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The automatic control is defined as a

technique of measuring a process parameter

compare it with a desired (or set) value and

then producing a counter measure to limit the

deviation from the desired value. The

automatic control is also known as closed

loop control, because it requires a closed loop

of action and reaction performing the task

without any human intervention.

A closed loop control must have the following

1. 1

elements (devices) to accomplish the control

of a process variable.

1. Detecting element.

2. Measuring element.

3. Controlling element.

4. Final control element.

The detecting element and the measuring

element are usually available in the same

housing. Therefore, detecting element and the

measuring element together is sometimes

called as feedback element. The basic

structure of a closed loop control is shown in

fig 1.01.

The controlling element is a device which

operates to limit the deviation of process

variable from a desired value. It is popularly

known as the controller.

The final control element is a device in the

control system which directly regulates the

flow of energy or mass to the process which

in turn affects the process variable to be

controlled. The simplest example of final

control element in process control is control

valve.

As shown in fig 1.01, the detecting,

measuring and transmitting element as

combined is known as feedback element.

Therefore, a closed loop control means a

feedback control.

Historical background of Automatic

control: The fly ball governor on Watts

Steam is considered to be the beginning of

automatic control. It was invented by J.Watt

in early 1780s. The fly ball governor is a

feedback control system based on

proportional control principle. Before 1780,

there is no known reference to the use of

automatic control.

The governor techniques were further applied

to other engines and steam turbines. The use

of automatic control in process started in early

1900s. Nyquist founded the first general

theory of automatic control. By 1940s the

usefulness of automatic control techniques

proved their value.

1. 2

1. 3

Advantages of Automatic control: The one

and only advantage of automatic control is

that the production is achieved more

economically. We can list out many

advantages of automatic control, but all the

advantages are directly contributing to

achieve the production economically.

Therefore, the use of automatic control will

lead to an increase in productivity. Following

are some of the advantages of automatic

control directly contributing to increase the

productivity.

1. Labor cost is reduced drastically.

2. The use of automatic control

reduces or sometimes eliminates

the human error.

3. Product quality is improved.

4. It increases the production level.

5. Equipment size is reduced.

6. Optimizes the energy

consumption.

7. Provides greater safety for

equipment and operating staff.

8. Saving in raw material.

The study and proper application of automatic

control is a complex subject. Each application

requires detailed knowledge of process,

physical and chemical characteristics of

process fluids. Apart from this the mechanical

aspects of the process equipments like pumps,

compressors , heat exchangers , reactors ,

piping and the control loop is also required .

A control application engineer must

understand these entire physical, chemical,

mechanical and control aspects of process

before applying control system for the process

control.

Theory of Automatic control: Most of the

theory related to the automatic control was

developed in early 1950s. Even now the

same theory is applied in todays most

sophisticated controllers. The basic control

responses that are still used to meet most of

the requirements even today are

1. ON-OFF control response (Action)

or two position control.

2. Proportional response (Action).

3. Reset (Integral) response (Action).

4. Rate(Derivative) response(Action)

5. Combination of Proportional,

Reset and Rate responses.

As these responses are still prevalent today

and hence it is necessary to understand these

responses as basic inputs to understand the

concepts of automatic control theory.

ON-OFF (Two Position) Control: This type

of control action is used when the process

variable to be controlled is not necessarily

maintained at a precise value. This is a two

step control and the output becomes either of

the two positions. One of the two outputs is

selected according to polarity of the deviation.

In this type of control action, hystersis is

added intentionally to increase the life of final

control element. In most of the cases the final

control element is a relay. If hystersis is not

added to the On-Off control, the final control

element will operate very frequently and

hence its life reduces. The Hystersis is also

known as Differential gap.

The major drawback of On-Off control is that

it causes cycling while controlling a process.

Fig 1.02 shows On-Off control action

graphically.

A very simple example of On-Off control is a

room air conditioner, which is set at a desired

temperature. When the room gets hot, the

thermostat turns the compressor on. When

enough cold air is circulated to cool the room,

the thermostat turns the compressor off.

Temperature variations due to cyclic effect

usually go unnoticed.

Fig 1.03 shows a plot of temperature v/s time

and compressor On-Off conditions. When the

room temperature is below the desired value,

the compressor remains OFF. It remains off

till the error becomes zero at which the

compressor turns on.

The two position control has wide application

in domestic service. The equation for onoff

control is

m = M1 when e > 0

m = M0 when e < 0

Where m = manipulated variable.

e = deviation

M1=max value of manipulated

variable

M0 = min value of manipulated

variable

Proportional control:

The ON-OFF control has one draw back that

it always produces deviations from the

desired value in both the directions in a

continuous cycle. Such type of cyclic

deviations is not at all tolerable by many

processes. To overcome the draw back of

ON-OFF control, proportional control action

is applied. In proportional control action the

manipulated variable continuously varies

between max. and min. limits.

In proportional control, the output of the

1. 4

controller is proportional to the difference

between the measured variable and the set

point. This difference is called as the error e.

The equation for the proportional control is

m = Kc*e + M - - - - - - - - - - 1.01

Where m = manipulated variable

Kc = Proportional gain or

Proportional sensitivity.

e = error or deviation.

M = constant known as bias

Or manual reset.

Equation 1.01 can also be rewritten as

m = (100/PB) e + M - - - - - - - - - 1.02

Where PB = proportional band in %

Therefore,

100/PB = Kc - - - - - - - - - 1.03

The proportional band PB is defined as the

change in the controlled variable necessary to

vary the manipulated variable from 0- 100%.

The proportional band or proportional gain is

an adjustable parameter of the controller. It is

adjusted in field to tune the controller to give

optimum response to the process changes

Fig 1.04 shows the block diagram of

proportional control action. The constant M

i.e. the manual reset, determines the normal

value at zero deviation for manipulated

variable. The constant M is called manual

reset because it is used to eliminate an offset.

An offset always remains with a proportional

control. It is clear from the equation 1.01 that

the change in manipulated variable is directly

proportional to the deviation or we can say

that it corresponds exactly to the change in

deviation with a degree of amplification. The

degree of amplification depends upon the

proportional sensitivity or gain. We can

hereby conclude that a proportional controller

is simply an amplifier with a gain.

STEP& RAMP RESPONSES OF

PROPORTIONAL ACTION: Fig 1.05 and

fig 1.06 show the step and ramp response of a

proportional control respectively considering

that the manual reset M is zero.

When a process is controlled by a

proportional action an offset always remains.

1. 5

The offset is the value when, in step response, 1. 6

The offset is the value when, in step response,

the control deviation has stabilized at a

definite value by sufficient laps of time.

Fig 1.07 shows the relationship between the

measured span of a controlled variable and a

controller output when the proportional band

is 100 % or the gain is 1.

Fig 1.08 also shows the relationship between

the measured span and the controller output

for the proportional band settings of 20, 50,

200& 500% i.e. the gains of 5, 2, 0.5 and 0.2.

The drawback of a proportional control is that

the offset always remain with the proportional

control.

Let us consider a case of a heat exchanger to

see the effect of proportional control on

offset. Table 1.01 shows the various

conditions of temperature, deviation and

valve position for the heat exchanger.

Let us consider that the temperature control

starts with controller output 0%. At condition

I, the set point is 60 degc and the controlled

variable is 20 degc, the deviation or the error

will be 20-60 = -40 degc and the controller

output will be -40*Kc. As a result, the valve

opens and the steam flows. Due to steam

flow, if temperature increases to 40degc, then

the deviation will be -20degc. And the

controller output will be -20*Kc. The valve

will close a little bit. If water temp increases

to 60 degc, then the deviation will be 0 degc

and valve will completely shut. Fig 1.09

shows the graphical representation of change

in controlled variable i.e. the water temp with

time and the valve opening.

The offset can be reduced by

1. Increasing the proportional

sensitivity Kc or reducing the

proportional band PB.

2. By adding the bias or manual reset.

3. By changing the set point.

A faster stabilization is done by increasing the

proportional sensitivity or gain. The

stabilization time is reduced by increasing the

proportional gain. Thus increasing the

proportional gain reduces offset as well the

stabilization time. In practical application,

there is an upper limit for proportional gain.

Extremely high proportional gain would result

in oscillation. The oscillation would also be

there due to any measuring lag and

controlling lag.

Integral (reset) control action:

Proportional control has one major draw back

that offset always remain when load is

changed. Therefore, proportional controllers

always deviate from set point when subjected

to load changes. The offset is objectionable in

most of the industrial control systems. To

overcome this draw back, integral control

action is added with the proportional control.

The integral action combined with

proportional action eliminates offset.

1. 7

Condition Set point

(degc)

Controlled variable

(degc)

Deviation or error

(degc)

Controller

output

Valve opening

status

I 60 20 -40 -40*Kc Valve opens &

steam flows

II 60 40 -20 -20*Kc Valve closes

little bit

III 60 60 0 0 Valve closes

completely

Table- 1.01 : proportional control of a heat exchanger

1. 8

t

In integral control action, the manipulated

variable is changed at a rate proportional to

the deviation or error. If the error is doubled

over a previous value, the final control

element moves twice as fast as the previous

one. When the deviation is zero, the final

control element remains stationary.

The integral control action can be

mathematically expressed as

m = 1 * e - - - - - - - - - - - - 1.04

Ti

Or the integrated form is

m = 1/Ti edt + M - - - - - - -- - - - 1.05

where m = manipulated variable.

Ti = integral time.

e = deviation.

M = constant of integration.

Thus the effect of integral action is that at

steady state, there can be no offset i.e. the

steady state error is zero. Fig 1.10 shows the

integral control action.

The output from a reset control is changed

continuously as long as there is an error. The

rate of change of the output depends upon the

magnitude and the duration of error.

Response of integral control action:

Response of an integral action to a step input

of error

e = 0 when t<0

e = a when t0

is expressed as

m=1/Ti

0

a dt) + M -------------- (1.06)

m = a*t + M - - - - - - 1.07

Ti

When the input becomes zero at t = t1, the

output remains stationary. The graphical

representation of integral control action is as

shown in fig 1.11.

The integral time Ti, is defined as the time

required in minutes to repeat the proportional

correction. Alternatively it can be defined as

the time (in PI action), for a step error until

the output by only proportional action

becomes equal to the output by integral action

only.

Proportional Plus Integral Control action:

The Integral control action when added with

proportional control action to obtain the

advantages of both the control actions, then

the combined action is known as proportional

+ integral action. This is also called as PI

control action in short. In this control action

the output is proportional to the linear

combination of the error and the time integral

of the error. The PI control action can

mathematically be expressed as

1. 9

m= Kc(e+1/Ti e dt) + M ---------------(1.08)

Where

m = manipulated variable

Kc = Proportional Sensitivity or

proportional gain

e = error or deviation

Ti = Integral time

The Integral time of PI control action, for a

unit step error, is the time that will elapse

while the output signal caused by integral

control action repeats the output due to

proportional control action. The PI control

action has two parameters namely Kc and Ti

for adjustment. It can be noted from the

equation 1.08, that Kc affects both

proportional and integral parts of the action.

The inverse of the integral time is defined as

the reset rate. It is defined as the number of

times per minute that the proportional part of

the response is duplicated. It is therefore,

called as repeats per minute.

Response of PI control action: The response

of a PI control action is shown in Fig.1.12.

For a step change of deviation

e = 0 t<0

e = a t0 where a is a constant

Substituting these values in eqn 1.08 and then

integrating results

t

m= Kc (a+a/Ti

0

dt) + M --------------(1.09)

1. 10

m-M=Kc a (t/Ti +1) --------------------(1.10)

Equation 1.10 is a straight line. The term t/Ti

is the integral response and the latter is

proportional response.

The proportional plus integral control action

does the same function as proportional plus

manual reset. Let us compare PI control

action and P plus manual reset control action

mathematically.

m

pi

= Kc*e + Kc/Ti e dt ---------------(1.11)

m

p

= Kc * e + m

0

-------------------------(1.12)

Here in equation in 1.12, mo is a variable.

The function of integral part i.e. K/Ti edt in

equation 1.11 is equivalent to function of mo

in eqn 1.12. There is a difference in mo of eqn

1.12 of proportional control action and

integral part of eqn 1.11 of proportional plus

integral control action. The manual reset mo

has to be adjusted manually for different load

conditions to eliminate the offset whereas

integral part of PI control action will adjust

the output continuously till the error becomes

zero i.e. there remains no offset. Therefore the

advantage of adding the integral mode with

the proportional mode is that the integral

action of PI control eliminates offset.

Derivative control action or rate control

action: In this type of control action the

output or manipulated variable is proportional

to the rate of change of error or deviation. The

derivative action is shown in fig 1.13.

The derivative control action can be

expressed mathematically as

m = Td (de/dt) + M - - - - - - - - - - - -(1.13)

Where Td = derivative time.

The derivative time is the time interval by

which the derivative action advances the

position of proportional action of the output.

By adding derivative action to the controller

the lead is added in the controller to

compensate for lag around the loop. The

temperature loops have large lag and

therefore the advantage of lead in derivative

control is appealing for temperature control

loops. Because of inherent lead, derivative

control restricts the use to limited cases where

there is a large inertia or extensive amount of

lag in the process.

1. 11

Response of a derivative control action:

Fig 1.14 shows graphically the response of a

derivative control action for a ramp response.

Let error

E = at + c.- - - - - - - - - - - - - - (1.14)

Then output of a derivative control will be

m = Td * d(at+c)/dt - - - - - - - (1.15)

or m = Td * a

Fig 1.15 shows some more responses of

derivative control action for the better

understanding of it.

The change in output from a derivative

control is proportional to the rate of change of

error; therefore a derivative control gives a

large amount of correction to a rapidly

changing error signal. The change in output

will be more when the error is small but

changing rapidly. Derivative control is also

called as anticipatory control because of the

fact that it anticipates the changes in error.

Fig 1.16 shows one more response of

derivative control only. As the measured

variable increases above the set point, the

error signal changes. Derivative action is

produced only by a changing error signal. A

fixed error signal does not change the

derivative action output.

Proportional plus derivative control action:

The addition of derivative action speed up the

response of control loop. Derivative action is

very much useful particularly on slow

responding systems. It gives both speed and

stability of control responses. Its action is

opposite to integral action because it leads the

proportional action rather than lagging. PD

control action is not desirable to the systems

where noise error is present. It will amplify

the noise errors and lead to instability. Due to

this, PD action is not desirable for flow

control loops.

1. 12

A proportional plus derivative control action

can be expressed mathematically as

m = Kc*e + Kc*Td*e + M- - - - - - - - - (1.16)

Where m = manipulated variable.

e = error.

Kc = proportional sensitivity.

Td = derivative time.

M = constant.

Eqn 1.16 can also be rewritten as

m = Kc(e +Td*de/dt) + M- - - - - - - - - (1.17)

Response of PD control action: The

response of derivative control action for a step

change in deviation cannot be described in a

better way because the derivative of a step

change is infinite at the time of change.

For this reason, let us consider a linear change

of deviation.

Let error e = E t - - - - - - - - (1.18)

Where E = constant.

The response of PD control action is shown in

fig 1.17.

The derivative time in PD control action for a

unit ramp error can be defined as the advance

in time of the output caused by derivative

control action, as compared to the output due

to proportional only.

It is now clear from the fig 1.17 that the

controller response leads the time change of

deviation. Therefore we can conclude that

derivative control action always add lead to

the control response.

1. 13

Incomplete derivative action:

To minimize the effects of noise, the

incomplete derivative action is used. For

incomplete derivative action the first order lag

is added to a pure derivative unit. The main

problems with pure derivative action are

1. Change in output is sudden.

2. Response to noise which is not

desirable.

To overcome these problems, first order lag

with a time constant t

d

is added to pure

derivative. The ratio of Td to t

d

is called

derivative amplitude.

The block diagram of a first order lag plus

derivative is shown in fig 1.18

Response of first order lag plus pure

derivative action: Fig 1.19 and Fig 1.20

shows the response of first order lag plus

derivative action for step and ramp errors.

Practical PD controller: Practical PD

controllers are proportional plus derivative

with the first order lag added to derivative.

Let t

d

= first order lag time constant.

= Td/td = Derivative amplitude.

Response of practical PD control action:

Fig 1.21 and fig 1.22 shows the response of

practical PD control action for ramp and step

errors respectively.

1. 14

PID CONTROL ACTION: The PID

(proportional plus integral plus derivative)

control action is an action in which the output

is proportional to a linear combination of the

error, the time integral of the error and the

time rate of change of error. PID control

action can be mathematically expressed as

m = Kc ( 1/Ti * edt + e + Td * de/dt )- - (1.19)

Where m = manipulated variable

Kc=Proportional gain

1. 15

However, the addition of derivative helps to

he block diagram of PID control action is

----------------- (1.20)

Ti =Integral time

e = error

Td=Derivative time

Because of the addition of integral with

proportional, overshoot often occurs.

reduce the overshoot. The other advantage of

derivative is that it introduces the lead

characteristics which counter the lag

characteristics introduced by the integral

action.

T

shown in Fig-1.23.

Let us assume that

Error e =E*t ---------

Where E= a constant

t= time

1. 16

nd substituting e in eqn ( 1.19)

= KcE ( 1/Ti * t dt + Td * d(t)/dt + t ) - - (1.21)

= Kc E ( t / 2Ti + t + Td ) ----------(1.22)

he PID control action for error e = E t i.e

ased upon the discussions of P, I ,D and

ffect of proportional action

A

m

2

m

T

for ramp error is shown in Fig- 1.24

B

combinations of P , I & D control actions , we

can summarize the effects of control actions

in PID control.

E By increasing

reases.

es shorter.

ffect of Integral action

the gain or decreasing the proportional band

1. Offset decreases.

2. First overshoot dec

3. Control output oscillates.

4. Period of oscillation becom

E By decreasing the

creased

the set point

integral time in PID control

1. offset is decreased

2. first overshoot is de

3. control output oscillates

4. time required to return to

becomes less.

Effect of Derivative action: By

increasing the derivative time in PID

control action

1. offset remains unchanged

2. first overshoot decreases

3. output oscillation is damped

4. oscillation period grows shorter

Modified PID algorithm

For a standard PID control, the input to the

computation is error. If a set point changes in

steps, the deviation will also change in steps.

The output of a standard PID controller will

also be like a pulse. This pulse like

manipulated variable by derivative action

disturbs the stability of the process. The step

change of manipulated variable by

proportional action is also not desirable. To

overcome this problem, either the derivative

ahead or the proportional ahead algorithm is

applied.

Fig-1.25 shows the response of a standard

PID controller for a step change in set value.

Derivative ahead algorithm

1. 17

:

In a derivative ahead algorithm, the input to

the derivative action is process variable i.e.

controlled variable instead of the

deviation/error. Because of this manipulated

variable avoids a pulse like change by

derivative action evenwhen, set point changes

in steps. This algorithm is also called PI-D

type. The algorithm for a derivative ahead

d as

= Kc [ ( 1 + 1/Ti dt ) e + Td * dPv / dt ]

---- (1.23)

here ulated variable

n

Pv = controlled variable

W m = manip

Kc = Proportional gai

Ti = Integral time

e = error

Td = Derivative time

The block diagram of derivative ahead

controller is shown in Fig 1.26.

The derivative ahead control mode is also

known as Follow up control mode. This

type of control algorithm is selected in

cascade control mode. As in cascade control

mode, the controller has to control the process

not only for disturbances but also for

controller can mathematically be expresse

m

--------

1. 18

st control response

r the set point change is required. Hence

is selected

changing set points from other controller or

instrument, therefore the fa

fo

derivative ahead control algorithm

for cascade control loops.

Proportional ahead algorithm:

In proportional ahead algorithm, the input to

the proportional and derivative action is

controlled variable & not the deviation.

Deviation is the input to integral action only.

Therefore, the integral action will only

I-PD type and

me times constant value control mode.

be

xpress d mathematic

ig 1.27 shows the block diagram of

rol mode, stable

ontrol responses are obtained without any

brupt change in the manipulated variable for

uick change in set point.

ID remain the same for

isturbances with the same value of PID

rent

te PID settings for various

respond to the step changes of set points. This

algorithm is also called as

so

The algorithm for I-PD control action can

e e ally as

m = Kc [ 1 / Ti edt + PV ( 1 + Ti * dPv/dt ) ]

------------ ( 1.24 )

F

proportional ahead control algorithm for a

step change in set point.

It is to be noted that both the control modes

described above respond to disturbances as

that of standard PID controllers. In

proportional ahead cont

c

a

q

In derivative ahead control mode, the

response to the manipulated variable is quick

for a step change of set point. We can

conclude now that the responses of PI-D, I-

PD and standard P

d

parameters. The control response is diffe

only for set point change and depends on the

algorithm selected.

Approxima

rocess P : Table-1.2 lists the approximate

nges, applications of PID settings and

trol responses for various

ra

applicable con

processes.

Ratio control:

Ratio control is used in process to maintain a

fixed ratio between two process variables.

he common examples of ratio control in

blending process.

The ntrol schemes for ratio

control. The basic control schemes for ratio

ontrol are

1. Serial type

2. Parallel type

3. External ratio setting

Process

Liquid

pressure

Gas

pressure

Liquid

level

Temp &

vapor

omposition

T

process are air-fuel ratio in furnaces, feed and

catalyst ratio in reactors and mixtures of two

materials in

re are several co

c

c

& flow

pressure

parameter

PB ( % ) 100-

500 0-5 5-50 10- 00 1 100-1000

* 50-200

Integral Essential Unnecessary Seldom Yes Essential

Derivative No unnecessary no Essential If possible

Table-1.2: PID settings for various processes

(* for liquid pressure)

Serial type Ratio control scheme:

is called as free flow. The Fb is being

controlled and hence known as controlled

flow. FIC is the flow controller for controlling

flow B. The set point for FIC will be the value

of a ratio computation o

The serial type ratio control scheme is shown

in Fig 1.28.

n the flow A. The set

station will be 1.1*Fa . As the output of ratio

set station is the set point for FIC i.e.

the Fa. This type of ratio control is used in

boiler for controlling air to fuel ratio. For ratio

control systems, it is necessary that both flow

measurements are in the same engineering As the flow A Fa is not controlled, hence it

point for FIC is the output of ratio set station.

The ratio set station is a device in which the

free flow signal is multiplied by a factor K

set locally or remotely.

Let us assume that the ratio of flow Fa to Fb

is to be maintained at Fa/Fb = 1.1 . Fa is a

free flow and we have no control on Fa. Then

the ratio control will adjust the controlled

flow Fb such that it will always be 10 %

higher than Fa. The value of K in this

example will be 1.1 and the output of ratio set

controller for controlled flow Fb , hence it

will always maintain the flow Fb, 1.1 times

units.

Parallel type ratio control schemes :

Fig 1.29 shows the control scheme for

parallel type ratio control. It is used to

eliminate the delay of controlled flow rate

which follows the change in free flow. Ka

nd Kb are the manual set stations for flow A a

flow B.

External ratio setting control scheme :

Fig 1.30 shows the control scheme for

external ratio setting control scheme. The

output from the analyzer sets the ratio of the

t station so as to keep the % of oxygen in

the flue gas constant.

se

1. 19

Cascade control: In cascade control two

measuring and control systems are used to

manipulate a single final control element. The

cascade control is used to eliminate the effects

of the disturbances entering the secondary

process before they influence the primary

process. In cascade control the stability

increases. Two controllers are used in

cascade control . The higher level controller is

called the primary or master controller and the

lower level controller is called the secondary

controller or slave controller. The higher level

controller is called primary because the

variable of primary controller is of primary

importance. The variable of secondary

controller is important, only if it affects the

primary variable.

1. 20

Fig 1.31 shows the block diagram of

cascade control. For the primary controller the

secondary control loop is a part of the process

to be controlled.

Fig 1.32 & 1.33 shows a single loop control

and a cascade control of a process of heating.

The parameter to be controlled is temp. of the

final product. Fig 1.32 for single loop

control shows how the control is

accomplished directly with the temperature

controller TIC regulating the fuel flow to the

furnace. The system of course works with no

problem in controlling the temperature of

final product. But what will happen when the

disturbance occurs in the flow rate of fuel due

to pressure variations of fuel pressure. Due to

the measurement lag, the controller will not

detect the disturbance immediately. By the

time controller TIC detects the disturbance,

the control may have lead the process out of

normal operation. Cyclic action quite occurs

in such case.

Fig 1.33 shows how cascade control

operates. In cascade control, the disturbances

to the fuel flow rate are controlled before they

affect the product temperature. The fuel flow

is controlled by a flow controller FIC to

maintain the desired fuel flow despite

pressure variations in fuel supply. The

temperature controller TIC is cascaded with

flow controller FIC. The temperature

controllers output is a set point for flow

controller.

1. 21

1. 22 1. 22

It must be noted here that cascade control is

not applicable for all the unstable process

conditions encountered or for all

measurement lag problems. However, the

cascade control is very much useful to many

process control problems.

1. 23

Following are the advantages of cascade

control:

1. Disturbances to the secondary control

loop are corrected before they affect

the primary parameter.

2. Phase lag in the secondary process is

reduced by the secondary loop. This

improves response and stabilizing

time for the primary loop.

3. Non linearity in the secondary process

decreases.

Primary direct control for cascade control:

Let us assume if the sensor of secondary

controller fails, then it will not be possible to

control the process. It means that failure of

the sensor of secondary controller will not

only affect the secondary loop but it is not

possible to control the process as a whole.

Primary direct control function is provided in

most of the digital controllers.

In case the sensor of secondary controller fails,

the output from primary controller i.e. the set

point for secondary controller becomes the

output of secondary controller to control the

process directly as a single loop controller.

Cross Limit Control: The cross limit control

is very much useful in the combustion control

of Boilers. It is used to keep the air to fuel

ratio more than the theoretical air to fuel ratio

even on change of boiler load. In cross limit

control high and low selectors are used to

realize the function. The process variable

signals given to the selector switch are

crossed each other Fig-1.34 shows the scheme

of cross limit control for air to fuel ratio

control of a boiler.

Process variable of air flow is divided by the

air to fuel ratio. Thus both process variables

signals, accordingly both set value signals of

the controller are the same.

1. 24

Boiler load demand signal is given by either

a pressure controller or a temperature

controller / flow controller. When load

increases, the demand increases. The

increased demand signal will increase the set

points to the selectors. As high select is used

for the air flow control, first set point of air

flow controller will increase. The air flow

then increases. As a result, the set point of the

fuel flow controller will increase to increase

the fuel.

When the demand decreases, at first the set

point of the fuel controller will decrease. The

set point of air flow will decrease, only when

the air flow has decreased.

Thus the cross limit control in combustion

control always maintains the air rich

condition in furnace irrespective of increase

or decrease in boiler load demand.

Feed forward control system: Feed forward

control is a control in which one or more

process parameters are identified that can

disturb the control variable. These parameters

are used to take corrective action to minimize

the deviation of controlled variable. These

parameters are not the part of feedback loop.

Therefore the application of feed forward

initiates a corrective action before a deviation

occurs in the controlled variable. The feed

forward control prevents the deviation to

occur whereas feedback control acts only

after the deviation has occurred. It prevents

deviation to occur because corrective action is

initiated by sensing the change in other

process parameter responsible to cause the

deviation or disturbance.

Split range control: Split range control is a

control which has two control valves

manipulated by a single controller. Fig - 1.35

1. The size of tubes for pneumatic signal

transmission should be large so that

the resistance to flow is minimum.

shows a schematic of a steam turbine

condenser hot well level control using split

range control. The control valve LV-1 is

normally used to maintain the hot well level.

However, there may be conditions the hot

well level may become abnormally low and

the valve LV-1 must be closed. In these

conditions, valve LV-2 should open to

recirculate the condensate to hot well so that

the desired hot well level can be maintained.

2. Pneumatic booster relays can be used

to decrease the signal response time.

3. Distance of controller from sensing

element and final control element

should be reduced. It will reduce the

distance to be traveled by signal.

Measurement lags

1. 25

: It is a delay in sensing

the process variable. Measurement lags

introduce errors at the time of process

changes. If the response of measuring device

is slow, inaccurate measurement will be

received at controller. The major

disadvantage of the measurement lag is that

even the large disturbances may go unnoticed

if the duration of disturbances is shorter then

the measurement lag. Moreover, since the

automatic control is continuous, dynamic

function the speed of response of the

measuring element becomes the essential part

of automatic control analysis.

It is normally required to provide a small dead

band between valves operation. The

percentage of dead band may vary according

to the applications. There may be some

applications where no dead band is required,

and on the other hand there are some

applications where an overlap between the

valve operations is required.

Control system problems: The study of the

control system responses in this chapter were

made under the following assumptions

1. The measurement lag is zero.

2. The controller lag is also zero.

To explain the measurement lags let us

consider the case of physical measurement of

temperature. If a thermal element is suddenly

temperature of the fluid in the vessel which is

at a constant temperature, the response of the

As all the measuring devices in the process

have the capacity to store some energy and

hence this stored energy opposes the changes

to take place. Due to this stored energy the

response of a process to a parameter change is

likely to be attenuated. This is called as lag. A

process control may have different lags like

immersed in vessel to measure the

thermal element will be as shown in Fig-1.36

1. transmission lag

2. process lag

3. measurement lag

Transmission lag: It is defined as the time

taken by a measured variable value to be

transmitted to its controller to compare with

set point and then the time required for

manipulated variable to reach the final control

element to manipulate it. For electronic

signals the transmission lags are negligible.

But in pneumatic signals transmission lags are

more and can create problem, particularly for

fast acting processes. To overcome the

problems of transmission lags in pneumatic

control system, following actions are taken

1. 26

lement gradually increases and approaches

ag

The temperature measured by the thermal

e

the vessel temperature. The curve seems to be

exponential. The curve shows that if it

requirest sec for the thermometer to indicate

90% of the change, it will take another t sec

to reach 99% and another t sec to reach

99.9% of final value. Because of this lag,

theoretically the final temp will never be

reached.

Process l : Any process can neither store

or release energy instantaneously and this

n

result in process lag. These lags are also

called as velocity-distance lags or dead time.

There is always time required for gas to flow

from one point to another to produce a

pressure change, or for liquid to flow from

one tank to other in a process to produce a

level change, or the time required for heat to

be transferred from one process to other to

produce a temperature change. In all these

examples, the time required to produce a

change in process variable is a function of

velocity of fluid, distance and capacity.

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