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NIAGARA COLLEGE

SCHOOL OF ENVIROMENTAL &


HORTICULTURAL STUDIES
Feb 12, 2014


GISC 9216-D2
Fundamentals of PCA
2/12/2014
Instructor Janet Finley




OLAWALE BABALOLA


20 Hill Park Lane, St. Catharines,
ON. L2N 1C6
engr_josla@yahoo.com



OLWALE BABALOLA PCA ANALYSIS 1

20 Hill Park Lane, St. Catharines Ontario. L2N 1C6
Phone#: (289)990-6367, Email: engr_josla@yahoo.com
February 12, 2014
Janet Finlay
GIS-GM Professor (Coordinator)
Niagara College
135 Taylor Road
Niagara-on-the-Lake, ON
L0S 1J0

Dear Janet,
RE: Submission of GISC9216-Assignment #2
Please accept this letter as my formal submission of Assignment GISC9216-#2 .
This assignment contains, a formal written summary report of MS Word document with
answers to Assignment-#2 Fundamentals of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) using ERDAS.
This assignment serves as continuation in digital image processing. It has taught me another
concept of digital image processing on how to carry out Principal Component Analysis (PCA). It
also engender me the opportunity to use the ERDAS software effectively in carrying out this
analysis ranging from viewing raster image, Subset, histogram and displaying band channels for
further comparison. The overall findings in this analysis show that, the PCA result has a better
and distinctive classification than the unsupervised classification.
Should you have any question regarding my deliverable, please don't hesitate to contact me on
my phone: (289)990-6367 or Email: engr_josla@yahoo.com.
I look forward to your favorable comment.

Best Regards.

Olawale Babalola BSc
GIS-GM Certificate Candidate
O.B./o.b.
Niagara College (NOTL)
+1(289) 990-6
Attachement: PCA & Unsupervised thematic maps


ABSTRACT

This workshop is based on digital image processing which was narrowed down to principal
component analysis (PCA). A principal component analysis was carried out on a subset image
created from previous workshop with aim to reduce redundancy and compress data which is a
major issued faced in classifying digital image data accurately. The result of the PCA was further
classified using unsupervised method of classification. The result was compared with the
unsupervised classification from the previous workshop with the aim to determine a more
accurate analysis result in the image classification. The analysis as shown that, PCA analysis
would yield a more accurate result with distinctive classification result compare to original
unsupervised classification analysis.



















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CONTENTS
Abstract ......................................................................................................................................................................................... i
Table of Figure .......................................................................................................................................................................... ii
List of Table ................................................................................................................................................................................ ii
1. O Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................................... 1
1.1 Principal Component Analysis (PCA) .................................................................................................................. 1
1.2 Background .................................................................................................................................................................... 1
1.3 Procedure ....................................................................................................................................................................... 1
2.0 Answers to Questions ..................................................................................................................................................... 3
3.0 Comparison between the two Classification Results ........................................................................................ 7
4.0 Conclusion ......................................................................................................................................................................... 10
Bibliography ............................................................................................................................................................................ 11
Appendix ................................................................................................................................................................................... 12
Unsupervised Thematic Map ............................................................................................................................................ 13
PCA Thematic Map ................................................................................................................................................................ 14

TABLE OF FIGURE
Figure 1-Principal Component Analysis ........................................................................................................................ 2
Figure 2-Subset Band Channels ......................................................................................................................................... 3
Figure 3-Subset Histogram .................................................................................................................................................. 4
Figure 4- PCA Band Channels and Histogram .............................................................................................................. 6
Figure 5-PCA and Unsupervised Image .......................................................................................................................... 7
Figure 6-PCA and Unsupervised Urban Comparison ................................................................................................ 8
Figure 7-PCA and Unsupervised Agriculture Comparison ..................................................................................... 9

LIST OF TABLE
Table 1- Eigenvalues with Total Percentage ................................................................................................................ 4



OLWALE BABALOLA PCA ANALYSIS 1

1. O INTRODUCTION
1.1 PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS (PCA)
Principal Components Analysis (PCA) is a way of identifying patterns in data, and expressing the
data in such a way as to highlight both their similarities and differences. Since Patterns in data
can be hard to find in data of high dimension, where the luxury of graphical representation is
not available, PCA would be a perfect tool for analyzing such data. Also it is a method used for
transforming a set of correlated variables into a new set of uncorrelated variables with the aim
of reducing data redundancy in the image. In Principal Component Analysis, each variable are
transformed into a linear combination of orthogonal common components (output raster
maps) with decreasing order of variation. This enables a reduction of output maps because the
last number of transformed maps has little or no variation left. The linear transformation
assumes the components will explain all of the variance in each variable. Hence each
component (output raster map) carries different information which is uncorrelated with other
components. PCA can also be used for pre-processing procedure prior to classification of the
data and to find targets of interest, for example, the component with the lowest variance may
contain some interesting information. This analysis is aimed at carrying out principal
component analysis (PCA) on a subset image to reduce the redundancy and to compress data in
which the final result of the analysis will be used in classifying the area of interest (AOI). This
analysis will be carried out using ERDAS Software.
1.2 BACKGROUND
A background study was carried out prior to this analysis using a subset created from a raster
image with the subset pixel size set as 512-by-512.The subset image was further classified with
the aim of categorizing the pixels in the digital image into several land cover classes using
supervised method of classification and unsupervised method of classification. The categorized
data was further used to produce thematic maps to show various pixel classifications. In
comparison various results from each classification methods shows a high degree of
redundancy in the multispectral image.
1. 3 PROCEDURE
The subset image created from the previous workshop was loaded in the ERDAS interface. The
image was then explored band by band from the feature space image (scattered plot) with the


OLWALE BABALOLA PCA ANALYSIS 2

aim to identify the bands displaying strong correlation. The principal component analysis was
then carried out on the subset image with the appropriate settings on the PCA module. For this
analysis the number of component desired was set to three (3) as instructed. Figure 1 illustrate
further on the procedure. Finally the PCA result was further classified with the unsupervised
method with same number of class and maximum iteration for consistency in the analysis.

FIGURE 1-PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS











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2.0 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS
(1)
It is very essential to transform original image bands to the principal components because
of interband correlation which is most often problem encountered in analyzing a
multispectral image. It is also important because most images generated by the digital data
from various wavelength bands often appear same or similar that is, superfluous repetition
and occurrence which translates essentially the same information.
(2)

FIGURE 2-SUBSET BAND CHANNELS
The feature space image of the following channel bands Colors as shown in Figure 2 reflect the
density of points for both bands where the bright tones represent a high density and the dark
tones represent a low density this further shows a strong correlation. Among the bands, the
signature displays straight linear trending lines pattern showing a less or no variation. It was
also determined from the histograms as shown in Figure 3 that they display a high pixel range
cluster in one side of the graph. This further depicts high redundancy in the data.


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FIGURE 3-SUBSET HISTOGRAM

(3)
The variance shown on the first three band channels was determined from the Eigenvalues
however, eigenvalue is a number that indicates how much variance there is in a data. As
coefficient result of this technique measure variance in the data, it thus further shows how
much variance of the data each of the principal components represents and the percentages of
the total variance. The first eigenvalue shows the largest and represents the most variance in
the data. It further tells us how spread out the data is. Table 1 shows the eigenvalue and the
total percentage of the first three values.

TABLE 1- EIGENVALUES WITH TOTAL PERCENTAGE
975.9553886 59.56376%
592.377442 36.15353%
55.49854865 3.387145%
9.857151912
3.171655456
1.645124367
99.10443%







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(4)
In comparison the bands of PCA data shown in Figure 4 are non-correlated and independent.
They are often more interpretable than the source data it was also observed that the feature
space image displays a weak correlation and the histogram pixel ranges shows a wide spread
variation while the original data shows a very strong correlation with no spread as shown in
Figure 2 & 3.



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FIGURE 4- PCA BAND CHANNELS AND HISTOGRAM
(6)


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3. 0 COMPARISON BETWEEN THE TWO CLASSIFICATION RESULTS
In comparison of both the principal component analysis (PCA) unsupervised and the
unsupervised classification, the PCA showed a high degree of variation with a spread out and
sharper image. After a close comparison between the pixel classes of each result, the PCA
shows a higher percentage of accuracy than the original unsupervised. This was as a result of
the redundant data been compacted into fewer bands and also, the dimension of the data was
reduced. The bands of the PCA data shows non-correlated patterns and are independent, they
are often more Interpretable than the source data as shown in Figure 5

FIGURE 5-PCA AND UNSUPERVISED IMAGE
PCA-Unsupervised Classification Unsupervised Classification



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The PCA analysis depicts a clearer sharper image as mentioned earlier however it as greatly
helped in the classification of the urban by distinctly separating the urban from other classes. It
also defines high degree of variability among other classes. The red ring in Figure 6 shows the
original unsupervised urban with strong redundancy and cluster class while the yellow ring PCA
unsupervised shows a distinctive classification of the urban and road networks from other
classes and the spread.

FIGURE 6-PCA AND UNSUPERVISED URBAN COMPARISON
Unsupervised PCA







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Based on the analysis results the PCA result as helped in classifying the forest from the
agriculture clearly. This classification further assists in differentiating the heavy vegetation from
the densely populated once. It also helped in classing the healthy agriculture field from the
unhealthy once. In Figure 7, the red ring shows high redundancy classification in vegetation and
the agriculture fields in the unsupervised image while the yellow ring shows a distinctive
classification between the agriculture field and the vegetation in the PCA unsupervised image

FIGURE 7-PCA AND UNSUPERVISED AGRICULTURE COMPARISON
Unsupervised PCA






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4. 0 CONCLUSION
In conclusion, principal component analysis (PCA) showed a great importance in digital image
processing and classification however, from the individual result, it is very glairing that, it is best
to carry out a PCA analysis to get accurate classification, though the images might appear
similar but the PCA would help to reduce or eliminate the redundancy in data and also help
with a sharper or clearer image for better analysis result.























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BIBLIOGRAPHY
Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation Lillesand | Kiefer | Chipman Sixth Edition
ERDAS FIELD GUIDE 2010
Image Fusion and Principal Component Analysis (1) lecture note by Janet Finlay























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APPENDIX



























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UNSUPERVISED THEMATIC MAP










OLWALE BABALOLA PCA ANALYSIS 14

PCA THEMATIC MAP