73 views

Uploaded by api-252111068

- qweqweq
- Salmanighabeshi 2015.pdf
- h 05814953
- Matrix
- 4D Statistical Shape Modeling of the Left Ventricle in Cardiac MR Images
- Compozitie Minerala Sci Tot Env 2015
- Machine Learning Applications in Finance
- Principal Component Analysis Step by Step
- Assessment of metal pollution based on multivariate statistical.pdf
- g 04401051055
- Dimensionality Reduction Compositional Data
- Advanced Histroy Matching Reviewed
- WSN_PCA
- Market Risk Scenarios Using PCA Lorten FRB_1997
- Sales-Come & Holscher 2010 Variability & Grouping of Leaf Traits
- 1-s2.0-S187661021401491X-main
- Manipulating Data.pdf
- 22_14.8247_Muhamad Saka Sotyasaksi- POSTER
- Paper Florian Lipsmeier
- Van Acker_Why People Use Their Cars While

You are on page 1of 18

HORTICULTURAL STUDIES

Feb 12, 2014

GISC 9216-D2

Fundamentals of PCA

2/12/2014

Instructor Janet Finley

OLAWALE BABALOLA

20 Hill Park Lane, St. Catharines,

ON. L2N 1C6

engr_josla@yahoo.com

OLWALE BABALOLA PCA ANALYSIS 1

20 Hill Park Lane, St. Catharines Ontario. L2N 1C6

Phone#: (289)990-6367, Email: engr_josla@yahoo.com

February 12, 2014

Janet Finlay

GIS-GM Professor (Coordinator)

Niagara College

135 Taylor Road

Niagara-on-the-Lake, ON

L0S 1J0

Dear Janet,

RE: Submission of GISC9216-Assignment #2

Please accept this letter as my formal submission of Assignment GISC9216-#2 .

This assignment contains, a formal written summary report of MS Word document with

answers to Assignment-#2 Fundamentals of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) using ERDAS.

This assignment serves as continuation in digital image processing. It has taught me another

concept of digital image processing on how to carry out Principal Component Analysis (PCA). It

also engender me the opportunity to use the ERDAS software effectively in carrying out this

analysis ranging from viewing raster image, Subset, histogram and displaying band channels for

further comparison. The overall findings in this analysis show that, the PCA result has a better

and distinctive classification than the unsupervised classification.

Should you have any question regarding my deliverable, please don't hesitate to contact me on

my phone: (289)990-6367 or Email: engr_josla@yahoo.com.

I look forward to your favorable comment.

Best Regards.

Olawale Babalola BSc

GIS-GM Certificate Candidate

O.B./o.b.

Niagara College (NOTL)

+1(289) 990-6

Attachement: PCA & Unsupervised thematic maps

ABSTRACT

This workshop is based on digital image processing which was narrowed down to principal

component analysis (PCA). A principal component analysis was carried out on a subset image

created from previous workshop with aim to reduce redundancy and compress data which is a

major issued faced in classifying digital image data accurately. The result of the PCA was further

classified using unsupervised method of classification. The result was compared with the

unsupervised classification from the previous workshop with the aim to determine a more

accurate analysis result in the image classification. The analysis as shown that, PCA analysis

would yield a more accurate result with distinctive classification result compare to original

unsupervised classification analysis.

OLWALE BABALOLA PCA ANALYSIS II

CONTENTS

Abstract ......................................................................................................................................................................................... i

Table of Figure .......................................................................................................................................................................... ii

List of Table ................................................................................................................................................................................ ii

1. O Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................................... 1

1.1 Principal Component Analysis (PCA) .................................................................................................................. 1

1.2 Background .................................................................................................................................................................... 1

1.3 Procedure ....................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2.0 Answers to Questions ..................................................................................................................................................... 3

3.0 Comparison between the two Classification Results ........................................................................................ 7

4.0 Conclusion ......................................................................................................................................................................... 10

Bibliography ............................................................................................................................................................................ 11

Appendix ................................................................................................................................................................................... 12

Unsupervised Thematic Map ............................................................................................................................................ 13

PCA Thematic Map ................................................................................................................................................................ 14

TABLE OF FIGURE

Figure 1-Principal Component Analysis ........................................................................................................................ 2

Figure 2-Subset Band Channels ......................................................................................................................................... 3

Figure 3-Subset Histogram .................................................................................................................................................. 4

Figure 4- PCA Band Channels and Histogram .............................................................................................................. 6

Figure 5-PCA and Unsupervised Image .......................................................................................................................... 7

Figure 6-PCA and Unsupervised Urban Comparison ................................................................................................ 8

Figure 7-PCA and Unsupervised Agriculture Comparison ..................................................................................... 9

LIST OF TABLE

Table 1- Eigenvalues with Total Percentage ................................................................................................................ 4

OLWALE BABALOLA PCA ANALYSIS 1

1. O INTRODUCTION

1.1 PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS (PCA)

Principal Components Analysis (PCA) is a way of identifying patterns in data, and expressing the

data in such a way as to highlight both their similarities and differences. Since Patterns in data

can be hard to find in data of high dimension, where the luxury of graphical representation is

not available, PCA would be a perfect tool for analyzing such data. Also it is a method used for

transforming a set of correlated variables into a new set of uncorrelated variables with the aim

of reducing data redundancy in the image. In Principal Component Analysis, each variable are

transformed into a linear combination of orthogonal common components (output raster

maps) with decreasing order of variation. This enables a reduction of output maps because the

last number of transformed maps has little or no variation left. The linear transformation

assumes the components will explain all of the variance in each variable. Hence each

component (output raster map) carries different information which is uncorrelated with other

components. PCA can also be used for pre-processing procedure prior to classification of the

data and to find targets of interest, for example, the component with the lowest variance may

contain some interesting information. This analysis is aimed at carrying out principal

component analysis (PCA) on a subset image to reduce the redundancy and to compress data in

which the final result of the analysis will be used in classifying the area of interest (AOI). This

analysis will be carried out using ERDAS Software.

1.2 BACKGROUND

A background study was carried out prior to this analysis using a subset created from a raster

image with the subset pixel size set as 512-by-512.The subset image was further classified with

the aim of categorizing the pixels in the digital image into several land cover classes using

supervised method of classification and unsupervised method of classification. The categorized

data was further used to produce thematic maps to show various pixel classifications. In

comparison various results from each classification methods shows a high degree of

redundancy in the multispectral image.

1. 3 PROCEDURE

The subset image created from the previous workshop was loaded in the ERDAS interface. The

image was then explored band by band from the feature space image (scattered plot) with the

OLWALE BABALOLA PCA ANALYSIS 2

aim to identify the bands displaying strong correlation. The principal component analysis was

then carried out on the subset image with the appropriate settings on the PCA module. For this

analysis the number of component desired was set to three (3) as instructed. Figure 1 illustrate

further on the procedure. Finally the PCA result was further classified with the unsupervised

method with same number of class and maximum iteration for consistency in the analysis.

FIGURE 1-PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS

OLWALE BABALOLA PCA ANALYSIS 3

2.0 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS

(1)

It is very essential to transform original image bands to the principal components because

of interband correlation which is most often problem encountered in analyzing a

multispectral image. It is also important because most images generated by the digital data

from various wavelength bands often appear same or similar that is, superfluous repetition

and occurrence which translates essentially the same information.

(2)

FIGURE 2-SUBSET BAND CHANNELS

The feature space image of the following channel bands Colors as shown in Figure 2 reflect the

density of points for both bands where the bright tones represent a high density and the dark

tones represent a low density this further shows a strong correlation. Among the bands, the

signature displays straight linear trending lines pattern showing a less or no variation. It was

also determined from the histograms as shown in Figure 3 that they display a high pixel range

cluster in one side of the graph. This further depicts high redundancy in the data.

OLWALE BABALOLA PCA ANALYSIS 4

FIGURE 3-SUBSET HISTOGRAM

(3)

The variance shown on the first three band channels was determined from the Eigenvalues

however, eigenvalue is a number that indicates how much variance there is in a data. As

coefficient result of this technique measure variance in the data, it thus further shows how

much variance of the data each of the principal components represents and the percentages of

the total variance. The first eigenvalue shows the largest and represents the most variance in

the data. It further tells us how spread out the data is. Table 1 shows the eigenvalue and the

total percentage of the first three values.

TABLE 1- EIGENVALUES WITH TOTAL PERCENTAGE

975.9553886 59.56376%

592.377442 36.15353%

55.49854865 3.387145%

9.857151912

3.171655456

1.645124367

99.10443%

OLWALE BABALOLA PCA ANALYSIS 5

(4)

In comparison the bands of PCA data shown in Figure 4 are non-correlated and independent.

They are often more interpretable than the source data it was also observed that the feature

space image displays a weak correlation and the histogram pixel ranges shows a wide spread

variation while the original data shows a very strong correlation with no spread as shown in

Figure 2 & 3.

OLWALE BABALOLA PCA ANALYSIS 6

FIGURE 4- PCA BAND CHANNELS AND HISTOGRAM

(6)

OLWALE BABALOLA PCA ANALYSIS 7

3. 0 COMPARISON BETWEEN THE TWO CLASSIFICATION RESULTS

In comparison of both the principal component analysis (PCA) unsupervised and the

unsupervised classification, the PCA showed a high degree of variation with a spread out and

sharper image. After a close comparison between the pixel classes of each result, the PCA

shows a higher percentage of accuracy than the original unsupervised. This was as a result of

the redundant data been compacted into fewer bands and also, the dimension of the data was

reduced. The bands of the PCA data shows non-correlated patterns and are independent, they

are often more Interpretable than the source data as shown in Figure 5

FIGURE 5-PCA AND UNSUPERVISED IMAGE

PCA-Unsupervised Classification Unsupervised Classification

OLWALE BABALOLA PCA ANALYSIS 8

The PCA analysis depicts a clearer sharper image as mentioned earlier however it as greatly

helped in the classification of the urban by distinctly separating the urban from other classes. It

also defines high degree of variability among other classes. The red ring in Figure 6 shows the

original unsupervised urban with strong redundancy and cluster class while the yellow ring PCA

unsupervised shows a distinctive classification of the urban and road networks from other

classes and the spread.

FIGURE 6-PCA AND UNSUPERVISED URBAN COMPARISON

Unsupervised PCA

OLWALE BABALOLA PCA ANALYSIS 9

Based on the analysis results the PCA result as helped in classifying the forest from the

agriculture clearly. This classification further assists in differentiating the heavy vegetation from

the densely populated once. It also helped in classing the healthy agriculture field from the

unhealthy once. In Figure 7, the red ring shows high redundancy classification in vegetation and

the agriculture fields in the unsupervised image while the yellow ring shows a distinctive

classification between the agriculture field and the vegetation in the PCA unsupervised image

FIGURE 7-PCA AND UNSUPERVISED AGRICULTURE COMPARISON

Unsupervised PCA

OLWALE BABALOLA PCA ANALYSIS 10

4. 0 CONCLUSION

In conclusion, principal component analysis (PCA) showed a great importance in digital image

processing and classification however, from the individual result, it is very glairing that, it is best

to carry out a PCA analysis to get accurate classification, though the images might appear

similar but the PCA would help to reduce or eliminate the redundancy in data and also help

with a sharper or clearer image for better analysis result.

OLWALE BABALOLA PCA ANALYSIS 11

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation Lillesand | Kiefer | Chipman Sixth Edition

ERDAS FIELD GUIDE 2010

Image Fusion and Principal Component Analysis (1) lecture note by Janet Finlay

OLWALE BABALOLA PCA ANALYSIS 12

APPENDIX

OLWALE BABALOLA PCA ANALYSIS 13

UNSUPERVISED THEMATIC MAP

OLWALE BABALOLA PCA ANALYSIS 14

PCA THEMATIC MAP

- qweqweqUploaded byJoseMiguelDomingo
- Salmanighabeshi 2015.pdfUploaded byRodrigo Sepúlveda Ramos
- h 05814953Uploaded byIOSRJEN : hard copy, certificates, Call for Papers 2013, publishing of journal
- MatrixUploaded byAntonius Agil
- 4D Statistical Shape Modeling of the Left Ventricle in Cardiac MR ImagesUploaded byFaiz Zeo Xii
- Compozitie Minerala Sci Tot Env 2015Uploaded byAnonymous sAeXr7i
- Machine Learning Applications in FinanceUploaded byOwen
- Principal Component Analysis Step by StepUploaded byIlya Kavalerov
- Assessment of metal pollution based on multivariate statistical.pdfUploaded bySinisa Gale Gacic
- g 04401051055Uploaded byInternational Journal of computational Engineering research (IJCER)
- Dimensionality Reduction Compositional DataUploaded byMário de Freitas
- Advanced Histroy Matching ReviewedUploaded byajay
- WSN_PCAUploaded byRajendra Gad
- Market Risk Scenarios Using PCA Lorten FRB_1997Uploaded byAmitmse
- Sales-Come & Holscher 2010 Variability & Grouping of Leaf TraitsUploaded byjella218
- 1-s2.0-S187661021401491X-mainUploaded bykalokos
- Manipulating Data.pdfUploaded byYulNguyen
- 22_14.8247_Muhamad Saka Sotyasaksi- POSTERUploaded byMuhammad Saka Sotyasaksi
- Paper Florian LipsmeierUploaded byvisbio
- Van Acker_Why People Use Their Cars WhileUploaded byNavin Kumar
- Lecture1 JpsUploaded byChetan Desai
- gray.pptUploaded byjeromeku
- 14.IJAEST Vol No 7 Issue No 1 Optimization of Feed Forward Neural Network for Audio Classification Systems 098 102Uploaded byamarolima
- 61981Uploaded byUlises Gordillo Zapana
- Consumer Lifestyle Influence of Consumer Behaviour-libreUploaded bySharan Biradar
- Design of Face Recognition System Using PrincipalUploaded byInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- 16_siddareddy.Bathini_13Uploaded byiiste
- Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Vegetation Prasad S. Thenkabail, John G. Lyon, Alfredo Huete1Uploaded byAshoka Vanjare
- Model-based Clustering and Typologies in the.pdfUploaded byRafaela Sturza
- Cranial Evidence of Pre-Contact Multiple Population Expansions in the CaribbeanUploaded byRubén García Díaz

- Porous Media Scribd Download - Google SearchUploaded bybrijesh kinkhab
- h2o-m.outUploaded bygprodan2002a2948
- Pci Dss v3 2 Saq b Ip Rev1 1Uploaded byokdsadjh
- Cryptography ExamUploaded byShuyunLim
- JAVA Programming 2 hmwk5Uploaded byEfrain Peña
- Oracle R12 Payments_1hEiUploaded bySambamurthy Rachapudi
- 2nd PT Math 6Uploaded byEnerio Ebisa
- BSG Voucher Activation InstructionsUploaded byprobeautyassociation
- MMUP 1Uploaded bystefenjohn36
- 2015 Wq Cs 171 Midterm Exam KeyUploaded byMaja Mijanovic
- 14182676 Mobile Number Portability Theory Introduction and Types of Solutions AvailableUploaded bymadhubabukurra
- Pipesys User GuideUploaded bydancas01
- p80c51bh IntelUploaded byyash_pachaury
- Technical Components of Oracle PurchasingUploaded bygetsaby
- CCNAV3.3 302Uploaded byTung Hoang
- Orthogonal Codes in CDMAUploaded byOgg Silverlemone
- Recognition of Surgically Altered Face ImagesUploaded byAnonymous kw8Yrp0R5r
- A2_MicroKernelsUploaded byankit boxer
- Implict Explicit EnhancmentUploaded byRajesh Yadav
- FuzzificationUploaded byAvnesh Suryavanshi
- 2011-11-17_23-21-13_r3dlogUploaded byHüseyin Kuscu
- OMVEER1Uploaded byshamagondal
- Powerinspect CncUploaded byJosephRomeralo
- Rt 4105 b 112017Uploaded bySwati
- Linear Non Linear FEMUploaded bywial8295
- GDS-1000 Programming Manual Nov7.pdfUploaded byLuis Armando Reyes Cardoso
- Quality Stage User GuideUploaded bymohenishjaiswal
- doxUploaded byRiccardo Arena
- Risk Assessment of Highway Construction Projects using Fuzzy Logic and Multiple Regression AnalysisUploaded byIRJET Journal
- CATALOGUING SERVICES PRESENTATION.docxUploaded byIrca Sinaga