IEC L.T. inv.
IEC Def. Time
Reserved
Programmable
RI type
RD type
- - ANSI Def. Time Time delay curve type for step 4
IN4> 1 - 2500 %IB 1 17 Operate residual current level for step 4
in % of IBase
t4 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 1.200 Independent (definitive) time delay of
step 4
k4 0.05 - 999.00 - 0.01 0.05 Time multiplier for the dependent time
delay for step 4
IN4Mult 1.0 - 10.0 - 0.1 2.0 Multiplier for scaling the current setting
value for step 4
t4Min 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.000 Minimum operate time in inverse curves
step 4
HarmRestrain4 Off
On
- - On Enable block of step 4 from harmonic
restrain
Table 155: EF4PTOC Group settings (advanced)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
ActUnderTime CB position
CB command
- - CB position Select signal to activate under time (CB
Pos/CBCommand)
tUnderTime 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.300 Time delay for under time
ResetTypeCrv1 Instantaneous
IEC Reset
ANSI reset
- - Instantaneous Reset curve type for step 1
tReset1 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.020 Reset curve type for step 1
tPCrv1 0.005 - 3.000 - 0.001 1.000 Parameter P for customer programmable
curve for step 1
tACrv1 0.005 - 200.000 - 0.001 13.500 Parameter A for customer programmable
curve for step 1
tBCrv1 0.00 - 20.00 - 0.01 0.00 Parameter B for customer programmable
curve for step 1
tCCrv1 0.1 - 10.0 - 0.1 1.0 Parameter C for customer
programmable curve for step 1
tPRCrv1 0.005 - 3.000 - 0.001 0.500 Parameter PR for customer
programmable curve for step 1
Table continues on next page
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 7
Current protection
287
Technical reference manual
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
tTRCrv1 0.005 - 100.000 - 0.001 13.500 Parameter TR for customer
programmable curve for step 1
tCRCrv1 0.1 - 10.0 - 0.1 1.0 Parameter CR for customer
programmable curve for step 1
ResetTypeCrv2 Instantaneous
IEC Reset
ANSI reset
- - Instantaneous Reset curve type for step 2
tReset2 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.020 Reset curve type for step 2
tPCrv2 0.005 - 3.000 - 0.001 1.000 Parameter P for customer programmable
curve for step 2
tACrv2 0.005 - 200.000 - 0.001 13.500 Parameter A for customer programmable
curve for step 2
tBCrv2 0.00 - 20.00 - 0.01 0.00 Parameter B for customer programmable
curve for step 2
tCCrv2 0.1 - 10.0 - 0.1 1.0 Parameter C for customer
programmable curve for step 2
tPRCrv2 0.005 - 3.000 - 0.001 0.500 Parameter PR for customer
programmable curve for step 2
tTRCrv2 0.005 - 100.000 - 0.001 13.500 Parameter TR for customer
programmable curve for step 2
tCRCrv2 0.1 - 10.0 - 0.1 1.0 Parameter CR for customer
programmable curve for step 2
ResetTypeCrv3 Instantaneous
IEC Reset
ANSI reset
- - Instantaneous Reset curve type for step 3
tReset3 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.020 Reset curve type for step 3
tPCrv3 0.005 - 3.000 - 0.001 1.000 Parameter P for customer programmable
curve for step 3
tACrv3 0.005 - 200.000 - 0.001 13.500 Parameter A for customer programmable
curve for step 3
tBCrv3 0.00 - 20.00 - 0.01 0.00 Parameter B for customer programmable
curve for step 3
tCCrv3 0.1 - 10.0 - 0.1 1.0 Parameter C for customer
programmable curve step 3
tPRCrv3 0.005 - 3.000 - 0.001 0.500 Parameter PR for customer
programmable curve step 3
tTRCrv3 0.005 - 100.000 - 0.001 13.500 Parameter TR for customer
programmable curve step 3
tCRCrv3 0.1 - 10.0 - 0.1 1.0 Parameter CR for customer
programmable curve for step 3
ResetTypeCrv4 Instantaneous
IEC Reset
ANSI reset
- - Instantaneous Reset curve type for step 4
tReset4 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.020 Reset curve type for step 4
tPCrv4 0.005 - 3.000 - 0.001 1.000 Parameter P for customer programmable
curve for step 4
tACrv4 0.005 - 200.000 - 0.001 13.500 Parameter A for customer programmable
curve step 4
Table continues on next page
Section 7 1MRK506275-UEN C
Current protection
288
Technical reference manual
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
tBCrv4 0.00 - 20.00 - 0.01 0.00 Parameter B for customer programmable
curve for step 4
tCCrv4 0.1 - 10.0 - 0.1 1.0 Parameter C for customer
programmable curve step 4
tPRCrv4 0.005 - 3.000 - 0.001 0.500 Parameter PR for customer
programmable curve step 4
tTRCrv4 0.005 - 100.000 - 0.001 13.500 Parameter TR for customer
programmable curve step 4
tCRCrv4 0.1 - 10.0 - 0.1 1.0 Parameter CR for customer
programmable curve step 4
7.4.6 Technical data
Table 156: EF4PTOC technical data
Function Range or value Accuracy
Operate current (1-2500)% of lBase 1.0% of I
r
at I I
r
1.0% of I at I > I
r
Reset ratio > 95% -
Operate current for directional
comparison
(1100)% of lBase 1.0% of I
r
Timers (0.000-60.000) s 0.5% 10 ms
Inverse characteristics, see
table 619, table 620 and table 621
18 curve types See table 619, table 620 and
table 621
Second harmonic restrain
operation
(5100)% of fundamental 2.0% of I
r
Relay characteristic angle (-180 to 180) degrees 2.0 degrees
Minimum polarizing voltage (1100)% of UBase 0.5% of U
r
Minimum polarizing current (1-30)% of IBase 0.25% of I
r
Real part of source Z used for
current polarization
(0.50-1000.00) W/phase -
Imaginary part of source Z used
for current polarization
(0.503000.00) W/phase -
Operate time, start function 25 ms typically at 0 to 2 x I
set
-
Reset time, start function 25 ms typically at 2 to 0 x I
set
-
Critical impulse time 10 ms typically at 0 to 2 x I
set
-
Impulse margin time 15 ms typically -
7.5 Sensitive directional residual overcurrent and power
protection SDEPSDE
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 7
Current protection
289
Technical reference manual
Function description IEC 61850
identification
IEC 60617
identification
ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
Sensitive directional residual over
current and power protection
SDEPSDE - 67N
7.5.1 Introduction
In networks with high impedance earthing, the phase-to-earth fault current is
significantly smaller than the short circuit currents. Another difficulty for earth-
fault protection is that the magnitude of the phase-to-earth fault current is almost
independent of the fault location in the network.
Directional residual current can be used to detect and give selective trip of phase-to-
earth faults in high impedance earthed networks. The protection uses the residual
current component 3I
0
cos , where is the angle between the residual current
and the residual voltage (-3U0), compensated with a characteristic angle.
Alternatively, the function can be set to strict 3I
0
level with an check of angle 3I
0
and cos .
Directional residual power can also be used to detect and give selective trip of phase-
to-earth faults in high impedance earthed networks. The protection uses the
residual power component 3I
0
3U
0
cos , where is the angle between the
residual current and the reference residual voltage, compensated with a
characteristic angle.
A normal non-directional residual current function can also be used with definite or
inverse time delay.
A back-up neutral point voltage function is also available for non-directional
sensitive back-up protection.
In an isolated network, that is, the network is only coupled to earth via the
capacitances between the phase conductors and earth, the residual current always
has -90 phase shift compared to the reference residual voltage. The characteristic
angle is chosen to -90 in such a network.
In resistance earthed networks or in Petersen coil earthed, with a parallel resistor,
the active residual current component (in phase with the residual voltage) should be
used for the earth-fault detection. In such networks the characteristic angle is
chosen to 0.
As the amplitude of the residual current is independent of the fault location the
selectivity of the earth-fault protection is achieved by time selectivity.
When should the sensitive directional residual overcurrent protection be used and
when should the sensitive directional residual power protection be used? Consider
the following facts:
Section 7 1MRK506275-UEN C
Current protection
290
Technical reference manual
Sensitive directional residual overcurrent protection gives possibility for better
sensitivity
Sensitive directional residual power protection gives possibility to use inverse
time characteristics. This is applicable in large high impedance earthed
networks, with large capacitive earth-fault current
In some power systems a medium size neutral point resistor is used, for
example, in low impedance earthed system. Such a resistor will give a resistive
earth-fault current component of about 200 - 400 A at a zero resistive phase-to-
earth fault. In such a system the directional residual power protection gives
better possibilities for selectivity enabled by inverse time power characteristics.
7.5.2 Principle of operation
7.5.2.1 Function inputs
The function is using phasors of the residual current and voltage. Group signals I3P
and U3P containing phasors of residual current and voltage is taken from pre-
processor blocks.
The sensitive directional earth fault protection has the following sub-functions
included:
Directional residual current protection measuring 3I
0
cos
is defined as the angle between the residual current 3I
0
and the reference voltage
compensated with the set characteristic angle RCADir (=ang(3I
0
)-ang(U
ref
) ).
Uref = -3U
0
e
jRCADIr
. RCADir is normally set equal to 0 in a high impedance
earthed network with a neutral point resistor as the active current component is
appearing out on the faulted feeder only. RCADir is set equal to -90 in an isolated
network as all currents are mainly capacitive. The function operates when 3I
0
cos
gets larger than the set value.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 7
Current protection
291
Technical reference manual
,
= =
o o
0 , 0 RCADir ROADir
ref
U
0
3I
j = -
0 ref
ang(3I ) ang(3U )
- =
0 ref
3U U
0
3I cos j
IEC06000648_2_en.vsd
IEC06000648 V2 EN
Figure 155: RCADir set to 0

IEC06000649_2_en.vsd
ref
U
= - =
o o
90 , 90 RCADir ROADir
0
3I
0
3 j I cos
j = -
0
(3 ) ( )
ref
ang I ang U
-
0
3U
IEC06000649 V2 EN
Figure 156: RCADir set to -90
For trip, both the residual current 3I
0
cos and the release voltage 3U
0
, must be
larger than the set levels: INCosPhi> and UNRel>.
Trip from this function can be blocked from the binary input BLKTRDIR.
Section 7 1MRK506275-UEN C
Current protection
292
Technical reference manual
When the function is activated binary output signals START and STDIRIN are
activated. If the activation is active after the set delay tDef the binary output signals
TRIP and TRDIRIN are activated. The trip from this sub-function has definite time
delay.
There is a possibility to increase the operate level for currents where the angle is
larger than a set value as shown in the figure below. This is equivalent to blocking
of the function if > ROADir. This option is used to handle angle error for the
instrument transformers.
Operate area
ROADir
IEC06000650_2_en.vsd
=
o
0 RCADir
0
3I
j
0
3 j I cos
- =
0
3
ref
U U
IEC06000650 V2 EN
Figure 157: Characteristic with ROADir restriction
The function indicates forward/reverse direction to the fault. Reverse direction is
defined as 3I
0
cos ( + 180) the set value.
It is also possible to tilt the characteristic to compensate for current transformer
angle error with a setting RCAComp as shown in the figure 158:
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 7
Current protection
293
Technical reference manual
-3U
0
=U
ref
Operate area
Instrument
transformer
angle error
3I
0
(prim)
3I
0
(to prot)
a
Characteristic after
angle compensation
RCAcomp
en06000651.vsd
RCADir = 0
IEC06000651 V2 EN
Figure 158: Explanation of RCAComp
Directional residual power protection measuring 3I
0
3U
0
cos
is defined as the angle between the residual current 3I
0
and the reference voltage
compensated with the set characteristic angle RCADir (=ang(3I
0
)ang(U
ref
) ).
U
ref
= -3U
0
e
-jRCA
. The function operates when 3I
0
3U
0
cos gets larger than
the set value.
For trip, both the residual power 3I
0
3U
0
cos , the residual current 3I
0
and the
release voltage 3U
0
, shall be larger than the set levels (SN>, INRel> and UNRel>).
Trip from this function can be blocked from the binary input BLKTRDIR.
When the function is activated binary output signals START and STDIRIN are
activated. If the activation is active after the set delay tDef or after the inverse time
delay (setting kSN) the binary output signals TRIP and TRDIRIN are activated.
The function shall indicate forward/reverse direction to the fault. Reverse direction
is defined as 3I
0
3U
0
cos ( + 180) the set value.
This variant has the possibility of choice between definite time delay and inverse
time delay.
Section 7 1MRK506275-UEN C
Current protection
294
Technical reference manual
The inverse time delay is defined as:
0 0
inv
0 0
kSN (3I 3U cos (reference))
t
3I 3U cos (measured)
j
=
j
EQUATION1942 V2 EN (Equation 66)
Directional residual current protection measuring 3I
0
and
The function will operate if the residual current is larger that the set value and the
angle = ang(3I
0
)-ang(U
ref
) is within the sector RCADir ROADir
-3U
0
80 80
Operate area
3I
0
en06000652.vsd
RCADir = 0
ROADir = 80
IEC06000652 V2 EN
Figure 159: Example of characteristic
For trip, both the residual current 3I
0
and the release voltage 3U
0
, shall be larger
than the set levels INDir> and UNREL> and the angle shall be in the set sector
ROADir and RCADir.
Trip from this function can be blocked from the binary input BLKTRDIR.
When the function is activated binary output signals START and STDIRIN are
activated. If the activation is active after the set delay tDef the binary output signals
TRIP and TRDIRIN are activated.
The function indicate forward/reverse direction to the fault. Reverse direction is
defined as is within the angle sector: RCADir + 180 ROADir
This variant shall have definite time delay.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 7
Current protection
295
Technical reference manual
Directional functions
For all the directional functions there are directional start signals STFW: fault in
the forward direction, and STRV: start in the reverse direction. Even if the
directional function is set to operate for faults in the forward direction a fault in the
reverse direction will give the start signal STRV. Also if the directional function is
set to operate for faults in the reverse direction a fault in the forward direction will
give the start signal STFW.
Non-directional earth fault current protection
This function will measure the residual current without checking the phase angle.
The function will be used to detect cross-country faults. This function can serve as
alternative or back-up to distance protection with phase preference logic. To assure
selectivity the distance protection can block the non-directional earth fault current
function via the input BLKNDN.
If available the non-directional function is using the calculated residual current,
derived as sum of the phase currents. This will give a better ability to detect cross-
country faults with high residual current, also when dedicated core balance CT for
the sensitive earth fault protection will saturate.
This variant shall have the possibility of choice between definite time delay and
inverse time delay. The inverse time delay shall be according to IEC 60255-3.
For trip, the residual current 3I
0
shall be larger than the set levels (INNonDir>).
Trip from this function can be blocked from the binary input BLKNDN.
When the function is activated binary output signal STNDIN is activated. If the
activation is active after the set delay tINNonDir or after the inverse time delay the
binary output signals TRIP and TRNDIN are activated.
Residual overvoltage release and protection
The directional function shall be released when the residual voltage gets higher
than a set level.
There shall also be a separate trip, with its own definite time delay, from this set
voltage level.
For trip, the residual voltage 3U
0
shall be larger than the set levels (UN>).
Trip from this function can be blocked from the binary input BLKUN.
When the function is activated binary output signal STUN is activated. If the
activation is active after the set delay tUNNonDir TRIP and TRUN are activated. A
simplified logical diagram of the total function is shown in figure 160.
Section 7 1MRK506275-UEN C
Current protection
296
Technical reference manual
en06000653.vsd
INNonDir>
UN>
OpMODE=3I0cosfi
IN>
INcosPhi>
OpMODE=3I03U0cosfi
INUNcosPhi>
Phi in RCA +- ROA
OpMODE=3I0 and fi
TimeChar = DefTime
DirMode = Reverse
Reverse
STNDIN
TRNDIN
STUN
TRUN
&
&
&
&
&
& 1
STARTDIRIN
STFW
STRV
TRDIRIN
&
t
t
&
SN
t
TimeChar = InvTime
1
DirMode = Forward
Forward
IEC06000653 V2 EN
Figure 160: Simplified logical diagram of the sensitive earth-fault current protection
7.5.3 Function block
IEC07000032-2-en.vsd
SDEPSDE
I3P*
U3P*
BLOCK
BLKTR
BLKTRDIR
BLKNDN
BLKUN
TRIP
TRDIRIN
TRNDIN
TRUN
START
STDIRIN
STNDIN
STUN
STFW
STRV
STDIR
UNREL
IEC07000032 V2 EN
Figure 161: SDEPSDE function block
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 7
Current protection
297
Technical reference manual
7.5.4 Input and output signals
Table 157: SDEPSDE Input signals
Name Type Default Description
I3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Group signal for current
U3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Group signal for voltage
BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Blocks all the outputs of the function
BLKTR BOOLEAN 0 Blocks the operate outputs of the function
BLKTRDIR BOOLEAN 0 Blocks the directional operate outputs of the
function
BLKNDN BOOLEAN 0 Blocks the Non directional current residual outputs
BLKUN BOOLEAN 0 Blocks the Non directional voltage residual outputs
Table 158: SDEPSDE Output signals
Name Type Description
TRIP BOOLEAN General trip of the function
TRDIRIN BOOLEAN Trip of the directional residual over current function
TRNDIN BOOLEAN Trip of non directional residual over current
TRUN BOOLEAN Trip of non directional residual over voltage
START BOOLEAN General start of the function
STDIRIN BOOLEAN Start of the directional residual over current
function
STNDIN BOOLEAN Start of non directional residual over current
STUN BOOLEAN Start of non directional residual over voltage
STFW BOOLEAN Start of directional function for a fault in forward
direction
STRV BOOLEAN Start of directional function for a fault in reverse
direction
STDIR INTEGER Direction of fault. A general signal common to all
three mode of residual over current protection
UNREL BOOLEAN Residual voltage release of operation of all
directional modes
Section 7 1MRK506275-UEN C
Current protection
298
Technical reference manual
7.5.5 Setting parameters
Table 159: SDEPSDE Group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
Operation Off
On
- - Off Operation Off / On
OpMode 3I0Cosfi
3I03U0Cosfi
3I0 and fi
- - 3I0Cosfi Selection of operation mode for protection
DirMode Forward
Reverse
- - Forward Direction of operation forward or reverse
RCADir -179 - 180 Deg 1 -90 Relay characteristic angle RCA, in deg
RCAComp -10.0 - 10.0 Deg 0.1 0.0 Relay characteristic angle compensation
ROADir 0 - 90 Deg 1 90 Relay open angle ROA used as release
in phase mode, in deg
INCosPhi> 0.25 - 200.00 %IB 0.01 1.00 Set level for 3I0cosFi, directional res
over current, in %Ib
SN> 0.25 - 200.00 %SB 0.01 10.00 Set level for 3I03U0cosFi, starting inv
time count, in %Sb
INDir> 0.25 - 200.00 %IB 0.01 5.00 Set level for directional residual over
current prot, in %Ib
tDef 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.100 Definite time delay directional residual
overcurrent, in sec
SRef 0.03 - 200.00 %SB 0.01 10.00 Reference value of res power for inverse
time count, in %Sb
kSN 0.00 - 2.00 - 0.01 0.10 Time multiplier setting for directional
residual power mode
OpINNonDir> Off
On
- - Off Operation of non-directional residual
overcurrent protection
INNonDir> 1.00 - 400.00 %IB 0.01 10.00 Set level for non directional residual over
current, in %Ib
tINNonDir 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 1.000 Time delay for non-directional residual
over current, in sec
TimeChar ANSI Ext. inv.
ANSI Very inv.
ANSI Norm. inv.
ANSI Mod. inv.
ANSI Def. Time
L.T.E. inv.
L.T.V. inv.
L.T. inv.
IEC Norm. inv.
IEC Very inv.
IEC inv.
IEC Ext. inv.
IEC S.T. inv.
IEC L.T. inv.
IEC Def. Time
Reserved
Programmable
RI type
RD type
- - IEC Norm. inv. Operation curve selection for IDMT
operation
Table continues on next page
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 7
Current protection
299
Technical reference manual
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
tMin 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.040 Minimum operate time for IEC IDMT
curves, in sec
kIN 0.00 - 2.00 - 0.01 1.00 IDMT time mult for non-dir res over
current protection
OpUN> Off
On
- - Off Operation of non-directional residual
overvoltage protection
UN> 1.00 - 200.00 %UB 0.01 20.00 Set level for non-directional residual over
voltage, in %Ub
tUN 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.100 Time delay for non-directional residual
over voltage, in sec
INRel> 0.25 - 200.00 %IB 0.01 1.00 Residual release current for all
directional modes, in %Ib
UNRel> 0.01 - 200.00 %UB 0.01 3.00 Residual release voltage for all direction
modes, in %Ub
Table 160: SDEPSDE Group settings (advanced)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
tReset 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.040 Time delay used for reset of definite
timers, in sec
tPCrv 0.005 - 3.000 - 0.001 1.000 Setting P for customer programmable
curve
tACrv 0.005 - 200.000 - 0.001 13.500 Setting A for customer programmable
curve
tBCrv 0.00 - 20.00 - 0.01 0.00 Setting B for customer programmable
curve
tCCrv 0.1 - 10.0 - 0.1 1.0 Setting C for customer programmable
curve
ResetTypeCrv Immediate
IEC Reset
ANSI reset
- - IEC Reset Reset mode when current drops off.
tPRCrv 0.005 - 3.000 - 0.001 0.500 Setting PR for customer programmable
curve
tTRCrv 0.005 - 100.000 - 0.001 13.500 Setting TR for customer programmable
curve
tCRCrv 0.1 - 10.0 - 0.1 1.0 Setting CR for customer programmable
curve
Table 161: SDEPSDE Non group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
IBase 1 - 99999 A 1 100 Base Current, in A
UBase 0.05 - 2000.00 kV 0.05 63.50 Base Voltage, in kV Phase to Neutral
SBase 0.05 -
200000000.00
kVA 0.05 6350.00 Base Power, in kVA. IBase*Ubase
Section 7 1MRK506275-UEN C
Current protection
300
Technical reference manual
Table 162: SDEPSDE Non group settings (advanced)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
RotResU 0 deg
180 deg
- - 180 deg Setting for rotating polarizing quantity if
necessary
7.5.6 Technical data
Table 163: SDEPSDE technical data
Function Range or value Accuracy
Operate level for 3I
0
cosj
directional residual overcurrent
(0.25-200.00)% of lBase

At low setting:
(2.5-10) mA
(10-50) mA
1.0% of I
r
at I I
r
1.0% of I at I > I
r

1.0 mA
0.5 mA
Operate level for 3I
0
3U
0
cosj
directional residual power
(0.25-200.00)% of SBase

At low setting:
(0.25-5.00)% of SBase
1.0% of S
r
at S S
r
1.0% of S at S > S
r

10% of set value
Operate level for 3I
0
and j
residual overcurrent
(0.25-200.00)% of lBase

At low setting:
(2.5-10) mA
(10-50) mA
1.0% of I
r
at I
r
1.0% of I at I > I
r

1.0 mA
0.5 mA
Operate level for non directional
overcurrent
(1.00-400.00)% of lBase

At low setting:
(10-50) mA
1.0% of I
r
at I I
r
1.0% of I at I > I
r

1.0 mA
Operate level for non directional
residual overvoltage
(1.00-200.00)% of UBase 0.5% of U
r
at UU
r
0.5% of U at U > U
r
Residual release current for all
directional modes
(0.25-200.00)% of lBase

At low setting:
(2.5-10) mA
(10-50) mA
1.0% of I
r
at I I
r
1.0% of I at I > I
r

1.0 mA
0.5 mA
Residual release voltage for all
directional modes
(0.01-200.00)% of UBase 0.5% of U
r
at UU
r
0.5% of U at U > U
r
Reset ratio > 95% -
Timers (0.000-60.000) s 0.5% 10 ms
Inverse characteristics, see
table 619, table 620 and table
621
19 curve types See table 619, table 620 and
table 621
Relay characteristic angle RCA (-179 to 180) degrees 2.0 degrees
Relay open angle ROA (0-90) degrees 2.0 degrees
Operate time, non directional
residual over current
60 ms typically at 0 to 2 x I
set
-
Reset time, non directional
residual over current
60 ms typically at 2 to 0 x I
set
-
Operate time, start function 150 ms typically at 0 to 2 x I
set
-
Reset time, start function 50 ms typically at 2 to 0 x I
set
-
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 7
Current protection
301
Technical reference manual
7.6 Thermal overload protection, one time constant
LPTTR
Function description IEC 61850
identification
IEC 60617
identification
ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
Thermal overload protection, one time
constant
LPTTR
SYMBOL-A V1 EN
26
7.6.1 Introduction
The increasing utilizing of the power system closer to the thermal limits has
generated a need of a thermal overload protection also for power lines.
A thermal overload will often not be detected by other protection functions and the
introduction of the thermal overload protection can allow the protected circuit to
operate closer to the thermal limits.
The three-phase current measuring protection has an I
2
t characteristic with settable
time constant and a thermal memory.
An alarm level gives early warning to allow operators to take action well before the
line is tripped.
7.6.2 Principle of operation
The sampled analog phase currents are pre-processed and for each phase current
the RMS value is derived. These phase current values are fed to the thermal
overload protection, one time constant function LPTTR.
From the largest of the three-phase currents a final temperature is calculated
according to the expression:
2
final ref
ref
I
T
I

Q =



EQUATION1167 V1 EN (Equation 67)
where:
I is the largest phase current,
I
ref
is a given reference current and
T
ref
is steady state temperature corresponding to I
ref
Section 7 1MRK506275-UEN C
Current protection
302
Technical reference manual
The ambient temperature is added to the calculated final temperature. If this
temperature is larger than the set operate temperature level, TripTemp, a START
output signal is activated.
The actual temperature at the actual execution cycle is calculated as:
( )
1 1
1
t
n n final n
e
t
D
-
- -

Q = Q + Q -Q -


EQUATION1168 V1 EN (Equation 68)
where:
Q
n
is the calculated present temperature,
Q
n-1
is the calculated temperature at the previous time step,
Q
final
is the calculated final temperature with the actual current,
Dt is the time step between calculation of the actual temperature and
t is the set thermal time constant for the protected device (line or cable)
The actual temperature of the protected component (line or cable) is calculated by
adding the ambient temperature to the calculated temperature, as shown above. The
ambient temperature can be taken from a separate sensor or can be given a constant
value. The calculated component temperature is available as a real figure signal,
TEMP.
When the component temperature reaches the set alarm level AlarmTemp the
output signal ALARM is set. When the component temperature reaches the set trip
level TripTemp the output signal TRIP is set.
There is also a calculation of the present time to operate with the present current.
This calculation is only performed if the final temperature is calculated to be above
the operation temperature:
ln
final operate
operate
final n
t t
Q -Q
= -


Q -Q

EQUATION1169 V1 EN (Equation 69)
The calculated time to trip is available as a real figure signal, TTRIP.
After a trip, caused by the thermal overload protection, there can be a lockout to
reconnect the tripped circuit. The output lockout signal LOCKOUT is activated
when the device temperature is above the set lockout release temperature setting
ReclTemp.
The time to lockout release is calculated that is, a calculation of the cooling time to
a set value. The thermal content of the function can be reset with input RESET.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 7
Current protection
303
Technical reference manual
_
_
ln
final lockout release
lockout release
final n
t t
Q -Q
= -


Q -Q

EQUATION1170 V1 EN (Equation 70)
Here the final temperature is equal to the set or measured ambient temperature. The
calculated time to reset of lockout is available as a real figure signal, TENRECL.
In some applications the measured current can involve a number of parallel lines.
This is often used for cable lines where one bay connects several parallel cables.
By setting the parameter IMult to the number of parallel lines (cables) the actual
current on one line is used in the protection algorithm. To activate this option the
input ENMULT must be activated.
The protection has a reset input: RESET. By activating this input the calculated
temperature is reset to its default initial value. This is useful during testing when
secondary injected current has given a calculated false temperature level.
Calculation
of final
temperature
IL1, IL2, IL3
Calculation
of actual
temperature
Final Temp
> TripTemp
actual temperature
START
Actual Temp >
AlarmTemp
Actual Temp
> TripTemp
ALARM
TRIP
Actual Temp
< Recl Temp
Calculation
of time to
trip
Calculation
of time to
reset of
lockout
TTRIP
TENRECL
IEC09000637_1_en.vsd
Lock-
out
logic
LOCKOUT
IEC09000637 V1 EN
Figure 162: Functional overview of LPTTR
Section 7 1MRK506275-UEN C
Current protection
304
Technical reference manual
7.6.3 Function block
IEC04000396-2-en.vsd
LPTTR
I3P*
BLOCK
BLKTR
ENMULT
AMBTEMP
SENSFLT
RESET
TRIP
START
ALARM
LOCKOUT
IEC04000396 V3 EN
Figure 163: LPTTR function block
7.6.4 Input and output signals
Table 164: LPTTR Input signals
Name Type Default Description
I3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Group connection
BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function
BLKTR BOOLEAN 0 Block of trip
ENMULT BOOLEAN 0 Current multiplyer used when THOL is for two or
more lines
AMBTEMP REAL 0 Ambient temperature from external temperature
sensor
SENSFLT BOOLEAN 0 Validity status of ambient temperature sensor
RESET BOOLEAN 0 Reset of internal thermal load counter
Table 165: LPTTR Output signals
Name Type Description
TRIP BOOLEAN Trip
START BOOLEAN Start Signal
ALARM BOOLEAN Alarm signal
LOCKOUT BOOLEAN Lockout signal
7.6.5 Setting parameters
Table 166: LPTTR Group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
Operation Off
On
- - Off Operation Off / On
IBase 0 - 99999 A 1 3000 Base current in A
TRef 0 - 600 Deg 1 90 End temperature rise above ambient of
the line when loaded with IRef
Table continues on next page
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 7
Current protection
305
Technical reference manual
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
IRef 0 - 400 %IB 1 100 The load current (in %of IBase) leading
to TRef temperature
IMult 1 - 5 - 1 1 Current multiplier when function is used
for two or more lines
Tau 0 - 1000 Min 1 45 Time constant of the line in minutes.
AlarmTemp 0 - 200 Deg 1 80 Temperature level for start (alarm)
TripTemp 0 - 600 Deg 1 90 Temperature level for trip
ReclTemp 0 - 600 Deg 1 75 Temperature for reset of lockout after trip
tPulse 0.05 - 0.30 s 0.01 0.1 Operate pulse length. Minimum one
execution cycle
AmbiSens Off
On
- - Off External temperature sensor availiable
DefaultAmbTemp -50 - 250 Deg 1 20 Ambient temperature used when
AmbiSens is set to Off.
DefaultTemp -50 - 600 Deg 1 50 Temperature raise above ambient
temperature at startup
7.6.6 Technical data
Table 167: LPTTR technical data
Function Range or value Accuracy
Reference current (0-400)% of IBase 1.0% of I
r
Start temperature reference (0-400)C 1.0C
Operate time:
2 2
2 2
ln
p
b
I I
t
I I
t

-
=

-

EQUATION1356 V1 EN (Equation 71)
I = actual measured current
I
p
= load current before overload
occurs
I
b
= base current, IBase
Time constant t = (01000)
minutes
IEC 60255-8, class 5 + 200 ms
Alarm temperature (0-200)C 2.0% of heat content trip
Trip temperature (0-400)C 2.0% of heat content trip
Reset level temperature (0-400)C 2.0% of heat content trip
7.7 Breaker failure protection CCRBRF
Section 7 1MRK506275-UEN C
Current protection
306
Technical reference manual
Function description IEC 61850
identification
IEC 60617
identification
ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
Breaker failure protection CCRBRF
3I>BF
SYMBOL-U V1 EN
50BF
7.7.1 Introduction
Breaker failure protection (CCRBRF) ensures fast back-up tripping of surrounding
breakers in case of own breaker failure to open. CCRBRF can be current based,
contact based, or adaptive combination between these two principles.
A current check with extremely short reset time is used as check criteria to achieve
a high security against unnecessary operation.
A contact check criteria can be used where the fault current through the breaker is
small.
CCRBRF can be single- or three-phase initiated to allow use with single phase
tripping applications. For the three-phase version of CCRBRF the current criteria
can be set to operate only if two out of four for example, two phases or one phase
plus the residual current start. This gives a higher security to the back-up trip
command.
CCRBRF function can be programmed to give a single- or three-phase re-trip of
the own breaker to avoid unnecessary tripping of surrounding breakers at an
incorrect initiation due to mistakes during testing.
7.7.2 Principle of operation
Breaker failure protection CCRBRF is initiated from protection trip command,
either from protection functions within the IED or from external protection devices.
The start signal can be phase selective or general (for all three phases). Phase
selective start signals enable single pole re-trip function. This means that a second
attempt to open the breaker is done. The re-trip attempt can be made after a set
time delay. For transmission lines single pole trip and autoreclosing is often used.
The re-trip function can be phase selective if it is initiated from phase selective line
protection. The re-trip function can be done with or without current check. With
the current check the re-trip is only performed if the current through the circuit
breaker is larger than the operate current level.
The start signal can be an internal or external protection trip signal. This signal will
start the back-up trip timer. If the opening of the breaker is successful this is
detected by the function, by detection of either low current through RMS
evaluation and a special adapted current algorithm or by open contact indication.
The special algorithm enables a very fast detection of successful breaker opening,
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 7
Current protection
307
Technical reference manual
that is, fast resetting of the current measurement. If the current and/or contact
detection has not detected breaker opening before the back-up timer has run its
time a back-up trip is initiated.
Further the following possibilities are available:
The minimum length of the re-trip pulse, the back-up trip pulse and the back-
up trip pulse 2 are settable. The re-trip pulse, the back-up trip pulse and the back-
up trip pulse 2 will however sustain as long as there is an indication of closed
breaker.
In the current detection it is possible to use three different options: 1 out of 3
where it is sufficient to detect failure to open (high current) in one pole, 1 out
of 4 where it is sufficient to detect failure to open (high current) in one pole or
high residual current and 2 out of 4 where at least two current (phase current and/
or residual current) shall be high for breaker failure detection.
The current detection level for the residual current can be set different from the
setting of phase current detection.
It is possible to have different back-up time delays for single-phase faults and
for multi-phase faults.
The back-up trip can be made without current check. It is possible to have this
option activated for small load currents only.
It is possible to have instantaneous back-up trip function if a signal is high if
the circuit breaker is insufficient to clear faults, for example at low gas pressure.
S
R
SR
Q
OR
AND
AND
30 ms
t
150 ms
START
STL1
OR
OR
BackupTrip L1
BFP Started L1
Time out L1
Reset L1
BLOCK
Retrip Time Out L1
IEC09000976-1-en.vsd
IEC09000976 V1 EN
Figure 164: Simplified logic scheme of the CCRBRF starting logic
Section 7 1MRK506275-UEN C
Current protection
308
Technical reference manual
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
OR
OR
OR
a
b
a>b
AND
a
b
a>b
I>BlkCont
AND
Time out L1
BFP Started L1
Reset L1
CBCLDL1
IL1
Current High L1
Contact Closed L1
IEC09000977-1-en.vsd
FunctionMode
OR
OR
Current
Contact
Current and Contact
1
IP>
CB Closed L1
IEC09000977 V1 EN
Figure 165: Simplified logic scheme of the CCRBRF, CB position evaluation
t
t1
tPulse
AND
AND
OR
OR
OR
TRRETL3
TRRETL2
BFP Started L1
Retrip Time Out L1
CB Closed L1
TRRET
TRRETL1
CBFLT
CB Pos Check
No CBPos Check
AND
OR
From other
phases
IEC09000978-1-en.vsd
RetripMode
1
IEC09000978 V1 EN
Figure 166: Simplified logic scheme of the retrip logic function
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 7
Current protection
309
Technical reference manual
IEC09000979-1-en.vsd
BFP Started L1
t
t2
AND
2 of 3
BFP Started L2
BFP Started L3
From other
phases
OR OR
AND
t
t2MPh
CBFLT
AND
AND
a
b
a>b
IN
IN>
1 out of 4
AND
OR
1 out of 3
Current High L2
Current High L3
From other
phases
AND
Current High L1
OR
Contact Closed L1
OR
Backup Trip L1
tPulse
Backup Trip L2
OR
From other
phases
Backup Trip L3
TRBU
OR
S
R
SR
Q
AND
t
t3
tPulse
TRBU2
OR
2 out of 4
BUTripMode
1
IEC09000979 V1 EN
Figure 167: Simplified logic scheme of the back-up trip logic function
Internal logical signals STIL1, STIL2, STIL3 have logical value 1 when current in
respective phase has magnitude larger than setting parameter IP>.
7.7.3 Function block
IEC06000188-2-en.vsd
CCRBRF
I3P*
BLOCK
START
STL1
STL2
STL3
CBCLDL1
CBCLDL2
CBCLDL3
CBFLT
TRBU
TRBU2
TRRET
TRRETL1
TRRETL2
TRRETL3
CBALARM
IEC06000188 V2 EN
Figure 168: CCRBRF function block
Section 7 1MRK506275-UEN C
Current protection
310
Technical reference manual
7.7.4 Input and output signals
Table 168: CCRBRF Input signals
Name Type Default Description
I3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Current connection
BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function
START BOOLEAN 0 Three phase start of breaker failure protection
function
STL1 BOOLEAN 0 Start signal of phase L1
STL2 BOOLEAN 0 Start signal of phase L2
STL3 BOOLEAN 0 Start signal of phase L3
CBCLDL1 BOOLEAN 1 Circuit breaker closed in phase L1
CBCLDL2 BOOLEAN 1 Circuit breaker closed in phase L2
CBCLDL3 BOOLEAN 1 Circuit breaker closed in phase L3
CBFLT BOOLEAN 0 CB faulty, unable to trip. Back-up trip
instantanously.
Table 169: CCRBRF Output signals
Name Type Description
TRBU BOOLEAN Back-up trip by breaker failure protection function
TRBU2 BOOLEAN Second back-up trip by breaker failure protection
function
TRRET BOOLEAN Retrip by breaker failure protection function
TRRETL1 BOOLEAN Retrip by breaker failure protection function
phase L1
TRRETL2 BOOLEAN Retrip by breaker failure protection function
phase L2
TRRETL3 BOOLEAN Retrip by breaker failure protection function
phase L3
CBALARM BOOLEAN Alarm for faulty circuit breaker
7.7.5 Setting parameters
Table 170: CCRBRF Group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
Operation Off
On
- - Off Operation Off / On
IBase 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 Base current
FunctionMode Current
Contact
Current&Contact
- - Current Detection principle for back-up trip
Table continues on next page
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 7
Current protection
311
Technical reference manual
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
BuTripMode 2 out of 4
1 out of 3
1 out of 4
- - 1 out of 3 Back-up trip mode
RetripMode Retrip Off
CB Pos Check
No CBPos Check
- - Retrip Off Operation mode of re-trip logic
IP> 5 - 200 %IB 1 10 Operate phase current level in % of IBase
IN> 2 - 200 %IB 1 10 Operate residual current level in % of
IBase
t1 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.000 Time delay of re-trip
t2 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.150 Time delay of back-up trip
t2MPh 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.150 Time delay of back-up trip at multi-phase
start
tPulse 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.200 Trip pulse duration
Table 171: CCRBRF Group settings (advanced)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
I>BlkCont 5 - 200 %IB 1 20 Current for blocking of CB contact
operation in % of IBase
t3 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.030 Additional time delay to t2 for a second
back-up trip
tCBAlarm 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 5.000 Time delay for CB faulty signal
7.7.6 Technical data
Table 172: CCRBRF technical data
Function Range or value Accuracy
Operate phase
current
(5-200)% of lBase 1.0% of I
r
at I I
r
1.0% of I at I > I
r
Reset ratio, phase
current
> 95% -
Operate residual
current
(2-200)% of lBase 1.0% of I
r
at I I
r
1.0% of I at I > I
r
Reset ratio, residual
current
> 95% -
Phase current level
for blocking of
contact function
(5-200)% of lBase 1.0% of I
r
at I I
r
1.0% of I at I > I
r
Reset ratio > 95% -
Timers (0.000-60.000) s 0.5% 10 ms
Operate time for
current detection
10 ms typically -
Reset time for
current detection
15 ms maximum -
Section 7 1MRK506275-UEN C
Current protection
312
Technical reference manual
7.8 Stub protection STBPTOC
Function description IEC 61850
identification
IEC 60617
identification
ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
Stub protection STBPTOC
3I>STUB
SYMBOL-T V1 EN
50STB
7.8.1 Introduction
When a power line is taken out of service for maintenance and the line
disconnector is opened in multi-breaker arrangements the voltage transformers will
mostly be outside on the disconnected part. The primary line distance protection
will thus not be able to operate and must be blocked.
The stub protection STBPTOC covers the zone between the current transformers
and the open disconnector. The three-phase instantaneous overcurrent function is
released from a normally open, NO (b) auxiliary contact on the line disconnector.
7.8.2 Principle of operation
The sampled analog phase currents are pre-processed in a discrete Fourier filter
(DFT) block. From the fundamental frequency components of each phase current
the RMS value of each phase current is derived. These phase current values are fed
to a comparator in the stub protection function STBPTOC. In a comparator the
RMS values are compared to the set operating current value of the function I>.
If a phase current is larger than the set operating current the signal from the
comparator for this phase is activated. This signal will, in combination with the
release signal from line disconnection (RELEASE input), activate the timer for the
TRIP signal. If the fault current remains during the timer delay t, the TRIP output
signal is activated. The function can be blocked by activation of the BLOCK input.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 7
Current protection
313
Technical reference manual
BLOCK
TRIP
STUB PROTECTION FUNCTION
STIL1
STIL2
STIL3
OR
AND
RELEASE
en05000731.vsd
IEC05000731 V1 EN
Figure 169: Simplified logic diagram for Stub protection
7.8.3 Function block
IEC05000678-2-en.vsd
STBPTOC
I3P*
BLOCK
BLKTR
RELEASE
TRIP
START
IEC05000678 V2 EN
Figure 170: STBPTOC function block
7.8.4 Input and output signals
Table 173: STBPTOC Input signals
Name Type Default Description
I3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Three phase currents
BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function
BLKTR BOOLEAN 0 Block of trip
RELEASE BOOLEAN 0 Release of stub protection
Table 174: STBPTOC Output signals
Name Type Description
TRIP BOOLEAN Trip
START BOOLEAN General start
Section 7 1MRK506275-UEN C
Current protection
314
Technical reference manual
7.8.5 Setting parameters
Table 175: STBPTOC Group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
Operation Off
On
- - Off Operation Off / On
IBase 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 Base current
ReleaseMode Release
Continuous
- - Release Release of stub protection
I> 1 - 2500 %IB 1 200 Operate current level in % of IBase
Table 176: STBPTOC Group settings (advanced)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
t 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.000 Time delay
7.8.6 Technical data
Table 177: STBPTOC technical data
Function Range or value Accuracy
Operating current (1-2500)% of IBase 1.0% of I
r
at I I
r
1.0% of I at I > I
r
Reset ratio > 95% -
Definite time (0.000-60.000) s 0.5% 10 ms
Operating time, start
function
25 ms typically at 0 to 2 x I
set
-
Resetting time,
startfunction
25 ms typically at 2 to 0 x I
set
-
Critical impulse time 10 ms typically at 0 to 2 x I
set
-
Impulse margin time 15 ms typically -
7.9 Pole discordance protection CCRPLD
Function description IEC 61850
identification
IEC 60617
identification
ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
Pole discordance protection CCRPLD
PD
SYMBOL-S V1 EN
52PD
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 7
Current protection
315
Technical reference manual
7.9.1 Introduction
Single pole operated circuit breakers can due to electrical or mechanical failures
end up with the different poles in different positions (close-open). This can cause
negative and zero sequence currents which gives thermal stress on rotating
machines and can cause unwanted operation of zero sequence or negative sequence
current functions.
Normally the own breaker is tripped to correct such a situation. If the situation
persists the surrounding breaker should be tripped to clear the unsymmetrical load
situation.
The Polediscordance protection function CCRPLD operates based on information
from auxiliary contacts of the circuit breaker for the three phases with additional
criteria from unsymmetrical phase current when required.
7.9.2 Principle of operation
The detection of pole discordance can be made in two different ways. If the contact
based function is used an external logic can be made by connecting the auxiliary
contacts of the circuit breaker so that a pole discordance is indicated, see figure 171.
Pole discordance signal from circuit breaker
+
circuit breaker
en05000287.vsd
IEC05000287 V2 EN
Figure 171: Pole discordance external detection logic
This binary signal is connected to a binary input of the IED. The appearance of this
signal will start a timer that will give a trip signal after the set time delay.
There is also a possibility to connect all phase selective auxiliary contacts (phase
contact open and phase contact closed) to binary inputs of the IED, see figure 172.
Section 7 1MRK506275-UEN C
Current protection
316
Technical reference manual
poleTwoOpened from C.B.
+
C.B.
poleOneOpened from C.B.
poleThreeClosed from C.B.
poleTwoClosed from C.B.
poleOneClosed from C.B.
poleThreeOpened from C.B.
en05000288.vsd
IEC05000288 V1 EN
Figure 172: Pole discordance signals for internal logic
In this case the logic is realized within the function. If the inputs are indicating pole
discordance the trip timer is started. This timer will give a trip signal after the set
delay.
Pole discordance can also be detected by means of phase selective current
measurement. The sampled analog phase currents are pre-processed in a discrete
Fourier filter (DFT) block. From the fundamental frequency components of each
phase current the RMS value of each phase current is derived. The smallest and the
largest phase current are derived. If the smallest phase current is lower than the
setting CurrUnsymLevel times the largest phase current the settable trip timer
(tTrip) is started. The tTrip timer gives a trip signal after the set delay. The TRIP
signal is a pulse 150 ms long. The current based pole discordance function can be
set to be active either continuously or only directly in connection to breaker open
or close command.
The function also has a binary input that can be configured from the autoreclosing
function, so that the pole discordance function can be blocked during sequences
with a single pole open if single pole autoreclosing is used.
The simplified block diagram of the current and contact based Pole discordance
protection function CCRPLD is shown in figure 173.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 7
Current protection
317
Technical reference manual
en05000747.vsd
OR
BLOCK
BLKDBYAR
POLE1OPN
POLE1CL
POLE2OPN
POLE2CL
POLE3OPN
POLE3CL
Discordance
detection
PolPosAuxCont
AND
PD Signal from CB
AND
EXTPDIND
Unsymmetry current
detection
OR
CLOSECMD
OPENCMD
t+200 ms
AND
OR
AND
TRIP
t
t 150 ms
IEC05000747 V1 EN
Figure 173: Simplified block diagram of pole discordance function CCRPLD -
contact and current based
CCRPLDis blocked if:
The IED is in TEST mode and CCRPLD has been blocked from the local HMI
The input signal BLOCK is high
The input signal BLKDBYAR is high
The BLOCK signal is a general purpose blocking signal of the pole discordance
protection. It can be connected to a binary input in the IED in order to receive a
block command from external devices or can be software connected to other
internal functions in the IED itself in order to receive a block command from
internal functions. Through OR gate it can be connected to both binary inputs and
internal function outputs.
The BLKDBYAR signal blocks the pole discordance operation when a single
phase autoreclosing cycle is in progress. It can be connected to the output signal
1PT1 on SMBRRECfunction block. If the autoreclosing function is an external
device, then BLKDBYAR has to be connected to a binary input in the IED and this
binary input is connected to a signalization 1phase autoreclosing in progress
from the external autoreclosing device.
If the pole discordance protection is enabled, then two different criteria can
generate a trip signal TRIP:
Pole discordance signaling from the circuit breaker.
Unsymmetrical current detection.
Section 7 1MRK506275-UEN C
Current protection
318
Technical reference manual
7.9.2.1 Pole discordance signaling from circuit breaker
If one or two poles of the circuit breaker have failed to open or to close the pole
discordance status, then the function input EXTPDIND is activated from the pole
discordance signal derived from the circuit breaker auxiliary contacts (one NO
contact for each phase connected in parallel, and in series with one NC contact for
each phase connected in parallel) and, after a settable time interval tTrip (0-60 s), a
150 ms trip pulse command TRIP is generated by the Polediscordance function.
7.9.2.2 Unsymmetrical current detection
Unsymmetrical current indicated if:
any phase current is lower than CurrUnsymLevel of the highest current in the
three phases.
the highest phase current is greater than CurrRelLevel of IBase.
If these conditions are true, an unsymmetrical condition is detected and the internal
signal INPS is turned high. This detection is enabled to generate a trip after a set
time delay tTrip if the detection occurs in the next 200 ms after the circuit breaker
has received a command to open trip or close and if the unbalance persists. The 200
ms limitation is for avoiding unwanted operation during unsymmetrical load
conditions.
The pole discordance protection is informed that a trip or close command has been
given to the circuit breaker through the inputs CLOSECMD (for closing command
information) and OPENCMD (for opening command information). These inputs
can be connected to terminal binary inputs if the information are generated from
the field (that is from auxiliary contacts of the close and open push buttons) or may
be software connected to the outputs of other integrated functions (that is close
command from a control function or a general trip from integrated protections).
7.9.3 Function block
IEC06000275-2-en.vsd
CCRPLD
I3P*
BLOCK
BLKDBYAR
CLOSECMD
OPENCMD
EXTPDIND
POLE1OPN
POLE1CL
POLE2OPN
POLE2CL
POLE3OPN
POLE3CL
TRIP
START
IEC06000275 V2 EN
Figure 174: CCRPLD function block
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 7
Current protection
319
Technical reference manual
7.9.4 Input and output signals
Table 178: CCRPLD Input signals
Name Type Default Description
I3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Three phase currents
BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function
BLKDBYAR BOOLEAN 0 Block of function at CB single phase auto re-
closing cycle
CLOSECMD BOOLEAN 0 Close order to CB
OPENCMD BOOLEAN 0 Open order to CB
EXTPDIND BOOLEAN 0 Pole discordance signal from CB logic
POLE1OPN BOOLEAN 1 Pole one opened indication from CB
POLE1CL BOOLEAN 0 Pole one closed indication from CB
POLE2OPN BOOLEAN 1 Pole two opened indication from CB
POLE2CL BOOLEAN 0 Pole two closed indication from CB
POLE3OPN BOOLEAN 1 Pole three opened indication from CB
POLE3CL BOOLEAN 0 Pole three closed indication from CB
Table 179: CCRPLD Output signals
Name Type Description
TRIP BOOLEAN Trip signal to CB
START BOOLEAN Trip condition TRUE, waiting for time delay
7.9.5 Setting parameters
Table 180: CCRPLD Group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
Operation Off
On
- - Off Operation Off / On
IBase 1 - 99999 - 1 3000 Base current
tTrip 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.300 Time delay between trip condition and
trip signal
ContSel Off
PD signal from CB
Pole pos aux cont.
- - Off Contact function selection
CurrSel Off
CB oper monitor
Continuous monitor
- - Off Current function selection
CurrUnsymLevel 0 - 100 % 1 80 Unsym magn of lowest phase current
compared to the highest.
CurrRelLevel 0 - 100 %IB 1 10 Current magnitude for release of the
function in % of IBase
Section 7 1MRK506275-UEN C
Current protection
320
Technical reference manual
7.9.6 Technical data
Table 181: CCRPLD technical data
Function Range or value Accuracy
Operate current (0100)% of IBase 1.0% of I
r
Time delay (0.000-60.000) s 0.5% 10 ms
7.10 Directional underpower protection GUPPDUP
Function description IEC 61850
identification
IEC 60617
identification
ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
Directional underpower protection GUPPDUP
P <
SYMBOL-LL V1 EN
37
7.10.1 Introduction
The task of a generator in a power plant is to convert mechanical energy available
as a torque on a rotating shaft to electric energy.
Sometimes, the mechanical power from a prime mover may decrease so much that
it does not cover bearing losses and ventilation losses. Then, the synchronous
generator becomes a synchronous motor and starts to take electric power from the
rest of the power system. This operating state, where individual synchronous
machines operate as motors, implies no risk for the machine itself. If the generator
under consideration is very large and if it consumes lots of electric power, it may
be desirable to disconnect it to ease the task for the rest of the power system.
Often, the motoring condition may imply that the turbine is in a very dangerous
state. The task of the reverse power protection is to protect the turbine and not to
protect the generator itself.
Figure 175 illustrates the reverse power protection with underpower IED and with
overpower IED. The underpower IED gives a higher margin and should provide
better dependability. On the other hand, the risk for unwanted operation
immediately after synchronization may be higher. One should set the underpower
IED to trip if the active power from the generator is less than about 2%. One
should set the overpower IED to trip if the power flow from the network to the
generator is higher than 1% depending on the type of turbine.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 7
Current protection
321
Technical reference manual
Underpower IED Overpower IED
Q Q
P P
Operating point
without
turbine torque
Margin Margin
Operate
Line
Operate
Line
Operating point
without
turbine torque
IEC06000315-2-en.vsd
IEC06000315 V2 EN
Figure 175: Protection with underpower IED and overpower IED
7.10.2 Principle of operation
A simplified scheme showing the principle of the power protection function is
shown in figure 176. The function has two stages with individual settings.
IEC09000018-2-en.vsd
Chosen current
phasors
Chosen voltage
phasors
Complex
power
calculation
P
Derivation of
S(composant)
in Char angle
S(angle)
S(angle) <
Power1
t TRIP1
START1
Q
P = POWRE
Q = POWIM
S(angle) <
Power2
t TRIP2
START2
IEC09000018 V2 EN
Figure 176: Simplified logic diagram of the power protection function
The function will use voltage and current phasors calculated in the pre-processing
blocks. The apparent complex power is calculated according to chosen formula as
shown in table 182.
Section 7 1MRK506275-UEN C
Current protection
322
Technical reference manual
Table 182: Complex power calculation
Set value: Mode Formula used for complex power calculation
L1, L2, L3
* * *
1 1 2 2 3 3 L L L L L L
S U I U I U I = + +
EQUATION1697 V1 EN (Equation 72)
Arone
* *
1 2 1 2 3 3 L L L L L L
S U I U I = -
EQUATION1698 V1 EN (Equation 73)
PosSeq
*
3
PosSeq PosSeq
S U I =
EQUATION1699 V1 EN (Equation 74)
L1L2
* *
1 2 1 2
( )
L L L L
S U I I = -
EQUATION1700 V1 EN (Equation 75)
L2L3
* *
2 3 2 3
( )
L L L L
S U I I = -
EQUATION1701 V1 EN (Equation 76)
L3L1
* *
3 1 3 1
( )
L L L L
S U I I = -
EQUATION1702 V1 EN (Equation 77)
L1
*
1 1
3
L L
S U I =
EQUATION1703 V1 EN (Equation 78)
L2
*
2 2
3
L L
S U I =
EQUATION1704 V1 EN (Equation 79)
L3
*
3 3
3
L L
S U I =
EQUATION1705 V1 EN (Equation 80)
The active and reactive power is available from the function and can be used for
monitoring and fault recording.
The component of the complex power S = P + jQ in the direction Angle1(2) is
calculated. If this angle is 0 the active power component P is calculated. If this
angle is 90 the reactive power component Q is calculated.
The calculated power component is compared to the power pick up setting
Power1(2). For directional underpower protection, a start signal START1(2) is
activated if the calculated power component is smaller than the pick up value. For
directional overpower protection, a start signal START1(2) is activated if the
calculated power component is larger than the pick up value. After a set time delay
TripDelay1(2) a trip TRIP1(2) signal is activated if the start signal is still active. At
activation of any of the two stages a common signal START will be activated. At
trip from any of the two stages also a common signal TRIP will be activated.
To avoid instability there is a settable hysteresis in the power function. The
absolute hysteresis of the stage1(2) is Hysteresis1(2) = abs (Power1(2) + drop-
power1(2)). For generator low forward power protection the power setting is very
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 7
Current protection
323
Technical reference manual
low, normally down to 0.02 p.u. of rated generator power. The hysteresis should
therefore be set to a smaller value. The drop-power value of stage1 can be
calculated with the Power1(2), Hysteresis1(2): drop-power1(2) = Power1(2) +
Hysteresis1(2)
For small power1 values the hysteresis1 may not be too big, because the drop-
power1(2) would be too small. In such cases, the hysteresis1 greater than (0.5
Power1(2)) is corrected to the minimal value.
If the measured power drops under the drop-power1(2) value, the function will
reset after a set time DropDelay1(2). The reset means that the start signal will drop
out and that the timer of the stage will reset.
7.10.2.1 Low pass filtering
In order to minimize the influence of the noise signal on the measurement it is
possible to introduce the recursive, low pass filtering of the measured values for S
(P, Q). This will make slower measurement response to the step changes in the
measured quantity. Filtering is performed in accordance with the following
recursive formula:
( )
Old Calculated
S k S 1 k S = + -
EQUATION1959 V1 EN (Equation 81)
Where
S is a new measured value to be used for the protection function
S
old
is the measured value given from the function in previous execution cycle
SCalculated is the new calculated value in the present execution cycle
k is settable parameter by the end user which influence the filter properties
Default value for parameter k is 0.00. With this value the new calculated value is
immediately given out without any filtering (that is without any additional delay).
When k is set to value bigger than 0, the filtering is enabled. A typical value for
k=0.92 in case of slow operating functions.
7.10.2.2 Calibration of analog inputs
Measured currents and voltages used in the Power function can be calibrated to get
class 0.5 measuring accuracy. This is achieved by amplitude and angle
compensation at 5, 30 and 100% of rated current and voltage. The compensation
below 5% and above 100% is constant and linear in between, see example in figure
177.
Section 7 1MRK506275-UEN C
Current protection
324
Technical reference manual
IEC05000652 V2 EN
Figure 177: Calibration curves
The first current and voltage phase in the group signals will be used as reference
and the amplitude and angle compensation will be used for related input signals.
Analog outputs (Monitored data) from the function can be used for service values
or in the disturbance report. The active power is provided as MW value: P, or in
percent of base power: PPERCENT. The reactive power is provided as Mvar value:
Q, or in percent of base power: QPERCENT.
7.10.3 Function block
IEC07000027-2-en.vsd
GUPPDUP
I3P*
U3P*
BLOCK
BLOCK1
BLOCK2
TRIP
TRIP1
TRIP2
START
START1
START2
P
PPERCENT
Q
QPERCENT
IEC07000027 V2 EN
Figure 178: GUPPDUP function block
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 7
Current protection
325
Technical reference manual
7.10.4 Input and output signals
Table 183: GUPPDUP Input signals
Name Type Default Description
I3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Current group connection
U3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Voltage group connection
BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function
BLOCK1 BOOLEAN 0 Block of stage 1
BLOCK2 BOOLEAN 0 Block of stage 2
Table 184: GUPPDUP Output signals
Name Type Description
TRIP BOOLEAN Common trip signal
TRIP1 BOOLEAN Trip of stage 1
TRIP2 BOOLEAN Trip of stage 2
START BOOLEAN Common start
START1 BOOLEAN Start of stage 1
START2 BOOLEAN Start of stage 2
P REAL Active Power in MW
PPERCENT REAL Active power in % of SBASE
Q REAL Reactive power in Mvar
QPERCENT REAL Reactive power in % of SBASE
7.10.5 Setting parameters
Table 185: GUPPDUP Group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
Operation Off
On
- - Off Operation Off / On
OpMode1 Off
UnderPower
- - UnderPower Operation mode 1
Power1 0.0 - 500.0 %SB 0.1 1.0 Power setting for stage 1 in % of Sbase
Angle1 -180.0 - 180.0 Deg 0.1 0.0 Angle for stage 1
TripDelay1 0.010 - 6000.000 s 0.001 1.000 Trip delay for stage 1
DropDelay1 0.010 - 6000.000 s 0.001 0.060 Drop delay for stage 1
OpMode2 Off
UnderPower
- - UnderPower Operation mode 2
Power2 0.0 - 500.0 %SB 0.1 1.0 Power setting for stage 2 in % of Sbase
Angle2 -180.0 - 180.0 Deg 0.1 0.0 Angle for stage 2
TripDelay2 0.010 - 6000.000 s 0.001 1.000 Trip delay for stage 2
DropDelay2 0.010 - 6000.000 s 0.001 0.060 Drop delay for stage 2
Section 7 1MRK506275-UEN C
Current protection
326
Technical reference manual
Table 186: GUPPDUP Group settings (advanced)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
k 0.00 - 0.99 - 0.01 0.00 Low pass filter coefficient for power
measurement, P and Q
Hysteresis1 0.2 - 5.0 pu 0.1 0.5 Absolute hysteresis of stage 1
Hysteresis2 0.2 - 5.0 pu 0.1 0.5 Absolute hysteresis of stage 2
IAmpComp5 -10.000 - 10.000 % 0.001 0.000 Amplitude factor to calibrate current at
5% of Ir
IAmpComp30 -10.000 - 10.000 % 0.001 0.000 Amplitude factor to calibrate current at
30% of Ir
IAmpComp100 -10.000 - 10.000 % 0.001 0.000 Amplitude factor to calibrate current at
100% of Ir
UAmpComp5 -10.000 - 10.000 % 0.001 0.000 Amplitude factor to calibrate voltage at
5% of Ur
UAmpComp30 -10.000 - 10.000 % 0.001 0.000 Amplitude factor to calibrate voltage at
30% of Ur
UAmpComp100 -10.000 - 10.000 % 0.001 0.000 Amplitude factor to calibrate voltage at
100% of Ur
IAngComp5 -10.000 - 10.000 Deg 0.001 0.000 Angle calibration for current at 5% of Ir
IAngComp30 -10.000 - 10.000 Deg 0.001 0.000 Angle calibration for current at 30% of Ir
IAngComp100 -10.000 - 10.000 Deg 0.001 0.000 Angle calibration for current at 100% of Ir
Table 187: GUPPDUP Non group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
IBase 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 Current-Reference (primary current A)
UBase 0.05 - 2000.00 kV 0.05 400.00 Voltage-Reference (primary voltage kV)
Mode L1, L2, L3
Arone
Pos Seq
L1L2
L2L3
L3L1
L1
L2
L3
- - Pos Seq Selection of measured current and
voltage
7.10.6 Technical data
Table 188: GUPPDUP technical data
Function Range or value Accuracy
Power level (0.0500.0)% of SBase

At low setting:
(0.5-2.0)% of SBase
(2.0-10)% of SBase
1.0% of S
r
at S < S
r
1.0% of S at S > S
r

< 50% of set value
< 20% of set value
Characteristic angle (-180.0180.0) degrees 2 degrees
Timers (0.00-6000.00) s 0.5% 10 ms
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 7
Current protection
327
Technical reference manual
7.11 Directional overpower protection GOPPDOP
Function description IEC 61850
identification
IEC 60617
identification
ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
Directional overpower protection GOPPDOP
P >
DOCUMENT172362-IMG158942
V1 EN
32
7.11.1 Introduction
The task of a generator in a power plant is to convert mechanical energy available
as a torque on a rotating shaft to electric energy.
Sometimes, the mechanical power from a prime mover may decrease so much that
it does not cover bearing losses and ventilation losses. Then, the synchronous
generator becomes a synchronous motor and starts to take electric power from the
rest of the power system. This operating state, where individual synchronous
machines operate as motors, implies no risk for the machine itself. If the generator
under consideration is very large and if it consumes lots of electric power, it may
be desirable to disconnect it to ease the task for the rest of the power system.
Often, the motoring condition may imply that the turbine is in a very dangerous
state. The task of the reverse power protection is to protect the turbine and not to
protect the generator itself.
Figure 179 illustrates the reverse power protection with underpower IED and with
overpower IED. The underpower IED gives a higher margin and should provide
better dependability. On the other hand, the risk for unwanted operation
immediately after synchronization may be higher. One should set the underpower
IED to trip if the active power from the generator is less than about 2%. One
should set the overpower IED to trip if the power flow from the network to the
generator is higher than 1%.
Section 7 1MRK506275-UEN C
Current protection
328
Technical reference manual
Underpower IED Overpower IED
Q Q
P P
Operating point
without
turbine torque
Margin Margin
Operate
Line
Operate
Line
Operating point
without
turbine torque
IEC06000315-2-en.vsd
IEC06000315 V2 EN
Figure 179: Reverse power protection with underpower IED and overpower IED
7.11.2 Principle of operation
A simplified scheme showing the principle of the power protection function is
shown in figure 180. The function has two stages with individual settings.
IEC06000567-2-en.vsd
Chosen current
phasors
Chosen voltage
phasors
Complex
power
calculation
P
Derivation of
S(composant)
in Char angle
S(angle)
S(angle) >
Power1
t TRIP1
START1
Q
P = POWRE
Q = POWIM
S(angle) >
Power2
t TRIP2
START2
IEC06000567 V2 EN
Figure 180: Simplified logic diagram of the power protection function
The function will use voltage and current phasors calculated in the pre-processing
blocks. The apparent complex power is calculated according to chosen formula as
shown in table 189.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 7
Current protection
329
Technical reference manual
Table 189: Complex power calculation
Set value: Mode Formula used for complex power calculation
L1, L2, L3
* * *
1 1 2 2 3 3 L L L L L L
S U I U I U I = + +
EQUATION1697 V1 EN (Equation 82)
Arone
* *
1 2 1 2 3 3 L L L L L L
S U I U I = -
EQUATION1698 V1 EN (Equation 83)
PosSeq
*
3
PosSeq PosSeq
S U I =
EQUATION1699 V1 EN (Equation 84)
L1L2
* *
1 2 1 2
( )
L L L L
S U I I = -
EQUATION1700 V1 EN (Equation 85)
L2L3
* *
2 3 2 3
( )
L L L L
S U I I = -
EQUATION1701 V1 EN (Equation 86)
L3L1
* *
3 1 3 1
( )
L L L L
S U I I = -
EQUATION1702 V1 EN (Equation 87)
L1
*
1 1
3
L L
S U I =
EQUATION1703 V1 EN (Equation 88)
L2
*
2 2
3
L L
S U I =
EQUATION1704 V1 EN (Equation 89)
L3
*
3 3
3
L L
S U I =
EQUATION1705 V1 EN (Equation 90)
The active and reactive power is available from the function and can be used for
monitoring and fault recording.
The component of the complex power S = P + jQ in the direction Angle1(2) is
calculated. If this angle is 0 the active power component P is calculated. If this
angle is 90 the reactive power component Q is calculated.
The calculated power component is compared to the power pick up setting
Power1(2). A start signal START1(2) is activated if the calculated power
component is larger than the pick up value. After a set time delay TripDelay1(2) a
trip TRIP1(2) signal is activated if the start signal is still active. At activation of
any of the two stages a common signal START will be activated. At trip from any
of the two stages also a common signal TRIP will be activated.
To avoid instability there is a settable hysteresis in the power function. The
absolute hysteresis of the stage1(2) is Hysteresis1(2) = abs (Power1(2) drop-
power1(2)). For generator reverse power protection the power setting is very low,
normally down to 0.02 p.u. of rated generator power. The hysteresis should
therefore be set to a smaller value. The drop-power value of stage1 can be
Section 7 1MRK506275-UEN C
Current protection
330
Technical reference manual
calculated with the Power1(2), Hysteresis1(2): drop-power1(2) = Power1(2)
Hysteresis1(2)
For small power1 values the hysteresis1 may not be too big, because the drop-
power1(2) would be too small. In such cases, the hysteresis1 greater than (0.5
Power1(2)) is corrected to the minimal value.
If the measured power drops under the drop-power1(2) value the function will reset
after a set time DropDelay1(2). The reset means that the start signal will drop out
ant that the timer of the stage will reset.
7.11.2.1 Low pass filtering
In order to minimize the influence of the noise signal on the measurement it is
possible to introduce the recursive, low pass filtering of the measured values for S
(P, Q). This will make slower measurement response to the step changes in the
measured quantity. Filtering is performed in accordance with the following
recursive formula:
( )
Old Calculated
S k S 1 k S = + -
EQUATION1959 V1 EN (Equation 91)
Where
S is a new measured value to be used for the protection function
S
old
is the measured value given from the function in previous execution cycle
S
Calculated
is the new calculated value in the present execution cycle
k is settable parameter by the end user which influence the filter properties
Default value for parameter k is 0.00. With this value the new calculated value is
immediately given out without any filtering (that is, without any additional delay).
When k is set to value bigger than 0, the filtering is enabled. A typical value for k =
0.14.
7.11.2.2 Calibration of analog inputs
Measured currents and voltages used in the Power function can be calibrated to get
class 0.5 measuring accuracy. This is achieved by amplitude and angle
compensation at 5, 30 and 100% of rated current and voltage. The compensation
below 5% and above 100% is constant and linear in between, see example in figure
181.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 7
Current protection
331
Technical reference manual
IEC05000652 V2 EN
Figure 181: Calibration curves
The first current and voltage phase in the group signals will be used as reference
and the amplitude and angle compensation will be used for related input signals.
Analog outputs from the function can be used for service values or in the
disturbance report. The active power is provided as MW value: P, or in percent of
base power: PPERCENT. The reactive power is provided as Mvar value: Q, or in
percent of base power: QPERCENT.
7.11.3 Function block
IEC07000028-2-en.vsd
GOPPDOP
I3P*
U3P*
BLOCK
BLOCK1
BLOCK2
TRIP
TRIP1
TRIP2
START
START1
START2
P
PPERCENT
Q
QPERCENT
IEC07000028 V2 EN
Figure 182: GOPPDOP function block
Section 7 1MRK506275-UEN C
Current protection
332
Technical reference manual
7.11.4 Input and output signals
Table 190: GOPPDOP Input signals
Name Type Default Description
I3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Current group connection
U3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Voltage group connection
BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function
BLOCK1 BOOLEAN 0 Block of stage 1
BLOCK2 BOOLEAN 0 Block of stage 2
Table 191: GOPPDOP Output signals
Name Type Description
TRIP BOOLEAN Common trip signal
TRIP1 BOOLEAN Trip of stage 1
TRIP2 BOOLEAN Trip of stage 2
START BOOLEAN Common start
START1 BOOLEAN Start of stage 1
START2 BOOLEAN Start of stage 2
P REAL Active Power in MW
PPERCENT REAL Active power in % of SBASE
Q REAL Reactive power in Mvar
QPERCENT REAL Reactive power in % of SBASE
7.11.5 Setting parameters
Table 192: GOPPDOP Group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
Operation Off
On
- - Off Operation Off / On
OpMode1 Off
OverPower
- - OverPower Operation mode 1
Power1 0.0 - 500.0 %SB 0.1 120.0 Power setting for stage 1 in % of Sbase
Angle1 -180.0 - 180.0 Deg 0.1 0.0 Angle for stage 1
TripDelay1 0.010 - 6000.000 s 0.001 1.000 Trip delay for stage 1
DropDelay1 0.010 - 6000.000 s 0.001 0.060 Drop delay for stage 1
OpMode2 Off
OverPower
- - OverPower Operation mode 2
Power2 0.0 - 500.0 %SB 0.1 120.0 Power setting for stage 2 in % of Sbase
Angle2 -180.0 - 180.0 Deg 0.1 0.0 Angle for stage 2
TripDelay2 0.010 - 6000.000 s 0.001 1.000 Trip delay for stage 2
DropDelay2 0.010 - 6000.000 s 0.001 0.060 Drop delay for stage 2
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 7
Current protection
333
Technical reference manual
Table 193: GOPPDOP Group settings (advanced)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
k 0.00 - 0.99 - 0.01 0.00 Low pass filter coefficient for power
measurement, P and Q
Hysteresis1 0.2 - 5.0 pu 0.1 0.5 Absolute hysteresis of stage 1 in % of
Sbase
Hysteresis2 0.2 - 5.0 pu 0.1 0.5 Absolute hysteresis of stage 2 in % of
Sbase
IAmpComp5 -10.000 - 10.000 % 0.001 0.000 Amplitude factor to calibrate current at
5% of Ir
IAmpComp30 -10.000 - 10.000 % 0.001 0.000 Amplitude factor to calibrate current at
30% of Ir
IAmpComp100 -10.000 - 10.000 % 0.001 0.000 Amplitude factor to calibrate current at
100% of Ir
UAmpComp5 -10.000 - 10.000 % 0.001 0.000 Amplitude factor to calibrate voltage at
5% of Ur
UAmpComp30 -10.000 - 10.000 % 0.001 0.000 Amplitude factor to calibrate voltage at
30% of Ur
UAmpComp100 -10.000 - 10.000 % 0.001 0.000 Amplitude factor to calibrate voltage at
100% of Ur
IAngComp5 -10.000 - 10.000 Deg 0.001 0.000 Angle calibration for current at 5% of Ir
IAngComp30 -10.000 - 10.000 Deg 0.001 0.000 Angle calibration for current at 30% of Ir
IAngComp100 -10.000 - 10.000 Deg 0.001 0.000 Angle calibration for current at 100% of Ir
Table 194: GOPPDOP Non group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
IBase 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 Current-Reference (primary current A)
UBase 0.05 - 2000.00 kV 0.05 400.00 Voltage-Reference (primary voltage kV)
Mode L1, L2, L3
Arone
Pos Seq
L1L2
L2L3
L3L1
L1
L2
L3
- - Pos Seq Selection of measured current and
voltage
Section 7 1MRK506275-UEN C
Current protection
334
Technical reference manual
7.11.6 Technical data
Table 195: GOPPDOP technical data
Function Range or value Accuracy
Power level (0.0500.0)% of S
base

At low setting:
(0.5-2.0)% of S
base
(2.0-10)% of S
base
1.0% of S
r
at S < S
r
1.0% of S at S > S
r

< 50% of set value
< 20% of set value
Characteristic angle (-180.0180.0) degrees 2 degrees
Timers (0.00-6000.00) s 0.5% 10 ms
7.12 Broken conductor check BRCPTOC
Function description IEC 61850
identification
IEC 60617
identification
ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
Broken conductor check BRCPTOC - 46
7.12.1 Introduction
Conventional protection functions can not detect the broken conductor condition.
Broken conductor check (BRCPTOC) function, consisting of continuous current
unsymmetrical check on the line where the IED is connected will give alarm or trip
at detecting broken conductors.
7.12.2 Principle of operation
Broken conductor check (BRCPTOC) detects a broken conductor condition by
detecting the asymmetry between currents in the three phases. The current-
measuring elements continuously measure the three-phase currents.
The current asymmetry signal output START is set on if:
The difference in currents between the phase with the lowest current and the
phase with the highest current is greater than set percentage Iub> of the
highest phase current
The highest phase current is greater than the minimum setting value IP>.
The lowest phase current is below 50% of the minimum setting value IP>
The third condition is included to avoid problems in systems involving parallel
lines. If a conductor breaks in one phase on one line, the parallel line will
experience an increase in current in the same phase. This might result in the first
two conditions being satisfied. If the unsymmetrical detection lasts for a period
longer than the set time tOper the TRIP output is activated.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 7
Current protection
335
Technical reference manual
The simplified logic diagram of the broken conductor check function is shown in
figure 183
BRCPTOC is disabled (blocked) if:
The IED is in TEST status and the function has been blocked from the local
HMI test menu (BlockBRC=Yes).
The input signal BLOCK is high.
The BLOCK input can be connected to a binary input of the IED in order to receive
a block command from external devices, or can be software connected to other
internal functions of the IED itself to receive a block command from internal
functions.
The output trip signal TRIP is a three-phase trip. It can be used to command a trip
to the circuit breaker or for alarm purpose only.
BLOCK
Function Enable
TEST-ACTIVE
&
TEST
Block BRCPTOC=Yes
1
STI
&
Unsymmetrical
Current Detection
t
t
START
IL1<50%IP>
IL2<50%IP>
IL3<50%IP>
IEC09000158-1-en.vsd
=
1 =
TRIP
IEC09000158 V1 EN
Figure 183: Simplified logic diagram for Broken conductor check BRCPTOC
7.12.3 Function block
IEC07000034-2-en.vsd
BRCPTOC
I3P*
BLOCK
BLKTR
TRIP
START
IEC07000034 V2 EN
Figure 184: BRCPTOC function block
Section 7 1MRK506275-UEN C
Current protection
336
Technical reference manual
7.12.4 Input and output signals
Table 196: BRCPTOC Input signals
Name Type Default Description
I3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Group signal for current input
BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function
BLKTR BOOLEAN 0 Blocks the operate output
Table 197: BRCPTOC Output signals
Name Type Description
TRIP BOOLEAN Operate signal of the protection logic
START BOOLEAN Start signal of the protection logic
7.12.5 Setting parameters
Table 198: BRCPTOC Group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
Operation Off
On
- - Off Operation Off / On
IBase 0 - 99999 A 1 3000 IBase
Iub> 50 - 90 %IM 1 50 Unbalance current operation value in
percent of max current
IP> 5 - 100 %IB 1 20 Minimum phase current for operation of
Iub> in % of Ibase
tOper 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 5.000 Operate time delay
Table 199: BRCPTOC Group settings (advanced)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
tReset 0.010 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.100 Time delay in reset
7.12.6 Technical data
Table 200: BRCPTOC technical data
Function Range or value Accuracy
Minimum phase current for
operation
(5100)% of IBase 0.1% of I
r
Unbalance current operation (0100)% of maximum current 0.1% of I
r
Timer (0.00-6000.00) s 0.5% 10 ms
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 7
Current protection
337
Technical reference manual
338
Section 8 Voltage protection
About this chapter
This chapter describes voltage related protection functions. The way the functions
work, their setting parameters, function blocks, input and output signals and
technical data are included for each function.
8.1 Two step undervoltage protection UV2PTUV
Function description IEC 61850
identification
IEC 60617
identification
ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
Two step undervoltage protection UV2PTUV
3U<
SYMBOL-R V1 EN
27
8.1.1 Introduction
Undervoltages can occur in the power system during faults or abnormal conditions.
Two step undervoltage protection (UV2PTUV) function can be used to open circuit
breakers to prepare for system restoration at power outages or as long-time delayed
back-up to primary protection.
UV2PTUV has two voltage steps, each with inverse or definite time delay.
8.1.2 Principle of operation
Two-step undervoltage protection (UV2PTUV) is used to detect low power system
voltage. UV2PTUV has two voltage measuring steps with separate time delays. If
one, two or three phase voltages decrease below the set value, a corresponding
START signal is generated. UV2PTUV can be set to START/TRIP based on 1 out
of 3, 2 out of 3 or 3 out of 3 of the measured voltages, being below the set point. If
the voltage remains below the set value for a time period corresponding to the
chosen time delay, the corresponding trip signal is issued. To avoid an unwanted
trip due to disconnection of the related high voltage equipment, a voltage
controlled blocking of the function is available, that is, if the voltage is lower than
the set blocking level the function is blocked and no START or TRIP signal is
generated. The time delay characteristic is individually chosen for each step and
can be either definite time delay or inverse time delay.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 8
Voltage protection
339
Technical reference manual
UV2PTUV can be set to measure phase-to-earth fundamental value, phase-to-phase
fundamental value, phase-to-earth true RMS value or phase-to-phase true RMS
value. The choice of the measuring is done by the parameter ConnType. The
voltage related settings are made in percent of base voltage which is set in kV phase-
to-phase voltage. This means operation for phase-to-earth voltage under:
(%) ( )
3
U UBase kV <
EQUATION1429 V1 EN (Equation 92)
and operation for phase-to-phase voltage under:
U (%) UBase(kV) <
EQUATION1990 V1 EN (Equation 93)
8.1.2.1 Measurement principle
Depending on the set ConnType value, UV2PTUV measures phase-to-earth or phase-
to-phase voltages and compare against set values, U1< and U2<. The parameters
OpMode1 and OpMode2 influence the requirements to activate the START
outputs. Either 1 out of 3, 2 out of 3, or 3 out of 3 measured voltages have to be
lower than the corresponding set point to issue the corresponding START signal.
To avoid oscillations of the output START signal, a hysteresis has been included.
8.1.2.2 Time delay
The time delay for the two steps can be either definite time delay (DT) or inverse
time delay (IDMT). For the inverse time delay three different modes are available:
inverse curve A
inverse curve B
customer programmable inverse curve
The type A curve is described as:
k
t
U U
U
=
< -

<

EQUATION1431 V1 EN (Equation 94)
The type B curve is described as:
Section 8 1MRK506275-UEN C
Voltage protection
340
Technical reference manual
2.0
480
0.055
32 0.5
k
t
U U
U

= +
< -
-

<

EQUATION1432 V1 EN (Equation 95)
The customer programmable curve can be created as:
p
k A
t D
U U
B C
U


= +

< -
-


<


EQUATION1433 V1 EN (Equation 96)
When the denominator in the expression is equal to zero the time delay will be
infinity. There will be an undesired discontinuity. Therefore a tuning parameter
CrvSatn is set to compensate for this phenomenon. In the voltage interval U<
down to U< (1.0 CrvSatn/100) the used voltage will be: U< (1.0 CrvSatn/
100). If the programmable curve is used this parameter must be calculated so that:
0
100
CrvSatn
B C - >
EQUATION1435 V1 EN (Equation 97)
The lowest voltage is always used for the inverse time delay integration. The
details of the different inverse time characteristics are shown in section 22.3
"Inverse characteristics".
Trip signal issuing requires that the undervoltage condition continues for at least
the user set time delay. This time delay is set by the parameter t1 and t2 for definite
time mode (DT) and by some special voltage level dependent time curves for the
inverse time mode (IDMT). If the start condition, with respect to the measured
voltage ceases during the delay time, and is not fulfilled again within a user defined
reset time (tReset1 and tReset2 for the definite time and tIReset1 and
tIReset2pickup for the inverse time) the corresponding start output is reset. Here it
should be noted that after leaving the hysteresis area, the start condition must be
fulfilled again and it is not sufficient for the signal to only return back to the
hysteresis area. Note that for the undervoltage function the IDMT reset time is
constant and does not depend on the voltage fluctuations during the drop-off
period. However, there are three ways to reset the timer, either the timer is reset
instantaneously, or the timer value is frozen during the reset time, or the timer
value is linearly decreased during the reset time. See figure 185 and figure 186.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 8
Voltage protection
341
Technical reference manual
Voltage
Time
Hysteresis
START
TRIP
U1<
START
TRIP
t1
tReset1
Time
Time
Integrator
t1
Frozen Timer
Linear Decrease
Instantaneous
Reset
Measured
Voltage
tReset1
IEC05000010-3-en.vsd
IEC05000010 V3 EN
Figure 185: Voltage profile not causing a reset of the start signal for step 1, and inverse time delay
Section 8 1MRK506275-UEN C
Voltage protection
342
Technical reference manual
Voltage
Time
Hysteresis
START
TRIP
START
U1<
START
TRIP
t1
tReset1
Time
Time Integrator
t1
Frozen Timer
Linear Decrease
Instantaneous
Reset
Measured Voltage
tReset1
IEC05000011-en-2.vsd
IEC05000011 V2 EN
Figure 186: Voltage profile causing a reset of the start signal for step 1, and inverse time delay
Definite timer delay
When definite time delay is selected the function will operate as shown in figure
187. Detailed information about individual stage reset/operation behavior is shown
in figure 188 and figure 189 receptively. Note that by setting tResetn = 0.0s
instantaneous reset of the definite time delayed stage is ensured.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 8
Voltage protection
343
Technical reference manual
b>a
a
b
U1<
U
t
tReset1
t
t1
AND
TR1
ST1
OFF
Delay
ON
Delay
IEC09000785-1-en.vsd
IEC09000785 V1 EN
Figure 187: Detailed logic diagram for step 1, DT operation
Un<
START
TRIP
tResetn
tn

IEC10000039-1-en.vsd
IEC10000039 V1 EN
Figure 188: Example for Definite Time Delay stage rest
Section 8 1MRK506275-UEN C
Voltage protection
344
Technical reference manual
Un<
START
TRIP
tResetn
tn

IEC10000040-1-en.vsd
IEC10000040 V1 EN
Figure 189: Example for Definite Time Delay stage operation
8.1.2.3 Blocking
It is possible to block Two step undervoltage protection UV2PTUV partially or
completely, by binary input signals or by parameter settings, where:
BLOCK: blocks all outputs
BLKTR1: blocks all trip outputs of step 1
BLKST1: blocks all start and trip outputs related to step 1
BLKTR2: blocks all trip outputs of step 2
BLKST2: blocks all start and trip outputs related to step 2
If the measured voltage level decreases below the setting of IntBlkStVal1, either the
trip output of step 1, or both the trip and the START outputs of step 1, are blocked.
The characteristic of the blocking is set by the IntBlkSel1 parameter. This internal
blocking can also be set to Off resulting in no voltage based blocking.
Corresponding settings and functionality are valid also for step 2.
In case of disconnection of the high voltage component the measured voltage will
get very low. The event will START both the under voltage function and the
blocking function, as seen in figure 190. The delay of the blocking function must
be set less than the time delay of under voltage function.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 8
Voltage protection
345
Technical reference manual
Time
U
Normal voltage
U1<
U2<
IntBlkStVal1
IntBlkStVal2
Disconnection
tBlkUV1 <
t1,t1Min
tBlkUV2 <
t2,t2Min
Block step 1
Block step 2
en05000466.vsd
IEC05000466 V1 EN
Figure 190: Blocking function
8.1.2.4 Design
The voltage measuring elements continuously measure the three phase-to-neutral
voltages or the three phase-to-phase voltages. Recursive fourier filters, true RMS
filters or input voltage signals are used. The voltages are individually compared to
the set value, and the lowest voltage is used for the inverse time characteristic
integration. A special logic is included to achieve the 1 out of 3, 2 out of 3 and 3
out of 3 criteria to fulfill the START condition. The design of Two step
undervoltage protection UV2PTUV is schematically shown in figure 191.
Section 8 1MRK506275-UEN C
Voltage protection
346
Technical reference manual
en05000012.vsd
START
ST1L1
ST1L2
ST1L3
TR1L1
TR1L2
TR1L3
ST1
TR1
START
ST2L1
ST2L2
ST2L3
TR2L1
TR2L2
TR2L3
ST2
TR2
TRIP
Comparator
UL1 < U1<
Comparator
UL2 < U1<
Comparator
UL3 < U1<
MinVoltSelect
or
Comparator
UL1 < U2<
Comparator
UL2 < U2<
Comparator
UL3 < U2<
MinVoltSelect
or
Start
&
Trip
Output
Logic
Step 1
Start
&
Trip
Output
Logic
Step 2
Phase 3
Phase 2
Phase 1
Phase 3
Phase 2
Phase 1
Time integrator
t2
tReset2
ResetTypeCrv2
Voltage Phase
Selector
OpMode2
1 out of 3
2 outof 3
3 out of 3
Time integrator
t1
tReset1
ResetTypeCrv1
Voltage Phase
Selector
OpMode1
1 out of 3
2 out of 3
3 out of 3
UL1
UL2
UL3
TRIP
TRIP
OR
OR
OR
OR
OR
OR
START
IEC05000834 V1 EN
Figure 191: Schematic design of Two step undervoltage protection UV2PTUV
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 8
Voltage protection
347
Technical reference manual
8.1.3 Function block
IEC06000276-2-en.vsd
UV2PTUV
U3P*
BLOCK
BLKTR1
BLKST1
BLKTR2
BLKST2
TRIP
TR1
TR1L1
TR1L2
TR1L3
TR2
TR2L1
TR2L2
TR2L3
START
ST1
ST1L1
ST1L2
ST1L3
ST2
ST2L1
ST2L2
ST2L3
IEC06000276 V2 EN
Figure 192: UV2PTUV function block
8.1.4 Input and output signals
Table 201: UV2PTUV Input signals
Name Type Default Description
U3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Three phase voltages
BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function
BLKTR1 BOOLEAN 0 Block of operate signal, step 1
BLKST1 BOOLEAN 0 Block of step 1
BLKTR2 BOOLEAN 0 Block of operate signal, step 2
BLKST2 BOOLEAN 0 Block of step 2
Table 202: UV2PTUV Output signals
Name Type Description
TRIP BOOLEAN Trip
TR1 BOOLEAN Common trip signal from step1
TR1L1 BOOLEAN Trip signal from step1 phase L1
TR1L2 BOOLEAN Trip signal from step1 phase L2
TR1L3 BOOLEAN Trip signal from step1 phase L3
TR2 BOOLEAN Common trip signal from step2
TR2L1 BOOLEAN Trip signal from step2 phase L1
TR2L2 BOOLEAN Trip signal from step2 phase L2
TR2L3 BOOLEAN Trip signal from step2 phase L3
START BOOLEAN General start signal
Table continues on next page
Section 8 1MRK506275-UEN C
Voltage protection
348
Technical reference manual
Name Type Description
ST1 BOOLEAN Common start signal from step1
ST1L1 BOOLEAN Start signal from step1 phase L1
ST1L2 BOOLEAN Start signal from step1 phase L2
ST1L3 BOOLEAN Start signal from step1 phase L3
ST2 BOOLEAN Common start signal from step2
ST2L1 BOOLEAN Start signal from step2 phase L1
ST2L2 BOOLEAN Start signal from step2 phase L2
ST2L3 BOOLEAN Start signal from step2 phase L3
8.1.5 Setting parameters
Table 203: UV2PTUV Group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
Operation Off
On
- - Off Operation Off / On
UBase 0.05 - 2000.00 kV 0.05 400.00 Base voltage
OperationStep1 Off
On
- - On Enable execution of step 1
Characterist1 Definite time
Inverse curve A
Inverse curve B
Prog. inv. curve
- - Definite time Selection of time delay curve type for
step 1
OpMode1 1 out of 3
2 out of 3
3 out of 3
- - 1 out of 3 Number of phases required for op (1 of
3, 2 of 3, 3 of 3) from step 1
U1< 1 - 100 %UB 1 70 Voltage setting/start val (DT & IDMT) in
% of UBase, step 1
t1 0.00 - 6000.00 s 0.01 5.00 Definitive time delay of step 1
t1Min 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 5.000 Minimum operate time for inverse curves
for step 1
k1 0.05 - 1.10 - 0.01 0.05 Time multiplier for the inverse time delay
for step 1
IntBlkSel1 Off
Block of trip
Block all
- - Off Internal (low level) blocking mode, step 1
IntBlkStVal1 1 - 100 %UB 1 20 Voltage setting for internal blocking in %
of UBase, step 1
tBlkUV1 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.000 Time delay of internal (low level)
blocking for step 1
HystAbs1 0.0 - 100.0 %UB 0.1 0.5 Absolute hysteresis in % of UBase, step 1
OperationStep2 Off
On
- - On Enable execution of step 2
Characterist2 Definite time
Inverse curve A
Inverse curve B
Prog. inv. curve
- - Definite time Selection of time delay curve type for
step 2
Table continues on next page
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 8
Voltage protection
349
Technical reference manual
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
OpMode2 1 out of 3
2 out of 3
3 out of 3
- - 1 out of 3 Number of phases required for op (1 of
3, 2 of 3, 3 of 3) from step 2
U2< 1 - 100 %UB 1 50 Voltage setting/start val (DT & IDMT) in
% of UBase, step 2
t2 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 5.000 Definitive time delay of step 2
t2Min 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 5.000 Minimum operate time for inverse curves
for step 2
k2 0.05 - 1.10 - 0.01 0.05 Time multiplier for the inverse time delay
for step 2
IntBlkSel2 Off
Block of trip
Block all
- - Off Internal (low level) blocking mode, step 2
IntBlkStVal2 1 - 100 %UB 1 20 Voltage setting for internal blocking in %
of UBase, step 2
tBlkUV2 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.000 Time delay of internal (low level)
blocking for step 2
HystAbs2 0.0 - 100.0 %UB 0.1 0.5 Absolute hysteresis in % of UBase, step 2
Table 204: UV2PTUV Group settings (advanced)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
tReset1 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.025 Reset time delay used in IEC Definite
Time curve step 1
ResetTypeCrv1 Instantaneous
Frozen timer
Linearly decreased
- - Instantaneous Selection of reset curve type for step 1
tIReset1 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.025 Time delay in IDMT reset (s), step 1
ACrv1 0.005 - 200.000 - 0.001 1.000 Parameter A for customer programmable
curve for step 1
BCrv1 0.50 - 100.00 - 0.01 1.00 Parameter B for customer programmable
curve for step 1
CCrv1 0.0 - 1.0 - 0.1 0.0 Parameter C for customer
programmable curve for step 1
DCrv1 0.000 - 60.000 - 0.001 0.000 Parameter D for customer
programmable curve for step 1
PCrv1 0.000 - 3.000 - 0.001 1.000 Parameter P for customer programmable
curve for step 1
CrvSat1 0 - 100 % 1 0 Tuning param for prog. under voltage
IDMT curve, step 1
tReset2 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.025 Reset time delay used in IEC Definite
Time curve step 2
ResetTypeCrv2 Instantaneous
Frozen timer
Linearly decreased
- - Instantaneous Selection of reset curve type for step 2
tIReset2 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.025 Time delay in IDMT reset (s), step 2
ACrv2 0.005 - 200.000 - 0.001 1.000 Parameter A for customer programmable
curve for step 2
Table continues on next page
Section 8 1MRK506275-UEN C
Voltage protection
350
Technical reference manual
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
BCrv2 0.50 - 100.00 - 0.01 1.00 Parameter B for customer programmable
curve for step 2
CCrv2 0.0 - 1.0 - 0.1 0.0 Parameter C for customer
programmable curve for step 2
DCrv2 0.000 - 60.000 - 0.001 0.000 Parameter D for customer
programmable curve for step 2
PCrv2 0.000 - 3.000 - 0.001 1.000 Parameter P for customer programmable
curve for step 2
CrvSat2 0 - 100 % 1 0 Tuning param for prog. under voltage
IDMT curve, step 2
Table 205: UV2PTUV Non group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
ConnType PhN DFT
PhPh RMS
PhN RMS
PhPh DFT
- - PhN DFT Group selector for connection type
8.1.6 Technical data
Table 206: UV2PTUV technical data
Function Range or value Accuracy
Operate voltage, low
and high step
(1100)% of UBase 1.0% of U
r
Absolute hysteresis (0100)% of UBase 1.0% of U
r
Internal blocking
level, low and high
step
(1100)% of UBase 1.0% of U
r
Inverse time
characteristics for
low and high step,
see table 623
- See table 623
Definite time delays (0.000-60.000) s 0.5% 10 ms
Minimum operate
time, inverse
characteristics
(0.00060.000) s 0.5% 10 ms
Operate time, start
function
25 ms typically at 2 to 0.5 x U
set
-
Reset time, start
function
25 ms typically at 0 to 2 x U
set
-
Critical impulse time 10 ms typically at 2 to 0 x U
set
-
Impulse margin time 15 ms typically -
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 8
Voltage protection
351
Technical reference manual
8.2 Two step overvoltage protection OV2PTOV
Function description IEC 61850
identification
IEC 60617
identification
ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
Two step overvoltage protection OV2PTOV
3U>
SYMBOL-C V1 EN
59
8.2.1 Introduction
Overvoltages may occur in the power system during abnormal conditions, such as,
sudden power loss, tap changer regulating failures, open line ends on long lines.
Two step overvoltage protection OV2PTOV can be used as open line end detector,
normally then combined with directional reactive over-power function or as system
voltage supervision, normally then giving alarm only or switching in reactors or
switch out capacitor banks to control the voltage.
OV2PTOV has two voltage steps, each of them with inverse or definite time delayed.
OV2PTOV has an extremely high reset ratio to allow setting close to system
service voltage.
8.2.2 Principle of operation
Two step overvoltage protection OV2PTOV is used to detect high power system
voltage. OV2PTOV has two steps with separate time delays. If one-, two- or three-
phase voltages increase above the set value, a corresponding START signal is
issued. OV2PTOV can be set to START/TRIP, based on 1 out of 3, 2 out of 3 or 3
out of 3 of the measured voltages, being above the set point. If the voltage remains
above the set value for a time period corresponding to the chosen time delay, the
corresponding trip signal is issued.
The time delay characteristic is individually chosen for the two steps and can be
either, definite time delay or inverse time delay.
The voltage related settings are made in percent of the global set base voltage,
which is set in kV, phase-to-phase.
OV2PTOV can be set to measure phase-to-earth fundamental value, phase-to-phase
fundamental value, phase-to-earth RMS value or phase-to-phase RMS value. The
choice of measuring is done by the parameter ConnType.
The setting of the analog inputs are given as primary phase-to-earth or phase-to-
phase voltage. OV2PTOV will operate if the voltage gets higher than the set
Section 8 1MRK506275-UEN C
Voltage protection
352
Technical reference manual
percentage of the set base voltage UBase. This means operation for phase-to-earth
voltage over:
(%) ( )
3
U UBase kV >
EQUATION1434 V1 EN (Equation 98)
and operation for phase for phase voltage over:
U (%) UBase(kV) >
EQUATION1993 V1 EN (Equation 99)
8.2.2.1 Measurement principle
All the three voltages are measured continuously, and compared with the set
values, U1> and U2>. The parameters OpMode1 and OpMode2 influence the
requirements to activate the START outputs. Either 1 out of 3, 2 out of 3 or 3 out of
3 measured voltages have to be higher than the corresponding set point to issue the
corresponding START signal.
To avoid oscillations of the output START signal, a hysteresis has been included.
8.2.2.2 Time delay
The time delay for the two steps can be either definite time delay (DT) or inverse
time delay (IDMT). For the inverse time delay four different modes are available:
inverse curve A
inverse curve B
inverse curve C
customer programmable inverse curve
The type A curve is described as:
k
t
U U
U
=
- >

>

IEC09000051 V1 EN (Equation 100)
The type B curve is described as:
2.0
480
0.035
32 0.5
k
t
U U
U

= -
- >
-
>



IECEQUATION2287 V1 EN (Equation 101)
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 8
Voltage protection
353
Technical reference manual
The type C curve is described as:
3.0
480
0.035
32 0.5
k
t
U U
U

= +
- >
-
>



IECEQUATION2288 V1 EN (Equation 102)
The customer programmable curve can be created as:
p
k A
t D
U U
B C
U

= +
- >
-

>

EQUATION1439 V1 EN (Equation 103)
When the denominator in the expression is equal to zero the time delay will be
infinity. There will be an undesired discontinuity. Therefore, a tuning parameter
CrvSatn is set to compensate for this phenomenon. In the voltage interval U< down
to U< (1.0 CrvSatn/100) the used voltage will be: U< (1.0 CrvSatn/100). If
the programmable curve is used this parameter must be calculated so that:
0
100
CrvSatn
B C - >
EQUATION1435 V1 EN (Equation 104)
The highest phase (or phase-to-phase) voltage is always used for the inverse time
delay integration, see figure 193. The details of the different inverse time
characteristics are shown in section "Inverse characteristics"
Section 8 1MRK506275-UEN C
Voltage protection
354
Technical reference manual
en05000016.vsd
Voltage
IDMT Voltage
Time
UL1
UL2
UL3
IEC05000016 V1 EN
Figure 193: Voltage used for the inverse time characteristic integration
Trip signal issuing requires that the overvoltage condition continues for at least the
user set time delay. This time delay is set by the parameter t1 and t2 for definite
time mode (DT) and by selected voltage level dependent time curves for the
inverse time mode (IDMT). If the START condition, with respect to the measured
voltage ceases during the delay time, and is not fulfilled again within a user defined
reset time (tReset1 and tReset2 for the definite time and tIReset1 and tIReset2 for
the inverse time) the corresponding START output is reset, after that the defined
reset time has elapsed. Here it should be noted that after leaving the hysteresis area,
the START condition must be fulfilled again and it is not sufficient for the signal to
only return back to the hysteresis area. The hysteresis value for each step is settable
(HystAbs2) to allow an high and accurate reset of the function. It should be noted
that for Two step overvoltage protection OV2PTOV the IDMT reset time is
constant and does not depend on the voltage fluctuations during the drop-off
period. However, there are three ways to reset the timer, either the timer is reset
instantaneously, or the timer value is frozen during the reset time, or the timer
value is linearly decreased during the reset time..
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 8
Voltage protection
355
Technical reference manual
IEC09000055-en-1.vsd
Voltage
Time
Hysteresis
START
TRIP
U1>
START
TRIP
t1
tReset1
Time
Time
Integrator
t1
Frozen Timer
Linear Decrease
Instantaneous
Reset
Measured
Voltage
tReset
1
IEC09000055 V1 EN
Figure 194: Voltage profile not causing a reset of the START signal for step 1, and inverse time delay
Section 8 1MRK506275-UEN C
Voltage protection
356
Technical reference manual
IEC05000020-en-2.vsd
Voltage
Time
Hysteresis
START
TRIP START
U1>
START
TRIP
t1
tReset1
Time
Time Integrator
t1
Frozen Timer
Linear Decrease
Instantaneous
Reset
Measured Voltage
tReset1
IEC05000020 V2 EN
Figure 195: Voltage profile causing a reset of the START signal for step 1, and inverse time delay
Definite time delay
When definite time delay is selected the function will operate as shown in figure
196. Detailed information about individual stage reset/operation behavior is shown
in figure 188 and figure 189 receptively. Note that by setting tResetn = 0.0s
instantaneous reset of the definite time delayed stage is ensured
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 8
Voltage protection
357
Technical reference manual
b<a
a
b
U1>
U
t
tReset1
t
t1
AND
TR1
ST1
OFF
Delay
ON
Delay
IEC10000100-1-en.vsd
IEC10000100 V1 EN
Figure 196: Detailed logic diagram for step 1, DT operation
Un>
START
TRIP
tResetn
tn

IEC10000037-1-en.vsd
IEC10000037 V1 EN
Figure 197: Example for Definite Time Delay stage rest
Section 8 1MRK506275-UEN C
Voltage protection
358
Technical reference manual
Un>
START
TRIP
tResetn
tn

IEC10000038-1-en.vsd
IEC10000038 V1 EN
Figure 198: Example for Definite Time Delay stage operation
8.2.2.3 Blocking
It is possible to block Two step overvoltage protection OV2PTOV partially or
completely, by binary input signals where:
BLOCK: blocks all outputs
BLKTR1: blocks all trip outputs of step 1
BLKST1: blocks all start and trip outputs related to step 1
BLKTR2: blocks all trip outputs of step 2
BLKST2: blocks all start and trip outputs related to step 2
8.2.2.4 Design
The voltage measuring elements continuously measure the three phase-to-earth
voltages or the three phase-to-phase voltages. Recursive Fourier filters filter the
input voltage signals. The phase voltages are individually compared to the set
value, and the highest voltage is used for the inverse time characteristic integration.
A special logic is included to achieve the 1 out of 3, 2 out of 3 or 3 out of 3 criteria
to fulfill the START condition. The design of Two step overvoltage protection
(OV2PTOV) is schematically described in figure 199.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 8
Voltage protection
359
Technical reference manual
START
ST1L1
ST1L2
ST1L3
TR1L1
TR1L2
TR1L3
ST1
TR1
START
ST2L1
ST2L2
ST2L3
TR2L1
TR2L2
TR2L3
ST2
TR2
START
TRIP
en05000013.vsd
Comparator
UL1 > U1>
Comparator
UL2 > U1>
Comparator
UL3 > U1>
MaxVoltSelect
or
Comparator
UL1 > U2>
Comparator
UL2 > U2>
Comparator
UL3 > U2>
MaxVoltSelect
or
Start
&
Trip
Output
Logic
Step 1
Start
&
Trip
Output
Logic
Step 2
Phase 3
Phase 2
Phase 1
Phase 3
Phase 2
Phase 1
Time integrator
t2
tReset2
ResetTypeCrv2
Voltage Phase
Selector
OpMode2
1 out of 3
2 outof 3
3 out of 3
Time integrator
t1
tReset1
ResetTypeCrv1
Voltage Phase
Selector
OpMode1
1 out of 3
2 outof 3
3 out of 3
UL1
UL2
UL3
TRIP
TRIP
OR
OR
OR
OR
OR
OR
IEC05000013-WMF V1 EN
Figure 199: Schematic design of Two step overvoltage protection OV2PTOV
Section 8 1MRK506275-UEN C
Voltage protection
360
Technical reference manual
8.2.3 Function block
IEC06000277-2-en.vsd
OV2PTOV
U3P*
BLOCK
BLKTR1
BLKST1
BLKTR2
BLKST2
TRIP
TR1
TR1L1
TR1L2
TR1L3
TR2
TR2L1
TR2L2
TR2L3
START
ST1
ST1L1
ST1L2
ST1L3
ST2
ST2L1
ST2L2
ST2L3
IEC06000277 V2 EN
Figure 200: OV2PTOV function block
8.2.4 Input and output signals
Table 207: OV2PTOV Input signals
Name Type Default Description
U3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Group signal for three phase voltage input
BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function
BLKTR1 BOOLEAN 0 Block of operate signal, step 1
BLKST1 BOOLEAN 0 Block of step 1
BLKTR2 BOOLEAN 0 Block of operate signal, step 2
BLKST2 BOOLEAN 0 Block of step 2
Table 208: OV2PTOV Output signals
Name Type Description
TRIP BOOLEAN Trip
TR1 BOOLEAN Common trip signal from step1
TR1L1 BOOLEAN Trip signal from step1 phase L1
TR1L2 BOOLEAN Trip signal from step1 phase L2
TR1L3 BOOLEAN Trip signal from step1 phase L3
TR2 BOOLEAN Common trip signal from step2
TR2L1 BOOLEAN Trip signal from step2 phase L1
TR2L2 BOOLEAN Trip signal from step2 phase L2
TR2L3 BOOLEAN Trip signal from step2 phase L3
START BOOLEAN General start signal
Table continues on next page
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 8
Voltage protection
361
Technical reference manual
Name Type Description
ST1 BOOLEAN Common start signal from step1
ST1L1 BOOLEAN Start signal from step1 phase L1
ST1L2 BOOLEAN Start signal from step1 phase L2
ST1L3 BOOLEAN Start signal from step1 phase L3
ST2 BOOLEAN Common start signal from step2
ST2L1 BOOLEAN Start signal from step2 phase L1
ST2L2 BOOLEAN Start signal from step2 phase L2
ST2L3 BOOLEAN Start signal from step2 phase L3
8.2.5 Setting parameters
Table 209: OV2PTOV Group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
Operation Off
On
- - Off Operation Off / On
UBase 0.05 - 2000.00 kV 0.05 400.00 Base voltage
OperationStep1 Off
On
- - On Enable execution of step 1
Characterist1 Definite time
Inverse curve A
Inverse curve B
Inverse curve C
Prog. inv. curve
- - Definite time Selection of time delay curve type for
step 1
OpMode1 1 out of 3
2 out of 3
3 out of 3
- - 1 out of 3 Number of phases required for op (1 of
3, 2 of 3, 3 of 3) from step 1
U1> 1 - 200 %UB 1 120 Voltage setting/start val (DT & IDMT) in
% of UBase, step 1
t1 0.00 - 6000.00 s 0.01 5.00 Definitive time delay of step 1
t1Min 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 5.000 Minimum operate time for inverse curves
for step 1
k1 0.05 - 1.10 - 0.01 0.05 Time multiplier for the inverse time delay
for step 1
HystAbs1 0.0 - 100.0 %UB 0.1 0.5 Absolute hysteresis in % of UBase, step 1
OperationStep2 Off
On
- - On Enable execution of step 2
Characterist2 Definite time
Inverse curve A
Inverse curve B
Inverse curve C
Prog. inv. curve
- - Definite time Selection of time delay curve type for
step 2
OpMode2 1 out of 3
2 out of 3
3 out of 3
- - 1 out of 3 Number of phases required for op (1 of
3, 2 of 3, 3 of 3) from step 2
U2> 1 - 200 %UB 1 150 Voltage setting/start val (DT & IDMT) in
% of UBase, step 2
Table continues on next page
Section 8 1MRK506275-UEN C
Voltage protection
362
Technical reference manual
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
t2 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 5.000 Definitive time delay of step 2
t2Min 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 5.000 Minimum operate time for inverse curves
for step 2
k2 0.05 - 1.10 - 0.01 0.05 Time multiplier for the inverse time delay
for step 2
HystAbs2 0.0 - 100.0 %UB 0.1 0.5 Absolute hysteresis in % of UBase, step 2
Table 210: OV2PTOV Group settings (advanced)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
tReset1 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.025 Reset time delay used in IEC Definite
Time curve step 1
ResetTypeCrv1 Instantaneous
Frozen timer
Linearly decreased
- - Instantaneous Selection of reset curve type for step 1
tIReset1 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.025 Time delay in IDMT reset (s), step 1
ACrv1 0.005 - 200.000 - 0.001 1.000 Parameter A for customer programmable
curve for step 1
BCrv1 0.50 - 100.00 - 0.01 1.00 Parameter B for customer programmable
curve for step 1
CCrv1 0.0 - 1.0 - 0.1 0.0 Parameter C for customer
programmable curve for step 1
DCrv1 0.000 - 60.000 - 0.001 0.000 Parameter D for customer
programmable curve for step 1
PCrv1 0.000 - 3.000 - 0.001 1.000 Parameter P for customer programmable
curve for step 1
CrvSat1 0 - 100 % 1 0 Tuning param for prog. over voltage
IDMT curve, step 1
tReset2 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.025 Reset time delay used in IEC Definite
Time curve step 2
ResetTypeCrv2 Instantaneous
Frozen timer
Linearly decreased
- - Instantaneous Selection of reset curve type for step 2
tIReset2 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.025 Time delay in IDMT reset (s), step 2
ACrv2 0.005 - 200.000 - 0.001 1.000 Parameter A for customer programmable
curve for step 2
BCrv2 0.50 - 100.00 - 0.01 1.00 Parameter B for customer programmable
curve for step 2
CCrv2 0.0 - 1.0 - 0.1 0.0 Parameter C for customer
programmable curve for step 2
DCrv2 0.000 - 60.000 - 0.001 0.000 Parameter D for customer
programmable curve for step 2
PCrv2 0.000 - 3.000 - 0.001 1.000 Parameter P for customer programmable
curve for step 2
CrvSat2 0 - 100 % 1 0 Tuning param for prog. over voltage
IDMT curve, step 2
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 8
Voltage protection
363
Technical reference manual
Table 211: OV2PTOV Non group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
ConnType PhN DFT
PhPh DFT
PhN RMS
PhPh RMS
- - PhN DFT TBD
8.2.6 Technical data
Table 212: OV2PTOV technical data
Function Range or value Accuracy
Operate voltage, low
and high step
(1-200)% of UBase 1.0% of U
r
at U < U
r
1.0% of U at U > U
r
Absolute hysteresis (0100)% of UBase 1.0% of U
r
at U < U
r
1.0% of U at U > U
r
Inverse time
characteristics for
low and high step,
see table 622
- See table 622
Definite time delays (0.000-60.000) s 0.5% 10 ms
Minimum operate
time, Inverse
characteristics
(0.000-60.000) s 0.5% 10 ms
Operate time, start
function
25 ms typically at 0 to 2 x U
set
-
Reset time, start
function
25 ms typically at 2 to 0 x U
set
-
Critical impulse time 10 ms typically at 0 to 2 x U
set
-
Impulse margin time 15 ms typically -
8.3 Two step residual overvoltage protection
ROV2PTOV
Function description IEC 61850
identification
IEC 60617
identification
ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
Two step residual overvoltage
protection
ROV2PTOV
3U0
TRV V1 EN
59N
8.3.1 Introduction
Residual voltages may occur in the power system during earth faults.
Section 8 1MRK506275-UEN C
Voltage protection
364
Technical reference manual
Two step residual overvoltage protection ROV2PTOV calculates the residual
voltage from the three-phase voltage input transformers or from a single-phase
voltage input transformer fed from an open delta or neutral point voltage transformer.
ROV2PTOV has two voltage steps, each with inverse or definite time delayed.
8.3.2 Principle of operation
Two step residual overvoltage protection ROV2PTOV is used to detect high single-
phase voltage, such as high residual voltage, also called 3U
0
. The residual voltage
can be measured directly from a voltage transformer in the neutral of a power
transformer or from a three-phase voltage transformer, where the secondary
windings are connected in an open delta. Another possibility is to measure the three-
phase voltages and internally in the IED calculate the corresponding residual
voltage and connect this calculated residual voltage to ROV2PTOV. ROV2PTOV
has two steps with separate time delays. If the single-phase (residual) voltage
remains above the set value for a time period corresponding to the chosen time
delay, the corresponding TRIP signal is issued.
The time delay characteristic is individually chosen for the two steps and can be
either, definite time delay or inverse time delay.
The voltage related settings are made in percent of the base voltage, which is set in
kV, phase-phase.
8.3.2.1 Measurement principle
The residual voltage is measured continuously, and compared with the set values,
U1> and U2>.
To avoid oscillations of the output START signal, a hysteresis has been included.
8.3.2.2 Time delay
The time delay for the two steps can be either definite time delay (DT) or inverse
time delay (IDMT). For the inverse time delay four different modes are available:
inverse curve A
inverse curve B
inverse curve C
customer programmable inverse curve
The type A curve is described as:
k
t
U U
U
=
- >

>

IEC09000051 V1 EN (Equation 105)
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 8
Voltage protection
365
Technical reference manual
The type B curve is described as:
2.0
480
0.035
32 0.5
k
t
U U
U

= -
- >
-
>



IECEQUATION2287 V1 EN (Equation 106)
The type C curve is described as:
3.0
480
0.035
32 0.5
k
t
U U
U

= +
- >
-
>



IECEQUATION2288 V1 EN (Equation 107)
The customer programmable curve can be created as:
p
k A
t D
U U
B C
U

= +
- >
-

>

EQUATION1439 V1 EN (Equation 108)
When the denominator in the expression is equal to zero the time delay will be
infinity. There will be an undesired discontinuity. Therefore a tuning parameter
CrvSatn is set to compensate for this phenomenon. In the voltage interval U> up to
U> (1.0 + CrvSatn/100) the used voltage will be: U> (1.0 + CrvSatn/100). If the
programmable curve is used this parameter must be calculated so that:
0
100
CrvSatn
B C - >
EQUATION1440 V1 EN (Equation 109)
The details of the different inverse time characteristics are shown in section
"Inverse characteristics".
TRIP signal issuing requires that the residual overvoltage condition continues for at
least the user set time delay. This time delay is set by the parameter t1 and t2 for
definite time mode (DT) and by some special voltage level dependent time curves
for the inverse time mode (IDMT).
If the START condition, with respect to the measured voltage ceases during the
delay time, and is not fulfilled again within a user defined reset time (tReset1 and
tReset2 for the definite time and tIReset1 and tIReset2 for the inverse time) the
corresponding START output is reset, after that the defined reset time has elapsed.
Here it should be noted that after leaving the hysteresis area, the START condition
must be fulfilled again and it is not sufficient for the signal to only return back to
Section 8 1MRK506275-UEN C
Voltage protection
366
Technical reference manual
the hysteresis area. Also notice that for the overvoltage function IDMT reset time is
constant and does not depend on the voltage fluctuations during the drop-off
period. However, there are three ways to reset the timer, either the timer is reset
instantaneously, or the timer value is frozen during the reset time, or the timer
value is linearly decreased during the reset time. See figure 194 and figure 195.
IEC09000055-en-1.vsd
Voltage
Time
Hysteresis
START
TRIP
U1>
START
TRIP
t1
tReset1
Time
Time
Integrator
t1
Frozen Timer
Linear Decrease
Instantaneous
Reset
Measured
Voltage
tReset
1
IEC09000055 V1 EN
Figure 201: Voltage profile not causing a reset of the START signal for step 1, and inverse time delay
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 8
Voltage protection
367
Technical reference manual
IEC05000020-en-2.vsd
Voltage
Time
Hysteresis
START
TRIP START
U1>
START
TRIP
t1
tReset1
Time
Time Integrator
t1
Frozen Timer
Linear Decrease
Instantaneous
Reset
Measured Voltage
tReset1
IEC05000020 V2 EN
Figure 202: Voltage profile causing a reset of the START signal for step 1, and inverse time delay
Definite timer delay
When definite time delay is selected the function will operate as shown in figure
203. Detailed information about individual stage reset/operation behavior is shown
in figure 188 and figure 189 receptively. Note that by setting tResetn = 0.0s
instantaneous reset of the definite time delayed stage is ensured
Section 8 1MRK506275-UEN C
Voltage protection
368
Technical reference manual
b<a
a
b
U1>
U
t
tReset1
t
t1
AND
TR1
ST1
OFF
Delay
ON
Delay
IEC10000100-1-en.vsd
IEC10000100 V1 EN
Figure 203: Detailed logic diagram for step 1, DT operation
Un<
START
TRIP
tResetn
tn

IEC10000039-1-en.vsd
IEC10000039 V1 EN
Figure 204: Example for Definite Time Delay stage rest
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 8
Voltage protection
369
Technical reference manual
Un<
START
TRIP
tResetn
tn

IEC10000040-1-en.vsd
IEC10000040 V1 EN
Figure 205: Example for Definite Time Delay stage operation
8.3.2.3 Blocking
It is possible to block Two step residual overvoltage protection ROV2PTOV
partially or completely, by binary input signals where:
BLOCK: blocks all outputs
BLKTR1: blocks all trip outputs of step 1
BLKST1: blocks all start and trip outputs related to step 1
BLKTR2: blocks all trip outputs of step 2
BLKST2: blocks all START and trip inputs related to step 2
8.3.2.4 Design
The voltage measuring elements continuously measure the residual voltage.
Recursive Fourier filters filter the input voltage signal. The single input voltage is
compared to the set value, and is also used for the inverse time characteristic
integration. The design of Two step residual overvoltage protection (ROV2PTOV)
is schematically described in figure 206.
Section 8 1MRK506275-UEN C
Voltage protection
370
Technical reference manual
en05000748.vsd
UN ST1
TR1
ST2
TR2
START
TRIP
Comparator
UN > U1>
Start
&
Trip
Output
Logic
Step 2
Phase 1
Phase 1
Time integrator
t2
tReset2
ResetTypeCrv2
START
Start
&
Trip
Output
Logic
Step 1
Time integrator
t1
tReset1
ResetTypeCrv1
Comparator
UN > U2>
START
TRIP
TRIP
OR
OR
IEC05000748 V1 EN
Figure 206: Schematic design of Two step residual overvoltage protection
ROV2PTOV
8.3.3 Function block
IEC06000278-2-en.vsd
ROV2PTOV
U3P*
BLOCK
BLKTR1
BLKST1
BLKTR2
BLKST2
TRIP
TR1
TR2
START
ST1
ST2
IEC06000278 V2 EN
Figure 207: ROV2PTOV function block
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 8
Voltage protection
371
Technical reference manual
8.3.4 Input and output signals
Table 213: ROV2PTOV Input signals
Name Type Default Description
U3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Three phase voltages
BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function
BLKTR1 BOOLEAN 0 Block of operate signal, step 1
BLKST1 BOOLEAN 0 Block of step 1
BLKTR2 BOOLEAN 0 Block of operate signal, step 2
BLKST2 BOOLEAN 0 Block of step 2
Table 214: ROV2PTOV Output signals
Name Type Description
TRIP BOOLEAN Trip
TR1 BOOLEAN Common trip signal from step1
TR2 BOOLEAN Common trip signal from step2
START BOOLEAN General start signal
ST1 BOOLEAN Common start signal from step1
ST2 BOOLEAN Common start signal from step2
8.3.5 Setting parameters
Table 215: ROV2PTOV Group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
Operation Off
On
- - Off Operation Off / On
UBase 0.05 - 2000.00 kV 0.05 400.00 Base voltage
OperationStep1 Off
On
- - On Enable execution of step 1
Characterist1 Definite time
Inverse curve A
Inverse curve B
Inverse curve C
Prog. inv. curve
- - Definite time Selection of time delay curve type for
step 1
U1> 1 - 200 %UB 1 30 Voltage setting/start val (DT & IDMT),
step 1 in % of UBase
t1 0.00 - 6000.00 s 0.01 5.00 Definitive time delay of step 1
t1Min 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 5.000 Minimum operate time for inverse curves
for step 1
k1 0.05 - 1.10 - 0.01 0.05 Time multiplier for the inverse time delay
for step 1
HystAbs1 0.0 - 100.0 %UB 0.1 0.5 Absolute hysteresis in % of UBase, step 1
Table continues on next page
Section 8 1MRK506275-UEN C
Voltage protection
372
Technical reference manual
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
OperationStep2 Off
On
- - On Enable execution of step 2
Characterist2 Definite time
Inverse curve A
Inverse curve B
Inverse curve C
Prog. inv. curve
- - Definite time Selection of time delay curve type for
step 2
U2> 1 - 100 %UB 1 45 Voltage setting/start val (DT & IDMT),
step 2 in % of UBase
t2 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 5.000 Definitive time delay of step 2
t2Min 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 5.000 Minimum operate time for inverse curves
for step 2
k2 0.05 - 1.10 - 0.01 0.05 Time multiplier for the inverse time delay
for step 2
HystAbs2 0.0 - 100.0 %UB 0.1 0.5 Absolute hysteresis in % of UBase, step 2
Table 216: ROV2PTOV Group settings (advanced)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
tReset1 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.025 Reset time delay used in IEC Definite
Time curve step 1
ResetTypeCrv1 Instantaneous
Frozen timer
Linearly decreased
- - Instantaneous Selection of reset curve type for step 1
tIReset1 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.025 Time delay in IDMT reset (s), step 1
ACrv1 0.005 - 200.000 - 0.001 1.000 Parameter A for customer programmable
curve for step 1
BCrv1 0.50 - 100.00 - 0.01 1.00 Parameter B for customer programmable
curve for step 1
CCrv1 0.0 - 1.0 - 0.1 0.0 Parameter C for customer
programmable curve for step 1
DCrv1 0.000 - 60.000 - 0.001 0.000 Parameter D for customer
programmable curve for step 1
PCrv1 0.000 - 3.000 - 0.001 1.000 Parameter P for customer programmable
curve for step 1
CrvSat1 0 - 100 % 1 0 Tuning param for prog. over voltage
IDMT curve, step 1
tReset2 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.025 Time delay in DT reset (s), step 2
ResetTypeCrv2 Instantaneous
Frozen timer
Linearly decreased
- - Instantaneous Selection of reset curve type for step 2
tIReset2 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.025 Time delay in IDMT reset (s), step 2
ACrv2 0.005 - 200.000 - 0.001 1.000 Parameter A for customer programmable
curve for step 2
BCrv2 0.50 - 100.00 - 0.01 1.00 Parameter B for customer programmable
curve for step 2
CCrv2 0.0 - 1.0 - 0.1 0.0 Parameter C for customer
programmable curve for step 2
Table continues on next page
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 8
Voltage protection
373
Technical reference manual
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
DCrv2 0.000 - 60.000 - 0.001 0.000 Parameter D for customer
programmable curve for step 2
PCrv2 0.000 - 3.000 - 0.001 1.000 Parameter P for customer programmable
curve for step 2
CrvSat2 0 - 100 % 1 0 Tuning param for prog. over voltage
IDMT curve, step 2
8.3.6 Technical data
Table 217: ROV2PTOV technical data
Function Range or value Accuracy
Operate voltage, low
and high step
(1-200)% of UBase 1.0% of U
r
at U < U
r
1.0% of U at U > U
r
Absolute hysteresis (0100)% of UBase 1.0% of U
r
at U < U
r
1.0% of U at U > U
r
Inverse time
characteristics for
low and high step,
see table 624
- See table 624
Definite time setting (0.00060.000) s 0.5% 10 ms
Minimum operate
time
(0.000-60.000) s 0.5% 10 ms
Operate time, start
function
25 ms typically at 0 to 2 x U
set
-
Reset time, start
function
25 ms typically at 2 to 0 x U
set
-
Critical impulse time 10 ms typically at 0 to 2 x U
set
-
Impulse margin time 15 ms typically -
8.4 Overexcitation protection OEXPVPH
Function description IEC 61850
identification
IEC 60617
identification
ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
Overexcitation protection OEXPVPH
U/f >
SYMBOL-Q V1 EN
24
8.4.1 Introduction
When the laminated core of a power transformer or generator is subjected to a
magnetic flux density beyond its design limits, stray flux will flow into non-
laminated components not designed to carry flux and cause eddy currents to flow.
Section 8 1MRK506275-UEN C
Voltage protection
374
Technical reference manual
The eddy currents can cause excessive heating and severe damage to insulation and
adjacent parts in a relatively short time. Overexcitation protection OEXPVPH has
settable inverse operating curve and independent alarm stage.
8.4.2 Principle of operation
The importance of Overexcitation protection OEXPVPH is growing as the power
transformers as well as other power system elements today operate most of the
time near their designated limits.
Modern design transformers are more sensitive to overexcitation than earlier types.
This is a result of the more efficient designs and designs which rely on the
improvement in the uniformity of the excitation level of modern systems. Thus, if
emergency that includes overexcitation does occur, transformers may be damaged
unless corrective action is promptly taken. Transformer manufacturers recommend
an overexcitation protection as a part of the transformer protection system.
Overexcitation results from excessive applied voltage, possibly in combination
with below-normal frequency. Such condition may occur when a transformer unit
is on load, but are more likely to arise when it is on open circuit, or at a loss of load
occurrence. Transformers directly connected to generators are in particular danger
to experience overexcitation condition. It follows from the fundamental
transformer equation, see equation 110, that peak flux density Bmax is directly
proportional to induced voltage E, and inversely proportional to frequency f, and
turns n.
E . f n Bmax A 4 44 =
EQUATION898 V2 EN (Equation 110)
The relative excitation M is therefore according to equation 111.
( )
( ) ( )
E f
M p.u. =
Ur fr
IECEQUATION2296 V1 EN (Equation 111)
Disproportional variations in quantities E and f may give rise to core overfluxing.
If the core flux density Bmax increases to a point above saturation level (typically
1.9 Tesla), the flux will no longer be contained within the core only but will extend
into other (non-laminated) parts of the power transformer and give rise to eddy
current circulations.
Overexcitation will result in:
overheating of the non-laminated metal parts
a large increase in magnetizing currents
an increase in core and winding temperature
an increase in transformer vibration and noise
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 8
Voltage protection
375
Technical reference manual
Protection against overexcitation is based on calculation of the relative volt per
hertz (V/Hz) ratio. The action of the protection is usually to initiate a reduction of
excitation and, if this should fail, or is not possible, to trip the transformer after a
delay which can be from seconds to minutes, typically 5 - 10 seconds.
Overexcitation protection may be of particular concern on directly connected
generator unit transformers. Directly connected generator-transformers are
subjected to a wide range of frequencies during the acceleration and deceleration of
the turbine. In such cases, the overexcitation protection may trip the field breaker
during a start-up of a machine, by means of the overexcitation ALARM signal. If
this is not possible, the power transformer can be disconnected from the source,
after a delay, by the TRIP signal.
The IEC 60076 - 1 standard requires that transformers shall be capable of operating
continuously at 10% above rated voltage at no load, and rated frequency. At no
load, the ratio of the actual generator terminal voltage to the actual frequency
should not exceed 1.1 times the ratio of transformer rated voltage to the rated
frequency on a sustained basis, see equation 112.
E
f
---- 1.1
Ur
fr
------
EQUATION900 V1 EN (Equation 112)
or equivalently, with 1.1 Ur = V/Hz> according to equation 113.
E V Hz>
f fr

IECEQUATION2297 V1 EN (Equation 113)


where:
V/Hz> is the maximum continuously allowed voltage at no load, and rated frequency.
V/Hz> is a setting parameter. The setting range is 100% to 180%. If the user does
not know exactly what to set, then the standard IEC 60076 - 1, section 4.4, the
default value V/Hz> = 110% shall be used.
In OEXPVPH, the relative excitation M is expressed according to equation 114.
( )
E f
M p.u. =
Ur fr
IECEQUATION2299 V1 EN (Equation 114)
It is clear from the above formula that, for an unloaded power transformer, M = 1
for any E and f, where the ratio E/f is equal to Ur/fr. A power transformer is not
overexcited as long as the relative excitation is M V/Hz>, V/Hz> expressed in %
of Ur/fr.
Section 8 1MRK506275-UEN C
Voltage protection
376
Technical reference manual
The overexcitation protection algorithm is fed with an input voltage U which is in
general not the induced voltage E from the fundamental transformer equation. For
no load condition, these two voltages are the same, but for a loaded power
transformer the internally induced voltage E may be lower or higher than the
voltage U which is measured and fed to OEXPVPH , depending on the direction of
the power flow through the power transformer, the power transformer side where
OEXPVPH is applied, and the power transformer leakage reactance of the winding.
It is important to specify in the application configuration on which side of the
power transformer OEXPVPH is placed.
As an example, at a transformer with a 15% short circuit impedance Xsc, the full
load, 0.8 power factor, 105% voltage on the load side, the actual flux level in the
transformer core, will not be significantly different from that at the 110% voltage,
no load, rated frequency, provided that the short circuit impedance X can be
equally divided between the primary and the secondary winding: Xleak = Xleak1 =
Xleak2 = Xsc / 2 = 0.075 pu.
OEXPVPH calculates the internal induced voltage E if Xleak (meaning the leakage
reactance of the winding where OEXPVPH is connected) is known to the user. The
assumption taken for two-winding power transformers that Xleak = Xsc / 2 is
unfortunately most often not true. For a two-winding power transformer the
leakage reactances of the two windings depend on how the windings are located on
the core with respect to each other. In the case of three-winding power transformers
the situation is still more complex. If a user has the knowledge on the leakage
reactance, then it should applied. If a user has no idea about it, Xleak can be set to
X
c/2
. OEXPVPH protection will then take the given measured voltage U, as the
induced voltage E.
It is assumed that overexcitation is a symmetrical phenomenon, caused by events
such as loss-of-load, and so on. It will be observed that a high phase-to-earth
voltage does not mean overexcitation. For example, in an unearthed power system,
a single phase-to-earth fault means high voltages of the healthy two phases-to-
earth, but no overexcitation on any winding. The phase-to-phase voltages will
remain essentially unchanged. The important voltage is the voltage between the
two ends of each winding.
8.4.2.1 Measured voltage
If one phase-to-phase voltage is available from the side where overexcitation
protection is applied, then Overexcitation protection OEXPVPH shall be set to
measure this voltage, MeasuredU. The particular voltage which is used determines
the two currents that must be used. This must be chosen with the setting MeasuredI.
It is extremely important that MeasuredU and MeasuredI are set to
same value.
If, for example, voltage UL1L2 is fed to OEXPVPH, then currents IL1, and IL2
must be applied. From these two input currents, current IL1L2 = IL1 - IL2 is
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 8
Voltage protection
377
Technical reference manual
calculated internally by the OEXPVPH algorithm. The phase-to-phase voltage
must be higher than 70% of the rated value, otherwise the protection algorithm
exits without calculating the excitation. ERROR output is set to 1, and the
displayed value of relative excitation V/Hz shows 0.000.
If three phase-to-earth voltages are available from the side where overexcitation is
connected, then OEXPVPH shall be set to measure positive sequence voltage and
current. In this case the positive sequence voltage and the positive sequence current
are used by OEXPVPH. A check is made if the positive sequence voltage is higher
than 70% of rated phase-to-earth voltage, when below this value, OEXPVPH exits
immediately, and no excitation is calculated. ERROR output is set to 1, and the
displayed value of relative excitation V/Hz shows 0.000.
The frequency value is received from the pre-processing block. The function is in
operation for frequencies within the range of 33-60 Hz and of 42-75 Hz for 50 and
60 Hz respectively.
OEXPVPH can be connected to any power transformer side, independent from
the power flow.
The side with a possible load tap changer must not be used.
8.4.2.2 Operate time of the overexcitation protection
The operate time of the overexcitation protection OEXPVPH is a function of the
relative overexcitation.
Basically there are two different delay laws available to choose between:
the so called IEEE law, and
a tailor-made law.
The so called IEEE law approximates a square law and has been chosen based on
analysis of the various transformers overexcitation capability characteristics. They
can match well a transformer core capability.
The square law is according to equation 115.
op
2
0.18
t
M
1
V Hz>
k
=
-



IECEQUATION2298 V1 EN (Equation 115)
where:
M the relative excitation
V/Hz> is maximum continuously allowed voltage at no load, and rated frequency, in pu and
k is time multiplier for inverse time functions, see figure 209.
Parameter k (time multiplier setting) selects one delay curve from the family of curves.
Section 8 1MRK506275-UEN C
Voltage protection
378
Technical reference manual
An analog overexcitation relay would have to evaluate the following integral
expression, which means to look for the instant of time t = t
op
according to
equation 116.
( ) ( )
op t
2
0
M t V Hz 0.18 dt k - >

IECEQUATION2300 V1 EN (Equation 116)


A digital, numerical relay will instead look for the lowest j (that is, j = n) where it
becomes true that:
Dt M(j) V/Hz> ( )
2
j k =
n

0.18 k
EQUATION906 V1 EN (Equation 117)
where:
Dt is the time interval between two successive executions of OEXPVPH and
M(j) - V/Hz> is the relative excitation at (time j) in excess of the normal (rated) excitation which is
given as Ur/fr.
As long as M > V/Hz> (that is, overexcitation condition), the above sum can only
be larger with time, and if the overexcitation persists, the protected transformer will
be tripped at j = n.
Inverse delays as per figure 209, can be modified (limited) by two special definite
delay settings, namely tMax and tMin, see figure 208.
0 M
max
- V/Hz>
M
max
tMin
V/Hz>
E
max
E (only if f = fr = const)
tMax
inverse delay law
overexcitation
under -
excitation
delay in s
99001067.vsd
Overexcitation M-V/Hz>
Excitation M M=V/Hz>
IEC99001067 V1 EN
Figure 208: Restrictions imposed on inverse delays by tMax and tMin
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 8
Voltage protection
379
Technical reference manual
A definite maximum time, tMax, can be used to limit the operate time at low
degrees of overexcitation. Inverse delays longer than tMax will not be allowed. In
case the inverse delay is longer than tMax, OEXPVPH trips after tMax seconds.
A definite minimum time, tMin, can be used to limit the operate time at high
degrees of overexcitation. In case the inverse delay is shorter than tMin,
OEXPVPH function trips after tMin seconds. Also, the inverse delay law is no
more valid beyond excitation Mmax. Beyond Mmax (for excitation M > V/Hz>),
the delay will always be tMin, irrespective of the overexcitation level.
1 10
1
10
100
1000
2 40 3 4 5 20 30
k = 2
k = 3
k = 4
k = 5
k = 6
k = 7
k = 8
k = 9
k = 10
k = 20
k = 60
k = 1
OVEREXCITATION IN %
Time (s) IEEE OVEREXCITATION CURVES
en01000373.vsd
(M-Emaxcont)*100)
IEC01000373 V1 EN
Figure 209: Delays inversely proportional to the square of the overexcitation
The critical value of excitation M is determined indirectly via OEXPVPH setting V/
Hz>>. V/Hz>> can be thought of as a no-load-rated-frequency voltage, where the
inverse law should be replaced by a short definite delay, tMin. If, for example, V/
Hz>> = 140 %, then M is according to equation 118.
Section 8 1MRK506275-UEN C
Voltage protection
380
Technical reference manual
( ) V Hz>> / f
M 1.40
Ur/fr
= =
IECEQUATION2286 V1 EN (Equation 118)
The Tailor-Made law allows a user to design an arbitrary delay characteristic. In
this case the interval between M = V/Hz>, and M = Mmax is automatically divided
into five equal subintervals, with six delays. (settings t1, t2, t3, t4, t5 and t6) as
shown in figure 210. These times should be set so that t1 => t2 => t3 => t4 => t5
=> t6.
0
E
maxcont
M
max
- E
maxcont
M
max
tMin
tMax
delay in s
Overexcitation M-E
maxcont
Excitation M
under-
excitation
99001068.vsd
IEC99001068 V1 EN
Figure 210: An example of a Tailor-Made delay characteristic
Delays between two consecutive points, for example t3 and t4, are obtained by
linear interpolation.
Should it happen that tMax be lower than, for example, delays t1, and t2, the actual
delay would be tMax. Above Mmax, the delay can only be tMin.
8.4.2.3 Cooling
Overexcitation protection OEXPVPH is basically a thermal protection; therefore a
cooling process has been introduced. Exponential cooling process is applied.
Parameter Setting tool is an OEXPVPH setting, with a default time constant
tCooling of 20 minutes. This means that if the voltage and frequency return to their
previous normal values (no more overexcitation), the normal temperature is
assumed to be reached not before approximately 5 times tCooling minutes. If an
overexcitation condition would return before that, the time to trip will be shorter
than it would be otherwise.
8.4.2.4 Overexcitation protection function measurands
A monitored data value, TMTOTRIP, is available on the local HMI and in
PCM600. This value is an estimation of the remaining time to trip (in seconds), if
the overexcitation remained on the level it had when the estimation was done. This
information can be useful with small or moderate overexcitations.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 8
Voltage protection
381
Technical reference manual
If the overexcitation is so low that the valid delay is tMax, then the estimation of
the remaining time to trip is done against tMax.
The relative excitation M, shown on the local HMI and in PCM600 as a monitored
data value VPERHZ, is calculated from the expression:
( )
E f
M p.u. =
Ur fr
IECEQUATION2299 V1 EN (Equation 119)
If VPERHZ value is less than setting V/Hz> (in %), the power transformer is
underexcited. If VPERHZ is equal to V/Hz> (in %), the excitation is exactly equal
to the power transformer continuous capability. If VPERHZ is higher than V/Hz>,
the protected power transformer is overexcited. For example, if VPERHZ = 1.100,
while V/Hz> = 110 %, then the power transformer is exactly on its maximum
continuous excitation limit.
Monitored data value THERMSTA shows the thermal status of the protected
power transformer iron core. THERMSTA gives the thermal status in % of the trip
value which corresponds to 100%. THERMSTA should reach 100% at the same
time, as TMTOTRIP reaches 0 seconds. If the protected power transformer is then
for some reason not switched off, THERMSTA shall go over 100%.
If the delay as per IEEE law, or Tailor-made Law, is limited by tMax, and/or tMin,
then the Thermal status will generally not reach 100% at the same time, when
tTRIP reaches 0 seconds. For example, if, at low degrees of overexcitation, the
very long delay is limited by tMax, then the OEXPVPH TRIP output signal will be
set to 1 before the Thermal status reaches 100%.
8.4.2.5 Overexcitation alarm
A separate step, AlarmLevel, is provided for alarming purpose. It is normally set
2% lower than (V/Hz>) and has a definite time delay, tAlarm. This will give the
operator an early abnormal voltages warning.
Section 8 1MRK506275-UEN C
Voltage protection
382
Technical reference manual
8.4.2.6 Logic diagram
IEC05000162-2-en.vsd
t
t
t
1
&
&
BLOCK
Xleak
Ei
M=
(Ei / f)
(Ur / fr)
M = relative V/Hz as service value
V/Hz>>
M>V/Hz>>
V/Hz>
M>V/Hz>
tAlarm
tMin
IEEE law
Tailor-made law
tMax
Calculation
of internal
induced
voltage Ei
k
M
M
M
t>tAlarm
t>tMin
ALARM
TRIP
AlarmLevel
U3P
I3P
IEC05000162 V2 EN
Figure 211: A simplified logic diagram of the Overexcitation protection
OEXPVPH
Simplification of the diagram is in the way the IEEE and Tailor-made delays are
calculated. The cooling process is not shown. It is not shown that voltage and
frequency are separately checked against their respective limit values.
8.4.3 Function block
IEC05000329-2-en.vsd
OEXPVPH
I3P*
U3P*
BLOCK
RESET
TRIP
START
ALARM
IEC05000329 V3 EN
Figure 212: OEXPVPH function block
8.4.4 Input and output signals
Table 218: OEXPVPH Input signals
Name Type Default Description
I3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Current connection
U3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Voltage connection
BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function
RESET BOOLEAN 0 Reset operation
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 8
Voltage protection
383
Technical reference manual
Table 219: OEXPVPH Output signals
Name Type Description
TRIP BOOLEAN Trip from overexcitation function
START BOOLEAN Overexcitation above set operate level
(instantaneous)
ALARM BOOLEAN Overexcitation above set alarm level (delayed)
8.4.5 Setting parameters
Table 220: OEXPVPH Group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
Operation Off
On
- - Off Operation Off / On
IBase 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 Base current (rated phase current) in A
UBase 0.05 - 2000.00 kV 0.05 400.00 Base voltage (main voltage) in kV
V/Hz> 100.0 - 180.0 %UB/f 0.1 110.0 Operate level of V/Hz at no load and
rated freq in % of (Ubase/frated)
V/Hz>> 100.0 - 200.0 %UB/f 0.1 140.0 High level of V/Hz above which tMin is
used, in % of (Ubase/frated)
XLeak 0.000 - 200.000 ohm 0.001 0.000 Winding leakage reactance in primary
ohms
TrPulse 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.100 Length of the pulse for trip signal (in sec)
tMin 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 7.000 Minimum trip delay for V/Hz inverse
curve, in sec
tMax 0.00 - 9000.00 s 0.01 1800.00 Maximum trip delay for V/Hz inverse
curve, in sec
tCooling 0.10 - 9000.00 s 0.01 1200.00 Transformer magnetic core cooling time
constant, in sec
CurveType IEEE
Tailor made
- - IEEE Inverse time curve selection, IEEE/Tailor
made
kForIEEE 1 - 60 - 1 1 Time multiplier for IEEE inverse type
curve
AlarmLevel 50.0 - 120.0 % 0.1 100.0 Alarm operate level as % of operate level
tAlarm 0.00 - 9000.00 s 0.01 5.00 Alarm time delay, in sec
Table 221: OEXPVPH Group settings (advanced)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
t1Tailor 0.00 - 9000.00 s 0.01 7200.00 Time delay t1 (longest) for tailor made
curve, in sec
t2Tailor 0.00 - 9000.00 s 0.01 3600.00 Time delay t2 for tailor made curve, in sec
t3Tailor 0.00 - 9000.00 s 0.01 1800.00 Time delay t3 for tailor made curve, in sec
t4Tailor 0.00 - 9000.00 s 0.01 900.00 Time delay t4 for tailor made curve, in sec
t5Tailor 0.00 - 9000.00 s 0.01 450.00 Time delay t5 for tailor made curve, in sec
t6Tailor 0.00 - 9000.00 s 0.01 225.00 Time delay t6 (shortest) for tailor made
curve, in sec
Section 8 1MRK506275-UEN C
Voltage protection
384
Technical reference manual
Table 222: OEXPVPH Non group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
MeasuredU PosSeq
L1L2
L2L3
L3L1
- - L1L2 Selection of measured voltage
MeasuredI L1L2
L2L3
L3L1
PosSeq
- - L1L2 Selection of measured current
8.4.6 Technical data
Table 223: OEXPVPH technical data
Function Range or value Accuracy
Operate value, start (100180)% of (UBase/f
rated
) 1.0% of U
Operate value, alarm (50120)% of start level 1.0% of U
r
at U U
r
1.0% of U at U > U
r
Operate value, high level (100200)% of (UBase/f
rated
) 1.0% of U
Curve type IEEE or customer defined
2
(0.18 )
:
( 1)
k
IEEE t
M

=
-
EQUATION1319 V1 EN (Equation 120)
where M = (E/f)/(Ur/fr)
Class 5 + 40 ms
Minimum time delay for inverse
function
(0.00060.000) s 0.5% 10 ms
Maximum time delay for inverse
function
(0.009000.00) s 0.5% 10 ms
Alarm time delay (0.00060.000) s 0.5% 10 ms
8.5 Voltage differential protection VDCPTOV
Function description IEC 61850
identification
IEC 60617
identification
ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
Voltage differential protection VDCPTOV - 60
8.5.1 Introduction
A voltage differential monitoring function is available. It compares the voltages
from two three phase sets of voltage transformers and has one sensitive alarm step
and one trip step. It can be used to supervise the voltage from two fuse groups or
two different voltage transformers fuses as a fuse/MCB supervision function.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 8
Voltage protection
385
Technical reference manual
8.5.2 Principle of operation
The Voltage differential protection function VDCPTOV (60) is based on
comparison of the amplitudes of the two voltages connected in each phase.
Possible differences between the ratios of the two Voltage/Capacitive voltage
transformers can be compensated for with a ratio correction factors RFLx. The
voltage difference is evaluated and if it exceeds the alarm level UDAlarm or trip
level UDATrip signals for alarm (ALARM output) or trip (TRIP output) is given
after definite time delay tAlarm respectively tTrip. The two three phase voltage
supplies are also supervised with undervoltage settings U1Low and U2Low. The
outputs for loss of voltage U1LOW resp U2LOW will be activated. The U1 voltage
is supervised for loss of individual phases whereas the U2 voltage is supervised for
loss of all three phases.
Loss of all U1or all U2 voltages will block the differential measurement. This
blocking can be switched off with setting BlkDiffAtULow = No.
VDCPTOV function can be blocked from an external condition with the binary
BLOCK input. It can for example, be activated from Fuse failure supervision
function SDDRFUF.
To allow easy commissioning the measured differential voltage is available as
service value. This allows simple setting of the ratio correction factor to achieve
full balance in normal service.
The principle logic diagram is shown in figure 213.
Section 8 1MRK506275-UEN C
Voltage protection
386
Technical reference manual
UDTripL1>
U1<L1
AND
O
R
UDAlarmL1>
UDTripL1>
UDAlarmL1>
UDTripL1>
UDAlarmL1>
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
t
tReset
t
tAlarm
O
R
t
tTrip
TRIP
START
ALARM
U1<L2
U1<L3
U2<L1
U2<L2
U2<L3
AND
t
tAlarm
t
t1
OR
AND
AND
AND
BLOCK
AND
AND
U1LOW
U2LOW
en06000382-1.vsd
BlkDiffAtULow
AND
AND
IEC06000382 V2 EN
Figure 213: Principle logic for Voltage differential function VDCPTOV
8.5.3 Function block
IEC06000528-2-en.vsd
VDCPTOV
U3P1*
U3P2*
BLOCK
TRIP
START
ALARM
U1LOW
U2LOW
UL1DIFF
UL2DIFF
UL3DIFF
IEC06000528 V2 EN
Figure 214: VDCPTOV function block
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 8
Voltage protection
387
Technical reference manual
8.5.4 Input and output signals
Table 224: VDCPTOV Input signals
Name Type Default Description
U3P1 GROUP
SIGNAL
- Bus voltage
U3P2 GROUP
SIGNAL
- Capacitor voltage
BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function
Table 225: VDCPTOV Output signals
Name Type Description
TRIP BOOLEAN Voltage differential protection operated
START BOOLEAN Start of voltage differential protection
ALARM BOOLEAN Voltage differential protection alarm
U1LOW BOOLEAN Loss of U1 voltage
U2LOW BOOLEAN Loss of U2 voltage
UL1DIFF REAL Differential Voltage phase L1
UL2DIFF REAL Differential Voltage phase L2
UL3DIFF REAL Differential Voltage phase L3
8.5.5 Setting parameters
Table 226: VDCPTOV Group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
Operation Off
On
- - Off Operation Off/On
UBase 0.50 - 2000.00 kV 0.01 400.00 Base Voltage
BlkDiffAtULow No
Yes
- - Yes Block operation at low voltage
UDTrip 0.0 - 100.0 %UB 0.1 5.0 Operate level, in % of UBase
tTrip 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 1.000 Time delay for voltage differential
operate, in milliseconds
tReset 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.000 Time delay for voltage differential reset,
in seconds
U1Low 0.0 - 100.0 %UB 0.1 70.0 Input 1 undervoltage level, in % of UBase
U2Low 0.0 - 100.0 %UB 0.1 70.0 Input 2 undervoltage level, in % of UBase
tBlock 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.000 Reset time for undervoltage block
UDAlarm 0.0 - 100.0 %UB 0.1 2.0 Alarm level, in % of UBase
tAlarm 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 2.000 Time delay for voltage differential alarm,
in seconds
Section 8 1MRK506275-UEN C
Voltage protection
388
Technical reference manual
Table 227: VDCPTOV Group settings (advanced)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
RFL1 0.000 - 3.000 - 0.001 1.000 Ratio compensation factor phase L1
U2L1*RFL1=U1L1
RFL2 0.000 - 3.000 - 0.001 1.000 Ratio compensation factor phase L2
U2L2*RFL2=U1L2
RFL3 0.000 - 3.000 - 0.001 1.000 Ratio compensation factor phase L3
U2L3*RFL3=U1L3
8.5.6 Technical data
Table 228: VDCPTOV technical data
Function Range or value Accuracy
Voltage difference for alarm and
trip
(0.0100.0) % of UBase 0.5 % of U
r
Under voltage level (0.0100.0) % of UBase 0.5% of U
r
Timers (0.00060.000)s 0.5% 10 ms
8.6 Loss of voltage check LOVPTUV
Function description IEC 61850
identification
IEC 60617
identification
ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
Loss of voltage check LOVPTUV - 27
8.6.1 Introduction
Loss of voltage check (LOVPTUV) is suitable for use in networks with an
automatic system restoration function. LOVPTUV issues a three-pole trip
command to the circuit breaker, if all three phase voltages fall below the set value
for a time longer than the set time and the circuit breaker remains closed.
8.6.2 Principle of operation
The operation of Loss of voltage check LOVPTUV is based on line voltage
measurement. LOVPTUV is provided with a logic, which automatically recognises
if the line was restored for at least tRestore before starting the tTrip timer. All three
phases are required to be low before the output TRIP is activated. The START
output signal indicates start.
Additionally, LOVPTUV is automatically blocked if only one or two phase
voltages have been detected low for more than tBlock.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 8
Voltage protection
389
Technical reference manual
LOVPTUV operates again only if the line has been restored to full voltage for at
least tRestore. Operation of the function is also inhibited by fuse failure and open
circuit breaker information signals, by their connection to dedicated inputs of the
function block.
Due to undervoltage conditions being continuous the trip pulse is limited to a
length set by setting tPulse.
The operation of LOVPTUV is supervised by the fuse-failure function (VTSU
input) and the information about the open position (CBOPEN) of the associated
circuit breaker.
The BLOCK input can be connected to a binary input of the IED in order to receive
a block command from external devices or can be software connected to other
internal functions of the IED itself in order to receive a block command from
internal functions. LOVPTUV is also blocked when the IED is in TEST status and
the function has been blocked from the HMI test menu. (Blocked=Yes).
Section 8 1MRK506275-UEN C
Voltage protection
390
Technical reference manual
Function Enable
TEST-ACTIVE
&
TEST
Blocked = Yes
>1
STUL1N
STUL2N
STUL3N
t
tTrip tPulse
&
&
>1 t
tBlock
&
only 1 or 2 phases are low for
at least 10 s (not three)
>1
&
>1
t
tRestore
Reset Enable
Set Enable
>1
Line restored for
at least 3 s
Latched
Enable
IEC07000089_2_en.vsd
START
TRIP
CBOPEN
VTSU
BLOCK
IEC07000089 V2 EN
Figure 215: Simplified diagram of Loss of voltage check LOVPTUV
8.6.3 Function block
IEC07000039-2-en.vsd
LOVPTUV
U3P*
BLOCK
CBOPEN
VTSU
TRIP
START
IEC07000039 V2 EN
Figure 216: LOVPTUV function block
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 8
Voltage protection
391
Technical reference manual
8.6.4 Input and output signals
Table 229: LOVPTUV Input signals
Name Type Default Description
U3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Voltage connection
BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block the all outputs
CBOPEN BOOLEAN 0 Circuit breaker open
VTSU BOOLEAN 0 Block from voltage circuit supervision
Table 230: LOVPTUV Output signals
Name Type Description
TRIP BOOLEAN Trip signal
START BOOLEAN Start signal
8.6.5 Setting parameters
Table 231: LOVPTUV Group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
Operation Off
On
- - Off Operation Off/On
UBase 0.1 - 9999.9 kV 0.1 400.0 Base voltage
UPE 1 - 100 %UB 1 70 Operate voltagein% of base voltage
Ubase
tTrip 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 7.000 Operate time delay
Table 232: LOVPTUV Group settings (advanced)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
tPulse 0.050 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.150 Duration of TRIP pulse
tBlock 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 5.000 Time delay to block when all 3ph
voltages are not low
tRestore 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 3.000 Time delay for enable the function after
restoration
8.6.6 Technical data
Table 233: LOVPTUV technical data
Function Range or value Accuracy
Operate voltage (0100)% of UBase 0.5% of U
r
Pulse timer (0.05060.000) s 0.5% 10 ms
Timers (0.00060.000) s 0.5% 10 ms
Section 8 1MRK506275-UEN C
Voltage protection
392
Technical reference manual
Section 9 Frequency protection
About this chapter
This chapter describes the frequency protection functions. The way the functions
work, their setting parameters, function blocks, input and output signals and
technical data are included for each function.
9.1 Underfrequency protection SAPTUF
Function description IEC 61850
identification
IEC 60617
identification
ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
Underfrequency protection SAPTUF
f <
SYMBOL-P V1 EN
81
9.1.1 Introduction
Underfrequency occurs as a result of lack of generation in the network.
Underfrequency protection SAPTUF is used for load shedding systems, remedial
action schemes, gas turbine startup and so on.
SAPTUF is provided with an under voltage blocking.
The operation may be based on single-phase, phase-to-phase or positive-sequence
voltage measurement.
9.1.2 Principle of operation
Underfrequency protection SAPTUF is used to detect low power system frequency.
SAPTUF can either have a definite time delay or a voltage magnitude dependent
time delay. If the voltage magnitude dependent time delay is applied, the time
delay will be longer if the voltage is higher, and the delay will be shorter if the
voltage is lower. If the frequency remains below the set value for a time period
corresponding to the chosen time delay, the corresponding trip signal is issued. To
avoid an unwanted trip due to uncertain frequency measurement at low voltage
magnitude, a voltage controlled blocking of the function is available, that is, if the
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 9
Frequency protection
393
Technical reference manual
voltage is lower than the set blocking voltage IntBlockLevel the function is blocked
and no START or TRIP signal is issued.
9.1.2.1 Measurement principle
The fundamental frequency of the measured input voltage is measured
continuously, and compared with the set value, StartFrequency. The frequency
function is dependent on the voltage magnitude. If the voltage magnitude decreases
the setting IntBlockLevel, SAPTUF gets blocked, and the output BLKDMAGN is
issued. All voltage settings are made in percent of the setting UBase, which should
be set as a phase-phase voltage in kV.
To avoid oscillations of the output START signal, a hysteresis has been included.
9.1.2.2 Time delay
The time delay for underfrequency protection SAPTUF can be either a settable
definite time delay or a voltage magnitude dependent time delay, where the time
delay depends on the voltage level; a high voltage level gives a longer time delay
and a low voltage level causes a short time delay. For the definite time delay, the
setting TimeDlyOperate sets the time delay.
For the voltage dependent time delay the measured voltage level and the settings
UNom, UMin, Exponent, tMax and tMin set the time delay according to figure 217
and equation 121. The setting TimerOperation is used to decide what type of time
delay to apply.
Trip signal issuing requires that the underfrequency condition continues for at least
the user set time delay TimeDlyOperate. If the START condition, with respect to
the measured frequency ceases during this user set delay time, and is not fulfilled
again within a user defined reset time, TimeDlyReset, the START output is reset,
after that the defined reset time has elapsed. Here it should be noted that after
leaving the hysteresis area, the START condition must be fulfilled again and it is
not sufficient for the signal to only return back to the hysteresis area.
On the output of SAPTUF a 100ms pulse is issued, after a time delay
corresponding to the setting of TimeDlyRestore, when the measured frequency
returns to the level corresponding to the setting RestoreFreq.
9.1.2.3 Voltage dependent time delay
Since the fundamental frequency in a power system is the same all over the system,
except some deviations during power oscillations, another criterion is needed to
decide, where to take actions, based on low frequency. In many applications the
voltage level is very suitable, and in most cases is load shedding preferable in areas
with low voltage. Therefore, a voltage dependent time delay has been introduced,
to make sure that load shedding, or other actions, take place at the right location. At
constant voltage, U, the voltage dependent time delay is calculated according to
equation 121. At non-constant voltage, the actual time delay is integrated in a
Section 9 1MRK506275-UEN C
Frequency protection
394
Technical reference manual
similar way as for the inverse time characteristic for the undervoltage and
overvoltage functions.
( )
Exponent
U UMin
t tMax tMin tMin
UNom UMin
-
= - +
-



EQUATION1182 V1 EN (Equation 121)
where:
t is the voltage dependent time delay (at constant voltage),
U is the measured voltage
Exponent is a setting,
UMin, UNom are voltage settings corresponding to
tMax, tMin are time settings.
The inverse time characteristics are shown in figure 217, for:
UMin = 90%
UNom = 100%
tMax = 1.0 s
tMin = 0.0 s
Exponent = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4
90 95 100
0
0.5
1
en05000075.vsd
T
i
m
e
D
l
y
O
p
e
r
a
t
e

[
s
]
U [% of UBase]
Exponenent
0
1
2
3
4
IEC05000075 V1 EN
Figure 217: Voltage dependent inverse time characteristics for underfrequency
protection SAPTUF. The time delay to operate is plotted as a
function of the measured voltage, for the Exponent = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
respectively.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 9
Frequency protection
395
Technical reference manual
9.1.2.4 Blocking
It is possible to block underfrequency protection SAPTUF partially or completely,
by binary input signals or by parameter settings, where:
BLOCK: blocks all outputs
BLKTRIP: blocks the TRIP output
BLKREST: blocks the RESTORE output
If the measured voltage level decreases below the setting of IntBlockLevel, both the
START and the TRIP outputs, are blocked.
9.1.2.5 Design
The frequency measuring element continuously measures the frequency of the
positive sequence voltage and compares it to the setting StartFrequency. The
frequency signal is filtered to avoid transients due to switchings and faults. The
time integrator can operate either due to a definite delay time or to the special
voltage dependent delay time. When the frequency has returned back to the setting
of RestoreFreq, the RESTORE output is issued after the time delay
TimeDlyRestore. The design of underfrequency protection SAPTUF is
schematically described in figure 218.
Frequency Comparator
f < StartFrequency
Voltage
START
START
TRIP
Comparator
U < IntBlockLevel
BLOCK
Comparator
f > RestoreFreq
Block
OR
Time integrator
TimerOperation Mode
Selector
TimeDlyOperate
TimeDlyReset
TimeDlyRestore
RESTORE
100 ms
Start
&
Trip
Output
Logic
en05000726.vsd
TRIP
BLKDMAGN
IEC05000726 V1 EN
Figure 218: Simplified logic diagram for SAPTUF
Section 9 1MRK506275-UEN C
Frequency protection
396
Technical reference manual
9.1.3 Function block
IEC06000279_2_en.vsd
SAPTUF
U3P*
BLOCK
BLKTRIP
BLKREST
TRIP
START
RESTORE
BLKDMAGN
FREQ
IEC06000279 V2 EN
Figure 219: SAPTUF function block
9.1.4 Input and output signals
Table 234: SAPTUF Input signals
Name Type Default Description
U3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Voltage connection
BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function
BLKTRIP BOOLEAN 0 Blocking operate output.
BLKREST BOOLEAN 0 Blocking restore output.
Table 235: SAPTUF Output signals
Name Type Description
TRIP BOOLEAN Operate/trip signal for frequency.
START BOOLEAN Start/pick-up signal for frequency.
RESTORE BOOLEAN Restore signal for load restoring purposes.
BLKDMAGN BOOLEAN Blocking indication due to low amplitude.
FREQ REAL Measured frequency
9.1.5 Setting parameters
Table 236: SAPTUF Group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
Operation Off
On
- - Off Operation Off / On
UBase 0.05 - 2000.00 kV 0.05 400.00 Base voltage
StartFrequency 35.00 - 75.00 Hz 0.01 48.80 Frequency setting/start value.
IntBlockLevel 0 - 100 %UB 1 50 Internal blocking level in % of UBase.
TimeDlyOperate 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.200 Operate time delay in over/under-
frequency mode.
TimeDlyReset 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.000 Time delay for reset.
TimeDlyRestore 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.000 Restore time delay.
Table continues on next page
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 9
Frequency protection
397
Technical reference manual
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
RestoreFreq 45.00 - 65.00 Hz 0.01 50.10 Restore frequency if frequency is above
frequency value.
TimerOperation Definite timer
Volt based timer
- - Definite timer Setting for choosing timer mode.
UNom 50 - 150 %UB 1 100 Nominal voltage in % of UBase for
voltage based timer.
UMin 50 - 150 %UB 1 90 Lower operation limit in % of UBase for
voltage based timer.
Exponent 0.0 - 5.0 - 0.1 1.0 For calculation of the curve form for
voltage based timer.
tMax 0.010 - 60.000 s 0.001 1.000 Maximum time operation limit for voltage
based timer.
tMin 0.010 - 60.000 s 0.001 1.000 Minimum time operation limit for voltage
based timer.
9.1.6 Technical data
Table 237: SAPTUF technical data
Function Range or value Accuracy
Operate value, start function (35.00-75.00) Hz 2.0 mHz
Operate time, start function 100 ms typically -
Reset time, start function 100 ms typically -
Operate time, definite time function (0.000-60.000)s 0.5%
10 ms
Reset time, definite time function (0.000-60.000)s 0.5%
10 ms
Voltage dependent time delay
( )
Exponent
U UMin
t tMax tMin tMin
UNom UMin
-
= - +
-



EQUATION1182 V1 EN (Equation 122)
U=U
measured
Settings:
UNom=(50-150)% of U
base
UMin=(50-150)% of U
base
Exponent=0.0-5.0
tMax=(0.000-60.000)s
tMin=(0.000-60.000)s
Class 5 +
200 ms
9.2 Overfrequency protection SAPTOF
Function description IEC 61850
identification
IEC 60617
identification
ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
Overfrequency protection SAPTOF
f >
SYMBOL-O V1 EN
81
Section 9 1MRK506275-UEN C
Frequency protection
398
Technical reference manual
9.2.1 Introduction
Overfrequency protection function SAPTOF is applicable in all situations, where
reliable detection of high fundamental power system frequency is needed.
Overfrequency occurs at sudden load drops or shunt faults in the power network.
Close to the generating plant, generator governor problems can also cause over
frequency.
SAPTOF is used mainly for generation shedding and remedial action schemes. It is
also used as a frequency stage initiating load restoring.
SAPTOF is provided with an undervoltage blocking. The operation is based on single-
phase, phase-to-phase or positive-sequence voltage measurement.
9.2.2 Principle of operation
Overfrequency protection SAPTOF is used to detect high power system frequency.
SAPTOF has a settable definite time delay. If the frequency remains above the set
value for a time period corresponding to the chosen time delay, the corresponding
TRIP signal is issued. To avoid an unwanted TRIP due to uncertain frequency
measurement at low voltage magnitude, a voltage controlled blocking of the
function is available from the preprocessing function, that is, if the voltage is lower
than the set blocking voltage in the preprocessing function, the function is blocked
and no START or TRIP signal is issued.
9.2.2.1 Measurement principle
The fundamental frequency of the positive sequence voltage is measured
continuously, and compared with the set value, StartFrequency. Overfrequency
protection SAPTOF is dependent on the voltage magnitude. If the voltage
magnitude decreases below the setting IntBlockLevel, SAPTOF is blocked, and the
output BLKDMAGN is issued. All voltage settings are made in percent of the
UBase, which should be set as a phase-phase voltage in kV. To avoid oscillations
of the output START signal, a hysteresis has been included.
9.2.2.2 Time delay
The time delay for Overfrequency protection SAPTOF (81) is a settable definite
time delay, specified by the setting TimeDlyOperate.
TRIP signal issuing requires that the overfrequency condition continues for at least
the user set time delay, TimeDlyReset. If the START condition, with respect to the
measured frequency ceases during this user set delay time, and is not fulfilled again
within a user defined reset time, TimeDlyReset, the START output is reset, after
that the defined reset time has elapsed. It is to be noted that after leaving the
hysteresis area, the START condition must be fulfilled again and it is not sufficient
for the signal to only return back to the hysteresis area.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 9
Frequency protection
399
Technical reference manual
9.2.2.3 Blocking
It is possible to block overfrequency protection SAPTOF partially or completely,
by binary input signals or by parameter settings, where:
BLOCK: blocks all outputs
BLKTRIP: blocks the TRIP output
If the measured voltage level decreases below the setting of IntBlockLevel, both the
START and the TRIP outputs, are blocked.
9.2.2.4 Design
The frequency measuring element continuously measures the frequency of the
positive sequence voltage and compares it to the setting StartFrequency. The
frequency signal is filtered to avoid transients due to switchings and faults in the
power system. The time integrator operates due to a definite delay time. The design
of overfrequency protection SAPTOF is schematically described in figure 220.
Voltage
START START
TRIP
Start
&
Trip
Output
Logic
Time integrator
Definite Time Delay
TimeDlyOperate
TimeDlyReset
Comparator
U < IntBlockLevel
BLOCK
en05000735.vsd
Frequency Comparator
f > StartFrequency
TRIP
BLKDMAGN
BLOCK
OR
BLKTRIP
IEC05000735 V1 EN
Figure 220: Schematic design of overfrequency protection SAPTOF
Section 9 1MRK506275-UEN C
Frequency protection
400
Technical reference manual
9.2.3 Function block
IEC06000280_2_en.vsd
SAPTOF
U3P*
BLOCK
BLKTRIP
TRIP
START
BLKDMAGN
FREQ
IEC06000280 V2 EN
Figure 221: SAPTOF function block
9.2.4 Input and output signals
Table 238: SAPTOF Input signals
Name Type Default Description
U3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Voltage connection
BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function
BLKTRIP BOOLEAN 0 Blocking operate output.
Table 239: SAPTOF Output signals
Name Type Description
TRIP BOOLEAN Operate/trip signal for frequency.
START BOOLEAN Start/pick-up signal for frequency.
BLKDMAGN BOOLEAN Blocking indication due to low amplitude.
FREQ REAL Measured frequency
9.2.5 Setting parameters
Table 240: SAPTOF Group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
Operation Off
On
- - Off Operation Off / On
UBase 0.05 - 2000.00 kV 0.05 400.00 Base voltage
StartFrequency 35.00 - 75.00 Hz 0.01 51.20 Frequency setting/start value.
IntBlockLevel 0 - 100 %UB 1 50 Internal blocking level in % of UBase.
TimeDlyOperate 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.000 Operate time delay in over/under-
frequency mode.
TimeDlyReset 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.000 Time delay for reset.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 9
Frequency protection
401
Technical reference manual
9.2.6 Technical data
Table 241: SAPTOF technical data
Function Range or value Accuracy
Operate value, start function (35.00-75.00) Hz 2.0 mHz at symmetrical three-
phase voltage
Operate time, start function 100 ms typically -
Reset time, start function 100 ms typically -
Operate time, definite time
function
(0.000-60.000)s 0.5% 10 ms
Reset time, definite time
function
(0.000-60.000)s 0.5% 10 ms
9.3 Rate-of-change frequency protection SAPFRC
Function description IEC 61850
identification
IEC 60617
identification
ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
Rate-of-change frequency protection SAPFRC
df/dt
>
<
SYMBOL-N V1 EN
81
9.3.1 Introduction
Rate-of-change frequency protection function (SAPFRC) gives an early indication
of a main disturbance in the system. SAPFRC can be used for generation shedding,
load shedding, remedial action schemes. SAPFRC can discriminate between
positive or negative change of frequency.
SAPFRC is provided with an undervoltage blocking. The operation may be based
on single-phase, phase-to-phase or positive-sequence voltage measurement.
9.3.2 Principle of operation
Rate-of-change frequency protection SAPFRC is used to detect fast power system
frequency changes, increase as well as, decrease at an early stage. SAPFRC has a
settable definite time delay. If the rate-of-change of frequency remains below the
set value, for negative rate-of-change, for a time period equal to the chosen time
delay, the TRIP signal is issued. If the rate-of-change of frequency remains above
the set value, for positive rate-of-change, for a time period equal to the chosen time
delay, the TRIP signal is issued. To avoid an unwanted TRIP due to uncertain
frequency measurement at low voltage magnitude, a voltage controlled blocking of
the function is available, that is if the voltage is lower than the set blocking voltage
Section 9 1MRK506275-UEN C
Frequency protection
402
Technical reference manual
IntBlockLevel, the function is blocked and no START or TRIP signal is issued. If
the frequency recovers, after a frequency decrease, a restore signal is issued.
9.3.2.1 Measurement principle
The rate-of-change of the fundamental frequency of the selected voltage is
measured continuously, and compared with the set value, StartFreqGrad. Rate-of-
change frequency protection SAPFRC is also dependent on the voltage magnitude.
If the voltage magnitude decreases below the setting IntBlockLevel, SAPFRC is
blocked, and the output BLKDMAGN is issued. The sign of the setting
StartFreqGrad, controls if SAPFRC reacts on a positive or on a negative change in
frequency. If SAPFRC is used for decreasing frequency that is, the setting
StartFreqGrad has been given a negative value, and a trip signal has been issued,
then a 100 ms pulse is issued on the RESTORE output, when the frequency
recovers to a value higher than the setting RestoreFreq. A positive setting of
StartFreqGrad, sets SAPFRC to START and TRIP for frequency increases.
To avoid oscillations of the output START signal, a hysteresis has been included.
9.3.2.2 Time delay
Rate-of-change frequency protection SAPFRC has a settable definite time delay,
tTrip. .
Trip signal issuing requires that the rate-of-change of frequency condition
continues for at least the user set time delay, tTrip. If the START condition, with
respect to the measured frequency ceases during the delay time, and is not fulfilled
again within a user defined reset time, tReset, the START output is reset, after that
the defined reset time has elapsed. Here it should be noted that after leaving the
hysteresis area, the START condition must be fulfilled again and it is not sufficient
for the signal to only return back into the hysteresis area.
The RESTORE output of SAPFRC is set, after a time delay equal to the setting of
tRestore, when the measured frequency has returned to the level corresponding to
RestoreFreq, after an issue of the TRIP output signal. If tRestore is set to 0.000 s
the restore functionality is disabled, and no output will be given. The restore
functionality is only active for lowering frequency conditions and the restore
sequence is disabled if a new negative frequency gradient is detected during the
restore period, defined by the settings RestoreFreq and tRestore.
9.3.2.3 Blocking
Rate-of-change frequency protection (SAPFRC) can be partially or totally blocked,
by binary input signals or by parameter settings, where:
BLOCK: blocks all outputs
BLKTRIP: blocks the TRIP output
BLKREST: blocks the RESTORE output
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 9
Frequency protection
403
Technical reference manual
If the measured voltage level decreases below the setting of IntBlockLevel, both the
START and the TRIP outputs, are blocked.
9.3.2.4 Design
Rate-of-change frequency protection (SAPFRC) measuring element continuously
measures the frequency of the selected voltage and compares it to the setting
StartFreqGrad. The frequency signal is filtered to avoid transients due to power
system switchings and faults. The time integrator operates with a definite delay
time. When the frequency has returned back to the setting of RestoreFreq, the
RESTORE output is issued after the time delay tRestore, if the TRIP signal has
earlier been issued. The sign of the setting StartFreqGrad is essential, and controls
if the function is used for raising or lowering frequency conditions. The design of
SAPFRC is schematically described in figure 222.
en05000835.vsd
RESTORE
Voltage
START
START
TRIP
Start
&
Trip
Output
Logic
BLOCK
Frequency
100 ms
Comparator
If
[StartFreqGrad<0
AND
df/dt < StartFreqGrad]
OR
[StartFreqGrad>0
AND
df/dt > StartFreqGrad]
Then
START
Comparator
U < IntBlockLevel
Comparator
f > RestoreFreq
OR
Time integrator
Definite Time Delay
TimeDlyOperate
TimeDlyReset
TimeDlyRestore
BLKDMAGN
Rate-of-Change
of Frequency
BLOCK
BLKTRIP
BLKRESET
IEC05000835 V1 EN
Figure 222: Schematic design of Rate-of-change frequency protection SAPFRC
Section 9 1MRK506275-UEN C
Frequency protection
404
Technical reference manual
9.3.3 Function block
IEC06000281-2-en.vsd
SAPFRC
U3P*
BLOCK
BLKTRIP
BLKREST
TRIP
START
RESTORE
BLKDMAGN
IEC06000281 V2 EN
Figure 223: SAPFRC function block
9.3.4 Input and output signals
Table 242: SAPFRC Input signals
Name Type Default Description
U3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Group signal for voltage input
BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function
BLKTRIP BOOLEAN 0 Blocking operate output.
BLKREST BOOLEAN 0 Blocking restore output.
Table 243: SAPFRC Output signals
Name Type Description
TRIP BOOLEAN Operate/trip signal for frequencyGradient
START BOOLEAN Start/pick-up signal for frequencyGradient
RESTORE BOOLEAN Restore signal for load restoring purposes.
BLKDMAGN BOOLEAN Blocking indication due to low amplitude.
9.3.5 Setting parameters
Table 244: SAPFRC Group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
Operation Off
On
- - Off Operation Off / On
UBase 0.05 - 2000.00 kV 0.05 400.00 Base setting for the phase-phase voltage
in kV
StartFreqGrad -10.00 - 10.00 Hz/s 0.01 0.50 Frequency gradient start value. Sign
defines direction.
IntBlockLevel 0 - 100 %UB 1 50 Internal blocking level in % of UBase.
tTrip 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.200 Operate time delay in pos./neg.
frequency gradient mode.
RestoreFreq 45.00 - 65.00 Hz 0.01 49.90 Restore frequency if frequency is above
frequency value (Hz)
tRestore 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.000 Restore time delay.
tReset 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.000 Time delay for reset.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 9
Frequency protection
405
Technical reference manual
9.3.6 Technical data
Table 245: SAPFRC Technical data
Function Range or value Accuracy
Operate value, start function (-10.00-10.00) Hz/s 10.0 mHz/s
Operate value, internal
blocking level
(0-100)% of UBase 1.0% of U
r
Operate time, start function 100 ms typically -
Section 9 1MRK506275-UEN C
Frequency protection
406
Technical reference manual
Section 10 Multipurpose protection
About this chapter
This chapter describes Multipurpose protection and includes the General current
and voltage function. The way the functions work, their setting parameters,
function blocks, input and output signals and technical data are included for each
function.
10.1 General current and voltage protection CVGAPC
Function description IEC 61850
identification
IEC 60617
identification
ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
General current and voltage protection CVGAPC - -
10.1.1 Introduction
The General current and voltage protection (CVGAPC) can be utilized as a
negative sequence current protection detecting unsymmetrical conditions such as
open phase or unsymmetrical faults.
CVGAPC can also be used to improve phase selection for high resistive earth
faults, outside the distance protection reach, for the transmission line. Three
functions are used, which measures the neutral current and each of the three phase
voltages. This will give an independence from load currents and this phase
selection will be used in conjunction with the detection of the earth fault from the
directional earth fault protection function.
10.1.2 Principle of operation
10.1.2.1 Measured quantities within CVGAPC
General current and voltage protection (CVGAPC) function is always connected to
three-phase current and three-phase voltage input in the configuration tool, but it
will always measure only one current and one voltage quantity selected by the end
user in the setting tool.
The user can select to measure one of the current quantities shown in table 246.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 10
Multipurpose protection
407
Technical reference manual
Table 246: Current selection for CVGAPC function
Set value for the
parameter
CurrentInput

Comment
1 Phase1 CVGAPC function will measure the phase L1 current phasor
2 Phase2 CVGAPC function will measure the phase L2 current phasor
3 Phase3 CVGAPC function will measure the phase L3 current phasor
4 PosSeq CVGAPC function will measure internally calculated positive sequence
current phasor
5 NegSeq CVGAPC function will measure internally calculated negative
sequence current phasor
6 3ZeroSeq CVGAPC function will measure internally calculated zero sequence
current phasor multiplied by factor 3
7 MaxPh CVGAPC function will measure current phasor of the phase with
maximum magnitude
8 MinPh CVGAPC function will measure current phasor of the phase with
minimum magnitude
9 UnbalancePh CVGAPC function will measure magnitude of unbalance current, which
is internally calculated as the algebraic magnitude difference between
the current phasor of the phase with maximum magnitude and current
phasor of the phase with minimum magnitude. Phase angle will be set
to 0 all the time
10 Phase1-Phase2 CVGAPC function will measure the current phasor internally calculated
as the vector difference between the phase L1 current phasor and
phase L2 current phasor (I
L1
-I
L2
)
11 Phase2-Phase3 CVGAPC function will measure the current phasor internally calculated
as the vector difference between the phase L2 current phasor and
phase L3 current phasor (I
L2
-I
L3
)
12 Phase3-Phase1 CVGAPC function will measure the current phasor internally calculated
as the vector difference between the phase L3 current phasor and
phase L1 current phasor ( I
L3
-I
L1
)
13 MaxPh-Ph CVGAPC function will measure ph-ph current phasor with the
maximum magnitude
14 MinPh-Ph CVGAPC function will measure ph-ph current phasor with the
minimum magnitude
15 UnbalancePh-Ph CVGAPC function will measure magnitude of unbalance current, which
is internally calculated as the algebraic magnitude difference between
the ph-ph current phasor with maximum magnitude and ph-ph current
phasor with minimum magnitude. Phase angle will be set to 0 all the
time
The user can select to measure one of the voltage quantities shown in table 247:
Table 247: Voltage selection for CVGAPC function
Set value for the
parameter
VoltageInput

Comment
1 Phase1 CVGAPC function will measure the phase L1 voltage phasor
2 Phase2 CVGAPC function will measure the phase L2 voltage phasor
3 Phase3 CVGAPC function will measure the phase L3 voltage phasor
Table continues on next page
Section 10 1MRK506275-UEN C
Multipurpose protection
408
Technical reference manual
Set value for the
parameter
VoltageInput

Comment
4 PosSeq CVGAPC function will measure internally calculated positive sequence
voltage phasor
5 -NegSeq CVGAPC function will measure internally calculated negative
sequence voltage phasor. This voltage phasor will be intentionally
rotated for 180 in order to enable easier settings for the directional
feature when used.
6 -3ZeroSeq CVGAPC function will measure internally calculated zero sequence
voltage phasor multiplied by factor 3. This voltage phasor will be
intentionally rotated for 180 in order to enable easier settings for the
directional feature when used.
7 MaxPh CVGAPC function will measure voltage phasor of the phase with
maximum magnitude
8 MinPh CVGAPC function will measure voltage phasor of the phase with
minimum magnitude
9 UnbalancePh CVGAPC function will measure magnitude of unbalance voltage,
which is internally calculated as the algebraic magnitude difference
between the voltage phasor of the phase with maximum magnitude
and voltage phasor of the phase with minimum magnitude. Phase
angle will be set to 0 all the time
10 Phase1-Phase2 CVGAPC function will measure the voltage phasor internally
calculated as the vector difference between the phase L1 voltage
phasor and phase L2 voltage phasor (U
L1
-U
L2
)
11 Phase2-Phase3 CVGAPC function will measure the voltage phasor internally
calculated as the vector difference between the phase L2 voltage
phasor and phase L3 voltage phasor (U
L2
-U
L3
)
12 Phase3-Phase1 CVGAPC function will measure the voltage phasor internally
calculated as the vector difference between the phase L3 voltage
phasor and phase L1 voltage phasor ( U
L3
-U
L1
)
13 MaxPh-Ph CVGAPC function will measure ph-ph voltage phasor with the
maximum magnitude
14 MinPh-Ph CVGAPC function will measure ph-ph voltage phasor with the
minimum magnitude
15 UnbalancePh-Ph CVGAPC function will measure magnitude of unbalance voltage,
which is internally calculated as the algebraic magnitude difference
between the ph-ph voltage phasor with maximum magnitude and ph-
ph voltage phasor with minimum magnitude. Phase angle will be set to
0 all the time
It is important to notice that the voltage selection from table 247 is always
applicable regardless the actual external VT connections. The three-phase VT
inputs can be connected to IED as either three phase-to-ground voltages U
L1
, U
L2
& U
L3
or three phase-to-phase voltages U
L1L2
, U
L2L3
& U
L3L1
). This information
about actual VT connection is entered as a setting parameter for the pre-processing
block, which will then take automatic care about it.
The user can select one of the current quantities shown in table 248 for built-in
current restraint feature:
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 10
Multipurpose protection
409
Technical reference manual
Table 248: Restraint current selection for CVGAPC function
Set value for the
parameter RestrCurr

Comment
1 PosSeq CVGAPC function will measure internally calculated positive sequence
current phasor
2 NegSeq CVGAPC function will measure internally calculated negative
sequence current phasor
3 3ZeroSeq CVGAPC function will measure internally calculated zero sequence
current phasor multiplied by factor 3
4 MaxPh CVGAPC function will measure current phasor of the phase with
maximum magnitude
10.1.2.2 Base quantities for CVGAPC function
The parameter settings for the base quantities, which represent the base (100%) for
pickup levels of all measuring stages, shall be entered as setting parameters for
every CVGAPC function.
Base current shall be entered as:
1. rated phase current of the protected object in primary amperes, when the
measured Current Quantity is selected from 1 to 9, as shown in table 246.
2. rated phase current of the protected object in primary amperes multiplied by
3 (1.732 Iphase), when the measured Current Quantity is selected from 10
to 15, as shown in table 246.
Base voltage shall be entered as:
1. rated phase-to-earth voltage of the protected object in primary kV, when the
measured Voltage Quantity is selected from 1 to 9, as shown in table 247.
2. rated phase-to-phase voltage of the protected object in primary kV, when the
measured Voltage Quantity is selected from 10 to 15, as shown in table 247.
10.1.2.3 Built-in overcurrent protection steps
Two overcurrent protection steps are available. They are absolutely identical and
therefore only one will be explained here.
Overcurrent step simply compares the magnitude of the measured current quantity
(see table 246) with the set pickup level. Non-directional overcurrent step will
pickup if the magnitude of the measured current quantity is bigger than this set
level. Reset ratio is settable, with default value of 0.96. However depending on
other enabled built-in features this overcurrent pickup might not cause the
overcurrent step start signal. Start signal will only come if all of the enabled built-
in features in the overcurrent step are fulfilled at the same time.
Section 10 1MRK506275-UEN C
Multipurpose protection
410
Technical reference manual
Second harmonic feature
The overcurrent protection step can be restrained by a second harmonic component
in the measured current quantity (see table 246). However it shall be noted that this
feature is not applicable when one of the following measured currents is selected:
PosSeq (positive sequence current)
NegSeq (negative sequence current)
UnbalancePh (unbalance phase current)
UnbalancePh-Ph (unbalance ph-ph current)
This feature will simple prevent overcurrent step start if the second-to-first
harmonic ratio in the measured current exceeds the set level.
Directional feature
The overcurrent protection step operation can be can be made dependent on the
relevant phase angle between measured current phasor (see table 246) and
measured voltage phasor (see table 247). In protection terminology it means that
the General currrent and voltage protection (CVGAPC) function can be made
directional by enabling this built-in feature. In that case overcurrent protection step
will only operate if the current flow is in accordance with the set direction
(Forward, which means towards the protected object, or Reverse, which means
from the protected object). For this feature it is of the outmost importance to
understand that the measured voltage phasor (see table 247) and measured current
phasor (see table 246) will be used for directional decision. Therefore it is the sole
responsibility of the end user to select the appropriate current and voltage signals in
order to get a proper directional decision. CVGAPC function will NOT do this
automatically. It will just simply use the current and voltage phasors selected by
the end user to check for the directional criteria.
Table 249 gives an overview of the typical choices (but not the only possible ones)
for these two quantities for traditional directional relays.
Table 249: Typical current and voltage choices for directional feature
Set value for the
parameter
CurrentInput
Set value for the
parameter
VoltageInput

Comment
PosSeq PosSeq Directional positive sequence overcurrent function is
obtained. Typical setting for RCADir is from -45 to
-90 depending on the power
NegSeq -NegSeq Directional negative sequence overcurrent function is
obtained. Typical setting for RCADir is from -45 to
-90 depending on the power system voltage level (X/
R ratio)
3ZeroSeq -3ZeroSeq Directional zero sequence overcurrent function is
obtained. Typical setting for RCADir is from 0 to
-90 depending on the power system earthing (that
is, solidly earthed, earthed via resistor)
Table continues on next page
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 10
Multipurpose protection
411
Technical reference manual
Set value for the
parameter
CurrentInput
Set value for the
parameter
VoltageInput

Comment
Phase1 Phase2-Phase3 Directional overcurrent function for the first phase is
obtained. Typical setting for RCADir is +30 or +45
Phase2 Phase3-Phase1 Directional overcurrent function for the second phase
is obtained. Typical setting for RCADir is +30 or +45
Phase3 Phase1-Phase2 Directional overcurrent function for the third phase is
obtained. Typical setting for RCADir is +30 or +45
Unbalance current or voltage measurement shall not be used when the directional
feature is enabled.
Two types of directional measurement principles are available, I & U and
IcosPhi&U. The first principle, referred to as "I & U" in the parameter setting tool,
checks that:
the magnitude of the measured current is bigger than the set pick-up level
the phasor of the measured current is within the operating region (defined by
the relay operate angle, ROADir parameter setting; see figure 224).
U=-3U0
Ipickup
Operate region
I=3Io
mta line
RCADir
ROADir
en05000252.vsd
IEC05000252 V1 EN
Figure 224: I & U directional operating principle for CVGAPC function
where:
RCADir is -75
ROADir is 50
The second principle, referred to as "IcosPhi&U" in the parameter setting tool,
checks that:
Section 10 1MRK506275-UEN C
Multipurpose protection
412
Technical reference manual
that the product Icos() is bigger than the set pick-up level, where is angle
between the current phasor and the mta line
that the phasor of the measured current is within the operating region (defined
by the Icos() straight line and the relay operate angle, ROADir parameter
setting; see figure 224).
U=-3U0
Operate region
RCADir
ROADir Ipickup
I=3Io
mta line
F
en05000253.vsd
IEC05000253 V1 EN
Figure 225: CVGAPC, IcosPhi&U directional operating principle
where:
RCADir is -75
ROADir is 50
Note that it is possible to decide by a parameter setting how the directional feature
shall behave when the magnitude of the measured voltage phasor falls below the pre-
set value. User can select one of the following three options:
Non-directional (operation allowed for low magnitude of the reference voltage)
Block (operation prevented for low magnitude of the reference voltage)
Memory (memory voltage shall be used to determine direction of the current)
It shall also be noted that the memory duration is limited in the algorithm to 100
ms. After that time the current direction will be locked to the one determined
during memory time and it will re-set only if the current fails below set pickup
level or voltage goes above set voltage memory limit.
Voltage restraint/control feature
The overcurrent protection step operation can be can be made dependent of a
measured voltage quantity (see table 247). Practically then the pickup level of the
overcurrent step is not constant but instead decreases with the decrease in the
magnitude of the measured voltage quantity. Two different types of dependencies
are available:
Voltage restraint overcurrent (when setting parameter VDepMode_OC1=Slope)
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 10
Multipurpose protection
413
Technical reference manual
Selected Voltage
Magnitude
OC1 Stage Pickup Level
StartCurr_OC1
VDepFact_OC1 * StartCurr_OC1
UHighLimit_OC1 ULowLimit_OC1
en05000324.vsd
IEC05000324 V1 EN
Figure 226: Example for OC1 step current pickup level variation as function of
measured voltage magnitude in Slope mode of operation
Voltage controlled overcurrent (when setting parameter
VDepMode_OC1=Step)
Selected Voltage Magnitude
OC1 Stage Pickup Level
StartCurr_OC1
VDepFact_OC1 * StartCurr_OC1
UHighLimit_OC1
en05000323.vsd
IEC05000323 V1 EN
Figure 227: Example for OC1 step current pickup level variation as function of
measured voltage magnitude in Step mode of operation
This feature will simply change the set overcurrent pickup level in accordance with
magnitude variations of the measured voltage. It shall be noted that this feature will
as well affect the pickup current value for calculation of operate times for IDMT
Section 10 1MRK506275-UEN C
Multipurpose protection
414
Technical reference manual
curves (overcurrent with IDMT curve will operate faster during low voltage
conditions).
Current restraint feature
The overcurrent protection step operation can be made dependent of a restraining
current quantity (see table 248). Practically then the pickup level of the overcurrent
step is not constant but instead increases with the increase in the magnitude of the
restraining current.
IsetHigh
IsetLow
I
Measured
Restraint
atan(RestrCoeff)
en05000255.vsd
O
p
e
r
a
t
e

a
r
e
a
I
>
R
e
s
t
r
C
o
e
f
f
*
I
r
e
s
t
r
a
i
n
IEC05000255 V1 EN
Figure 228: Current pickup variation with restraint current magnitude
This feature will simply prevent overcurrent step to start if the magnitude of the
measured current quantity is smaller than the set percentage of the restrain current
magnitude. However this feature will not affect the pickup current value for
calculation of operate times for IDMT curves. This means that the IDMT curve
operate time will not be influenced by the restrain current magnitude.
When set, the start signal will start definite time delay or inverse (IDMT) time
delay in accordance with the end user setting. If the start signal has value one for
longer time than the set time delay, the overcurrent step will set its trip signal to
one. Reset of the start and trip signal can be instantaneous or time delay in
accordance with the end user setting.
10.1.2.4 Built-in undercurrent protection steps
Two undercurrent protection steps are available. They are absolutely identical and
therefore only one will be explained here. Undercurrent step simply compares the
magnitude of the measured current quantity (see table 246) with the set pickup
level. The undercurrent step will pickup and set its start signal to one if the
magnitude of the measured current quantity is smaller than this set level. The start
signal will start definite time delay with set time delay. If the start signal has value
one for longer time than the set time delay the undercurrent step will set its trip
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 10
Multipurpose protection
415
Technical reference manual
signal to one. Reset of the start and trip signal can be instantaneous or time delay in
accordance with the setting.
10.1.2.5 Built-in overvoltage protection steps
Two overvoltage protection steps are available. They are absolutely identical and
therefore only one will be explained here.
Overvoltage step simply compares the magnitude of the measured voltage quantity
(see table 247) with the set pickup level. The overvoltage step will pickup if the
magnitude of the measured voltage quantity is bigger than this set level. Reset ratio
is settable, with default value of 0.99.
The start signal will start definite time delay or inverse (IDMT) time delay in
accordance with the end user setting. If the start signal has value one for longer
time than the set time delay, the overvoltage step will set its trip signal to one.
Reset of the start and trip signal can be instantaneous or time delay in accordance
with the end user setting.
10.1.2.6 Built-in undervoltage protection steps
Two undervoltage protection steps are available. They are absolutely identical and
therefore only one will be explained here.
Undervoltage step simply compares the magnitude of the measured voltage
quantity (see table 247) with the set pickup level. The undervoltage step will
pickup if the magnitude of the measured voltage quantity is smaller than this set
level. Reset ratio is settable, with default value of 1.01.
The start signal will start definite time delay or inverse (IDMT) time delay in
accordance with the end user setting. If the start signal has value one for longer
time than the set time delay, the undervoltage step will set its trip signal to one.
Reset of the start and trip signal can be instantaneous or time delay in accordance
with the end user setting.
10.1.2.7 Logic diagram
The simplified internal logics, for CVGAPC function are shown in the following
figures.
Section 10 1MRK506275-UEN C
Multipurpose protection
416
Technical reference manual
ADM
A
/
D

c
o
n
v
e
r
s
i
o
n

s
c
a
l
i
n
g

w
i
t
h

C
T

r
a
t
i
o
A
/
D

c
o
n
v
e
r
s
i
o
n

s
c
a
l
i
n
g

w
i
t
h

C
T

r
a
t
i
o
P
h
a
s
o
r

c
a
l
c
u
l
a
t
i
o
n

o
f

i
n
d
i
v
i
d
u
a
l

c
u
r
r
e
n
t
s
P
h
a
s
o
r

c
a
l
c
u
l
a
t
i
o
n

o
f

i
n
d
i
v
i
d
u
a
l

v
o
l
t
a
g
e
s
CVGAPC function
IED
P
h
a
s
o
r
s

&

s
a
m
p
l
e
s
P
h
a
s
o
r
s

&

s
a
m
p
l
e
s
Current and voltage selection
settings
Selection of which current
and voltage shall be given to
the built-in protection
elements
Restraint current selection
Selection of restraint current
Selected current
Selected voltage
Selected restraint current
IEC05000169_2_en.vsd
IEC05000169 V2 EN
Figure 229: Treatment of measured currents within IED for CVGAPC function
Figure 229 shows how internal treatment of measured currents is done for
multipurpose protection function
The following currents and voltages are inputs to the multipurpose protection
function. They must all be expressed in true power system (primary) Amperes and
kilovolts.
1. Instantaneous values (samples) of currents & voltages from one three-phase
current and one three-phase voltage input.
2. Fundamental frequency phasors from one three-phase current and one three-
phase voltage input calculated by the pre-processing modules.
3. Sequence currents & voltages from one three-phase current and one three-
phase voltage input calculated by the pre-processing modules.
The multipurpose protection function:
1. Selects one current from the three-phase input system (see table 246) for
internally measured current.
2. Selects one voltage from the three-phase input system (see table 247) for
internally measured voltage.
3. Selects one current from the three-phase input system (see table 248) for
internally measured restraint current.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 10
Multipurpose protection
417
Technical reference manual
UC2
UC1
CURRENT
TRUC1
STUC2
TRUC2
STOC1
BLK2ND
STOC2
TROC2
OV1
STOV1
TROV1
OV2
STOV2
TROV2
UV1
STUV1
TRUV1
UV2
STUV2
TRUV2
Selected current
Selected restraint current
en05000170.vsd
Selected voltage
1
1
UDIRLOW
TROC1
OC1
2
nd
Harmonic
restraint
Current restraint
Directionality
Voltage control /
restraint
OC2
2
nd
Harmonic
restraint
Current restraint
Directionality
Voltage control /
restraint
DIROC2
DIROC1
2
nd
Harmonic
restraint
2
nd
Harmonic
restraint
VOLTAGE
IEC05000170 V1 EN
Figure 230: CVGAPC function main logic diagram for built-in protection elements
Section 10 1MRK506275-UEN C
Multipurpose protection
418
Technical reference manual
Logic in figure 230 can be summarized as follows:
1. The selected currents and voltage are given to built-in protection elements.
Each protection element and step makes independent decision about status of
its START and TRIP output signals.
2. More detailed internal logic for every protection element is given in the
following four figures
3. Common START and TRIP signals from all built-in protection elements &
steps (internal OR logic) are available from multipurpose function as well.
1
Second
harmonic check
Selected voltage
X
StartCurr_OC1
a
b
a>b
Voltage
control or
restraint
feature
OC1=On
BLKOC1
Directionality
check
Current
Restraint
Feature
I
measured
> k I
restraint
DIR_OK
Inverse
DEF
DEF time
selected
Inverse
time
selected
OR
Enable
second
harmonic
en05000831.vsd
Selected current
STOC1
TROC1
AND
BLKTROC
1
Selected restrain current
AND
IEC05000831 V1 EN
Figure 231: Simplified internal logic diagram for built-in first overcurrent step that is, OC1 (step OC2 has the
same internal logic)
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 10
Multipurpose protection
419
Technical reference manual
a
b
b>a
Selected current
StartCurr_UC1
Operation_UC1=On
Bin input: BLKUC1
STUC1
en05000750.vsd
TRUC1
Bin input: BLKUC1TR
DEF
AND
AND
IEC05000750 V1 EN
Figure 232: Simplified internal logic diagram for built-in first undercurrent step that is, UC1 (step UC2 has
the same internal logic)
a
b
a>b
Selected voltage
StartVolt_OV1
Operation_OV1=On
BLKOV1
Inverse time
selected
en05000751.vsd
Inverse
DEF
DEF time
selected
STOV1
TROV1
AND
BLKTROV1
AND
OR
IEC05000751 V1 EN
Figure 233: Simplified internal logic diagram for built-in first overvoltage step OV1 (step OV2 has the same
internal logic)
Section 10 1MRK506275-UEN C
Multipurpose protection
420
Technical reference manual
AND
a
b
b>a
Selected voltage
StartVolt_UV1
Operation_UV1=On
BLKUV1
Inverse time
selected
en05000752.vsd
Inverse
DEF
DEF time
selected
OR
STUV1
TRUV1
AND
BLKTRUV
1
IEC05000752 V1 EN
Figure 234: Simplified internal logic diagram for built-in first undervoltage step UV1 (step UV2 has the same
internal logic)
10.1.3 Function block
IEC05000372-2-en.vsd
CVGAPC
I3P*
U3P*
BLOCK
BLKOC1
BLKOC1TR
ENMLTOC1
BLKOC2
BLKOC2TR
ENMLTOC2
BLKUC1
BLKUC1TR
BLKUC2
BLKUC2TR
BLKOV1
BLKOV1TR
BLKOV2
BLKOV2TR
BLKUV1
BLKUV1TR
BLKUV2
BLKUV2TR
TRIP
TROC1
TROC2
TRUC1
TRUC2
TROV1
TROV2
TRUV1
TRUV2
START
STOC1
STOC2
STUC1
STUC2
STOV1
STOV2
STUV1
STUV2
BLK2ND
DIROC1
DIROC2
UDIRLOW
CURRENT
ICOSFI
VOLTAGE
UIANGLE
IEC05000372 V2 EN
Figure 235: CVGAPC function block
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 10
Multipurpose protection
421
Technical reference manual
10.1.4 Input and output signals
Table 250: CVGAPC Input signals
Name Type Default Description
I3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Group signal for current input
U3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Group signal for voltage input
BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function
BLKOC1 BOOLEAN 0 Block of over current function OC1
BLKOC1TR BOOLEAN 0 Block of trip for over current function OC1
ENMLTOC1 BOOLEAN 0 When activated, the current multiplier is in use for
OC1
BLKOC2 BOOLEAN 0 Block of over current function OC2
BLKOC2TR BOOLEAN 0 Block of trip for over current function OC2
ENMLTOC2 BOOLEAN 0 When activated, the current multiplier is in use for
OC2
BLKUC1 BOOLEAN 0 Block of under current function UC1
BLKUC1TR BOOLEAN 0 Block of trip for under current function UC1
BLKUC2 BOOLEAN 0 Block of under current function UC2
BLKUC2TR BOOLEAN 0 Block of trip for under current function UC2
BLKOV1 BOOLEAN 0 Block of over voltage function OV1
BLKOV1TR BOOLEAN 0 Block of trip for over voltage function OV1
BLKOV2 BOOLEAN 0 Block of over voltage function OV2
BLKOV2TR BOOLEAN 0 Block of trip for over voltage function OV2
BLKUV1 BOOLEAN 0 Block of under voltage function UV1
BLKUV1TR BOOLEAN 0 Block of trip for under voltage function UV1
BLKUV2 BOOLEAN 0 Block of under voltage function UV2
BLKUV2TR BOOLEAN 0 Block of trip for under voltage function UV2
Table 251: CVGAPC Output signals
Name Type Description
TRIP BOOLEAN General trip signal
TROC1 BOOLEAN Trip signal from overcurrent function OC1
TROC2 BOOLEAN Trip signal from overcurrent function OC2
TRUC1 BOOLEAN Trip signal from undercurrent function UC1
TRUC2 BOOLEAN Trip signal from undercurrent function UC2
TROV1 BOOLEAN Trip signal from overvoltage function OV1
TROV2 BOOLEAN Trip signal from overvoltage function OV2
TRUV1 BOOLEAN Trip signal from undervoltage function UV1
TRUV2 BOOLEAN Trip signal from undervoltage function UV2
Table continues on next page
Section 10 1MRK506275-UEN C
Multipurpose protection
422
Technical reference manual
Name Type Description
START BOOLEAN General start signal
STOC1 BOOLEAN Start signal from overcurrent function OC1
STOC2 BOOLEAN Start signal from overcurrent function OC2
STUC1 BOOLEAN Start signal from undercurrent function UC1
STUC2 BOOLEAN Start signal from undercurrent function UC2
STOV1 BOOLEAN Start signal from overvoltage function OV1
STOV2 BOOLEAN Start signal from overvoltage function OV2
STUV1 BOOLEAN Start signal from undervoltage function UV1
STUV2 BOOLEAN Start signal from undervoltage function UV2
BLK2ND BOOLEAN Block from second harmonic detection
DIROC1 INTEGER Directional mode of OC1 (nondir, forward,reverse)
DIROC2 INTEGER Directional mode of OC2 (nondir, forward,reverse)
UDIRLOW BOOLEAN Low voltage for directional polarization
CURRENT REAL Measured current value
ICOSFI REAL Measured current multiplied with cos (Phi)
VOLTAGE REAL Measured voltage value
UIANGLE REAL Angle between voltage and current
10.1.5 Setting parameters
Table 252: CVGAPC Group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
Operation Off
On
- - Off Operation Off / On
CurrentInput phase1
phase2
phase3
PosSeq
NegSeq
3*ZeroSeq
MaxPh
MinPh
UnbalancePh
phase1-phase2
phase2-phase3
phase3-phase1
MaxPh-Ph
MinPh-Ph
UnbalancePh-Ph
- - MaxPh Select current signal which will be
measured inside function
IBase 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 Base Current
Table continues on next page
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 10
Multipurpose protection
423
Technical reference manual
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
VoltageInput phase1
phase2
phase3
PosSeq
-NegSeq
-3*ZeroSeq
MaxPh
MinPh
UnbalancePh
phase1-phase2
phase2-phase3
phase3-phase1
MaxPh-Ph
MinPh-Ph
UnbalancePh-Ph
- - MaxPh Select voltage signal which will be
measured inside function
UBase 0.05 - 2000.00 kV 0.05 400.00 Base Voltage
OperHarmRestr Off
On
- - Off Operation of 2nd harmonic restrain Off /
On
l_2nd/l_fund 10.0 - 50.0 % 1.0 20.0 Ratio of second to fundamental current
harmonic in %
BlkLevel2nd 10 - 5000 %IB 1 5000 Harm analyse disabled above this
current level in % of Ibase
EnRestrainCurr Off
On
- - Off Enable current restrain function On / Off
RestrCurrInput PosSeq
NegSeq
3*ZeroSeq
Max
- - PosSeq Select current signal which will be used
for curr restrain
RestrCurrCoeff 0.00 - 5.00 - 0.01 0.00 Restraining current coefficient
RCADir -180 - 180 Deg 1 -75 Relay Characteristic Angle
ROADir 1 - 90 Deg 1 75 Relay Operate Angle
LowVolt_VM 0.0 - 5.0 %UB 0.1 0.5 Below this level in % of Ubase setting
ActLowVolt takes over
Operation_OC1 Off
On
- - Off Operation OC1 Off / On
StartCurr_OC1 2.0 - 5000.0 %IB 1.0 120.0 Operate current level for OC1 in % of
Ibase
CurveType_OC1 ANSI Ext. inv.
ANSI Very inv.
ANSI Norm. inv.
ANSI Mod. inv.
ANSI Def. Time
L.T.E. inv.
L.T.V. inv.
L.T. inv.
IEC Norm. inv.
IEC Very inv.
IEC inv.
IEC Ext. inv.
IEC S.T. inv.
IEC L.T. inv.
IEC Def. Time
Programmable
RI type
RD type
- - ANSI Def. Time Selection of time delay curve type for OC1
Table continues on next page
Section 10 1MRK506275-UEN C
Multipurpose protection
424
Technical reference manual
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
tDef_OC1 0.00 - 6000.00 s 0.01 0.50 Independent (definitive) time delay of
OC1
k_OC1 0.05 - 999.00 - 0.01 0.30 Time multiplier for the dependent time
delay for OC1
tMin_OC1 0.00 - 6000.00 s 0.01 0.05 Minimum operate time for IEC IDMT
curves for OC1
VCntrlMode_OC1 Voltage control
Input control
Volt/Input control
Off
- - Off Control mode for voltage controlled OC1
function
VDepMode_OC1 Step
Slope
- - Step Voltage dependent mode OC1 (step,
slope)
VDepFact_OC1 0.02 - 5.00 - 0.01 1.00 Multiplying factor for I pickup when OC1
is U dependent
ULowLimit_OC1 1.0 - 200.0 %UB 0.1 50.0 Voltage low limit setting OC1 in % of
Ubase
UHighLimit_OC1 1.0 - 200.0 %UB 0.1 100.0 Voltage high limit setting OC1 in % of
Ubase
HarmRestr_OC1 Off
On
- - Off Enable block of OC1 by 2nd harmonic
restrain
DirMode_OC1 Non-directional
Forward
Reverse
- - Non-directional Directional mode of OC1 (nondir,
forward,reverse)
DirPrinc_OC1 I&U
IcosPhi&U
- - I&U Measuring on IandU or IcosPhiandU for
OC1
ActLowVolt1_VM Non-directional
Block
Memory
- - Non-directional Low voltage level action for Dir_OC1
(Nodir, Blk, Mem)
Operation_OC2 Off
On
- - Off Operation OC2 Off / On
StartCurr_OC2 2.0 - 5000.0 %IB 1.0 120.0 Operate current level for OC2 in % of
Ibase
CurveType_OC2 ANSI Ext. inv.
ANSI Very inv.
ANSI Norm. inv.
ANSI Mod. inv.
ANSI Def. Time
L.T.E. inv.
L.T.V. inv.
L.T. inv.
IEC Norm. inv.
IEC Very inv.
IEC inv.
IEC Ext. inv.
IEC S.T. inv.
IEC L.T. inv.
IEC Def. Time
Programmable
RI type
RD type
- - ANSI Def. Time Selection of time delay curve type for OC2
tDef_OC2 0.00 - 6000.00 s 0.01 0.50 Independent (definitive) time delay of
OC2
k_OC2 0.05 - 999.00 - 0.01 0.30 Time multiplier for the dependent time
delay for OC2
Table continues on next page
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 10
Multipurpose protection
425
Technical reference manual
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
tMin_OC2 0.00 - 6000.00 s 0.01 0.05 Minimum operate time for IEC IDMT
curves for OC2
VCntrlMode_OC2 Voltage control
Input control
Volt/Input control
Off
- - Off Control mode for voltage controlled OC2
function
VDepMode_OC2 Step
Slope
- - Step Voltage dependent mode OC2 (step,
slope)
VDepFact_OC2 0.02 - 5.00 - 0.01 1.00 Multiplying factor for I pickup when OC2
is U dependent
ULowLimit_OC2 1.0 - 200.0 %UB 0.1 50.0 Voltage low limit setting OC2 in % of
Ubase
UHighLimit_OC2 1.0 - 200.0 %UB 0.1 100.0 Voltage high limit setting OC2 in % of
Ubase
HarmRestr_OC2 Off
On
- - Off Enable block of OC2 by 2nd harmonic
restrain
DirMode_OC2 Non-directional
Forward
Reverse
- - Non-directional Directional mode of OC2 (nondir,
forward,reverse)
DirPrinc_OC2 I&U
IcosPhi&U
- - I&U Measuring on IandU or IcosPhiandU for
OC2
ActLowVolt2_VM Non-directional
Block
Memory
- - Non-directional Low voltage level action for Dir_OC2
(Nodir, Blk, Mem)
Operation_UC1 Off
On
- - Off Operation UC1 Off / On
EnBlkLowI_UC1 Off
On
- - Off Enable internal low current level blocking
for UC1
BlkLowCurr_UC1 0 - 150 %IB 1 20 Internal low current blocking level for
UC1 in % of Ibase
StartCurr_UC1 2.0 - 150.0 %IB 1.0 70.0 Operate undercurrent level for UC1 in %
of Ibase
tDef_UC1 0.00 - 6000.00 s 0.01 0.50 Independent (definitive) time delay of UC1
tResetDef_UC1 0.00 - 6000.00 s 0.01 0.00 Reset time delay used in IEC Definite
Time curve UC1
HarmRestr_UC1 Off
On
- - Off Enable block of UC1 by 2nd harmonic
restrain
Operation_UC2 Off
On
- - Off Operation UC2 Off / On
EnBlkLowI_UC2 Off
On
- - Off Enable internal low current level blocking
for UC2
BlkLowCurr_UC2 0 - 150 %IB 1 20 Internal low current blocking level for
UC2 in % of Ibase
StartCurr_UC2 2.0 - 150.0 %IB 1.0 70.0 Operate undercurrent level for UC2 in %
of Ibase
tDef_UC2 0.00 - 6000.00 s 0.01 0.50 Independent (definitive) time delay of UC2
HarmRestr_UC2 Off
On
- - Off Enable block of UC2 by 2nd harmonic
restrain
Operation_OV1 Off
On
- - Off Operation OV1 Off / On
Table continues on next page
Section 10 1MRK506275-UEN C
Multipurpose protection
426
Technical reference manual
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
StartVolt_OV1 2.0 - 200.0 %UB 0.1 150.0 Operate voltage level for OV1 in % of
Ubase
CurveType_OV1 Definite time
Inverse curve A
Inverse curve B
Inverse curve C
Prog. inv. curve
- - Definite time Selection of time delay curve type for OV1
tDef_OV1 0.00 - 6000.00 s 0.01 1.00 Operate time delay in sec for definite
time use of OV1
tMin_OV1 0.00 - 6000.00 s 0.01 0.05 Minimum operate time for IDMT curves
for OV1
k_OV1 0.05 - 999.00 - 0.01 0.30 Time multiplier for the dependent time
delay for OV1
Operation_OV2 Off
On
- - Off Operation OV2 Off / On
StartVolt_OV2 2.0 - 200.0 %UB 0.1 150.0 Operate voltage level for OV2 in % of
Ubase
CurveType_OV2 Definite time
Inverse curve A
Inverse curve B
Inverse curve C
Prog. inv. curve
- - Definite time Selection of time delay curve type for OV2
tDef_OV2 0.00 - 6000.00 s 0.01 1.00 Operate time delay in sec for definite
time use of OV2
tMin_OV2 0.00 - 6000.00 s 0.01 0.05 Minimum operate time for IDMT curves
for OV2
k_OV2 0.05 - 999.00 - 0.01 0.30 Time multiplier for the dependent time
delay for OV2
Operation_UV1 Off
On
- - Off Operation UV1 Off / On
StartVolt_UV1 2.0 - 150.0 %UB 0.1 50.0 Operate undervoltage level for UV1 in %
of Ubase
CurveType_UV1 Definite time
Inverse curve A
Inverse curve B
Prog. inv. curve
- - Definite time Selection of time delay curve type for UV1
tDef_UV1 0.00 - 6000.00 s 0.01 1.00 Operate time delay in sec for definite
time use of UV1
tMin_UV1 0.00 - 6000.00 s 0.01 0.05 Minimum operate time for IDMT curves
for UV1
k_UV1 0.05 - 999.00 - 0.01 0.30 Time multiplier for the dependent time
delay for UV1
EnBlkLowV_UV1 Off
On
- - On Enable internal low voltage level
blocking for UV1
BlkLowVolt_UV1 0.0 - 5.0 %UB 0.1 0.5 Internal low voltage blocking level for
UV1 in % of Ubase
Operation_UV2 Off
On
- - Off Operation UV2 Off / On
StartVolt_UV2 2.0 - 150.0 %UB 0.1 50.0 Operate undervoltage level for UV2 in %
of Ubase
Table continues on next page
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 10
Multipurpose protection
427
Technical reference manual
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
CurveType_UV2 Definite time
Inverse curve A
Inverse curve B
Prog. inv. curve
- - Definite time Selection of time delay curve type for UV2
tDef_UV2 0.00 - 6000.00 s 0.01 1.00 Operate time delay in sec for definite
time use of UV2
tMin_UV2 0.00 - 6000.00 s 0.01 0.05 Minimum operate time for IDMT curves
for UV2
k_UV2 0.05 - 999.00 - 0.01 0.30 Time multiplier for the dependent time
delay for UV2
EnBlkLowV_UV2 Off
On
- - On Enable internal low voltage level
blocking for UV2
BlkLowVolt_UV2 0.0 - 5.0 %UB 0.1 0.5 Internal low voltage blocking level for
UV2 in % of Ubase
Table 253: CVGAPC Group settings (advanced)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
CurrMult_OC1 1.0 - 10.0 - 0.1 2.0 Multiplier for scaling the current setting
value for OC1
ResCrvType_OC1 Instantaneous
IEC Reset
ANSI reset
- - Instantaneous Selection of reset curve type for OC1
tResetDef_OC1 0.00 - 6000.00 s 0.01 0.00 Reset time delay used in IEC Definite
Time curve OC1
P_OC1 0.001 - 10.000 - 0.001 0.020 Parameter P for customer programmable
curve for OC1
A_OC1 0.000 - 999.000 - 0.001 0.140 Parameter A for customer programmable
curve for OC1
B_OC1 0.000 - 99.000 - 0.001 0.000 Parameter B for customer programmable
curve for OC1
C_OC1 0.000 - 1.000 - 0.001 1.000 Parameter C for customer
programmable curve for OC1
PR_OC1 0.005 - 3.000 - 0.001 0.500 Parameter PR for customer
programmable curve for OC1
TR_OC1 0.005 - 600.000 - 0.001 13.500 Parameter TR for customer
programmable curve for OC1
CR_OC1 0.1 - 10.0 - 0.1 1.0 Parameter CR for customer
programmable curve for OC1
CurrMult_OC2 1.0 - 10.0 - 0.1 2.0 Multiplier for scaling the current setting
value for OC2
ResCrvType_OC2 Instantaneous
IEC Reset
ANSI reset
- - Instantaneous Selection of reset curve type for OC2
tResetDef_OC2 0.00 - 6000.00 s 0.01 0.00 Reset time delay used in IEC Definite
Time curve OC2
P_OC2 0.001 - 10.000 - 0.001 0.020 Parameter P for customer programmable
curve for OC2
A_OC2 0.000 - 999.000 - 0.001 0.140 Parameter A for customer programmable
curve for OC2
Table continues on next page
Section 10 1MRK506275-UEN C
Multipurpose protection
428
Technical reference manual
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
B_OC2 0.000 - 99.000 - 0.001 0.000 Parameter B for customer programmable
curve for OC2
C_OC2 0.000 - 1.000 - 0.001 1.000 Parameter C for customer
programmable curve for OC2
PR_OC2 0.005 - 3.000 - 0.001 0.500 Parameter PR for customer
programmable curve for OC2
TR_OC2 0.005 - 600.000 - 0.001 13.500 Parameter TR for customer
programmable curve for OC2
CR_OC2 0.1 - 10.0 - 0.1 1.0 Parameter CR for customer
programmable curve for OC2
tResetDef_UC2 0.00 - 6000.00 s 0.01 0.00 Reset time delay used in IEC Definite
Time curve UC2
ResCrvType_OV1 Instantaneous
Frozen timer
Linearly decreased
- - Instantaneous Selection of reset curve type for OV1
tResetDef_OV1 0.00 - 6000.00 s 0.01 0.00 Reset time delay in sec for definite time
use of OV1
tResetIDMT_OV1 0.00 - 6000.00 s 0.01 0.00 Reset time delay in sec for IDMT curves
for OV1
A_OV1 0.005 - 999.000 - 0.001 0.140 Parameter A for customer programmable
curve for OV1
B_OV1 0.500 - 99.000 - 0.001 1.000 Parameter B for customer programmable
curve for OV1
C_OV1 0.000 - 1.000 - 0.001 1.000 Parameter C for customer
programmable curve for OV1
D_OV1 0.000 - 10.000 - 0.001 0.000 Parameter D for customer
programmable curve for OV1
P_OV1 0.001 - 10.000 - 0.001 0.020 Parameter P for customer programmable
curve for OV1
ResCrvType_OV2 Instantaneous
Frozen timer
Linearly decreased
- - Instantaneous Selection of reset curve type for OV2
tResetDef_OV2 0.00 - 6000.00 s 0.01 0.00 Reset time delay in sec for definite time
use of OV2
tResetIDMT_OV2 0.00 - 6000.00 s 0.01 0.00 Reset time delay in sec for IDMT curves
for OV2
A_OV2 0.005 - 999.000 - 0.001 0.140 Parameter A for customer programmable
curve for OV2
B_OV2 0.500 - 99.000 - 0.001 1.000 Parameter B for customer programmable
curve for OV2
C_OV2 0.000 - 1.000 - 0.001 1.000 Parameter C for customer
programmable curve for OV2
D_OV2 0.000 - 10.000 - 0.001 0.000 Parameter D for customer
programmable curve for OV2
P_OV2 0.001 - 10.000 - 0.001 0.020 Parameter P for customer programmable
curve for OV2
ResCrvType_UV1 Instantaneous
Frozen timer
Linearly decreased
- - Instantaneous Selection of reset curve type for UV1
Table continues on next page
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 10
Multipurpose protection
429
Technical reference manual
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
tResetDef_UV1 0.00 - 6000.00 s 0.01 0.00 Reset time delay in sec for definite time
use of UV1
tResetIDMT_UV1 0.00 - 6000.00 s 0.01 0.00 Reset time delay in sec for IDMT curves
for UV1
A_UV1 0.005 - 999.000 - 0.001 0.140 Parameter A for customer programmable
curve for UV1
B_UV1 0.500 - 99.000 - 0.001 1.000 Parameter B for customer programmable
curve for UV1
C_UV1 0.000 - 1.000 - 0.001 1.000 Parameter C for customer
programmable curve for UV1
D_UV1 0.000 - 10.000 - 0.001 0.000 Parameter D for customer
programmable curve for UV1
P_UV1 0.001 - 10.000 - 0.001 0.020 Parameter P for customer programmable
curve for UV1
ResCrvType_UV2 Instantaneous
Frozen timer
Linearly decreased
- - Instantaneous Selection of reset curve type for UV2
tResetDef_UV2 0.00 - 6000.00 s 0.01 0.00 Reset time delay in sec for definite time
use of UV2
tResetIDMT_UV2 0.00 - 6000.00 s 0.01 0.00 Reset time delay in sec for IDMT curves
for UV2
A_UV2 0.005 - 999.000 - 0.001 0.140 Parameter A for customer programmable
curve for UV2
B_UV2 0.500 - 99.000 - 0.001 1.000 Parameter B for customer programmable
curve for UV2
C_UV2 0.000 - 1.000 - 0.001 1.000 Parameter C for customer
programmable curve for UV2
D_UV2 0.000 - 10.000 - 0.001 0.000 Parameter D for customer
programmable curve for UV2
P_UV2 0.001 - 10.000 - 0.001 0.020 Parameter P for customer programmable
curve for UV2
10.1.6 Technical data
Table 254: CVGAPC technical data
Function Range or value Accuracy
Measuring current
input
phase1, phase2, phase3, PosSeq,
NegSeq, 3*ZeroSeq, MaxPh, MinPh,
UnbalancePh, phase1-phase2, phase2-
phase3, phase3-phase1, MaxPh-Ph,
MinPh-Ph, UnbalancePh-Ph
-
Base current (1 - 99999) A -
Measuring voltage
input
phase1, phase2, phase3, PosSeq, -
NegSeq, -3*ZeroSeq, MaxPh, MinPh,
UnbalancePh, phase1-phase2, phase2-
phase3, phase3-phase1, MaxPh-Ph,
MinPh-Ph, UnbalancePh-Ph
-
Base voltage (0.05 - 2000.00) kV -
Table continues on next page
Section 10 1MRK506275-UEN C
Multipurpose protection
430
Technical reference manual
Function Range or value Accuracy
Start overcurrent,
step 1 and 2
(2 - 5000)% of IBase 1.0% of I
r
for I<I
r
1.0% of I for I>I
r
Start undercurrent,
step 1 and 2
(2 - 150)% of IBase 1.0% of I
r
for I<I
r
1.0% of I for I>I
r
Definite time delay (0.00 - 6000.00) s 0.5% 10 ms
Operate time start
overcurrent
25 ms typically at 0 to 2 x I
set
-
Reset time start
overcurrent
25 ms typically at 2 to 0 x I
set
-
Operate time start
undercurrent
25 ms typically at 2 to 0 x I
set
-
Reset time start
undercurrent
25 ms typically at 0 to 2 x I
set
-
See table 619 and
table 620
Parameter ranges for customer defined
characteristic no 17:
k: 0.05 - 999.00
A: 0.0000 - 999.0000
B: 0.0000 - 99.0000
C: 0.0000 - 1.0000
P: 0.0001 - 10.0000
PR: 0.005 - 3.000
TR: 0.005 - 600.000
CR: 0.1 - 10.0
See table 619 and table 620
Voltage level where
voltage memory
takes over
(0.0 - 5.0)% of UBase 1.0% of U
r
Start overvoltage,
step 1 and 2
(2.0 - 200.0)% of UBase 1.0% of U
r
for U<U
r
1.0% of U for U>U
r
Start undervoltage,
step 1 and 2
(2.0 - 150.0)% of UBase 1.0% of U
r
for U<U
r
1.0% of U for U>U
r
Operate time, start
overvoltage
25 ms typically at 0 to 2 x U
set
-
Reset time, start
overvoltage
25 ms typically at 2 to 0 x U
set
-
Operate time start
undervoltage
25 ms typically 2 to 0 x U
set
-
Reset time start
undervoltage
25 ms typically at 0 to 2 x U
set
-
High and low voltage
limit, voltage
dependent operation
(1.0 - 200.0)% of UBase 1.0% of U
r
for U<U
r
1.0% of U for U>U
r
Directional function Settable: NonDir, forward and reverse -
Relay characteristic
angle
(-180 to +180) degrees 2.0 degrees
Relay operate angle (1 to 90) degrees 2.0 degrees
Reset ratio,
overcurrent
> 95% -
Reset ratio,
undercurrent
< 105% -
Table continues on next page
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 10
Multipurpose protection
431
Technical reference manual
Function Range or value Accuracy
Reset ratio,
overvoltage
> 95% -
Reset ratio,
undervoltage
< 105% -
Overcurrent:
Critical impulse time 10 ms typically at 0 to 2 x I
set
-
Impulse margin time 15 ms typically -
Undercurrent:
Critical impulse time 10 ms typically at 2 to 0 x I
set
-
Impulse margin time 15 ms typically -
Overvoltage:
Critical impulse time 10 ms typically at 0 to 2 x U
set
-
Impulse margin time 15 ms typically -
Undervoltage:
Critical impulse time 10 ms typically at 2 to 0 x U
set
-
Impulse margin time 15 ms typically -
Section 10 1MRK506275-UEN C
Multipurpose protection
432
Technical reference manual
Section 11 Secondary system supervision
About this chapter
This chapter describes functions like Current circuit supervision and Fuse failure
supervision. The way the functions work, their setting parameters, function blocks,
input and output signals and technical data are included for each function.
11.1 Current circuit supervision CCSRDIF
Function description IEC 61850
identification
IEC 60617
identification
ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
Current circuit supervision CCSRDIF - 87
11.1.1 Introduction
Open or short circuited current transformer cores can cause unwanted operation of
many protection functions such as differential, earth-fault current and negative-
sequence current functions.
It must be remembered that a blocking of protection functions at an occurrence of
open CT circuit will mean that the situation will remain and extremely high
voltages will stress the secondary circuit.
Current circuit supervision (CCSRDIF) compares the residual current from a three
phase set of current transformer cores with the neutral point current on a separate
input taken from another set of cores on the current transformer.
A detection of a difference indicates a fault in the circuit and is used as alarm or to
block protection functions expected to give unwanted tripping.
11.1.2 Principle of operation
Current circuit supervision CCSRDIF compares the absolute value of the vectorial
sum of the three phase currents |Iphase| and the numerical value of the residual
current |Iref| from another current transformer set, see figure 236.
The FAIL output will be set to a logical one when the following criteria are fulfilled:
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 11
Secondary system supervision
433
Technical reference manual
The numerical value of the difference |Iphase| |Iref| is higher than 80% of
the numerical value of the sum |Iphase| + |Iref|.
The numerical value of the current |Iphase| |Iref| is equal to or higher than
the set operate value IMinOp.
No phase current has exceeded Ip>Block during the last 10 ms.
CCSRDIF is enabled by setting Operation = On.
The FAIL output remains activated 100 ms after the AND-gate resets when being
activated for more than 20 ms. If the FAIL lasts for more than 150 ms an ALARM
will be issued. In this case the FAIL and ALARM will remain activated 1 s after
the AND-gate resets. This prevents unwanted resetting of the blocking function
when phase current supervision element(s) operate, for example, during a fault.
IEC05000463 V1 EN
Figure 236: Simplified logic diagram for Current circuit supervision CCSRDIF
The operate characteristic is percentage restrained, see figure 237.
Section 11 1MRK506275-UEN C
Secondary system supervision
434
Technical reference manual
Slope = 0.8
Slope = 1
Operation
area
I
MinOp
99000068.vsd
phase ref
| I | - | I |
phase ref
| I | + | I |
IEC99000068 V1 EN
Figure 237: Operate characteristics
Due to the formulas for the axis compared, |SIphase | - |I ref | and |S
I phase | + | I ref | respectively, the slope can not be above 2.
11.1.3 Function block
IEC05000389-2-en.vsd
CCSRDIF
I3P*
IREF*
BLOCK
FAIL
ALARM
IEC05000389 V2 EN
Figure 238: CCSRDIF function block
11.1.4 Input and output signals
Table 255: CCSRDIF Input signals
Name Type Default Description
I3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Group signal for three phase current input
IREF GROUP
SIGNAL
- TBD
BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 11
Secondary system supervision
435
Technical reference manual
Table 256: CCSRDIF Output signals
Name Type Description
FAIL BOOLEAN Detection of current circuit failure
ALARM BOOLEAN Alarm for current circuit failure
11.1.5 Setting parameters
Table 257: CCSRDIF Group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
Operation Off
On
- - Off Operation Off / On
IBase 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 IBase value for current level detectors
IMinOp 5 - 200 %IB 1 20 Minimum operate current differential
level in % of IBase
Table 258: CCSRDIF Group settings (advanced)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
Ip>Block 5 - 500 %IB 1 150 Block of the function at high phase
current, in % of IBase
11.1.6 Technical data
Table 259: CCSRDIF technical data
Function Range or value Accuracy
Operate current (5-200)% of I
r
10.0% of I
r
at I I
r
10.0% of I at I > I
r
Block current (5-500)% of I
r
5.0% of I
r
at I I
r
5.0% of I at I > I
r
11.2 Fuse failure supervision SDDRFUF
Function description IEC 61850
identification
IEC 60617
identification
ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
Fuse failure supervision SDDRFUF - -
11.2.1 Introduction
The aim of the fuse failure supervision function (SDDRFUF) is to block voltage
measuring functions at failures in the secondary circuits between the voltage
Section 11 1MRK506275-UEN C
Secondary system supervision
436
Technical reference manual
transformer and the IED in order to avoid unwanted operations that otherwise
might occur.
The fuse failure supervision function basically has two different algorithms,
negative sequence and zero sequence based algorithm and an additional delta
voltage and delta current algorithm.
The negative sequence detection algorithm is recommended for IEDs used in
isolated or high-impedance earthed networks. It is based on the negative-sequence
measuring quantities, a high value of voltage 3U
2
without the presence of the
negative-sequence current 3I
2
.
The zero sequence detection algorithm is recommended for IEDs used in directly
or low impedance earthed networks. It is based on the zero sequence measuring
quantities, a high value of voltage 3U
0
without the presence of the residual current
3I
0
.
A criterion based on delta current and delta voltage measurements can be added to
the fuse failure supervision function in order to detect a three phase fuse failure,
which in practice is more associated with voltage transformer switching during
station operations.
For better adaptation to system requirements, an operation mode setting has been
introduced which makes it possible to select the operating conditions for negative
sequence and zero sequence based function. The selection of different operation
modes makes it possible to choose different interaction possibilities between the
negative sequence and zero sequence based algorithm.
11.2.2 Principle of operation
11.2.2.1 Zero and negative sequence detection
The zero and negative sequence function continuously measures the currents and
voltages in all three phases and calculates, see figure 239:
the zero-sequence voltage 3U
0
the zero-sequence current 3I
0
the negative sequence current 3I
2
the negative sequence voltage 3U
2
The measured signals are compared with their respective set values 3U0< and
3I0>, 3U2< and 3I2>.
The function enable the internal signal FuseFailDetZeroSeq if the measured zero-
sequence voltage is higher than the set value 3U0> and the measured zero-
sequence current is below the set value 3I0<.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 11
Secondary system supervision
437
Technical reference manual
The function enable the internal signal FuseFailDetNegSeq if the measured
negative sequence voltage is higher than the set value 3U2> and the measured
negative sequence current is below the set value 3I2<.
A drop off delay of 100 ms for the measured zero-sequence and negative sequence
current will prevent a false fuse failure detection at un-equal breaker opening at the
two line ends.
IL1
IL2
IL3
Zero
sequence
filter
Negative
sequence
filter
UL1
UL2
UL3
Zero
sequence
filter
Negative
sequence
filter
CurrZeroSeq
CurrNegSeq
a
b
a>b
a
b
a>b
a
b
a>b
a
b
a>b
3I0<
3I2<
t
100 ms
t
100 ms
VoltZeroSeq
VoltNegSeq
AND
AND
FuseFailDetZeroSeq
FuseFailDetNegSeq
Sequence Detection
3U0>
3U2>
3I0
3I2
3U0
3U2
IEC10000036-1-en.vsd
IEC10000036 V1 EN
Figure 239: Simplified logic diagram for sequence detection part
The calculated values 3U
0
, 3I
0
, 3I
2
and 3U
2
are available as service values on local
HMI and monitoring tool in PCM600.
Input and output signals
The output signals 3PH, BLKU and BLKZ can be blocked in the following conditions:
The input BLOCK is activated
The input BLKTRIP is activated at the same time as the internal signal
fufailStarted is not present
The operation mode selector OpMode is set to Off.
The IED is in TEST status (TEST-ACTIVE is high) and the function has been
blocked from the HMI (BlockFUSE=Yes)
The input BLOCK signal is a general purpose blocking signal of the fuse failure
supervision function. It can be connected to a binary input of the IED in order to
receive a block command from external devices or can be software connected to
other internal functions of the IED itself in order to receive a block command from
Section 11 1MRK506275-UEN C
Secondary system supervision
438
Technical reference manual
internal functions. Through OR gate it can be connected to both binary inputs and
internal function outputs.
The input BLKSP is intended to be connected to the trip output at any of the
protection functions included in the IED. When activated for more than 20 ms, the
operation of the fuse failure is blocked during a fixed time of 100 ms. The aim is to
increase the security against unwanted operations during the opening of the
breaker, which might cause unbalance conditions for which the fuse failure might
operate.
The output signal BLKZ will also be blocked if the internal dead line detection is
activated. The block signal has a 200 ms drop-off time delay.
The input signal MCBOP is supposed to be connected via a terminal binary input
to the N.C. auxiliary contact of the miniature circuit breaker protecting the VT
secondary circuit. The MCBOP signal sets the output signals BLKU and BLKZ in
order to block all the voltage related functions when the MCB is open independent
of the setting of OpMode selector. The additional drop-off timer of 150 ms
prolongs the presence of MCBOP signal to prevent the unwanted operation of
voltage dependent function due to non simultaneous closing of the main contacts of
the miniature circuit breaker.
The input signal DISCPOS is supposed to be connected via a terminal binary input
to the N.C. auxiliary contact of the line disconnector. The DISCPOS signal sets the
output signal BLKU in order to block the voltage related functions when the line
disconnector is open. The impedance protection function is not affected by the
position of the line disconnector since there will be no line currents that can cause
maloperation of the distance protection. If DISCPOS=0 it signifies that the line is
connected to the system and when the DISCPOS=1 it signifies that the line is
disconnected from the system and the block signal BLKU is generated.
The output BLKU can be used for blocking the voltage related measuring functions
(undervoltage protection, synchro-check etc.) except for the impedance protection.
The function output BLKZ can be used for blocking the impedance protection
function.
The BLKZ will only be activated if not the internal dead line detection is activated
at the same time.
The fuse failure condition is unlatched when the normal voltage conditions are
restored.
When the output 3PH is activated, all three voltage are low.
11.2.2.2 Delta current and delta voltage detection
A simplified diagram for the functionality is found in figure 240. The calculation of
the change is based on vector change which means that it detects both amplitude
and phase angle changes. The calculated delta quantities are compared with their
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 11
Secondary system supervision
439
Technical reference manual
respective set values DI< and DU> and the algorithm, detects a fuse failure if a
sufficient change in voltage without a sufficient change in current is detected in
each phase separately. The following quantities are calculated in all three phases:
The change in voltage DU
The change in current DI
The internal FuseFailDetDUDI signal is activated if the following conditions are
fulfilled for a phase:
The magnitude of the phase-ground voltage has been above UPh> for more
than 1.5 cycle
The magnitude of DU is higher than the corresponding setting DU>
The magnitude of DI is below the setting DI>
and at least one of the following conditions are fulfilled:
The magnitude of the phase current in the same phase is higher than the setting
IPh>
The circuit breaker is closed (CBCLOSED = True)
The first criterion means that detection of failure in one phase together with high
current for the same phase will set the output. The measured phase current is used
to reduce the risk of false fuse failure detection. If the current on the protected line
is low, a voltage drop in the system (not caused by fuse failure) is not by certain
followed by current change and a false fuse failure might occur
The second criterion requires that the delta condition shall be fulfilled in any phase
at the same time as circuit breaker is closed. Opening circuit breaker at one end and
energizing the line from other end onto a fault could lead to wrong start of the fuse
failure function at the end with the open breaker. If this is considering to be an
important disadvantage, connect the CBCLOSED input to FALSE. In this way
only the first criterion can activate the delta function.
Section 11 1MRK506275-UEN C
Secondary system supervision
440
Technical reference manual
IL1
|DI|
a
b
a>b
DI<
One cycle
delay
UL1
a
b
a>b
One cycle
delay
DU>
|DU|
a
b
a>b t
20 ms
t
1.5 cycle
AND
DUDI detection Phase 1
UPh>
DUDI detection Phase 2
Same logic as for phase 1
IL2
UL2
DUDI detection Phase 3
Same logic as for phase 1
IL3
UL3
a
b
a<b
UL1
IL1
a
b
a>b
IPh> AND
AND CBCLOSED
OR
OR
AND
a
b
a<b
UL2
IL2
a
b
a>b
AND
AND
OR
OR
AND
a
b
a<b
UL3
IL3
a
b
a>b
AND
AND
OR
OR
AND
OR
FuseFailDetDUDI
DUDI Detection
IEC10000034-1-en.vsd
IEC10000034 V1 EN
Figure 240: Simplified logic diagram for DU/DI detection part
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 11
Secondary system supervision
441
Technical reference manual
11.2.2.3 Dead line detection
A simplified diagram for the functionality is found in figure 241. A dead phase
condition is indicated if both the voltage and the current in one phase is below their
respective setting values UDLD< and IDLD<. If at least one phase is considered to
be dead the output DLD1PH and the internal signal DeadLineDet1Ph is activated.
If all three phases are considered to be dead the output DLD3PH is activated
IL1
IL2
IL3
a
b
a<b
a
b
a<b
a
b
a<b
IDLD<
UL1
UL2
UL3
a
b
a<b
a
b
a<b
a
b
a<b
UDLD<
OR
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
AllCurrLow
DeadLineDet1Ph
DLD3PH
DLD1PH
intBlock
Dead Line Detection
IEC10000035-1-en.vsd
IEC10000035 V1 EN
Figure 241: Simplified logic diagram for Dead Line detection part
11.2.2.4 Main logic
A simplified diagram for the functionality is found in figure 242. The fuse failure
supervision function (SDDRFUF) can be switched on or off by the setting
parameter Operation to On or Off.
For increased flexibility and adaptation to system requirements an operation mode
selector, OpMode, has been introduced to make it possible to select different
operating modes for the negative and zero sequence based algorithms. The
different operation modes are:
Off; The negative and zero sequence function is switched off
UNsINs; Negative sequence is selected
UZsIZs; Zero sequence is selected
Section 11 1MRK506275-UEN C
Secondary system supervision
442
Technical reference manual
UZsIZsORUNsINs; Both negative and zero sequence is activated and working
in parallel in an OR-condition
UZsIZs AND UNsINs; Both negative and zero sequence is activated and
working in series (AND-condition for operation)
OptimZsNs; Optimum of negative and zero sequence (the function that has the
highest magnitude of measured negative and zero sequence current will be
activated)
The delta function can be activated by setting the parameter OpDUDI to On. When
selected it operates in parallel with the sequence based algorithms.
As soon as any fuse failure situation is detected, signals FuseFailDetZeroSeq,
FuseFailDetNegSeq or FuseFailDetDUDI, and the specific functionality is
released, the function will activate the output signal BLKU. The output signal
BLKZ will be activated as well if not the internal dead phase detection,
DeadLineDet1Ph, is activated at the same time. The output BLKU can be used for
blocking voltage related measuring functions (under voltage protection, synchro-
check, and so on). For blocking of impedance protection functions output BLKZ
shall be used.
If the fuse failure situation is present for more than 5 seconds and the setting
parameter SealIn is set to On it will be sealed in over under-voltage as long as at
least one phase voltages is below the set value USealIn<. This will keep the BLKU
and BLKZ signals activated as long as any phase voltage is below the set value
USealIn<. If all three phase voltages drop below the set value USealIn< and the
setting parameter SealIn is set to On also the output signal 3PH will be activated.
The signals 3PH, BLKU and BLKZ signals will now be active as long as any phase
voltage is below the set value USealIn<.
If SealIn is set to On fuse failure condition is stored in the non volatile memory in
the IED. At start-up (due to auxiliary power interruption or re-start due to
configuration change) the IED checks the stored value in its non volatile memory
and re-establishes the conditions present before the shut down. All phase voltages
must became above USealIn< before fuse failure is de-activated and inhibits the
block of different protection functions.
The output signal BLKU will also be active if all phase voltages have been above
the setting USealIn< for more than 60 seconds, the zero or negative sequence
voltage has been above the set value 3U0> and 3U2> for more than 5 seconds, all
phase currents are below the setting IDLD< (operate level for dead line detection)
and the circuit breaker is closed (input CBCLOSED is activated).
The input signal MCBOP is supposed to be connected via a terminal binary input
to the N.C. auxiliary contact of the miniature circuit breaker protecting the VT
secondary circuit. The MCBOP signal sets the output signals BLKU and BLKZ in
order to block all the voltage related functions when the MCB is open independent
of the setting of OpMode or OpDUDI. An additional drop-out timer of 150 ms
prolongs the presence of MCBOP signal to prevent the unwanted operation of
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 11
Secondary system supervision
443
Technical reference manual
voltage dependent function due to non simultaneous closing of the main contacts of
the miniature circuit breaker.
The input signal DISCPOS is supposed to be connected via a terminal binary input
to the N.C. auxiliary contact of the line disconnector. The DISCPOS signal sets the
output signal BLKU in order to block the voltage related functions when the line
disconnector is open. The impedance protection function does not have to be
affected since there will be no line currents that can cause malfunction of the
distance protection.
The output signals 3PH, BLKU and BLKZ as well as the signals DLD1PH and
DLD3PH from dead line detections are blocked if any of the following conditions
occur:
The operation mode selector OpMode is set to Off
The input BLOCK is activated
The IED is in TEST status (TEST-ACTIVE is high) and the function has been
blocked from the HMI (BlockFUSE=Yes)
The input BLOCK is a general purpose blocking signal of the fuse failure
supervision function. It can be connected to a binary input of the IED in order to
receive a block command from external devices or can be software connected to
other internal functions of the IED. Through OR gate it can be connected to both
binary inputs and internal function outputs.
The input BLKTRIP is intended to be connected to the trip output of any of the
protection functions included in the IED and/or trip from external equipments via
binary inputs. When activated for more than 20 ms without any fuse fail detected,
the operation of the fuse failure is blocked during a fixed time of 100 ms. The aim
is to increase the security against unwanted operations during the opening of the
breaker, which might cause unbalance conditions for which the fuse failure might
operate.
Section 11 1MRK506275-UEN C
Secondary system supervision
444
Technical reference manual
SealIn = On
All UL < USealIn<
Any UL < UsealIn<
t
5 s
AND
3PH
MCBOP
All UL > UsealIn< t
60 sec
CBCLOSED
BLOCK
AND
TEST
TEST ACTIVE
AND
BlocFuse = Yes
OpMode
AND
t
200 ms
AND
OR
DISCPOS
BLKU
BLKZ
AND
AND
FuseFailDetZeroSeq
UZsIZs OR UNsINs
UZsIZs AND UNsINs
UZsIZs
UNsINs
OptimZsNs
AND
FuseFailDetNegSeq
OR
AND
AND
CurrZeroSeq
CurrNegSeq
a
b
a>b
OR
AND
AND
AND
FuseFailDetDUDI
AND
OpDUDI = On
DeadLineDet1Ph
OR
OR
OR
OR
AND
VoltZeroSeq
VoltNegSeq
OR
t
5 sec
AllCurrLow
t
150 ms
intBlock
Fuse failure detection
Main logic
BLKTRIP
AND t
100 ms
OR
t
20 ms
OR
IEC10000033-1-en.vsd
IEC10000033 V1 EN
Figure 242: Simplified logic diagram for fuse failure supervision function, Main
logic
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 11
Secondary system supervision
445
Technical reference manual
11.2.3 Function block
IEC05000700-2-en.vsd
SDDRFUF
I3P*
U3P*
BLOCK
CBCLOSED
MCBOP
DISCPOS
BLKTRIP
BLKZ
BLKU
3PH
DLD1PH
DLD3PH
IEC05000700 V3 EN
Figure 243: SDDRFUF function block
11.2.4 Input and output signals
Table 260: SDDRFUF Input signals
Name Type Default Description
I3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Current connection
U3P GROUP
SIGNAL
- Voltage connection
BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function
CBCLOSED BOOLEAN 0 Active when circuit breaker is closed
MCBOP BOOLEAN 0 Active when external MCB opens protected
voltage circuit
DISCPOS BOOLEAN 0 Active when line disconnector is open
BLKTRIP BOOLEAN 0 Blocks operation of function when active
Table 261: SDDRFUF Output signals
Name Type Description
BLKZ BOOLEAN Start of current and voltage controlled function
BLKU BOOLEAN General start of function
3PH BOOLEAN Three-phase start of function
DLD1PH BOOLEAN Dead line condition in at least one phase
DLD3PH BOOLEAN Dead line condition in all three phases
11.2.5 Setting parameters
Table 262: SDDRFUF Group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
Operation Off
On
- - On Operation Off / On
IBase 1 - 99999 A 1 3000 Base current
UBase 0.05 - 2000.00 kV 0.05 400.00 Base voltage
Table continues on next page
Section 11 1MRK506275-UEN C
Secondary system supervision
446
Technical reference manual
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
OpMode Off
UNsINs
UZsIZs
UZsIZs OR UNsINs
UZsIZs AND
UNsINs
OptimZsNs
- - UZsIZs Operating mode selection
3U0> 1 - 100 %UB 1 30 Operate level of residual overvoltage
element in % of UBase
3I0< 1 - 100 %IB 1 10 Operate level of residual undercurrent
element in % of IBase
3U2> 1 - 100 %UB 1 30 Operate level of neg seq overvoltage
element in % of UBase
3I2< 1 - 100 %IB 1 10 Operate level of neg seq undercurrent
element in % of IBase
OpDUDI Off
On
- - Off Operation of change based function Off/
On
DU> 1 - 100 %UB 1 60 Operate level of change in phase voltage
in % of UBase
DI< 1 - 100 %IB 1 15 Operate level of change in phase current
in % of IBase
UPh> 1 - 100 %UB 1 70 Operate level of phase voltage in % of
UBase
IPh> 1 - 100 %IB 1 10 Operate level of phase current in % of
IBase
SealIn Off
On
- - On Seal in functionality Off/On
USealln< 1 - 100 %UB 1 70 Operate level of seal-in phase voltage in
% of UBase
IDLD< 1 - 100 %IB 1 5 Operate level for open phase current
detection in % of IBase
UDLD< 1 - 100 %UB 1 60 Operate level for open phase voltage
detection in % of UBase
11.2.6 Technical data
Table 263: SDDRFUF technical data
Function Range or value Accuracy
Operate voltage, zero sequence (1-100)% of UBase 1.0% of U
r
Operate current, zero sequence (1100)% of IBase 1.0% of I
r
Operate voltage, negative sequence (1100)% of UBase 1.0% of U
r
Operate current, negative sequence (1100)% of IBase 1.0% of I
r
Operate voltage change level (1100)% of UBase 5.0% of U
r
Operate current change level (1100)% of IBase 5.0% of I
r
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 11
Secondary system supervision
447
Technical reference manual
448
Section 12 Control
About this chapter
This chapter describes the control functions. The way the functions work, their
setting parameters, function blocks, input and output signals and technical data are
included for each function.
12.1 Synchrocheck, energizing check, and synchronizing
SESRSYN
Function description IEC 61850
identification
IEC 60617
identification
ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
Synchrocheck, energizing check, and
synchronizing
SESRSYN
sc/vc
SYMBOL-M V1 EN
25
12.1.1 Introduction
The Synchronizing function allows closing of asynchronous networks at the correct
moment including the breaker closing time. The systems can thus be reconnected
after an autoreclose or manual closing, which improves the network stability.
Synchrocheck, energizing check (SESRSYN) function checks that the voltages on
both sides of the circuit breaker are in synchronism, or with at least one side dead
to ensure that closing can be done safely.
SESRSYN function includes a built-in voltage selection scheme for double bus and
1 breaker or ring busbar arrangements.
Manual closing as well as automatic reclosing can be checked by the function and
can have different settings.
For systems which are running asynchronous a synchronizing function is provided.
The main purpose of the synchronizing function is to provide controlled closing of
circuit breakers when two asynchronous systems are going to be connected. It is
used for slip frequencies that are larger than those for synchrocheck and lower than
a set maximum level for the synchronizing function.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 12
Control
449
Technical reference manual
12.1.2 Principle of operation
12.1.2.1 Basic functionality
The synchrocheck function measures the conditions across the circuit breaker and
compares them to set limits. The output is only given when all measured quantities
are simultaneously within their set limits.
The energizing check function measures the bus and line voltages and compares
them to both high and low threshold detectors. The output is given only when the
actual measured quantities match the set conditions.
The synchronizing function measures the conditions across the circuit breaker, and
also determines the angle change occurring during the closing delay of the circuit
breaker, from the measured slip frequency. The output is given only when all
measured conditions are simultaneously within their set limits. The issue of the
output is timed to give closure at the optimal time including the time for the circuit
breaker and the closing circuit.
For single circuit breaker and 1 breaker circuit breaker arrangements, the
SESRSYN function blocks have the capability to make the necessary voltage
selection. For single circuit breaker arrangements, selection of the correct voltage
is made using auxiliary contacts of the bus disconnectors. For 1 breaker circuit
breaker arrangements, correct voltage selection is made using auxiliary contacts of
the bus disconnectors as well as the circuit breakers.
The internal logic for each function block as well as, the input and outputs, and the
setting parameters with default setting and setting ranges is described in this
document. For application related information, please refer to the application manual.
12.1.2.2 Logic diagrams
Logic diagrams
The logic diagrams that follow illustrate the main principles of the synchronizing
function components such as Synchrocheck, Energizing check and Voltage
selection, and are intended to simplify the understanding of the function.
Synchrocheck
The voltage difference, frequency difference and phase angle difference values are
measured in the IED centrally and are available for the synchrocheck function for
evaluation. If the bus voltage is connected as phase-phase and the line voltage as
phase-neutral (or the opposite), this need to be compensated. This is done with a
setting, which scales up the line voltage to a level equal to the bus voltage.
When the function is set to OperationSC = On, the measuring will start.
The function will compare the bus and line voltage values with the set values for
UHighBusSC and UHighLineSC.
Section 12 1MRK506275-UEN C
Control
450
Technical reference manual
If both sides are higher than the set values, the measured values are compared with
the set values for acceptable frequency, phase angle and voltage difference:
FreqDiff, PhaseDiff and UDiff. If a compensation factor is set due to the use of
different voltages on the bus and line, the factor is deducted from the line voltage
before the comparison of the phase angle values.
The frequency on both sides of the circuit breaker is also measured. The
frequencies must not deviate from the rated frequency more than +/-5Hz. The
frequency difference between the bus frequency and the line frequency is measured
and may not exceed the set value.
Two sets of settings for frequency difference and phase angle difference are
available and used for the manual closing and autoreclose functions respectively, as
required.
The inputs BLOCK and BLKSC are available for total block of the complete
Synchrocheck function and block of the Synchrocheck function respectively. Input
TSTSC will allow testing of the function where the fulfilled conditions are
connected to a separate test output.
The outputs MANSYOK and AUTOSYOK are activated when the actual measured
conditions match the set conditions for the respective output. The output signal can
be delayed independently for MANSYOK and AUTOSYOK conditions.
A number of outputs are available as information about fulfilled checking
conditions. UOKSC shows that the voltages are high, UDIFFSC, FRDIFFA,
FRDIFFM, PHDIFFA, PHDIFFM shows when the voltage difference, frequency
difference and phase angle difference conditions are met.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 12
Control
451
Technical reference manual
IEC07000114-2-en.vsd
OperationSC = On
TSTSC
BLKSC
BLOCK
TSTAUTSY
AUTOSYOK
PHDIFFME
FRDIFFME
UDIFFME
PHDIFFA
FRDIFFA
UOKSC
UDIFFSC
OR
t
0-60 s
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
t
50 ms
UHighLineSC
UHighBusSC
UDiffSC
phaseAngleDifferenceValue
frequencyDifferenceValue
voltageDifferenceValue
1
1
1
AND
tSCA
PhaseDiffA
FreqDiffA
Note! Similar logic for Manual Synchrocheck.
IEC07000114 V2 EN
Figure 244: Simplified logic diagram for the Synchrocheck function
Synchronizing
When the function is set to OperationSynch = On the measuring will be performed.
The function will compare the values for the bus and line voltage with the set
values for UHighBusSynch and UHighLineSynch, which is a supervision that the
voltages are both live. If both sides are higher than the set values the measured
values are compared with the set values for acceptable frequency, rate of change of
frequency, phase angle and voltage difference FreqDiffMax, FreqDiffMin and
UDiffSynch.
Measured frequencies between the settings for the maximum and minimum
frequency will initiate the measuring and the evaluation of the angle change to
allow operation to be sent in the right moment including the set tBreaker time.
There is a phase angle release internally to block any incorrect closing pulses. At
operation the SYNOK output will be activated with a pulse tClosePulse and the
function reset. The function will also reset if the synchronizing conditions are not
fulfilled within the set tMaxSynch time. This prevents that the functions are, by
mistake, maintained in operation for a long time, waiting for conditions to be fulfilled.
Section 12 1MRK506275-UEN C
Control
452
Technical reference manual
The inputs BLOCK and BLKSYNCH are available for total block of the complete
function respective of the synchronizing part. TSTSYNCH will allow testing of the
function where the fulfilled conditions are connected to a separate output.
OPERATION SYNCH
OFF
ON
OFF
ON
TEST MODE
OR
AND
S
R
UDiffSynch
UHighBusSynch
UHighLineSynch
FreqDiffMax
FreqDiffMin
FreqRateChange
fBus&fLine 5 Hz
PhaseDiff < 15 deg
PhaseDiff=closing angle
AND
t
50 ms
AND
AND
AND
AND
tClose
Pulse
OR
AND
OR
SYN1
STARTSYN
BLKSYNCH
SYNPROGR
SYNOK
SYNFAIL
tMax
Synch
TSTSYNOK
IEC06000636-2-en.vsd
IEC06000636 V2 EN
Figure 245: Simplified logic diagram for the synchronizing function
Energizing check
Voltage values are measured in the IED centrally and are available for evaluation
by the Energizing check function. If the bus voltage is connected as phase-phase
and the line voltage as phase-neutral, (or the opposite) this needs to be
compensated. This is done with a setting, which scales the line voltage to a level
equal to the bus voltage.
The function measures voltages on the busbar and the line to verify whether they
are live or dead. This is done by comparing with the set values UHighBusEnerg
and ULowBusEnerg for bus energizing and UHighLineEnerg and ULowLineEnerg
for line energizing.
The frequency on both sides of the circuit breaker is also measured. The
frequencies must not deviate from the rated frequency more than +/-5Hz. The
frequency difference between the bus frequency and the line frequency is measured
and shall not exceed a set value.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 12
Control
453
Technical reference manual
The Energizing direction can be selected individually for the Manual and the
Automatic functions respectively. When the conditions are met the outputs
AUTOENOK and MANENOK respectively will be activated if the fuse
supervision conditions are fulfilled. The output signal can be delayed
independently for MANENOK and AUTOENOK conditions. The Energizing
direction can also be selected by an integer input AENMODE respective
MENMODE, which for example, can be connected to a Binary to Integer function
block (B16I). Integers supplied shall be 1=off, 2=DLLB, 3=DBLL and 4= Both.
Not connected input with connection of INTZERO output from Fixed Signals
(FIXDSIGN) function block will mean that the setting is done from Parameter
Setting tool. The active position can be read on outputs MODEAEN resp
MODEMEN. The modes are 0=OFF, 1=DLLB, 2=DBLL and 3=Both.
The inputs BLOCK and BLKENERG are available for total block of the complete
Synchronizing function respective block of the Energizing check function.
TSTENERG will allow testing of the function where the fulfilled conditions are
connected to a separate test output.
Voltage selection
The voltage selection module including supervision of included voltage
transformer fuses for the different arrangements is a basic part of the
Synchronizing function and determines the parameters fed to the Synchronizing,
Synchrocheck and Energizing check functions. This includes the selection of the
appropriate Line and Bus voltages and fuse supervision.
The voltage selection type to be used is set with the parameter CBConfig.
If No voltage sel. is set the default voltages used will be ULine1 and UBus1. This
is also the case when external voltage selection is provided. Fuse failure
supervision for the used inputs must also be connected.
The voltage selection function, selected voltages, and fuse conditions are the
Synchronizing, Synchrocheck and Energizing check inputs.
For the disconnector positions it is advisable to use (NO) a and (NC) b type
contacts to supply Disconnector Open and Closed positions but, it is also possible
to use an inverter for one of the positions.
Voltage selection for a single circuit breaker with double busbars
This function uses the binary input from the disconnectors auxiliary contacts
B1QOPEN-B1QCLD for Bus 1, and B2QOPEN-B2QCLD for Bus 2 to select
between bus 1 and bus 2 voltages. If the disconnector connected to bus 2 is closed
and the disconnector connected to bus 1 is opened the bus 2 voltage is used. All
other combinations use the bus 1 voltage. The Outputs B1SEL and B2SEL
respectively indicate the selected Bus voltage.
The function checks the fuse-failure signals for bus 1, bus 2 and line voltage
transformers. Inputs UB1OK-UB1FF supervise the fuse for Bus 1 and UB2OK-
UB2FF supervises the fuse for Bus 2. ULN1OK-ULN1FF supervises the fuse for
the Line voltage transformer. The inputs fail (FF) or healthy (OK) can alternatively
Section 12 1MRK506275-UEN C
Control
454
Technical reference manual
be used dependent on the available signal. If a fuse-failure is detected in the
selected voltage source an output signal USELFAIL is set. This output signal is
true if the selected bus or line voltages have a fuse failure. This output as well as
the function can be blocked with the input signal BLOCK. The function logic
diagram is shown in figure 246.
AND
AND
AND
bus1Voltage
OR
OR
OR
ULN1FF
ULN1OK
UB1FF
UB1OK
UB2FF
UB2OK
B2QCLD
B2QOPEN
B1QCLD
B1QOPEN
selectedFuseOK
BLOCK
bus2Voltage
busVoltage
AND
1
invalidSelection
B2SEL
B1SEL
AND
AND
AND
USELFAIL
en05000779.vsd
OR
IEC05000779 V1 EN
Figure 246: Logic diagram for the voltage selection function of a single circuit breaker with double busbars
Voltage selection for a 1 1/2 circuit breaker arrangement
Note that with 1 breaker schemes two Synchrocheck functions must be used in
the IED (three for two IEDs in a complete bay). Below, the scheme for one Bus
breaker and the Tie breakers is described.
This voltage selection function uses the binary inputs from the disconnectors and
circuit breakers auxiliary contacts to select the right voltage for the Synchrocheck
(Synchronism and Energizing check) function. For the bus circuit breaker one side
of the circuit breaker is connected to the busbar and the other side is connected
either to line 1, line 2 or the other busbar depending on the arrangement.
Inputs LN1QOPEN-LN1QCLD, B1QOPEN-B1QCLD, B2QOPEN-B2QCLD,
LN2QOPEN-LN2QCLD are inputs for the position of the Line disconnectors
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 12
Control
455
Technical reference manual
respectively the Bus and Tie breakers. The Outputs LN1SEL, LN2SEL and B2SEL
will give indication of the selected Line voltage as a reference to the fixed Bus 1
voltage.
The fuse supervision is connected to ULNOK-ULNFF, and with alternative
Healthy or Failing fuse signals depending on what is available for each of fuse (MCB).
The tie circuit breaker is connected either to bus 1 or line 1 on one side and the
other side is connected either to bus 2 or line 2. Four different output combinations
are possible, bus to bus, bus to line, line to bus and line to line.
The line 1 voltage is selected if the line 1 disconnector is closed.
The bus 1 voltage is selected if the line 1 disconnector is open and the bus 1
circuit breaker is closed.
The line 2 voltage is selected if the line 2 disconnector is closed.
The bus 2 voltage is selected if the line 2 disconnector is open and the bus 2
Circuit breaker is closed.
The function also checks the fuse-failure signals for bus 1, bus 2, line 1 and line 2.
If a fuse-failure is detected in the selected voltage an output signal USELFAIL is
set. This output signal is true if the selected bus or line voltages have a fuse failure.
This output as well as the function can be blocked with the input signal BLOCK.
The function block diagram for the voltage selection of a bus circuit breaker is
shown in figure 247 and for the tie circuit breaker in figure 248
Section 12 1MRK506275-UEN C
Control
456
Technical reference manual
AND
AND
OR
OR
ULN1FF
ULN1OK
UB1FF
UB1OK
UB2FF
UB2OK
B1QCLD
B1QOPEN
LN1QCLD
LN1QOPEN
selectedFuseOK
BLOCK
lineVoltage
invalidSelection
LN1SEL
AND
AND
USELFAIL
ULN2FF
ULN2OK
OR
AND
AND
B2QCLD
B2QOPEN
LN2QCLD
LN2QOPEN
AND
AND
LN2SEL
OR
AND
B2SEL
AND
AND
AND
en05000780.vsd
OR
OR
line2Voltage
bus2Voltage
line1Voltage
IEC05000780 V1 EN
Figure 247: Simplified logic diagram for the voltage selection function for a bus circuit breaker in a 1 1/2
breaker arrangement
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 12
Control
457
Technical reference manual
AND
AND
OR
OR
ULN1FF
ULN1OK
UB1FF
UB1OK
UB2FF
UB2OK
B1QCLD
B1QOPEN
LN1QCLD
LN1QOPEN
selectedFuseOK
BLOCK
line1Voltage
LN1SEL
AND
AND
USELFAIL
ULN2FF
ULN2OK
OR
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
1
B1SEL
bus1Voltage
busVoltage
AND
AND
AND
B2QCLD
B2QOPEN
LN2QCLD
LN2QOPEN
bus2Voltage
LN2SEL
AND
AND
1
B2SEL
line2Voltage
lineVoltage
invalidSelection OR
en05000781.vsd
OR
OR
IEC05000781 V1 EN
Figure 248: Simplified logic diagram for the voltage selection function for the tie circuit breaker in 1 1/2
breaker arrangement.
Fuse failure supervision
External fuse failure signals or signals from a tripped fuse switch/MCB are
connected to binary inputs that are configured to the inputs of the synchronizing
functions in the IED. Alternatively, the internal signals from fuse failure
supervision can be used when available. There are two alternative connection
possibilities. Inputs labelled OK must be connected if the available contact
indicates that the voltage circuit is healthy. Inputs labelled FF must be connected if
the available contact indicates that the voltage circuit is faulty.
Section 12 1MRK506275-UEN C
Control
458
Technical reference manual
The UB1OK/UB2OK and UB1FF/UB2FF inputs are related to the busbar voltage
and the ULN1OK/ULN2OK and ULN1FF/ULN2FF inputs are related to the line
voltage. Configure them to the binary input or function outputs that indicate the
status of the external fuse failure of the busbar and line voltages. In the event of a
fuse failure, the energizing check functions are blocked. The synchronizing and the
synchrocheck function requires full voltage on both sides and will be blocked
automatically in the event of fuse failures.
12.1.3 Function block
IEC06000534-2-en.vsd
SESRSYN
U3PBB1*
U3PBB2*
U3PLN1*
U3PLN2*
BLOCK
BLKSYNCH
BLKSC
BLKENERG
B1QOPEN
B1QCLD
B2QOPEN
B2QCLD
LN1QOPEN
LN1QCLD
LN2QOPEN
LN2QCLD
UB1OK
UB1FF
UB2OK
UB2FF
ULN1OK
ULN1FF
ULN2OK
ULN2FF
STARTSYN
TSTSYNCH
TSTSC
TSTENERG
AENMODE
MENMODE
SYNOK
AUTOSYOK
AUTOENOK
MANSYOK
MANENOK
TSTSYNOK
TSTAUTSY
TSTMANSY
TSTENOK
USELFAIL
B1SEL
B2SEL
LN1SEL
LN2SEL
SYNPROGR
SYNFAIL
UOKSYN
UDIFFSYN
FRDIFSYN
FRDIFFOK
FRDERIVA
UOKSC
UDIFFSC
FRDIFFA
PHDIFFA
FRDIFFM
PHDIFFM
UDIFFME
FRDIFFME
PHDIFFME
MODEAEN
MODEMEN
IEC06000534 V2 EN
Figure 249: SESRSYN function block
12.1.4 Input and output signals
Table 264: SESRSYN Input signals
Name Type Default Description
U3PBB1 GROUP
SIGNAL
- Group signal for voltage input busbar 1
U3PBB2 GROUP
SIGNAL
- Group signal for voltage input busbar 2
U3PLN1 GROUP
SIGNAL
- Group signal for voltage input line 1
U3PLN2 GROUP
SIGNAL
- Group signal for voltage input line 2
Table continues on next page
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 12
Control
459
Technical reference manual
Name Type Default Description
BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 General block
BLKSYNCH BOOLEAN 0 Block synchronizing
BLKSC BOOLEAN 0 Block synchro check
BLKENERG BOOLEAN 0 Block energizing check
B1QOPEN BOOLEAN 0 Open status for CB or disconnector connected to
bus1
B1QCLD BOOLEAN 0 Close status for CB or disconnector connected to
bus1
B2QOPEN BOOLEAN 0 Open status for CB or disconnector connected to
bus2
B2QCLD BOOLEAN 0 Close status for CB or disconnector connected to
bus2
LN1QOPEN BOOLEAN 0 Open status for CB or disconnector connected to
line1
LN1QCLD BOOLEAN 0 Close status for CB or disconnector connected to
line1
LN2QOPEN BOOLEAN 0 Open status for CB or disconnector connected to
line2
LN2QCLD BOOLEAN 0 Close status for CB or disconnector connected to
line2
UB1OK BOOLEAN 0 Bus1 voltage transformer OK
UB1FF BOOLEAN 0 Bus1 voltage transformer fuse failure
UB2OK BOOLEAN 0 Bus2 voltage transformer OK
UB2FF BOOLEAN 0 Bus2 voltage transformer fuse failure
ULN1OK BOOLEAN 0 Line1 voltage transformer OK
ULN1FF BOOLEAN 0 Line1 voltage transformer fuse failure
ULN2OK BOOLEAN 0 Line2 voltage transformer OK
ULN2FF BOOLEAN 0 Line2 voltage transformer fuse failure
STARTSYN BOOLEAN 0 Start synchronizing
TSTSYNCH BOOLEAN 0 Set synchronizing in test mode
TSTSC BOOLEAN 0 Set synchro check in test mode
TSTENERG BOOLEAN 0 Set energizing check in test mode
AENMODE INTEGER 0 Input for setting of automatic energizing mode
MENMODE INTEGER 0 Input for setting of manual energizing mode
Table 265: SESRSYN Output signals
Name Type Description
SYNOK BOOLEAN Synchronizing OK output
AUTOSYOK BOOLEAN Auto synchro check OK
AUTOENOK BOOLEAN Automatic energizing check OK
MANSYOK BOOLEAN Manual synchro check OK
MANENOK BOOLEAN Manual energizing check OK
Table continues on next page
Section 12 1MRK506275-UEN C
Control
460
Technical reference manual
Name Type Description
TSTSYNOK BOOLEAN Synchronizing OK test output
TSTAUTSY BOOLEAN Auto synchro check OK test output
TSTMANSY BOOLEAN Manual synchro check OK test output
TSTENOK BOOLEAN Energizing check OK test output
USELFAIL BOOLEAN Selected voltage transformer fuse failed
B1SEL BOOLEAN Bus1 selected
B2SEL BOOLEAN Bus2 selected
LN1SEL BOOLEAN Line1 selected
LN2SEL BOOLEAN Line2 selected
SYNPROGR BOOLEAN Synchronizing in progress
SYNFAIL BOOLEAN Synchronizing failed
UOKSYN BOOLEAN Voltage amplitudes for synchronizing above set
limits
UDIFFSYN BOOLEAN Voltage difference out of limit for synchronizing
FRDIFSYN BOOLEAN Frequency difference out of limit for synchronizing
FRDIFFOK BOOLEAN Frequency difference in band for synchronizing
FRDERIVA BOOLEAN Frequency derivative out of limit for synchronizing
UOKSC BOOLEAN Voltage amplitudes above set limits
UDIFFSC BOOLEAN Voltage difference out of limit
FRDIFFA BOOLEAN Frequency difference out of limit for Auto operation
PHDIFFA BOOLEAN Phase angle difference out of limit for Auto
operation
FRDIFFM BOOLEAN Frequency difference out of limit for Manual
operation
PHDIFFM BOOLEAN Phase angle difference out of limit for Manual
Operation
UDIFFME REAL Calculated difference in voltage
FRDIFFME REAL Calculated difference in frequency
PHDIFFME REAL Calculated difference of phase angle
MODEAEN INTEGER Selected mode for automatic energizing
MODEMEN INTEGER Selected mode for manual energizing
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 12
Control
461
Technical reference manual
12.1.5 Setting parameters
Table 266: SESRSYN Group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
Operation Off
On
- - Off Operation Off / On
SelPhaseBus1 phase1
phase2
phase3
phase1-phase2
phase2-phase3
phase3-phase1
- - phase2 Select phase for bus1
SelPhaseBus2 phase1
phase2
phase3
phase1-phase2
phase2-phase3
phase3-phase1
- - phase2 Select phase for bus2
SelPhaseLine1 phase1
phase2
phase3
phase1-phase2
phase2-phase3
phase3-phase1
- - phase2 Select phase for line1
SelPhaseLine2 phase1
phase2
phase3
phase1-phase2
phase2-phase3
phase3-phase1
- - phase2 Select phase for line2
CBConfig No voltage sel.
Double bus
1 1/2 bus CB
1 1/2 bus alt. CB
Tie CB
- - No voltage sel. Select CB configuration
UBase 0.001 - 9999.999 kV 0.001 400.000 Base voltage in kV
PhaseShift -180 - 180 Deg 5 0 Phase shift
URatio 0.040 - 25.000 - 0.001 1.000 Voltage ratio
OperationSynch Off
On
- - Off Operation for synchronizing function Off/
On
UHighBusSynch 50.0 - 120.0 %UB 1.0 80.0 Voltage high limit bus for synchronizing
in % of UBase
UHighLineSynch 50.0 - 120.0 %UB 1.0 80.0 Voltage high limit line for synchronizing
in % of UBase
UDiffSynch 2.0 - 50.0 %UB 1.0 10.0 Voltage difference limit for synchronizing
in % of UBase
FreqDiffMin 0.003 - 0.250 Hz 0.001 0.010 Minimum frequency difference limit for
synchronizing
FreqDiffMax 0.050 - 0.250 Hz 0.001 0.200 Maximum frequency difference limit for
synchronizing
FreqRateChange 0.000 - 0.500 Hz/s 0.001 0.300 Maximum allowed frequency rate of
change
tBreaker 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.080 Closing time of the breaker
Table continues on next page
Section 12 1MRK506275-UEN C
Control
462
Technical reference manual
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
tClosePulse 0.050 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.200 Breaker closing pulse duration
tMaxSynch 0.00 - 6000.00 s 0.01 600.00 Resets synch if no close has been made
before set time
tMinSynch 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 2.000 Minimum time to accept synchronizing
conditions
OperationSC Off
On
- - On Operation for synchronism check
function Off/On
UHighBusSC 50.0 - 120.0 %UB 1.0 80.0 Voltage high limit bus for synchrocheck
in % of UBase
UHighLineSC 50.0 - 120.0 %UB 1.0 80.0 Voltage high limit line for synchrocheck
in % of UBase
UDiffSC 2.0 - 50.0 %UB 1.0 15.0 Voltage difference limit in % of UBase
FreqDiffA 0.003 - 1.000 Hz 0.001 0.010 Frequency difference limit between bus
and line Auto
FreqDiffM 0.003 - 1.000 Hz 0.001 0.010 Frequency difference limit between bus
and line Manual
PhaseDiffA 5.0 - 90.0 Deg 1.0 25.0 Phase angle difference limit between
bus and line Auto
PhaseDiffM 5.0 - 90.0 Deg 1.0 25.0 Phase angle difference limit between
bus and line Manual
tSCA 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.100 Time delay output for synchrocheck Auto
tSCM 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.100 Time delay output for synchrocheck
Manual
AutoEnerg Off
DLLB
DBLL
Both
- - DBLL Automatic energizing check mode
ManEnerg Off
DLLB
DBLL
Both
- - Both Manual energizing check mode
ManEnergDBDL Off
On
- - Off Manual dead bus, dead line energizing
UHighBusEnerg 50.0 - 120.0 %UB 1.0 80.0 Voltage high limit bus for energizing
check in % of UBase
UHighLineEnerg 50.0 - 120.0 %UB 1.0 80.0 Voltage high limit line for energizing
check in % of UBase
ULowBusEnerg 10.0 - 80.0 %UB 1.0 40.0 Voltage low limit bus for energizing
check in % of UBase
ULowLineEnerg 10.0 - 80.0 %UB 1.0 40.0 Voltage low limit line for energizing
check in % of UBase
UMaxEnerg 50.0 - 180.0 %UB 1.0 115.0 Maximum voltage for energizing in % of
UBase
tAutoEnerg 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.100 Time delay for automatic energizing
check
tManEnerg 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.100 Time delay for manual energizing check
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 12
Control
463
Technical reference manual
12.1.6 Technical data
Table 267: SESRSYN technical data
Function Range or value Accuracy
Phase shift, j
line
- j
bus
(-180 to 180) degrees -
Voltage ratio, U
bus
/U
line
(0.40-25.000) % of UBase -
Voltage high limit for
synchronizing and
synchrocheck
(50.0-120.0)% of UBase 1.0% of U
r
at U U
r
1.0% of U at U >U
r
Reset ratio, synchrocheck > 95% -
Frequency difference limit
between bus and line
(0.003-1.000) Hz 2.0 mHz
Phase angle difference limit
between bus and line
(5.0-90.0) degrees 2.0 degrees
Voltage difference limit
between bus and line
(2.0-50.0)% of UBase 1.0% of U
r
Time delay output for
synchrocheck
(0.000-60.000) s 0.5% 10 ms
Voltage high limit for
energizing check
(50.0-120.0)% of UBase 1.0% of U
r
at U U
r
1.0% of U at U >U
r
Reset ratio, voltage high limit > 95% -
Voltage low limit for
energizing check
(10.0-80.0)% of UBase 1.0% of U
r
Reset ratio, voltage low limit < 105% -
Maximum voltage for
energizing
(50.0-180.0)% of UBase 1.0% of U
r
at U U
r
1.0% of U at U >U
r
Time delay for energizing
check
(0.000-60.000) s 0.5% 10 ms
Operate time for
synchrocheck function
160 ms typically -
Operate time for energizing
function
80 ms typically -
12.2 Autorecloser SMBRREC
Function Description IEC 61850
identification
IEC 60617
identification
ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
Autorecloser SMBRREC
O->I
SYMBOL-L V1 EN
79
Section 12 1MRK506275-UEN C
Control
464
Technical reference manual
12.2.1 Introduction
The autorecloser (SMBRREC) function provides high-speed and/or delayed auto-
reclosing for single or multi-breaker applications.
Up to five reclosing attempts can be programmed. The first attempt can be single-,
two and/or three phase for single phase or multi-phase faults respectively.
Multiple autoreclosing functions are provided for multi-breaker arrangements. A
priority circuit allows one circuit breaker to close first and the second will only
close if the fault proved to be transient.
Each autoreclosing function can be configured to co-operate with a synchrocheck
function.
12.2.2 Principle of operation
12.2.2.1 Logic Diagrams
The logic diagrams below illustrate the principles applicable in the understanding
of the functionality.
12.2.2.2 Auto-reclosing operation Off and On
Operation of the automatic reclosing can be set to Off or On via the setting
parameters and through external control. With the setting Operation = On, the
function is activated while with the setting Operation = Off the function is
deactivated. With the setting Operation = External ctrl, the activation/deactivation
is made by input signal pulses, for example, from a control system.
When the function is set On and is operative the output SETON is activated (high).
Other input conditions such as CBPOS and CBREADY must also be fulfilled. At
this point the automatic recloser is prepared to start the reclosing cycle and the
output signal READY on the SMBRREC function block is activated (high).
12.2.2.3 Auto-reclosing mode selection
The Auto-reclosing mode is selected with setting ARMode = 3phase(0), 1/2/3ph(1),
1/2ph(2), 1ph+1*2ph(3), 1/2ph+1*3ph(4), 1ph+1*2/3ph(5). The selected mode
can be read as integer as per above list on output MODE.
As an alternative to setting the mode can be selected by connecting an integer, for
example from function block B16I to input MODEINT.
Following integers shall be used: 1=3phase, 2=1/2/3ph, 3=1/2ph, 4=1ph+1*2ph,
5=1/2ph+1*3ph or 6=1ph+1*2/3ph.
When INTZERO from Fixed signal function block is connected to the input
MODEINT the parameter setting selected will be valid.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 12
Control
465
Technical reference manual
12.2.2.4 Start auto-reclosing and conditions for start of a reclosing cycle
The usual way in which to start a reclosing cycle, or sequence, is to start it when a
line protection tripping has occurred, by applying a signal to the START input. It
should be necessary to adjust three-phase auto-reclosing open time, (dead time) for
different power system configurations or during tripping at different protection
stages, the input STARTHS (start high-speed reclosing) can also be used.
For a new auto-reclosing cycle to be started, a number of conditions need to be
met. They are linked to dedicated inputs. The inputs are:
CBREADY: CB ready for a reclosing cycle, for example, charged operating gear
CBPOS: to ensure that the CB was closed when the line fault occurred and
start was applied
No blocking or inhibit signal shall be present.
After the start has been accepted, it is latched in and an internal signal Started is
set. It can be interrupted by certain events, like an inhibit signal.
To start auto-reclosing by CB position Open instead of from protection trip signals,
one has to configure the CB Open position signal to inputs CBPOS and START
and set a parameter StartByCBOpen = On and CBAuxContType = NormClosed
(normally closed). One also has to configure and connect signals from manual trip
commands to input INHIBIT.
The logic for switching the auto-recloser On/Off and the starting of the reclosing is
shown in figure 250. The following should be considered:
Setting Operation can be set to Off, External ctrl or On. External ctrl offers
the possibility of switching by external switches to inputs ON and OFF,
communication commands to the same inputs, and so on.
SMBRREC is normally started by tripping. It is either a Zone 1 and
Communication aided trip, or a general trip. If the general trip is used the
function must be blocked from all back-up tripping connected to INHIBIT. In
both alternatives the breaker failure function must be connected to inhibit the
function. START makes a first attempt with synchrocheck, STARTHS makes
its first attempt without synchrocheck. TRSOTF starts shots 2-5.
Circuit breaker checks that the breaker was closed for a certain length of time
before the starting occurred and that the CB has sufficient stored energy to
perform an auto-reclosing sequence and is connected to inputs CBPOS and
CBREADY.
Section 12 1MRK506275-UEN C
Control
466
Technical reference manual
Operation:On
Operation:Off
Operation:External Ctrl
AND
AND
AND
S
R
AND
AND
AND
SETON
initiate
start
READY
CBPOS
CBREADY
TRSOTF
START
OFF
ON
Additional conditions
en05000782.vsd
STARTHS
autoInitiate
t
tCBClosedMin
CB Closed
AND
S
Blocking conditions
Inhibit condistions
count 0
AND
OR
OR
OR
OR
R
OR
t
120 ms
AND
IEC05000782 V1 EN
Figure 250: Auto-reclosing Off/On and start
12.2.2.5 Control of the auto-reclosing open time for shot 1
It is possible to use up to four different time settings for the first shot, and one
extension time. There are separate settings for single- , two- and three-phase auto-
reclosing open times, t1 1Ph, t1 2Ph, t1 3Ph. If no particular input signal is applied,
and an auto-reclosing program with single-phase reclosing is selected, the auto-
reclosing open time t1 1Ph will be used. If one of the inputs TR2P or TR3P is
activated in connection with the input START, the auto-reclosing open time for two-
phase or three-phase reclosing is used. There is also a separate time setting facility
for three-phase high-speed auto-reclosing, t1 3PhHS available for use when
required. It is activated by input STARTHS.
An auto-reclosing open time extension delay, tExtended t1, can be added to the
normal shot 1 delay. It is intended to come into use if the communication channel
for permissive line protection is lost. In a case like this there can be a significant
time difference in fault clearance at the two line ends. A longer auto-reclosing open
time can then be useful. This extension time is controlled by setting parameter
Extended t1 = On and the input PLCLOST.
12.2.2.6 Long trip signal
In normal circumstances the trip command resets quickly due to fault clearing. The
user can set a maximum trip pulse duration tTrip. When trip signals are longer, the
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 12
Control
467
Technical reference manual
auto-reclosing open time is extended by tExtended t1. If Extended t1 = Off, a long
trip signal interrupts the reclosing sequence in the same way as a signal to input
INHIBIT.
AND
AND
t
tTrip
AND
initiate
PLCLOST
AND
Extend t1
long duration
IEC05000783_2_en.vsd
start
Extended t1
AND
(block SMBRREC)
OR
IEC05000783 V2 EN
Figure 251: Control of extended auto-reclosing open time and long trip pulse detection
Reclosing checks and the reclaim timer
When dead time has elapsed during the auto-reclosing procedure certain conditions
must be fulfilled before the CB closing command is issued. To achieve this, signals
are exchanged between program modules to check that these conditions are met. In
three-phase reclosing a synchronizing and/or energizing check can be used. It is
possible to use a synchrocheck function in the same physical device or an external
one. The release signal is configured by connecting to the auto-reclosing function
input SYNC. If reclosing without checking is preferred the SYNC input can be set
to TRUE (set high). Another possibility is to set the output of the synchro-check
function to a permanently activated state. At confirmation from the synchro-check,
or if the reclosing is of single-phase or two-phase type, the signal passes on. At single-
phase, two-phase reclosing and at three-phase high-speed reclosing started by
STARTHS, synchronization is not checked, and the state of the SYNC input is
disregarded.
By choosing CBReadyType = CO (CB ready for a Close-Open sequence) the
readiness of the circuit breaker is also checked before issuing the CB closing
command. If the CB has a readiness contact of type CBReadyType = OCO (CB
ready for an Open-Close-Open sequence) this condition may not be complied with
after the tripping and at the moment of reclosure. The Open-Close-Open condition
was however checked at the start of the reclosing cycle and it is then likely that the
CB is prepared for a Close-Open sequence.
Section 12 1MRK506275-UEN C
Control
468
Technical reference manual
The synchro-check or energizing check must be fulfilled within a set time interval,
tSync. If it is not, or if other conditions are not met, the reclosing is interrupted and
blocked.
The reclaim timer defines a time from the issue of the reclosing command, after
which the reclosing function resets. Should a new trip occur during this time, it is
treated as a continuation of the first fault. The reclaim timer is started when the CB
closing command is given.
A number of outputs for Autoreclosing state control keeps track of the actual state
in the reclosing sequence.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 12
Control
469
Technical reference manual
AND
OR
OR
AND
t
t1 1Ph
t
t1 2Ph
t
t1 3Ph HS
From logic for
reclosing
programs
AND
AND OR
AND t
tSync
"SMBRREC Open time" timers
1P2PTO
3PHSTO
Pulse AR
Blocking out
CBREADY
initiate
SYNC
3PT4TO
3PT3TO
3PT2TO
3PT1TO
3PHSTO
OR
AND t
tReclaim
1
OR t
tInhibit
INPROGR
PERMIT1P
PREP3P
Inhibit (internal)
Blocking out
INHIBIT
Pulse SMBRREC (above)
t
t1 3Ph
3PT1TO
OR
1P2PTO
3PT5TO
Reclaim Timer On
0
CL
COUNTER
SMRREC State
Control
Shot 0
R
1
2
3
4
5
Shot 1
Shot 2
Shot 3
Shot 4
Shot 5
LOGIC
reclosing
programs
1PT1
2PT1
3PHS
3PT1
3PT2
3PT3
OR
Shot 0
start
initiate
TR3P
TR2P
Shot 1
Shot 2
Shot 3
Shot 4
Shot 5
3PT4
3PT5
IEC05000784_2_en.vsd
IEC05000784 V2 EN
Figure 252: Reclosing Reclaim and Inhibit timers
Pulsing of the CB closing command
The CB closing command, CLOSECB is a pulse with a duration set by parameter
tPulse. For circuit-breakers without anti-pumping function, the close pulse cutting
described below can be used. This is done by selecting the parameter
Section 12 1MRK506275-UEN C
Control
470
Technical reference manual
CutPulse=On. In case of a new trip pulse, the closing command pulse is cut
(interrupted). The minimum duration of the pulse is always 50 ms. See figure 253
When a reclosing command is issued, the appropriate reclosing operation counter is
incremented. There is a counter for each type of reclosing and one for the total
number of reclosing commands issued.
tPulse
AND
AND
pulse
50 ms
**)
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
CLOSECB
COUNT1P
COUNT2P
COUNT3P1
COUNT3P2
COUNT3P3
COUNT3P4
initiate
1PT1
2PT1
3PT1
3PT2
3PT3
3PT4
**) Only if "CutPulse" = On
en05000785.vsd
AND
COUNT3P5
COUNTAR
3PT5
RSTCOUNT
counter
counter
counter
counter
counter
counter
counter
counter
OR
IEC05000785 V1 EN
Figure 253: Pulsing of closing command and driving the operation counters
Transient fault
After the reclosing command the reclaim timer tReclaim starts running for the set
time. If no tripping occurs within this time, the auto-reclosing will reset.
Permanent fault and reclosing unsuccessful signal
If a new trip occurs after the CB closing command, and a new input signal START
or TRSOTF appears, the output UNSUCCL (unsuccessful closing) is set high. The
timers for the first shot can no longer be started. Depending on the setting for the
number of reclosing shots, further shots may be made or the reclosing sequence
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 12
Control
471
Technical reference manual
will be ended. After the reclaim time has elapsed, the auto-reclosing function resets
but the CB remains open. The CB closed data at the CBPOS input will be missing.
Because of this, the reclosing function will not be ready for a new reclosing cycle.
Normally the signal UNSUCCL appears when a new trip and start is received after
the last reclosing shot has been made and the auto-reclosing function is blocked.
The signal resets once the reclaim time has elapsed. The unsuccessful signal can
also be made to depend on CB position input. The parameter UnsucClByCBChk
should then be set to CBCheck, and a timer tUnsucCl should also be set. If the CB
does not respond to the closing command and does not close, but remains open, the
output UNSUCCL is set high after time tUnsucCl.
AND
OR
AND
S AND
t
tUnsucCl
AND
OR
eno5000786.vsd
initiate
block start
UnsucClByCBchk = CBcheck
UNSUCCL
shot 0
Pulse AR (Closing)
CBPOS CBclosed
R
IEC05000786 V1 EN
Figure 254: Issue of signal UNSUCCL, unsuccessful reclosing
Automatic continuation of the reclosing sequence
The auto-reclosing function can be programmed to proceed to the following
reclosing shots (if selected) even if the start signals are not received from the
protection functions, but the breaker is still not closed. This is done by setting
parameter AutoCont = On and tAutoContWait to the required delay for the function
to proceed without a new start.
Section 12 1MRK506275-UEN C
Control
472
Technical reference manual
AND
AND
AND
t
tAutoContWait
OR
OR START
CBPOS
initiate
en05000787.vsd
CLOSECB
S
R
Q
CBClosed
IEC05000787 V1 EN
Figure 255: Automatic proceeding of shot 2 to 5
Start of reclosing from CB open information
If a user wants to apply starting of auto-reclosing from CB open position instead of
from protection trip signals, the function offers such a possibility. This starting
mode is selected by a setting parameter StartByCBOpen = On. One needs then to
block reclosing at all manual trip operations. Typically, one also set
CBAuxContType = NormClosed and connect a CB auxiliary contact of type NC
(normally closed) to inputs CBPOS and START. When the signal changes from
CB closed to CB open an auto-reclosing start pulse of limited length is generated
and latched in the function, subject to the usual checks. Then the reclosing
sequence continues as usual. One needs to connect signals from manual tripping
and other functions, which shall prevent reclosing, to the input INHIBIT.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 12
Control
473
Technical reference manual
en05000788.vsd
AND
AND
AND
AND
1
1
100 ms
100 ms
StartByCBOpen = On
START
STARTHS
start
IEC05000788 V1 EN
Figure 256: Pulsing of the start inputs
12.2.2.7 Time sequence diagrams
Some examples of the timing of internal and external signals at typical transient
and permanent faults are shown below in figures 257 to 260.
CB READY
Fault
SUCCL
PREP3P
CLOSE CB
ACTIVE
1PT1
INPROG
READY
SYNC
START
CB POS
Closed
(Trip)
Open Closed
tPulse
t1 1Ph
tReclaim
Time
en04000196-2-en.vsd
IEC04000196 V2 EN
Figure 257: Transient single-phase fault. Single -phase reclosing
Section 12 1MRK506275-UEN C
Control
474
Technical reference manual
CB READY
Fault
UNSUCCL
ACTIVE
3PT2
3PT1
INPROGR
READY
SYNC
TR3P
START
CB POS
Closed
(Trip)
Time
en04000197.vsd
PREP3P
CLOSE CB
Open
C
Open
C
t1 3Ph
tPulse
t2 3Ph
tPulse
tReclaim
IEC04000197 V1 EN
Figure 258: Permanent fault. Three-phase trip. Two-shot reclosing
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 12
Control
475
Technical reference manual
AR01-CBREADY(CO)
Fault
AR01-UNSUC
AR01-T2
AR01-T1
AR01-1PT1
AR01-INPROGR
AR01-READY
AR01-SYNC
AR01-TR3P
AR01-START
AR01-CBCLOSED
en04000198.vsd
AR01-P3P
AR01-CLOSECB
t1s
tReclaim
IEC04000198 V1 EN
Figure 259: Permanent single-phase fault. Program 1/2/3ph, single-phase
single-shot reclosing
AR01-CBREADY(CO)
Fault
AR01-UNSUC
AR01-T2
AR01-T1
AR01-1PT1
AR01-INPROGR
AR01-READY
AR01-SYNC
AR01-TR3P
AR01-START
AR01-CBCLOSED
en04000199.vsd
AR01-P3P
AR01-CLOSECB
t1s
t2
tReclaim
IEC04000199 V1 EN
Figure 260: Permanent single-phase fault. Program 1ph + 3ph or 1/2ph + 3ph,
two-shot reclosing
Section 12 1MRK506275-UEN C
Control
476
Technical reference manual
12.2.3 Function block
IEC06000189-2-en.vsd
SMBRREC
ON
OFF
BLKON
BLKOFF
RESET
INHIBIT
START
STARTHS
TRSOTF
SKIPHS
ZONESTEP
TR2P
TR3P
THOLHOLD
CBREADY
CBPOS
PLCLOST
SYNC
WAIT
RSTCOUNT
MODEINT
BLOCKED
SETON
READY
ACTIVE
SUCCL
UNSUCCL
INPROGR
1PT1
2PT1
3PT1
3PT2
3PT3
3PT4
3PT5
PERMIT1P
PREP3P
CLOSECB
WFMASTER
COUNT1P
COUNT2P
COUNT3P1
COUNT3P2
COUNT3P3
COUNT3P4
COUNT3P5
COUNTAR
MODE
IEC06000189 V2 EN
Figure 261: SMBRREC function block
12.2.4 Input and output signals
Table 268: SMBRREC Input signals
Name Type Default Description
ON BOOLEAN 0 Switches the AR On (at Operation = ExternalCtrl)
OFF BOOLEAN 0 Switches the AR Off (at Operation = ExternalCtrl)
BLKON BOOLEAN 0 Sets the AR in blocked state
BLKOFF BOOLEAN 0 Releases the AR from the blocked state
RESET BOOLEAN 0 Resets the AR to initial conditions
INHIBIT BOOLEAN 0 Interrupts and inhibits reclosing sequence
START BOOLEAN 0 Reclosing sequence starts by a protection trip
signal
STARTHS BOOLEAN 0 Start HS reclosing without SC: t13PhHS
TRSOTF BOOLEAN 0 Makes AR to continue to shots 2-5 at a trip from
SOTF
SKIPHS BOOLEAN 0 Will skip the high speed shot and continue on
delayed shots
ZONESTEP BOOLEAN 0 Coordination between local AR and down stream
devices
TR2P BOOLEAN 0 Signal to the AR that a two-phase tripping occurred
TR3P BOOLEAN 0 Signal to the AR that a three-phase tripping
occurred
Table continues on next page
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 12
Control
477
Technical reference manual
Name Type Default Description
THOLHOLD BOOLEAN 0 Hold the AR in wait state
CBREADY BOOLEAN 0 CB must be ready for CO/OCO operation to allow
start / close
CBPOS BOOLEAN 0 Status of the circuit breaker Closed/Open
PLCLOST BOOLEAN 0 Power line carrier or other form of permissive sig
nal lost
SYNC BOOLEAN 0 Synchronizing check fulfilled (for 3Ph attempts)
WAIT BOOLEAN 0 Wait for master (in Multi-breaker arrangements)
RSTCOUNT BOOLEAN 0 Resets all counters
MODEINT INTEGER 0 Integer input used to set the reclosingMode,
alternative to setting
Table 269: SMBRREC Output signals
Name Type Description
BLOCKED BOOLEAN The AR is in blocked state
SETON BOOLEAN The AR operation is switched on, operative
READY BOOLEAN Indicates that the AR function is ready for a new
sequence
ACTIVE BOOLEAN Reclosing sequence in progress
SUCCL BOOLEAN Activated if CB closes during the time tUnsucCl
UNSUCCL BOOLEAN Reclosing unsuccessful, signal resets after the
reclaim time
INPROGR BOOLEAN Reclosing shot in progress, activated during open
time
1PT1 BOOLEAN Single-phase reclosing is in progress, shot 1
2PT1 BOOLEAN Two-phase reclosing is in progress, shot 1
3PT1 BOOLEAN Three-phase reclosing in progress, shot 1
3PT2 BOOLEAN Three-phase reclosing in progress, shot 2
3PT3 BOOLEAN Three-phase reclosing in progress, shot 3
3PT4 BOOLEAN Three-phase reclosing in progress, shot 4
3PT5 BOOLEAN Three-phase reclosing in progress, shot 5
PERMIT1P BOOLEAN Permit single-phase trip, inverse signal to PREP3P
PREP3P BOOLEAN Prepare three-phase trip, control of the next trip
operation
CLOSECB BOOLEAN Closing command for CB
WFMASTER BOOLEAN Signal to Slave issued by Master for sequential
reclosing
COUNT1P INTEGER Counting the number of single-phase reclosing
shots
COUNT2P INTEGER Counting the number of two-phase reclosing shots
COUNT3P1 INTEGER Counting the number of three-phase reclosing
shot 1
Table continues on next page
Section 12 1MRK506275-UEN C
Control
478
Technical reference manual
Name Type Description
COUNT3P2 INTEGER Counting the number of three-phase reclosing
shot 2
COUNT3P3 INTEGER Counting the number of three-phase reclosing
shot 3
COUNT3P4 INTEGER Counting the number of three-phase reclosing
shot 4
COUNT3P5 INTEGER Counting the number of three-phase reclosing
shot 5
COUNTAR INTEGER Counting total number of reclosing shots
MODE INTEGER Integer output for reclosing mode
12.2.5 Setting parameters
Table 270: SMBRREC Group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
Operation Off
External ctrl
On
- - External ctrl Off, ExternalCtrl, On
ARMode 3 phase
1/2/3ph
1/2ph
1ph+1*2ph
1/2ph+1*3ph
1ph+1*2/3ph
- - 1/2/3ph The AR mode selection e.g. 3ph, 1/3ph
t1 1Ph 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 1.000 Open time for shot 1, single-phase
t1 3Ph 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 6.000 Open time for shot 1, delayed reclosing
3ph
t1 3PhHS 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.400 Open time for shot 1, high speed
reclosing 3ph
tReclaim 0.00 - 6000.00 s 0.01 60.00 Duration of the reclaim time
tSync 0.00 - 6000.00 s 0.01 30.00 Maximum wait time for synchrocheck OK
tTrip 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.200 Maximum trip pulse duration
tPulse 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.200 Duration of the circuit breaker closing
pulse
tCBClosedMin 0.00 - 6000.00 s 0.01 5.00 Min time that CB must be closed before
new sequence allows
tUnsucCl 0.00 - 6000.00 s 0.01 30.00 Wait time for CB before indicating
Unsuccessful/Successful
Priority None
Low
High
- - None Priority selection between adjacent
terminals None/Low/High
tWaitForMaster 0.00 - 6000.00 s 0.01 60.00 Maximum wait time for release from
Master
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 12
Control
479
Technical reference manual
Table 271: SMBRREC Group settings (advanced)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
NoOfShots 1
2
3
4
5
- - 1 Max number of reclosing shots 1-5
StartByCBOpen Off
On
- - Off To be set ON if AR is to be started by
CB open position
CBAuxContType NormClosed
NormOpen
- - NormOpen Select the CB aux contact type NC/NO
for CBPOS input
CBReadyType CO
OCO
- - CO Select type of circuit breaker ready
signal CO/OCO
t1 2Ph 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 1.000 Open time for shot 1, two-phase
t2 3Ph 0.00 - 6000.00 s 0.01 30.00 Open time for shot 2, three-phase
t3 3Ph 0.00 - 6000.00 s 0.01 30.00 Open time for shot 3, three-phase
t4 3Ph 0.00 - 6000.00 s 0.01 30.00 Open time for shot 4, three-phase
t5 3Ph 0.00 - 6000.00 s 0.01 30.00 Open time for shot 5, three-phase
Extended t1 Off
On
- - Off Extended open time at loss of
permissive channel Off/On
tExtended t1 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.500 3Ph Dead time is extended with this
value at loss of perm ch
tInhibit 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 5.000 Inhibit reclosing reset time
CutPulse Off
On
- - Off Shorten closing pulse at a new trip Off/On
Follow CB Off
On
- - Off Advance to next shot if CB has been
closed during dead time
AutoCont Off
On
- - Off Continue with next reclosing-shot if
breaker did not close
tAutoContWait 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 2.000 Wait time after close command before
proceeding to next shot
UnsucClByCBChk NoCBCheck
CB check
- - NoCBCheck Unsuccessful closing signal obtained by
checking CB position
BlockByUnsucCl Off
On
- - Off Block AR at unsuccessful reclosing
ZoneSeqCoord Off
On
- - Off Coordination of down stream devices to
local prot units AR
Section 12 1MRK506275-UEN C
Control
480
Technical reference manual
12.2.6 Technical data
Table 272: SMBRREC technical data
Function Range or value Accuracy
Number of autoreclosing shots 1 - 5 -
Autoreclosing open time:
shot 1 - t1 1Ph
shot 1 - t1 2Ph
shot 1 - t1 3PhHS
shot 1 - t1 3PhDld

(0.000-60.000) s



0.5% 10 ms
shot 2 - t2
shot 3 - t3
shot 4 - t4
shot 5 - t5
(0.00-6000.00) s
Extended autorecloser open time (0.000-60.000) s
Autorecloser maximum wait time for sync (0.00-6000.00) s
Maximum trip pulse duration (0.000-60.000) s
Inhibit reset time (0.000-60.000) s
Reclaim time (0.00-6000.00) s
Minimum time CB must be closed before AR
becomes ready for autoreclosing cycle
(0.00-6000.00) s
Circuit breaker closing pulse length (0.000-60.000) s
CB check time before unsuccessful (0.00-6000.00) s
Wait for master release (0.00-6000.00) s
Wait time after close command before
proceeding to next shot
(0.000-60.000) s
12.3 Apparatus control APC
12.3.1 Introduction
The apparatus control is a function for control and supervision of circuit breakers,
disconnectors and earthing switches within a bay. Permission to operate is given
after evaluation of conditions from other functions such as interlocking,
synchrocheck, operator place selection and external or internal blockings.
12.3.2 Principle of operation
A bay can handle, for example a power line, a transformer, a reactor, or a capacitor
bank. The different primary apparatuses within the bay can be controlled via the
apparatus control function directly by the operator or indirectly by automatic
sequences.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 12
Control
481
Technical reference manual
Because a primary apparatus can be allocated to many functions within a
Substation Automation system, the object-oriented approach with a function
module that handles the interaction and status of each process object ensures
consistency in the process information used by higher-level control functions.
Primary apparatuses such as breakers and disconnectors are controlled and
supervised by one software module (SCSWI) each. Because the number and type
of signals connected to a breaker and a disconnector are almost the same, the same
software is used to handle these two types of apparatuses.
The software module is connected to the physical process in the switchyard via an
interface module by means of a number of digital inputs and outputs. One type of
interface module is intended for a circuit breaker (SXCBR) and another type is
intended for a disconnector or earthing switch (SXSWI). Four types of function
blocks are available to cover most of the control and supervision within the bay.
These function blocks are interconnected to form a control function reflecting the
switchyard configuration. The total number used depends on the switchyard
configuration. These four types are:
Bay control QCBAY
Switch controller SCSWI
Circuit breaker SXCBR
Circuit switch SXSWI
The three latter functions are logical nodes according to IEC 61850. The functions
Local Remote (LOCREM) and Local Remote Control (LOCREMCTRL), to handle
the local/remote switch, and the functions Bay reserve (QCRSV) and Reservation
input (RESIN), for the reservation function, also belong to the apparatus control
function. The principles of operation, function block, input and output signals and
setting parameters for all these functions are described below.
12.3.3 Error handling
Depending on the error that occurs during the command sequence the error signal
will be set with a value. Table 273 describes vendor specific cause values in
addition to these specified in IEC 61850-8-1 standard. The list of values of the
cause are in order of priority. The values are available over the IEC 61850. An
output L_CAUSE on the function block for Switch controller (SCSWI), Circuit
breaker (SXCBR) and Circuit switch (SXSWI) indicates the latest value of the
error during the command.
Section 12 1MRK506275-UEN C
Control
482
Technical reference manual
Table 273: Values for "cause" signal in priority order
Attribute value Description Supported
Defined in IEC 61850 0 no error X
1 serviceError-type
2 blocked-by-switching-
hierarchy
X
3 select-failed X
4 invalid-position X
5 position-reached X
6 parameter-change-in-
execution
X
7 step-limit X
8 blocked-by-mode X
9 blocked-by-process X
10 blocked-by-interlocking X
11 blocked-by-
synchrocheck
X
12 command-already-in-
execution
X
13 blocked-by-health X
14 1-of-n-control X
15 abortion-by-cancel X
16 time-limit-over X
17 abortion-by-trip X
18 object-not-selected X
19 Not in use

Table continues on next page
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 12
Control
483
Technical reference manual
Attribute value Description Supported
Vendor specific -20 Not in use
-21 Not in use
-23 blocked-for-command X
-24 blocked-for-open-
command
X
-25 blocked-for-close-
command
X
-26 Not in use
-27 Not in use
-28 Not in use
-29 Not in use
-30 long-operation-time X
-31 switch-not-start-moving X
-32 persisting-intermediate-
state
X
-33 switch-returned-to-initial-
position
X
-34 switch-in-bad-state X
-35 not-expected-final-
position
X
12.3.4 Bay control QCBAY
12.3.4.1 Introduction
The bay control (QCBAY) function is used to handle the selection of the operator
place per bay. QCBAY also provides blocking functions that can be distributed to
different apparatuses within the bay.
12.3.4.2 Principle of operation
The functionality of the Bay control (QCBAY) function is not defined in the IEC
6185081 standard, which means that the function is a vendor specific logical node.
The function sends information about the Permitted Source To Operate (PSTO)
and blocking conditions to other functions within the bay for example, switch
control functions, voltage control functions and measurement functions.
Local panel switch
The local panel switch is a switch that defines the operator place selection. The
switch connected to this function can have three positions remote/local/off. The
positions are here defined so that remote means that operation is allowed from station/
remote level and local from the IED level. The local/remote switch is normally
situated on the control/protection IED itself, which means that the position of the
Section 12 1MRK506275-UEN C
Control
484
Technical reference manual
switch and its validity information are connected internally, and not via I/O boards.
When the switch is mounted separately on the IED the signals are connected to the
function via I/O boards.
When the local panel switch is in Off position all commands from remote and local
level will be ignored. If the position for the local/remote switch is not valid the
PSTO output will always be set to faulty state (3), which means no possibility to
operate.
To adapt the signals from the local HMI or from an external local/remote switch,
the function blocks LOCREM and LOCREMCTRL are needed and connected to
QCBAY.
Permitted Source To Operate (PSTO)
The actual state of the operator place is presented by the value of the Permitted
Source To Operate, PSTO signal. The PSTO value is evaluated from the local/
remote switch position according to table 274. In addition, there is one
configuration parameter that affects the value of the PSTO signal. If the parameter
AllPSTOValid is set and LR-switch position is in Local or Remote state, the PSTO
value is set to 5 (all), that is, it is permitted to operate from both local and remote
level without any priority. When the external panel switch is in Off position the
PSTO value shows the actual state of switch that is, 0. In this case it is not possible
to control anything.
Table 274: PSTO values for different Local panel switch positions
Local panel switch
positions
PSTO value AllPSTOValid
(configuration
parameter)
Possible locations that shall be able to
operate
0 = Off 0 -- Not possible to operate
1 = Local 1 FALSE Local Panel
1 = Local 5 TRUE Local or Remote level without any
priority
2 = Remote 2 FALSE Remote level
2 = Remote 5 TRUE Local or Remote level without any
priority
3 = Faulty 3 -- Not possible to operate
Blockings
The blocking states for position indications and commands are intended to provide
the possibility for the user to make common blockings for the functions configured
within a complete bay.
The blocking facilities provided by the bay control function are the following:
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 12
Control
485
Technical reference manual
Blocking of position indications, BL_UPD. This input will block all inputs
related to apparatus positions for all configured functions within the bay.
Blocking of commands, BL_CMD. This input will block all commands for all
configured functions within the bay.
Blocking of function, BLOCK, signal from DO (Data Object) Behavior (IEC
6185081). If DO Behavior is set to "blocked" it means that the function is
active, but no outputs are generated, no reporting, control commands are
rejected and functional and configuration data is visible.
The switching of the Local/Remote switch requires at least system operator level.
The password will be requested at an attempt to operate if authority levels have
been defined in the IED. Otherwise the default authority level, SuperUser, can
handle the control without LogOn. The users and passwords are defined in PCM600.
12.3.4.3 Function block
IEC05000796-2-en.vsd
QCBAY
LR_OFF
LR_LOC
LR_REM
LR_VALID
BL_UPD
BL_CMD
PSTO
UPD_BLKD
CMD_BLKD
IEC05000796 V2 EN
Figure 262: QCBAY function block
12.3.4.4 Input and output signals
Table 275: QCBAY Input signals
Name Type Default Description
LR_OFF BOOLEAN 0 External Local/Remote switch is in Off position
LR_LOC BOOLEAN 0 External Local/Remote switch is in Local position
LR_REM BOOLEAN 0 External Local/Remote switch is in Remote
position
LR_VALID BOOLEAN 0 Data representing the L/R switch position is valid
BL_UPD BOOLEAN 0 Steady signal to block the position updates
BL_CMD BOOLEAN 0 Steady signal to block the command
Table 276: QCBAY Output signals
Name Type Description
PSTO INTEGER The value for the operator place allocation
UPD_BLKD BOOLEAN The update of position is blocked
CMD_BLKD BOOLEAN The function is blocked for commands
Section 12 1MRK506275-UEN C
Control
486
Technical reference manual
12.3.4.5 Setting parameters
Table 277: QCBAY Non group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
AllPSTOValid Priority
No priority
- - Priority The priority of originators
12.3.5 Local/Remote switch
12.3.5.1 Introduction
The signals from the local HMI or from an external local/remote switch are applied
via function blocks LOCREM and LOCREMCTRL to the Bay control (QCBAY)
function block. A parameter in function block LOCREM is set to choose if the
switch signals are coming from the local HMI or from an external hardware switch
connected via binary inputs.
12.3.5.2 Principle of operation
The function block Local remote (LOCREM) handles the signals coming from the
local/remote switch. The connections are seen in figure 263, where the inputs on
function block LOCREM are connected to binary inputs if an external switch is
used. When a local HMI is used, the inputs are not used and are set to FALSE in
the configuration. The outputs from the LOCREM function block control the
output PSTO (Permitted Source To Operate) on Bay control (QCBAY).
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 12
Control
487
Technical reference manual
QCBAY
LR_OFF
LR_LOC
LR_REM
LR_VALID
BL_UPD
BL_CMD
PSTO
UPD_BLKD
CMD_BLKD
LOCREM
CTRLOFF
LOCCTRL
REMCTRL
LHMICTRL
OFF
LOCAL
REMOTE
VALID
LOCREMCTRL
PSTO1
PSTO2
PSTO3
PSTO4
PSTO5
PSTO6
PSTO7
PSTO8
PSTO9
PSTO10
PSTO11
PSTO12
HMICTR1
HMICTR2
HMICTR3
HMICTR4
HMICTR5
HMICTR6
HMICTR7
HMICTR8
HMICTR9
HMICTR10
HMICTR11
HMICTR12
QCBAY
LR_OFF
LR_LOC
LR_REM
LR_VALID
BL_UPD
BL_CMD
PSTO
UPD_BLKD
CMD_BLKD
LOCREM
CTRLOFF
LOCCTRL
REMCTRL
LHMICTRL
OFF
LOCAL
REMOTE
VALID
IEC05000250_2_en.vsd
IEC05000250 V2 EN
Figure 263: Configuration for the local/remote handling for a local HMI with two
bays and two screen pages
If the IED contains control functions for several bays, the local/remote position can
be different for the included bays. When the local HMI is used the position of the
local/remote switch can be different depending on which single line diagram screen
page that is presented on the local HMI. The function block Local remote control
(LOCREMCTRL) controls the presentation of the LEDs for the local/remote
position to applicable bay and screen page.
The switching of the local/remote switch requires at least system operator level.
The password will be requested at an attempt to operate if authority levels have
been defined in the IED. Otherwise the default authority level, SuperUser, can
handle the control without LogOn. The users and passwords are defined in PCM600.
12.3.5.3 Function block
IEC05000360-2-en.vsd
LOCREM
CTRLOFF
LOCCTRL
REMCTRL
LHMICTRL
OFF
LOCAL
REMOTE
VALID
IEC05000360 V2 EN
Figure 264: LOCREM function block
Section 12 1MRK506275-UEN C
Control
488
Technical reference manual
IEC05000361-2-en.vsd
LOCREMCTRL
PSTO1
PSTO2
PSTO3
PSTO4
PSTO5
PSTO6
PSTO7
PSTO8
PSTO9
PSTO10
PSTO11
PSTO12
HMICTR1
HMICTR2
HMICTR3
HMICTR4
HMICTR5
HMICTR6
HMICTR7
HMICTR8
HMICTR9
HMICTR10
HMICTR11
HMICTR12
IEC05000361 V2 EN
Figure 265: LOCREMCTRL function block
12.3.5.4 Input and output signals
Table 278: LOCREM Input signals
Name Type Default Description
CTRLOFF BOOLEAN 0 Disable control
LOCCTRL BOOLEAN 0 Local in control
REMCTRL BOOLEAN 0 Remote in control
LHMICTRL INTEGER 0 LHMI control
Table 279: LOCREM Output signals
Name Type Description
OFF BOOLEAN Control is disabled
LOCAL BOOLEAN Local control is activated
REMOTE BOOLEAN Remote control is activated
VALID BOOLEAN Outputs are valid
Table 280: LOCREMCTRL Input signals
Name Type Default Description
PSTO1 INTEGER 0 PSTO input channel 1
PSTO2 INTEGER 0 PSTO input channel 2
PSTO3 INTEGER 0 PSTO input channel 3
PSTO4 INTEGER 0 PSTO input channel 4
PSTO5 INTEGER 0 PSTO input channel 5
PSTO6 INTEGER 0 PSTO input channel 6
PSTO7 INTEGER 0 PSTO input channel 7
PSTO8 INTEGER 0 PSTO input channel 8
PSTO9 INTEGER 0 PSTO input channel 9
Table continues on next page
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 12
Control
489
Technical reference manual
Name Type Default Description
PSTO10 INTEGER 0 PSTO input channel 10
PSTO11 INTEGER 0 PSTO input channel 11
PSTO12 INTEGER 0 PSTO input channel 12
Table 281: LOCREMCTRL Output signals
Name Type Description
HMICTR1 INTEGER Bitmask output 1 to local remote LHMI input
HMICTR2 INTEGER Bitmask output 2 to local remote LHMI input
HMICTR3 INTEGER Bitmask output 3 to local remote LHMI input
HMICTR4 INTEGER Bitmask output 4 to local remote LHMI input
HMICTR5 INTEGER Bitmask output 5 to local remote LHMI input
HMICTR6 INTEGER Bitmask output 6 to local remote LHMI input
HMICTR7 INTEGER Bitmask output 7 to local remote LHMI input
HMICTR8 INTEGER Bitmask output 8 to local remote LHMI input
HMICTR9 INTEGER Bitmask output 9 to local remote LHMI input
HMICTR10 INTEGER Bitmask output 10 to local remote LHMI input
HMICTR11 INTEGER Bitmask output 11 to local remote LHMI input
HMICTR12 INTEGER Bitmask output 12 to local remote LHMI input
12.3.5.5 Setting parameters
Table 282: LOCREM Non group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
ControlMode Internal LR-switch
External LR-switch
- - Internal LR-switch Control mode for internal/external LR-
switch
12.3.6 Switch controller SCSWI
12.3.6.1 Introduction
The Switch controller (SCSWI) initializes and supervises all functions to properly
select and operate switching primary apparatuses. The Switch controller may
handle and operate on one three-phase device.
12.3.6.2 Principle of operation
The Switch controller (SCSWI) is provided with verification checks for the select -
execute sequence, that is, checks the conditions prior each step of the operation.
The involved functions for these condition verifications are interlocking,
reservation, blockings and synchrocheck.
Section 12 1MRK506275-UEN C
Control
490
Technical reference manual
Control handling
.
Two types of control models can be used. The two control models are "direct with
normal security" and "SBO (Select-Before-Operate) with enhanced security". The
parameter CtlModel defines which one of the two control models is used. The
control model "direct with normal security" does not require a select whereas, the
"SBO with enhanced security" command model requires a select before execution.
The parameter CtlModel's alternative settings Dir Norm and Dir
Norm (ABB) have identical functionality and so have SBO Enh
(ABB) and SBO Enh.
Normal security means that only the command is evaluated and the resulting
position is not supervised. Enhanced security means that the command sequence is
supervised in three steps, the selection, command evaluation and the supervision of
position. Each step ends up with a pulsed signal to indicate that the respective step
in the command sequence is finished. If an error occurs in one of the steps in the
command sequence, the sequence is terminated and the error is mapped into the
enumerated variable "cause" attribute belonging to the pulsed response signal for
the IEC 61850 communication. The last cause L_CAUSE can be read from the
function block and used for example at commissioning.
There is no relation between the command direction and the actual
position. For example, if the switch is in close position it is possible
to execute a close command.
Before an execution command, an evaluation of the position is done. If the
parameter PosDependent is true and the position is in intermediate state or in bad
state no execution command is sent. If the parameter is false the execution
command is sent independent of the position value.
Evaluation of position
In the case when there are three one-phase switches connected to the switch control
function, the switch control will "merge" the position of the three switches to the
resulting three-phase position. In the case when the position differ between the one-
phase switches, following principles will be applied:
The position output from switch (SXCBR or SXSWI) is connected to SCSWI.
With the group signal connection the SCSWI obtains the position, time stamps and
quality attributes of the position which is used for further evaluation.
All switches in open position: switch control position = open
All switches in close position: switch control position = close
One switch =open, two switches= close (or
inversely):
switch control position = intermediate
Any switch in intermediate position: switch control position = intermediate
Any switch in bad state: switch control position = bad state
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 12
Control
491
Technical reference manual
The time stamp of the output three-phase position from switch control will have the
time stamp of the last changed phase when it goes to end position. When it goes to
intermediate position or bad state, it will get the time stamp of the first changed phase.
In addition, there is also the possibility that one of the one-phase switches will
change position at any time due to a trip. Such situation is here called pole
discordance and is supervised by this function. In case of a pole discordance
situation, that is, the position of the one-phase switches are not equal for a time
longer than the setting tPoleDiscord, an error signal POLEDISC will be set.
In the supervision phase, the switch controller function evaluates the "cause"
values from the switch modules Circuit breaker (SXCBR)/ Circuit switch
(SXSWI). At error the "cause" value with highest priority is shown.
Blocking principles
The blocking signals are normally coming from the bay control function (QCBAY)
and via the IEC 61850 communication from the operator place.
The different blocking possibilities are:
Block/deblock of command. It is used to block command for operation of
position.
Blocking of function, BLOCK, signal from DO (Data Object) Behavior (IEC
61850). If DO Behavior is set to "blocked" it means that the function is active,
but no outputs are generated, no reporting, control commands are rejected and
functional and configuration data is visible.
The different block conditions will only affect the operation of this
function, that is, no blocking signals will be "forwarded" to other
functions. The above blocking outputs are stored in a non-volatile
memory.
Interaction with synchrocheck and synchronizing functions
The Switch controller (SCSWI) works in conjunction with the synchrocheck and
the synchronizing function (SESRSYN). It is assumed that the synchrocheck
function is continuously in operation and gives the result to SCSWI. The result
from the synchrocheck function is evaluated during the close execution. If the
operator performs an override of the synchrocheck, the evaluation of the
synchrocheck state is omitted. When there is a positive confirmation from the
synchrocheck function, SCSWI will send the close signal EXE_CL to the switch
function Circuit breaker (SXCBR).
When there is no positive confirmation from the synchrocheck function, SCSWI
will send a start signal START_SY to the synchronizing function, which will send
the closing command to SXCBR when the synchronizing conditions are fulfilled,
see figure 266. If no synchronizing function is included, the timer for supervision
of the "synchronizing in progress signal" is set to 0, which means no start of the
Section 12 1MRK506275-UEN C
Control
492
Technical reference manual
synchronizing function. SCSWI will then set the attribute "blocked-by-
synchrocheck" in the "cause" signal. See also the time diagram in figure 270.
IEC09000209_1_en.vsd
Synchro
check
OR
SCSWI
SXCBR
CLOSE
SYNC_OK
EXE_CL
Synchronizing
function
SY_INPRO
START_SY
CLOSECB
SESRSYN
IEC09000209 V1 EN
Figure 266: Example of interaction between SCSWI, SESRSYN (synchrocheck
and synchronizing function) and SXCBR function
Time diagrams
The Switch controller (SCSWI) function has timers for evaluating different time
supervision conditions. These timers are explained here.
The timer tSelect is used for supervising the time between the select and the
execute command signal, that is, the time the operator has to perform the command
execution after the selection of the object to operate.
select
tSelect
timer
execute command
t1
t1>tSelect, then long-
operation-time in 'cause'
is set
en05000092.vsd
IEC05000092 V1 EN
Figure 267: tSelect
The parameter tResResponse is used to set the maximum allowed time to make the
reservation, that is, the time between reservation request and the feedback
reservation granted from all bays involved in the reservation function.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 12
Control
493
Technical reference manual
select
tResResponse
timer
reservation granted RES_GRT
t1>tResResponse, then
1-of-n-control in 'cause'
is set
t1
reservation request RES_RQ
command termination
en05000093.vsd
IEC05000093 V1 EN
Figure 268: tResResponse
The timer tExecutionFB supervises the time between the execute command and the
command termination, see figure 269.
execute command
position L1
t1>tExecutionFB, then
long-operation-time in
'cause' is set
open
close
close
open position L3
close
open position L2
t1
tExecutionFB
timer
cmd termination L1
cmd termination L2
cmd termination L3
cmd termination
position open
close
* The cmd termination will be delayed one execution sample.
*
en05000094.vsd
IEC05000094 V1 EN
Figure 269: tExecutionFB
The parameter tSynchrocheck is used to define the maximum allowed time between
the execute command and the input SYNC_OK to become true. If SYNC_OK=true
at the time the execute command signal is received, the timer "tSynchrocheck" will
not start. The start signal for the synchronizing is obtained if the synchrocheck
conditions are not fulfilled.
Section 12 1MRK506275-UEN C
Control
494
Technical reference manual
execute command
SY_INPRO
SYNC_OK
t2>tSynchronizing, then
blocked-by-synchrocheck in
'cause' is set
tSynchrocheck
t1
START_SY
tSynchronizing
t2
en05000095.vsd
IEC05000095 V1 EN
Figure 270: tSynchroCheck and tSynchronizing
12.3.6.3 Function block
IEC05000337-2-en.vsd
SCSWI
BLOCK
PSTO
L_SEL
L_OPEN
L_CLOSE
AU_OPEN
AU_CLOSE
BL_CMD
RES_GRT
RES_EXT
SY_INPRO
SYNC_OK
EN_OPEN
EN_CLOSE
XPOS1
XPOS2
XPOS3
EXE_OP
EXE_CL
SELECTED
RES_RQ
START_SY
POSITION
OPENPOS
CLOSEPOS
POLEDISC
CMD_BLK
L_CAUSE
XOUT
POS_INTR
IEC05000337 V2 EN
Figure 271: SCSWI function block
12.3.6.4 Input and output signals
Table 283: SCSWI Input signals
Name Type Default Description
BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function
PSTO INTEGER 2 Operator place selection
L_SEL BOOLEAN 0 Select signal from local panel
L_OPEN BOOLEAN 0 Open signal from local panel
L_CLOSE BOOLEAN 0 Close signal from local panel
AU_OPEN BOOLEAN 0 Used for local automation function
AU_CLOSE BOOLEAN 0 Used for local automation function
BL_CMD BOOLEAN 0 Steady signal for block of the command
Table continues on next page
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 12
Control
495
Technical reference manual
Name Type Default Description
RES_GRT BOOLEAN 0 Positive acknowledge that all reservations are
made
RES_EXT BOOLEAN 0 Reservation is made externally
SY_INPRO BOOLEAN 0 Synchronizing function in progress
SYNC_OK BOOLEAN 0 Closing is permitted at set to true by the
synchrocheck
EN_OPEN BOOLEAN 0 Enables open operation
EN_CLOSE BOOLEAN 0 Enables close operation
XPOS1 GROUP
SIGNAL
- Pos 1
XPOS2 GROUP
SIGNAL
- Pos 2
XPOS3 GROUP
SIGNAL
- Pos 3
Table 284: SCSWI Output signals
Name Type Description
EXE_OP BOOLEAN Execute command for open direction
EXE_CL BOOLEAN Execute command for close direction
SELECTED BOOLEAN The select conditions are fulfilled
RES_RQ BOOLEAN Request signal to the reservation function
START_SY BOOLEAN Starts the synchronizing function
POSITION INTEGER Position indication
OPENPOS BOOLEAN Open position indication
CLOSEPOS BOOLEAN Closed position indication
POLEDISC BOOLEAN The positions for poles L1-L3 are not equal after
a set time
CMD_BLK BOOLEAN Commands are blocked
L_CAUSE INTEGER Latest value of the error indication during command
XOUT BOOLEAN Execution information to XCBR/XSWI
POS_INTR BOOLEAN Stopped in intermediate position
Section 12 1MRK506275-UEN C
Control
496
Technical reference manual
12.3.6.5 Setting parameters
Table 285: SCSWI Non group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
CtlModel Dir Norm
SBO Enh (ABB)
Dir Norm (ABB)
SBO Enh
- - SBO Enh Specifies the type for control model
according to IEC 61850
PosDependent Always permitted
Not perm at 00/11
- - Always permitted Permission to operate depending on the
position
tSelect 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 30.000 Max time between select and execute
signals
tResResponse 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 5.000 Allowed time from reservation request to
reservation granted
tSynchrocheck 0.00 - 600.00 s 0.01 10.00 Allowed time for synchrocheck to fulfil
close conditions
tSynchronizing 0.00 - 600.00 s 0.01 0.00 Supervision time to get the signal
synchronizing in progress
tExecutionFB 0.00 - 600.00 s 0.01 30.00 Max time from command execution to
termination
tPoleDiscord 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 2.000 Allowed time to have discrepancy
between the poles
12.3.7 Circuit breaker SXCBR
12.3.7.1 Introduction
The purpose of Circuit breaker (SXCBR) is to provide the actual status of positions
and to perform the control operations, that is, pass all the commands to primary
apparatuses in the form of circuit breakers via output boards and to supervise the
switching operation and position.
12.3.7.2 Principle of operation
The users of the Circuit breaker function (SXCBR) is other functions such as for
example, switch controller, protection functions, autorecloser function or an IEC
61850 client residing in another IED or the operator place. This switch function
executes commands, evaluates block conditions and evaluates different time
supervision conditions. Only if all conditions indicate a switch operation to be
allowed, the function performs the execution command. In case of erroneous
conditions, the function indicates an appropriate "cause" value.
SXCBR has an operation counter for closing and opening commands. The counter
value can be read remotely from the operator place. The value is reset from a
binary input or remotely from the operator place by configuring a signal from the
Single Point Generic Control 8 signals (SPC8GGIO) for example.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 12
Control
497
Technical reference manual
Local/Remote switch
One binary input signal LR_SWI is included in SXCBR to indicate the local/
remote switch position from switchyard provided via the I/O board. If this signal is
set to TRUE it means that change of position is allowed only from switchyard
level. If the signal is set to FALSE it means that command from IED or higher
level is permitted. When the signal is set to TRUE all commands (for change of
position) from internal IED clients are rejected, even trip commands from
protection functions are rejected. The functionality of the local/remote switch is
described in figure 272.
From I/O switchLR
T
R
U
E
F
A
L
S
E
Local= Operation at
switch yard level
Remote= Operation at
IED or higher level
en05000096.vsd
IEC05000096 V1 EN
Figure 272: Local/Remote switch
Blocking principles
SXCBR includes several blocking principles. The basic principle for all blocking
signals is that they will affect commands from all other clients for example,
operators place, protection functions, autoreclosure and so on.
The blocking possibilities are:
Block/deblock for open command. It is used to block operation for open
command. Note that this block signal also affects the input OPEN for
immediate command.
Block/deblock for close command. It is used to block operation for close
command. Note that this block signal also affects the input CLOSE for
immediate command.
Update block/deblock of positions. It is used to block the updating of position
values. Other signals related to the position will be reset.
Blocking of function, BLOCK, signal from DO (Data Object) Behavior (IEC
61850). If DO Behavior is set to "blocked" it means that the function is active,
but no outputs are generated, no reporting, control commands are rejected and
functional and configuration data is visible.
The above blocking outputs are stored in a non-volatile memory.
Substitution
The substitution part in SXCBR is used for manual set of the position for the
switch. The typical use of substitution is that an operator enters a manual value
because that the real process value is erroneous for some reason. SXCBR will then
Section 12 1MRK506275-UEN C
Control
498
Technical reference manual
use the manually entered value instead of the value for positions determined by the
process.
It is always possible to make a substitution, independently of the
position indication and the status information of the I/O board.
When substitution is enabled, the position values are blocked for
updating and other signals related to the position are reset. The
substituted values are stored in a non-volatile memory.
Time diagrams
There are two timers for supervising of the execute phase, tStartMove and
tIntermediate. tStartMove supervises that the primary device starts moving after the
execute output pulse is sent. tIntermediate defines the maximum allowed time for
intermediate position. Figure 273 explains these two timers during the execute phase.
EXE_CL
tStartMove timer
OPENPOS
CLOSEPOS
tIntermediate timer
t1
t2
tStartMove
tIntermediate
if t1 > tStartMove then
"switch-not-start-moving"
attribute in 'cause' is set
if t2 > tIntermediate then
"persisting-intermediate-state"
attribute in 'cause' is set
Close pulse duration
AdaptivePulse = TRUE
en05000097.vsd
IEC05000097 V1 EN
Figure 273: The timers tStartMove and tIntermediate
The timers tOpenPulse and tClosePulse are the length of the execute output pulses
to be sent to the primary equipment. Note that the output pulses for open and close
command can have different pulse lengths. The pulses can also be set to be
adaptive with the configuration parameter AdaptivePulse. Figure 274 shows the
principle of the execute output pulse. The AdaptivePulse parameter will have affect
on both execute output pulses.
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 12
Control
499
Technical reference manual
EXE_CL
CLOSEPOS
EXE_CL
OPENPOS
AdaptivePulse=FALSE
tClosePulse
tClosePulse
AdaptivePulse=TRUE
en05000098.vsd
IEC05000098 V1 EN
Figure 274: Execute output pulse
If the pulse is set to be adaptive, it is not possible for the pulse to exceed
tOpenPulse or tClosePulse.
The execute output pulses are reset when:
the new expected final position is reached and the configuration parameter
AdaptivePulse is set to true
the timer tOpenPulse or tClosePulse has elapsed
an error occurs due to the switch does not start moving, that is, tStartMove has
elapsed.
There is one exception from the first item above. If the primary device is in open
position and an open command is executed or if the primary device is in closed
position and a close command is executed. In these cases, with the additional
condition that the configuration parameter AdaptivePulse is true, the execute output
pulse is always activated and resets when tStartMove has elapsed. If the
configuration parameter AdaptivePulse is set to false the execution output remains
active until the pulse duration timer has elapsed.
If the start position indicates bad state (OPENPOS=1 and
CLOSEPOS =1) when a command is executed the execute output
pulse resets only when timer tOpenPulse or tClosePulse has elapsed.
An example of when a primary device is open and an open command is executed is
shown in figure 275 .
Section 12 1MRK506275-UEN C
Control
500
Technical reference manual
EXE_OP
CLOSEPOS
EXE_OP
OPENPOS
AdaptivePulse=FALSE
tOpenPulse
tOpenPulse
AdaptivePulse=TRUE
tStartMove timer
en05000099.vsd
IEC05000099 V1 EN
Figure 275: Open command with open position indication
12.3.7.3 Function block
IEC05000338-2-en.vsd
SXCBR
BLOCK
LR_SWI
OPEN
CLOSE
BL_OPEN
BL_CLOSE
BL_UPD
POSOPEN
POSCLOSE
TR_OPEN
TR_CLOSE
RS_CNT
XIN
XPOS
EXE_OP
EXE_CL
SUBSTED
OP_BLKD
CL_BLKD
UPD_BLKD
POSITION
OPENPOS
CLOSEPOS
TR_POS
CNT_VAL
L_CAUSE
IEC05000338 V2 EN
Figure 276: SXCBR function block
12.3.7.4 Input and output signals
Table 286: SXCBR Input signals
Name Type Default Description
BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function
LR_SWI BOOLEAN 0 Local/Remote switch indication from switchyard
OPEN BOOLEAN 0 Pulsed signal used to immediately open the switch
CLOSE BOOLEAN 0 Pulsed signal used to immediately close the switch
BL_OPEN BOOLEAN 0 Signal to block the open command
BL_CLOSE BOOLEAN 0 Signal to block the close command
BL_UPD BOOLEAN 0 Steady signal for block of the position updating
Table continues on next page
1MRK506275-UEN C Section 12
Control
501
Technical reference manual
Name Type Default Description
POSOPEN BOOLEAN 0 Signal for open position of apparatus from I/O
POSCLOSE BOOLEAN 0 Signal for close position of apparatus from I/O
TR_OPEN BOOLEAN 0 Signal for open position of truck from I/O
TR_CLOSE BOOLEAN 0 Signal for close position of truck from I/O
RS_CNT BOOLEAN 0 Resets the operation counter
XIN BOOLEAN 0 Execution information from CSWI
Table 287: SXCBR Output signals
Name Type Description
XPOS GROUP SIGNAL Group signal for XCBR output
EXE_OP BOOLEAN Executes the command for open direction
EXE_CL BOOLEAN Executes the command for close direction
SUBSTED BOOLEAN Indication that the position is substituted
OP_BLKD BOOLEAN Indication that the function is blocked for open
commands
CL_BLKD BOOLEAN Indication that the function is blocked for close
commands
UPD_BLKD BOOLEAN The update of position indication is blocked
POSITION INTEGER Apparatus position indication
OPENPOS BOOLEAN Apparatus open position
CLOSEPOS BOOLEAN Apparatus closed position
TR_POS INTEGER Truck position indication
CNT_VAL INTEGER The value of the operation counter
L_CAUSE INTEGER Latest value of the error indication during command
12.3.7.5 Setting parameters
Table 288: SXCBR Non group settings (basic)
Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
tStartMove 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.100 Supervision time for the apparatus to
move after a command
tIntermediate 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.150 Allowed time for intermediate position
AdaptivePulse Not adaptive
Adaptive
- - Not adaptive The output resets when a new correct
end position is reached
tOpenPulse 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.200 Output pulse length for open command
tClosePulse 0.000 - 60.000 s 0.001 0.200 Output pulse length for close command
12.3.8 Circuit switch SXSWI
Section 12 1MRK506275-UEN C
Control
502
Technical reference manual
12.3.8.1 Introduction
The purpose of Circuit switch (SXSWI) function is to provide the actual status of
positions and to perform the control operations, that is, pass all the commands to
primary apparatuses in the form of disconnectors or earthing switches via output
boards and to supervise the switching operation and position.
12.3.8.2 Principle of operation
The users of the Circuit switch (SXSWI) is other functions such as for example,
switch controller, protection functions, autorecloser function, or a 61850 client
residing in another IED or the operator place. SXSWI executes commands,
evaluates block conditions and eva