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Anevican FIiIoIogicaI Associalion

TIe Language oJ AcIiIIes


AulIov|s) Adan Favv
Souvce Tvansaclions and Fvoceedings oJ lIe Anevican FIiIoIogicaI Associalion, VoI. 87 |1956),
pp. 1-7
FuIIisIed I TIe JoIns HopIins Univevsil Fvess
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TBANSACTIONS
OF THE
AMEBICAN FHILOLOOICAL ASSOCIATION
1956
I. TIe Language oJ AcIiIIes
ABAM FABBY
YALE UNIVEBSITY
I visI in lIis papev lo expIove sone oJ lIe inpIicalions oJ lIe
JovnuIaic lIeov oJ OveeI epic vevse.' In doing so, I sIaII laIe lIe
lIeov ilseIJ IavgeI Jov gvanled.
Lel us Jivsl considev a Janous passage Jvon lIe end oJ lIe 8lI
IooI oJ lIe IIiad, lIe one descviIing lIe Tvojan valcI-Jives
O 6Ie'
4Ea
4povEonEs EivI 7vO7/.OIO
eq5vpas
IO7cJ''7LL 7vpc 6E O4JLATL KacLLETO 7vO77cL
77aTo
7vapvvxlol, 7vVpa
6E ? I aeovAa.
c4 6' ov' Ev ovpavcv aTpa /aeLvJ'v
Iu1II
TE7?7v?71v
alVET' aipvpe7v&a, TvE T' E`v7Evo
v7iveAos
aWJp
OJ'eavev
vava lKva' Ka'
7vp 'vc-s a EK T 4cIEJ IaOcal cTK0Iv7 KcL 1&OVE
aKFOL
KaL va7vaL oIpavoAEv
'
a6p' UvEpp&?7 'aT7vETos aOl 7p,
ivavTa 6S eI5ETaL a'avpa,
EY1OE
6E TE IpEva
7voLA?7Vi
Toa ,e?v vec1v iE Sav poavp 6ouca
IEol77I
JEvc6 F,
U' OOLO pcci
Tpcv'V KaIO'VTWV vvpac
4
al'VETO I7LO'L 7vpo.
7L7 c' ap' Ev veIIvL vvpa KaLETo, 7vap 6S EKKaCLOaT
1aTo IvEVT1KovTa o7aL vvp6s aIWop4'oLo.
MIn 6S
KpI
7EVKOV EpEvTO/LEVOL KaI o7vpas
EaTvaoTES 7vap' o7ecTvL iIOpovov 'Hc?
IAI.iAVOV.
|II. 8.553-65)
I
TIe lIeov is lIe vovI oJ MiInan Favv, aIlIougI il Iad Ieen pavlI suggesled I
HeinvicI Biinlzev |HoneviscIe AIIandIungen [Leipzig 1872] 508 JJ.). Il is suIslanli-
aII slaled in I'EpilIale TvadilioneIIe dans Honeve |Favis 1928), and is eIaIovaled in a
nunIev oJ avlicIes vvillen in Anevica. Fov an accounl oJ MiInan Favv's vovI and
a conpIele IiIIiogvapI, see A. B. Lovd, Honev, Favv, and Huso, AJA 52 |1948)
34-44.
1
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2 Adan Favv [1956
TIese Iines couId Ie sIovn, I an exaninalion oJ pavaIIeI pas-
sages, lo Ie aInosl enliveI nade up oJ JovnuIaic eIenenls.2 TIal
lIe ave so anazingI IeauliJuI is oJ couvse lIe consequence
oJ
Honev's avl in avvanging lIese JovnuIae. Bul I visI lo speaI nov
oJ lIe quaIil oJ lIeiv Ieaul. Heve is a slvaigIl EngIisI lvansIa-
lion And lIe vilI IigI lIougIls upon lIe Ividges oJ vav sal aII
nigIl Iong, and lIe Iad Jives Iuvning in gveal nunIev. As vIen in
Ieaven lIe slavs avound lIe spIendid noon sIine oul cIeav and
IviIIianl, vIen lIe uppev aiv is sliII: and aII lIe IooIoul pIaces ave
visiIIe, and lIe sleep pvononlovies, and lIe nounlain deIIs: and
Jvon lIe Ieaven dovnvavd lIe inJinile aiv IveaIs open: and lIe
sIepIevd is deIigIled in Iis Ieavl so nan, Ielveen lIe sIips and
lIe slveans oJ 7anlIus, veve lIe Tvojans Iuvning sIining Jives Ie-
Jove lIe vaIIs oJ IIiun. A lIousand oJ lIen veve Iuvning in lIe
pIain, and I eacI one veve silling JiJl nen, in lIe IigIl oJ lIe
IIazing Jive. And lIe Iovses, nuncIing vIile IavIe and vIeal,
slood I lIe cIaviols, availing lIe lIvoned Bavn.
TIe JeeIing oJ lIis passage is lIal lIe nuIlilude oJ Tvojan valcI-
Jives is sonelIing navveIIous and IviIIianl, lIal JiIIs lIe Ieavl vilI
gIadness. Bul lIis descviplion, ve venenIev, cones al lIe poinl
in lIe slov vIen lIe silualion oJ lIe AcIaeans is Jov lIe Jivsl line
oIviousI peviIous: and il is JoIIoved I lIe 9lI IooI, vIeve Aga-
nennon in despevalion naIes Iis exlvavaganl and vain oJJev lo
AcIiIIes, iJ Ie viII save lIe avn. TIe inninenl disaslev oJ lIe
AcIaeans is enIodied in lIese vev Jives. Yel Honev pauses in lIe
dvanalic lvajeclov oJ Iis navvalive lo vepvesenl nol lIe Iovvov oJ
lIe Jives, Iul lIeiv gIov. I suggesl lIal lIis is due pveciseI lo
lIe
JovnuIaic Ianguage Ie enpIos. TIeve is a singIe Iesl va lo de-
scviIe a nuIlilude oJ sIining Jives: lIeve ave eslaIIisIed pIvases,
eacI vilI ils speciaI and econonicaI puvpose, lo conpose sucI
a
descviplion. Honev na avvange lIese vilI consunnale avl:
Iul
lIe naluve oJ Iis cvaJl does nol incIine Iin, ov even aIIov, Iin
lo
cIange lIen, ov in an va lo pvesenl lIe pavlicuIav dvanalic sig-
niJicance oJ lIe Jives in lIis silualion.3 Inslead,
Ie pvesenls
lIe
conslanl quaIilies oJ aII sucI Jives.
2CJ., e.g., |vilI 8.553) II. 15.703, 14.421, 8.378: |554) 2.2, 3.149, 8.561,
8.562:
|555) 4.422, 5.437, 17.367: |556) 4.278, 12.271: |557-8) 16.299-300: |559) 13.98,
Od.
6.106: |560) 11. 6.4: |563) Od. 21.246, 11. 22.150: |564) 5.196: |565) 8.41, 12.367,
Od.
18.318.
3
A conpavison vilI AIexandev Fope's lvansIalion naIes lIis slviIingI
cIeav. Mv.
Fope luvns lIe IvigIl and IeauliJuI Jives inlo a nigIlnave. TIe JovnuIaic Iines 562
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VoI. Ixxxvii] TIe Language oJ AcIiIIes 3
TIe JovnuIaic cIavaclev oJ Honev's Ianguage neans lIal evev-
lIing in lIe vovId is veguIavI pvesenled as aII nen |aII nen vilIin
lIe poen, lIal is) connonI pevceive il. TIe slIe oJ Honev
enpIasizes conslanlI lIe accepled allilude lovavd eacI lIing in
lIe vovId, and lIis naIes Jov a gveal unil oJ expevience.
MovaI slandavds and lIe vaIues oJ IiJe ave essenliaII agveed on
I evevone in lIe IIiad. TIe novaIil oJ lIe Ievo is sel JovlI I
Savpedon in IooI 12 |310-28). Savpedon's speecI lIeve lo OIaucus
is divided inlo lvo pavls. TIe Jivsl expvesses lIe slviclI sociaI
aspecl oJ lIe Honevic pvince's IiJe Iis suIjecls pa Iin Ionouv in
paIpaIIe Jovns, and Ie nusl naIe IinseIJ vovlI oJ lIis Ionouv I
deeds oJ vaIouv. TIe second pavl expvesses a nove nelapIsicaI
aspecl il is lIe Ievo's avaveness oJ lIe inninence oJ dealI lIal
Ieads Iin lo scovn dealI in aclion.
TIe second pavl oJ Savpedon's speecI is I Jav lIe nove Janous
pevIaps no passage in lIe IIiad is Iellev Inovn.4 Bul lIe Jivsl pavl
is equaII inpovlanl Jov an undevslanding oJ lIe poen. Ils as-
sunplion is, Jivsl, lIal Ionouv can Ie JuII enIodied in lIe langiIIe
expvessions oJ il |lIe Iesl seal al lIe Jeasl, lIe JuIIesl cups oJ vine,
lIe Jinesl culs oJ neal, and so JovlI5): Jov evevone agvees on lIe
neaning oJ lIese langiIIe expvessions: and second, lIal lIeve is a
pevJecl covvespondence Ielveen individuaI pvovess and sociaI
Ionouv. Fov lIis loo is univevsaII agveed on. I need nol add lIal
nosl oJ Savpedon's speecI, pavlicuIavI lIe Jivsl pavl, is nade up oJ
and 563, Jov exanpIe, Iecone
A lIousand piIes lIe dusI Iovvovs giId
And sIool a sIad Iuslve o'ev lIe JieId.
FuII JiJl guavds eacI JIaning piIe allend,
WIose unIev'd avns, I Jils, lIicI JIasIes send.
Fope's Iines ave nol lo Ie despised: Iis luvning lIe descviplion lo dvanalic accounl
is in JuII agveenenl vilI nodevn Iilevav slandavds, and is vev appvopviale lo an avl
lIal is unIiIe Honev's.
4
TIis is al Ieasl lvue oJ lIe EngIisI-speaIing vovId. TIe IandsoneI lIealvicaI
quolalion oJ lIe passage I Lovd OvanviIIe is Inovn lo us Jvon BoIevl Wood's Essa
on lIe OviginaI Oenius oJ Honev. |TIe slov is veJevved lo I MallIev AvnoId in On
TvansIaling Honev.) MiInan Favv, in Havvavd AIunni BuIIelin 38 |1936) 779-80,
cvilicises Lovd OvanviIIe Jov IacI oJ IislovicaI undevslanding oJ lIe passage. TIe cvili-
cisn seens unJaiv OvanviIIe pvoIaII undevslood lIe passage veII vIen Ie nade an
idenliJicalion Ielveen IinseIJ and lIe Honevic Ievo, an idenliJicalion nol so Iavd lo
naIe, consideving Iov concvele veve lIe vevavds, and even Iov slvenuous lIe oIIiga-
galions, oJ a successJuI 18lI cenluv EngIisI avislocval.
5
II. 12.311 = 8.162.
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4 Adan Favv [1956
lvadilionaI JovnuIae, and lIal lIe sane lIougIls, in lIe sane vovds,
appeav in olIev pIaces in lIe IIiad.6
TIe unil oJ expevience is lIus nade naniJesl lo us I a con-
non Ianguage. Men sa lIe sane lIings aIoul lIe sane lIings,
and so lIe vovId lo lIen, Jvon ils nosl concvele lo ils nosl nela-
pIsicaI pavls, is one. TIeve is no need, as lIeve is in FIalo's da,
Jov a nan lo deJine Iis levns. And accovdingI, speecI and
veaIil need nol Ie divided inlo lvo opposing veaIns oJ expevience,
as ve Jind lIen divided in lIe 5lI cenluv I lIe anaIlic dislinclion
oJ Iogos and evgon7: Jov lIe JovnuIaic expvessions vIicI aII nen use
ave JeIl lo Ie in pevJecl accovdance vilI veaIil, lo Ie an adequale
vepvesenlalion oJ il.
Lel us exanine lIis Iasl pvoposilion. TIe epic Ievoes Iive a IiJe
oJ aclion. SpeecI, counseI and nonoIogue ave seen as a Jovn oJ
aclion. FIoenix leIIs in lIe 9lI IooI oJ lIe IIiad Iov Ie vas en-
joined lo Iving up AcIiIIes and leacI Iin aII lIings, aII lIings, lIal is,
a Ievo need Inov, lo Ie a speaIev oJ vovds and a doev oJ deeds |9.442-3).
FIoenix Ieve naIes a pvaclicaI sepavalion, Iul no veaI dislinclion
in Iind lIe Ievo nusl Inov Iov lo do lIings
-
in lIe accepled
nannev: and Iov lo laII aIoul lIings
-
in lIe accepled nannev.
TIe lvo ave conpIenenlav IaIves oJ a Ievo's aIiIilies, and lIe
oIvevse and vevevse oJ Iis gveal puvpose lo acquive pveslige anong
Iis JeIIovs.8
SpeecI is a Jovn oJ aclioni, and, since lIe econon oJ lIe Jovnu-
Iaic slIe conJines speecI lo accepled pallevns vIicI aII nen assune
lo Ie lvue, lIeve need nevev Ie a JundanenlaI dislinclion Ielveen
speecI and veaIil: ov Ielveen lIougIl and veaIil
-
Jov lIougIl
6 CJ., e.g., |vilI 12.310) II. 9.38: |310-11) 8.161-2: |312) Od. 8.173: |313-14)
11.
20.184-5: |315) 12.321, 12.324: |317) 7.300: |318) 22.304, Od. 1.241, II. 5.332:
|320)
11.668: elc.
A pvopos oJ 11. 12.313 lIal Honev's i,.sevos, IolI lIe vovd and lIe inslilulion,
vas
Inovn lo IislovicaI Mcenaean sociel, is nov denonslvaled I lIe decipIevnenls
oJ
Lineav B scvipl. See Venlvis and CIadvicI, Evidence Jov OveeI BiaIecl in lIe
Mcenaean AvcIives, JHS 73 |1953) 84-103, esp. 99, lop.
7
TIe dislinclion Iecones a pevnanenl Jealuve oJ lIe lIougIl oJ 5lI cenluv vvilevs
as divevse as Oovgias, TIucdides and SopIocIes, pavl oJ lIe snlax oJ lIeiv speecI.
CJ. Oovgias, B3 BieIs, s. 84: TIucdides 2.35 and passin: SopIocIes, FIiIocleles 96-99
and 307-13.
8 A good exanpIe oJ lIis is lIe vovd KV66aveTpa, used veguIavI in a JovnuIa vilI
7vov7e,os. Bul vIen AcIiIIes vilIdvavs Jvon aclion in IooI I, il is said oJ Iin
OuTE 7 OT eIs
aopipv
17vvAe7TKeTO KVIl3aceLpav
oTuve 7vov' es 7vo67egov
. . . |1.490-1)
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VoI. Ixxxvii] TIe Language oJ AcIiIIes 5
and speecI ave nol dislinguisIed: ov Ielveen appeavance and
veaIil
-
Jov lIe Ianguage oJ sociel is lIe va sociel naIes lIings
seen.
IJ sucI a dislinclion did openI exisl, ve sIouId Inov vIeve lo
Jind il il vouId Ie in lIe cIavaclev oJ Odsseus, lIe Ievo vIo I lIe
end oJ lIe 5lI cenluv Ias Iecone lIe lpe oJ lIe SopIisl, lIe nan
vIo suIslilules an iIIusov speecI Jov lIe veaIilies oJ IiJe.9 Bul in
Honev, al Ieasl in lIe IIiad, Odsseus is a gveal and IonouvaIIe
vavviov. His Ieing a naslev oJ vovds is sinpI a naniJeslalion oJ
lIis. WIal vovds Ie speaIs ave JeIl as a cIeav veJIeclion oJ veaIil,
Iecause, IiIe lIose oJ Savpedon, lIe ave in Iavnon vilI lIe as-
sunplions oJ aII sociel.10
OnI in lIe pevson oJ AcIiIIes do ve Jind so nucI as a Iinl lIal
appeavances na Ie nisIeading, and conceplion, in lIe Jovn oJ
vovds, a JaIse and vuinous lIing. WIen Ie ansvevs Odsseus vilI
Iis gveal speecI in lIe 9lI IooI, Ie sas Ie viII speaI oul exaclI
vIal Ie lIinIs, and vIal viII cone lo pass. I Iale lIal nan
IiIe lIe gales oJ HeII vIo Iides one lIing in Iis Ieavl, and sas
anolIev, Ie conlinues. AcIiIIes' vovds oslensiII veJev lo Iin-
seIJ I viII nol nince vovds vilI ou. Bul lIe veadev JeeIs lIal
lIe appI vilI a diJJevenl Jovce lo Odsseus. Odsseus' eIaIovale
and eIoquenl speecI, spoIen jusl IeJove in lIe naive conJidence lIal
AcIiIIes, IiIe IinseIJ, viII considev lIe giJls as adequale snIoIs
oJ Ionouv, Iecones a IillIe IoIIov. AcIiIIes' vovds Ieve naIe il
seen soneIov disIonesl al Ieavl, and nol in accovdance vilI lIe
essence oJ lIe silualion.
AcIiIIes' ovn speecI lIal JoIIovs is oJ anolIev sovl. Fassionale,
conJused, conlinuaII luvning IacI on ilseIJ, il pvesenls Iis ovn
vision vilI a dveadJuI candouv. And vIal lIis candouv is con-
cevned vilI is, pveciseI, lIe avJuI dislance Ielveen appeavance
and veaIil: Ielveen vIal AcIiIIes expecled and vIal Ie gol: Ie-
9 FavlicuIavI in SopIocIes' FIiIocleles. CJ. lIe Iines veJevved lo in nole 7, aIso
Iines 13-14 and 431-2.
10
CJ., e.g., 11. 11.404-10. OIsevve lIe conneclion oJ lIe vovd &pLcTTe-elv in lIis
passage vilI &pOTve6S, oJ lIe vovd Jov pvovess vilI lIal Jov sociaI vanI.
11
SucI cevlainl is godIiIe |and AcIiIIes does IoId lIe Jale oJ lIe OveeIs in Iis
Iand): in lIe Jivsl IooI |204), AcIiIIes Iad said nove douIlJuII
K77 ic 'TOI
epev,
7 B Kai ve7IeoOal IIv,
Iul no aclion Iad JoIIoved on Iis vovds. AlIene in Iev ansvev Iad said, IiIe AcIiIIes
in IooI 9
ciIe ap
1lepeco, vI Ie KaI veve)7IEouvoI EOvaV . |212)
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6 Adan Favv [1956
lveen lIe lvulI lIal sociel inposes on nen and vIal AcIiIIes Ias
seen lo Ie lvue Jov IinseIJ.
I viII nol Ieve discuss AcIiIIes' speecI in an delaiI. Bul Jev
veadevs oJ il, I IeIieve, vouId disagvee lIal il is aIoul sucI a cIeavage
Ielveen seening and Ieing as I Iave indicaled. TIe disiIIusion-
nenl consequenl on AcIiIIes' avaveness oJ lIis cIeavage, lIe ques-
lions Iis avaveness oJ il gives vise lo, and lIe vesuIls oJ aII lIis in
lIe evenls oJ lIe vav, ave possiII lIe veaI pIol oJ lIe second IaIJ oJ
lIe IIiad.
AcIiIIes is lIus lIe one Honevic Ievo vIo does nol accepl lIe
connon Ianguage, and JeeIs lIal il does nol covvespond lo veaIil.
Bul vIal is cIavaclevislic oJ lIe IIiad, and naIes il unique as a
lvaged, is lIal lIis olIevness oJ AcIiIIes is novIeve slaled in cIeav
and pvecise levns. AcIiIIes can onI sa, TIeve vas, aJlev aII, no
gvace in il, ov asI queslions lIal cannol veaII Ie ansveved Bul
vI sIouId lIe Avgives Ie JigIling againsl lIe Tvojans? ov naIe
denands lIal can nevev Ie salisJied .. . unliI Ie pas IacI aII
n Ieavl-vending gvieJ.''I2
Honev in Jacl, Ias no Ianguage, no levns, in vIicI lo expvess
lIis Iind oJ Iasic disiIIusionnenl vilI sociel and lIe exlevnaI
vovId. TIe veason Iies in lIe naluve oJ epic vevse. TIe poel does
nol naIe a Ianguage oJ Iis ovn: Ie dvavs Jvon a connon slove oJ
poelic diclion. TIis slove is a pvoducl oJ Iavds and a veJIeclion oJ
sociel Jov epic song Iad a cIeav sociaI Junclion.'3 NeilIev Honev,
lIen, in Iis ovn pevson as navvalov, nov lIe cIavaclevs Ie dvana-
lizes, can speaI an Ianguage olIev lIan lIe one vIicI veJIecls lIe
assunplions oJ Ievoic sociel, lIose assunplions so IeauliJuII
and
so seveneI enuncialed I Savpedon in IooI 12.
AcIiIIes Ias no Ianguage vilI vIicI lo expvess Iis disiIIusion-
nenl. Yel Ie expvesses il, and in a venavIaIIe va. He does il
I nisusing lIe Ianguage Ie disposes oJ. He asIs queslions
lIal
cannol Ie ansveved and naIes denands lIal cannol Ie nel. He
uses convenlionaI expvessions vIeve ve Ieasl expecl
Iin lo, as vIen
12
11. 9.316, 337-9, 387. TIe queslion in lIe second oJ lIese is ansveved I
AcIiIIes. Bul il seens, as ve vead lIe speecI, oJ videv scope lIan lIe ansvev given.
We JeeI lIal lIe jusliJicalion
oJ vav ilseIJ is Ieing caIIed in queslion, as il is in 1.152-7.
13 TIe Iavd is IeId in gveal Ionouv -vilness FIenius' Ieing spaved
in lIe
SIaugIlev oJ lIe Suilovs. Bul Ie is lIe sevvanl oJ sociel. BolI FIenius and Beno-
docus sing lIe songs lIe ave asIed lo sing, and il is cIeav lIe sing in sucI a nannev as
lo ceIeIvale lIe Iind oJ IiJe lIeiv Iislenevs Iead. TIis is a gveal diJJevence Ielveen lIe
Iavd and lIe vIapsode.
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VoI. Ixxxvii] TIe Language oJ AcIiIIes 7
Ie speaIs lo FalvocIus in IooI 16 oJ a Iope oJ Ieing oJJeved naleviaI
giJls I lIe OveeIs, vIen ve Inov lIal Ie Ias Ieen oJJeved lIese
giJls and lIal lIe ave neaningIess lo Iin: ov as vIen Ie sas lIal
Ie Ias von gveal gIov I sIaing Heclov, vIen ve Inov lIal Ie is
veaII JigIling lo avenge Iis convade, and lIal Ie sees no vaIue in
lIe gIov lIal sociel can conJev.'4 AII lIis is done vilI vondevJuI
suIlIel nosl veadevs JeeI il vIen lIe vead lIe IIiad: Jev undev-
sland Iov lIe poel is doing il. Il is nol a sign oJ avlislic veaIness
Honev pvoJils I nol avaiIing IinseIJ oJ lIe inleIIecluaI levninoI -
og oJ lIe 5lI cenluv. AcIiIIes' lvaged, Iis JinaI isoIalion, is
lIal Ie can in no sense, incIuding lIal oJ Ianguage |unIiIe, sa,
HanIel), Ieave lIe sociel vIicI Ias Iecone aIien lo Iin.
And Honev uses lIe epic speecI a Iong poelic lvadilion gave Iin lo
lvanscend lIe Iinils oJ lIal speecI.
1411. 16.84-6 and 22.391-4. In lIe Ialev passage, nole Iov lIe convenlionaI Inn
oJ lviunpI JoIIovs upon lIe slvange Iul passionale veJevence lo FalvocIus in 387-90.
TIe passage Jvon IooI 16 Ias Iong Ieen a slunIIing-IIocI. Because AcIiIIes appeavs
lo Inov nolIing oJ Aganennon's oJJev oJ giJls in IooI 9, il Ias Ieen IeId lIal lIeve is
a IopeIess inconsislenc. Ovole, JoIIoving K. L. Kasev, vas lIe Jivsl lo discuss lIis
aIIeged inconsislenc. In Iis Hislov oJ Oveece |4lI ed. London 1872, v. 2, pp. 112
JJ.),
Ie avgued JovceJuII lIal lIe vIoIe oJ IooI 9 is an inlevpoIalion, and Iis case Jinds ils
Iesl suppovl Jvon 16.84-6. Move vecenl cvilics Iave Ieen unviIIing lo vejecl one oJ lIe
Jinesl IooIs oJ lIe IIiad in ovdev lo nainlain lIe coIevence oJ an IpolIelicaI UviIias.
Bul, unaIIe lo ansvev Ovole's avgunenls, lIe inslead den lIe aulIenlicil oJ
16.84-6. See WiII TIeiIev, Bie BicIlev dev IIias in FeslscIviJl Juv Edouavd TiecIe
|Bevn 1947) p. 152, and Von dev MiiIII, KviliscIes Hponnena zuv IIias |BaseI 1952)
p. 242. WoIJgang ScIadevaIdl, in Iis IIiassludien |AIILeipzig, voI. 43, no. 6, 1938,
128-9) seens aIone in deJending lIe Iines. ScIadevaIdl's inluilions, as so oJlen, ave
vigIl, Iul Ieve lIe ave Iaz. He does nol pevceive lIe deplI oJ AcIiIIes' diIenna Ieve
in lIe Ieginning oJ IooI 16. He vanls lo naIe AcIiIIes' vovds veasonaIIe, Iul oJ
couvse lIe ave nol veasonaIIe. NeilIev ave Iines 97-100 in lIe sane speecI. TIe
ave lIe expvession oJ an inpossiIIe silualion. AcIiIIes cannol JovsaIe lIe aclion vIicI
naniJesls an insigIl lIal no avaiIaIIe vovds viII expvess diveclI. Lines 60-63 naIe
lIal cIeav. On lIe pavlicIe e in Iine 61, I an lenpled lo sa, Iangs lIe vIoIe lvagic
decision.
In a discevning, lIougI sonevIal IegaIislic, avlicIe, TIe Fvopilialion oJ AcIiIIes
|AJF 74 [1953] 137-48), Bavid E. EicIIoIz Ias deJended lIe Iines on gvounds siniIav
lo ScIadevaIdl's AcIiIIes does vanl lIe giJls, Iul Ie nusl Iave [lIen] on Iis ovn
levns and in Iis ovn line |p. 141). In viev IolI oJ vIal AcIiIIes sas oJ lIe giJls
in IooI 9, and oJ Iis supvene indiJJevence lo lIen vIen lIe ave acluaII given Iin
in IooI 19, il seens lo ne lIal lIe veadev nusl coevce Iis inaginalion lo IeIieve lIal
Ie veaII vanls lIen Ieve. A Jev Iines JuvlIev dovn, AcIiIIes gives an enliveI
diJJevenl veason Jov vanling FalvocIus lo veslvain Iis allacI.
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