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CHARACTERISTICS IN STANDARD EN 14411

European standard EN 14411 establishes a set of physico-chemical


characteristics that need to be taken into account in ceramic tile as a function of the
tiles intended use as flooring or wall cladding, and for interior or exterior applications.
In this sense, standard EN 14411 does not differ from the one it replaces, except for the
inclusion of some new characteristics or modification of the requirements, test method
or classification of results envisaged in EN 67-087-85. Chart 1 presents these
characteristics, the new characteristics or in-depth modifications being displayed in red.

The physico-chemical characteristics of ceramic tile, the obligatory or voluntary
nature of their consideration, and the minimum requirable values for each product group
have been summarised in Chart 2 (parts I, II, and II). The dimensional tolerances
envisaged for each product group are presented in Chart 3 (length and width) and in
Chart 4 (thickness, straightness of sides, rectangularity, and flatness). reviews these
characteristics and notes their effect on tile installation and durability.

Another interpretation of the foregoing charts may be made in relation to the
relative effect of the features they describe on tile installation and tiling durability. In
Chart 5 (parts I, II, III, and IV), we have included a number of new charts, in which the
last column notes the connection between these features and the tile installation mode
and/or effect on durability.
Physico-chemical characteristics 1
Characteristics in standard EN 14411
Physico-chemical characteristics 2
Characteristics in standard EN 14411

CHARACTERISTICS ACCORDING TO APPLICATIONS IN STANDARD EN 14411
APPLICATION
FLOORS WALLS CHARACTERISTIC
INTERIOR EXTERIOR INTERIOR EXTERIOR
TEST
METHOD
ISO 10.545
(3)

Part
Dimensions and surface quality
Length and width 2
Thickness 2
Straightness of sides 2
Rectangularity 2
Surface flatness (curvature and warpage) 2
Surface quality 2
Physical properties
Water absorption 3
Modulus of rupture 4
Breaking strength 4
Resistance to deep abrasion (unglazed
tiles UGL)
6
Resistance to surface abrasion (glazed
tiles GL)
7
Slip resistance -
(4)

Crazing resistance (glazed tiles) 11
Frost resistance
(1)
12
Resistance to thermal shock
(2)
9
Moisture

expansion
(2)
10
Linear thermal expansion
(2)
8
Small colour

differences
(2)
16
Impact resistance
(2)
5
Chemical properties
Resistance to low concentrations of acids
and alkalis
13
Resistance to high concentrations of acids
and alkalis
13
Resistance to household chemicals and
swimming pool salts
13
Lead and cadmium release
(2)
(glazed tiles) 15
Stain resistance
- Glazed tiles
- Unglazed tiles
(2)














14
14
NOTE: For the characteristics in red, the test method in standard EN 14411 constitutes a modification or a new contribution
compared with the previous European standards
(1) For tiles to be used in exteriors subject to frost/thaw cycles
(2) Test method available
(3) The test methods shall be conducted by laboratories recognised by the national standardisation organisations (ISO members)
and/or accredited organisations of the respective countries. Accreditation under ISO 9000 and/or ISO/IEC Guide 25 is
preferred.
(4) Slip resistance shall be measured according to the test method available in the tile country of destination, whenever this is
required by the national regulations. In Spain, document SUA 1 of the Technical Building Code shall be applied in tiles
intended for private flooring subject to common use or floorings in publicly trafficked architecture. Slip coefficient R
d
is
measured by the friction pendulum method [UNE-ENV 12633].

Chart 1
MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS OF EACH PRODUCT GROUP ACCORDING TO EN 14411
PRODUCT GROUP PHYSICO-CHEMICAL
CHARACTERISTIC
AND TEST METHOD
CLASS OR
UNIT OF
MEASURE
AI
a
AI
b
AII
a-1
AII
a-2
AII
b-1
AII
b-2
AIII BI
a
BI
b
BII
a
BII
b
BIII
DIMENSIONS
ISO 10545-2 mm or %
The maximum allowable tolerances are shown in Charts 3 and 4
The maximum length and width tolerances in modular tiles shall allow a tile-to-tile joint between 3 and 11 mm wide.
Straightness of sides and rectangularity are not envisaged for tiles with curved sides.
SURFACE QUALITY
ISO 10545-2
% 95% of the tiles shall be free of visible defects that might adversely affect the appearance of the ceramic tiling
WATER ABSORPTION (E)
Average
Individual max. value
ISO 10545-3
% by mass

0,5
0,6

3
3.3

3<E6
6.5

6<E10
11

>10

0.5
0.6

0.5<E3
3.3

3<E6
6.5

6<E10
11

>10
(5)
BREAKING STRENGTH
Thickness 7.5 mm
Thickness < 7.5 mm
MODULUS OF RUPTURE
(0)

ISO 10545-4
N


N/mm
2


1300
600
28/21

1100
600
23/18

950
600
20/18

800
600
13/11

900
900
17,5/15

750
750
9/8

600
600
8/7

1300
700
35/32

1100
700
30/27

1000
600
22/20

800
500
18/16

600
200
15/12
(6)

ABRASION RESISTANCE
Deep for UGL tiles
ISO 10545-6

mm
3
(max.)

275

393

541

649

1062

2365

175

175

345

540

Surface for GL tiles
(1)

ISO 10545-7
PEI class and
no. of cycles
STATE CLASS AND NUMBER OF CYCLES STATE CLASS AND NUMBER OF CYCLES
COEFFICIENT OF LINEAR
THERMAL EXPANSION
(2)

ISO 10545-8
C
-1

(K
-1
)
TEST METHOD AVAILABLE TEST METHOD AVAILABLE
Chart 2 (I)
Physico-chemical characteristics 3
Characteristics in standard EN 14411

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS OF EACH PRODUCT GROUP ACCORDING TO EN 14411
PRODUCT GROUP
PHYSICO-CHEMICAL
CHARACTERISTIC
AND TEST METHOD
CLASS OR
UNIT OF
MEASURE AI
a
AI
b
AII
a-1
AII
a-2
AII
b-1
AII
b-2
AIII BI
a
BI
b
BII
a
BII
b
BIII
THERMAL SHOCK RESISTANCE
(2)

ISO 10545-9
Yes/No TEST METHOD AVAILABLE TEST METHOD AVAILABLE
CRAZING RESISTANCE
(3)

GL TILES
ISO 10545-11
Yes/No YES YES
FROST RESISTANCE
(2)

ISO 10545-12
Yes/No STATE RESULT TEST METHOD AVAILABLE YES YES TEST METHOD AVAILABLE
SLIP RESISTANCE

THE TEST METHOD SHALL BE APPLIED AND THE RESULTS SHALL BE
SPECIFIED WHEN THIS IS REQUIRED BY THE NATIONAL STANDARD
OF THE TILE COUNTRY OF DESTINATION
THE TEST METHOD SHALL BE APPLIED AND THE RESULTS
SHALL BE SPECIFIED WHEN THIS IS REQUIRED BY THE
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE TILE COUNTRY OF
DESTINATION
MOISTURE EXPANSION
(2)

ISO 10545-10
mm/m TEST METHOD AVAILABLE TEST METHOD AVAILABLE
SMALL COLOUR DIFFERENCES

(2)

ISO 10545-16
TEST METHOD AVAILABLE TEST METHOD AVAILABLE
IMPACT RESISTANCE
(2)

ISO 10545-5
Coefficient
of
restitution
TEST METHOD AVAILABLE TEST METHOD AVAILABLE
STAIN RESISTANCE
GL tiles
UGL tiles
(2)

ISO 10545-14
Classes
5, 4, 3, 2,
and 1
MINIMUM CLASS 3
TEST METHOD AVAILABLE
MINIMUM CLASS 3
TEST METHOD AVAILABLE
Chart 2 (II)
Physico-chemical characteristics 4
Characteristics in standard EN 14411
Physico-chemical characteristics 5
Characteristics in standard EN 14411

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS OF EACH PRODUCT GROUP ACCORDING TO EN 14411
PRODUCT GROUP PHYSICO-CHEMICAL
CHARACTERISTIC
AND TEST METHOD
CLASS OR
UNIT OF
MEASURE
AI
a
AI
b
AII
a-1
AII
a-2
AII
b-1
AII
b-2
AIII BI
a
BI
b
BII
a
BII
b
BIII
CHEMICAL RESISTANCE
To low concentrations of
acids and alkalis
THE MANUFACTURER SHALL STATE
THE CLASSIFICATION OBTAINED
THE MANUFACTURER SHALL STATE THE
CLASSIFICATION OBTAINED

To high concentrations
TEST METHOD AVAILABLE TEST METHOD AVAILABLE
To household chemicals
and swimming pool salts
In GL tiles
In UGL tiles
(4)

ISO 10545-13
Classes
A, B, and C



MINIMUM CLASS B (slightly impaired appearance) GB
MINIMUM CLASS B (slightly impaired appearance) UB



MINIMUM CLASS B (slightly impaired appearance) GB
MINIMUM CLASS B (slightly impaired appearance) UB
LEAD AND CADMIUM RELEASE
ISO 10545-15
mg/dm
2
TEST METHOD AVAILABLE TEST METHOD AVAILABLE
(0)
This is not applied to tiles with breaking load F3000 N
(1)
For GL tiles intended for flooring, EN 14411 refers the user to Annex N (of an informative character) to suggest the surface abrasion resistance class according to level of traffic and
abrasive material involved [The section on resistance to surface abrasion, tile classification according to Annex N of EN 14411, may be consulted]
(2)
EN 14411 refers the user to Annex P (of an informative character) on the recommendation of levels according to intended tile use, with a view to clarifying the lack of definition involved in
this table by the indication Test method available as sole requirement for the corresponding product group
(3)
EN 14411 warns that some decorative effects trend to craze. If the manufacturer states this effect, the tile need not pass the test
(4)
If the colour, understood as shade or hue, differs slightly, chemical attack has not occurred
(5)
If the average water absorption capacity exceeds 20%, the manufacturer shall state the value. The minimum individual value of each tile shall not be below 9%
(6)
For BIII tiles, the standard proposes certain minimum values for the modulus of rupture according to nominal tile thickness: 12 N/mm
2
for tiles with e7.5 mm and 15 N/mm
2
for e<7.5 mm

Chart 2 (III)



MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE DEVIATIONS FROM LENGTH AND WIDTH ACCORDING TO EN 14411
TYPE OF PRODUCT DIMENSION M DIMENSION W AVERAGE
MEASUREMENT OF
10 TILES
COMMENTS
AI
a
P, AI
b
P 311 mm joint 1%/max. 2 mm 1 % W-N 3 MM
AI
a
N, AI
b
N 2%/max. 4 mm 1.5 %
AII
a-1
P 1.25%/max. 2 mm 1 %
AII
a-1
N 2%/max. 4 mm 1.5 %
AII
a-2
P 1.5%/max. 2 mm 1.5 %
AII
a-2
N 2%/max. 4 mm 1.5 %
AII
b-1
P
AII
b-2
P
AIII P
2%/max. 2 mm 1.5 %
AII
b-1
N
AII
b-2
N
AIII N
2%/max. 4 mm 1.5 %
S90 2-5 mm joint 1.2 % 0.75 %
W-N 2%
max. 5 mm
90<S190 1 % 0.5 %
190<S410 0.75 % 0.5 %

BI
a

BI
b

BII
a

BII
b


S>410 0.6 % 0.5 %
S: tile surface in cm
2

BIII WITHOUT
SPACER LUGS

L 12 cm 0.75 % 0.5 % W-N 2 mm
L > 12 cm 0.50 % 0.3 %
BIII WITH
SPACER LUGS

L 12 cm --- ---
L > 12 cm + 0.6 % // - 0.3 % 0.25 %
Only for GL tiles
M refers to the modular size (multiples and divisors of 100). It is not used in Europe
W is the work size, expressed as length x width x thickness, expressed in millimetres
P: we have introduced this to designate precision tiles
N: we have introduced this to designate natural tiles
P and N are not identified by codes in the standard
N also designates tile nominal size, in centimetres

Chart 3

Physico-chemical characteristics 6
Characteristics in standard EN 14411
Physico-chemical characteristics 7
Characteristics in standard EN 14411

MAXIMUM DEVIATIONS FROM THICKNESS, STRAIGHTNESS OF SIDES,
RECTANGULARITY, AND SURFACE FLATNESS ACCORDING TO EN 14411
Surface flatness
Curvature
Type of product Thickness
Straightness
of sides Rectangularity Centre Side Warpage
AI
a
P, AI
b
P 10 % 0.5 % 1 % 0.5 % 0.5 % 0.8 %
AI
a
N, AI
b
N 10 % 0.6 % 1 % 1.5 % 1.5 % 1.5 %
AII
a-1
P 10 % 0.5 % 1 % 0.5 % 0.5 % 0.8 %
AII
a-1
N 10 % 0.6 % 1 % 1.5 % 1.5 % 1.5 %
AII
a-2
P 10 % 1 % 1 % 1 % 1 % 1.5 %
AII
a-2
N 10 % 1 % 1 % 1.5 % 1.5 % 1.5 %
AII
b-1
P
AII
b-2
P
AIII P
10 % 1 % 1 % 1 % 1 % 1.5 %
AII
b-1
N
AII
b-2
N
AIII N
10 % 1 % 1 % 1.5 % 1.5 % 1.5 %
S90
(1)
10 % 0.75 % 1 % 1 % 1 % 1 %
90<S190 10 % 0.5 % 0.6 % 0.5 % 0.5 % 0,5 %
190<S410 5 % 0.5 % 0.6 % 0.5 % 0.5 % 0,5 %
BI
a

BI
b

BII
a

BII
b

S>410 5 % 0.5 % 0.6 % 0.5 % 0.5 % 0,5 %
BIII
(2)
WITHOUT
SPACER LUGS
10 % 0.3 % 0.5 %
+ 0.5 %
- 0.3 %
+ 0.5 %
- 0.3 %
0.5 %
BIII
(2)
S 250
WITH SPACER LUGS
10 % 0.3 % 0.3 %
+ 0.8 %
- 0.2 %
+ 0.8 mm
- 0.2 mm
0.5 mm
BIII
(2)
S > 250
WITH SPACER LUGS
10 % 0.3 % 0.3 %
+ 0.8 %
- 0.2 %
+ 0.8 mm
- 0.2 mm
0.75 mm
(1)
S: tile surface in cm
2
(2)
Only for GL tiles

Chart 4


PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS ENVISAGED IN STANDARD EN 14411
CHARACTERISTIC TEST METHOD
REFERENCE IN
EN 14411
EXPRESSION OF
RESULTS
EFFECT ON TILE INSTALLATION AND/OR DURABILITY
DIMENSIONS
Length and width
Thickness
Straightness of sides
Rectangularity
Flatness
ISO 10545-2
Compulsory
For all tile types
For all service
applications
Tolerances
in
% or mm
Fundamental to the tile installation process because they condition the
selection of the materials and the technique, as well as the quality of the
tiling finish (alignment of the joint pattern and flatness). They condition
the tile installation mode (joint width, joint layout, etc.)
SURFACE
QUALITY
ISO 10545-2 Idem dimensions
First quality
max. 5% defective
This affects the quality of the tiling finish in regard to uniform appearance
and absence of surface defects
WATER ABSORPTION
CAPACITY
ISO 10545-3
Boiling method is
compulsory
Defines the product
Group
E in %
DEFINES THE
PRODUCT GROUPS
Fundamental to foreseeing the type of adhesion and, hence, selection of
the materials and tile installation technique
Directly related to other characteristics and to durability (frost resistance)
LINEAR THERMAL
EXPANSION
ISO 10545-8
Voluntary characteristic
for the manufacturer
C
-1
or K
-1

(e.g.: 4.8x10
-6
K
-1
)
The maximum temperature swings in a tiling and this coefficient allow the
maximum lengthening and shortening per linear metre to be established.
Together with moisture expansion, this characteristic helps plan the
position of the movement joints
MOISTURE EXPANSION ISO 10545-10
Voluntary characteristic
for the manufacturer
% or mm/m
Essential coefficient for establishing the position and width of the
movement joints, in some cases with an influence 10 times greater than
that of the coefficient of linear thermal expansion
BENDING STRENGTH ISO 10545-4
Idem dimensions
Expression of force (S)
and modulus of rupture
(R)
C

mark
[1]

S in newton (N)
R in N/mm
2

Allows the ceramic tiles intended for wall tiling to be distinguished from
those intended for flooring
A high value of S (e.g. S>2000 N) will assure good performance in
flooring intended for not exclusively pedestrian traffic
[1]
The C

mark requires statement of the breaking strength for all tiles intended for flooring or roofing, whatever their commercial class
Chart 5 (I)
Physico-chemical characteristics 8
Characteristics in standard EN 14411
PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS ENVISAGED IN STANDARD EN 14411
REFERENCE IN EXPRESSION OF
CHARACTERISTIC TEST METHOD
EN 14411 RESULTS
EFFECT ON TILE INSTALLATION AND/OR DURABILITY
RESISTANCE TO DEEP
ABRASION
(UGL tiles)
ISO 10545-6
Compulsory for all types
of UGL tiles intended for
flooring
mm
3

Linked to the mechanical strength of the ceramic body. The smaller the
removed volume in mm
3
, the greater the toughness
It identifies UGL ceramic tile resistance to impairment of appearance by
mechanical action (scratching and abrasion)
RESISTANCE TO
SURFACE ABRASION
(GL tiles)
ISO 10545-7
Compulsory for all types
of GL tiles intended for
flooring
To be stated:
Class:
0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5
Number of cycles:
100, 150, 600,...
6000, 12000
Linked to the mechanical resistance to impairment of appearance (surface
abrasion of GL ceramic tiles intended for flooring
Together with scratch resistance, loss of gloss, and stain resistance after the
visible stage of surface abrasion, it helps select the tile for the intended
location and foreseeable type of traffic
SCRATCH RESISTANCE EN 67-101-92 Not envisaged
Mohs scale
from 1 to 10
Provides information on the resistance to impairment of appearance by
gouging or scratching of GL ceramic tiles intended for flooring
Should be taken into account when a tile is to be selected for flooring with
a low level of traffic (hardness 4) or intermediate or high level of traffic
(minimum hardness 6)
LOSS OF GLOSS ISO 2813 Not envisaged
Adimensional
number
Provides information on gloss loss by surface abrasion in GL tiles. In UGL
tiles, the mirror gloss achieved by mechanical polishing is lost (>15) with
surface abrasion of 600 cycles
Gloss loss above 15 involves visually perceivable surface deterioration,
based on the contrasting, altered surface
IMPACT RESISTANCE ISO 10545-5
Voluntary for the
manufacturer
Adimensional
number from 0 to 1
(Coefficient of
restitution)
Provides information on ceramic tile performance (especially GL tiles)
when impacted by blunt objects. Interesting information for the
specifications writer and designer.
In UGL tiles it may be of interest to know the result of the heavy impact
test (Annexe 7 of Cahier 2998 of the French CSTB)
Chart 5 (II)
Physico-chemical characteristics 9
Characteristics in standard EN 14411
PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS ENVISAGED IN STANDARD EN 14411
REFERENCE IN EXPRESSION OF
CHARACTERISTIC TEST METHOD
EN 14411 RESULTS
EFFECT ON TILE INSTALLATION AND/OR DURABILITY
RESISTANCE TO
ROLLING ACTION
Annexe 6,
Cahier 2898
CSTB (France)
Not envisaged
Passes or does not
pass the test
Characteristic related to UGL ceramic tiles intended for flooring subject to
live loads (rolling actions)
Competence of the designer or specifications writer for industrial flooring
or publicly trafficked architecture
FROST RESISTANCE ISO 10545-12
Compulsory for AI
a
,
AI
b
, BI
a
and BI
b

Voluntary for the
remaining groups
BI
a
and BI
b
shall
pass the test
For AI
a
, AI
b
state
result
Fundamental characteristic of ceramic tiles intended for exteriors in
climates with frost risk
Selection of tiles that at least pass the test or, for greater safety, tiles AI
a
or
BI
a
in exteriors with greater risk (areas Y and Z) according to NBE-CT-79
CRAZING RESISTANCE ISO 10545-11
Compulsory for all GL
tiles
Passes or does not
pass the test
Passing the test does not assure absence of delayed crazing, which is
related to the coefficient of moisture expansion, dimensional stability of
the fixing background, and tile installation technique
CHEMICAL RESISTANCE ISO 10545-13
Compulsory or voluntary
depending on type of tile
and test
Codes in PDF on
Chemical
resistance (I)
Linked to the chemical resistance to impairment of appearance as a result
of attack by products that alter the ceramic tile surface (discoloration, loss
of gloss and/or surface corrosion)
Knowing the resistance to chemical attack of a wall tile or floor tile helps
select a tile for an intended use
STAIN RESISTANCE ISO 10545-14
Compulsory for GL
tiles
Voluntary for UGL
tiles
Classes
5, 4, 3, 2, 1
Linked to tile cleanability before the tile installation
Related to performance with time of tiles intended for flooring, in regard to
their cleanability after processes of mechanical and/or chemical aggression
LEAD AND CADMIUM
RELEASE
ISO 10545-15
Voluntary for the
manufacturer
mg/dm
2

Characteristic only to be envisaged for GL tiles that will be in direct
contact with food. In this case, they shall bear the C mark
Chart 5 (III)


Physico-chemical characteristics 10
Characteristics in standard EN 14411
Physico-chemical characteristics 11
Characteristics in standard EN 14411
PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS ENVISAGED IN STANDARD EN 14411
CHARACTERISTIC TEST METHOD
REFERENCE IN
EN 14411
EXPRESSION OF
RESULTS
EFFECT ON TILE INSTALLATION AND/OR DURABILITY
ISO/DIS 10545-17 Not envisaged
COF. CLASS 2
COF. CLASS 1
SLIP RESISTANCE
UNE-ENV 12633 Not envisaged
CLASSES
[2]

3, 2, 1
Essential characteristic for evaluating safety in regard to the slip risk of
tiles intended for flooring
Greater or lesser slip resistance shall be assessed as a function of slip risk
(presence of water and/or substances that foster slipping)
There are also national standards that delimit the anti-slip capacity of
ceramic tiles, and tables that relate that capacity to the type of flooring
(location and traffic)
[2]
According to document SUA 1 of the new Spanish Technical Building Code

Chart 5 (IV)