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ISET GOLDEN JUBILEE SYMPOSIUM

Indian Society of Earthquake Technology


Department of Earthquake Engineering Building
IIT Roorkee, Roorkee

October 20-21, 2012

Paper No. C018

ANALYSIS OF RECIPROCATING MACHINE FOUNDATIONS RESTING
ON PILES

M. Bharathi
1
, Dr. Swami Saran
2
and Dr. Shyamal Mukerjee
3
1
M.Tech. Student, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, bharathi.iitr@gmail.com
2
Professor Emeritus, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, saranswami@yahoo.co.in
3
Assistant Professor, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, shyamfeq@iitr.ernet.in



ABSTRACT

Machine foundations are generally classified as special foundations. They require a detailed
analysis of the foundation response to the dynamic load resulting fromthe anticipated operation of
the machine. Reciprocating type machines produce periodic unbalanced forces. The basic operating
mechanismof a reciprocating machine consists of a piston crank system and the operating speeds of
such machines are usually less than 1000 rpm. Dynamic forces developed in reciprocating machines
are much larger when compared to those generated in rotary machines. Reciprocating machines are
normally founded on block foundations. Under unavoidable situations reciprocating machines have
also been founded on piles. Reciprocating machines resting on piles are analyzed with the help of
solutions developed for dynamic behavior of pile groups.

This paper describes the behavior of reciprocating machines resting on piles. An attempt has
been made to study the behavior of the reciprocating machine foundation system subjected to
dynamic loads. A reciprocating machine resting on a pile group was selected such that the soil, pile
and machine parameters resemble actual field conditions and it was analyzed for the dynamic
conditions. MATLAB programs were developed for different modes of vibration i.e. (vertical,
sliding, rocking and coupled) and the machine foundation systemwas analyzed for different soil, pile
and machine parameters and the variation in the natural frequency and amplitude of the systemwas
studied. Results of the analysis have been presented in the formof charts for vertical and coupled
modes of vibration.

Keywords: Reciprocating Machines, Pile groups, Coupled Vibration, Frequency, Amplitude

INTRODUCTION

Machine foundations require a special consideration because they transmit dynamic loads to soil in
addition to static loads due to weight of foundation, machine and its accessories [8]. The amplitude of
vibration of a machine at its operating frequency is the most important parameter to be determined in
designing a machine foundation, in addition to the natural frequency of the machine foundation soil
system[3].

Reciprocating machines produce periodic unbalanced forces. Engines, Compressors and Pumps
belong to this category. The basic mechanismconsists of a piston that moves within a cylinder, a
connecting rod, a piston rod and a crank. The operating speed of these machines is less than
1000rpm, but the dynamic forces developed are more than that of rotary machines [13].

Fig. 1 Parts of a reciprocating machine

Reciprocating machines are very frequently encountered in practice. They are rested on a concrete
block or a hollow concrete block. In the latter case, the mass of the system is less and hence the
natural frequency will be greater than the former case. The depth of embedment plays a vital role in
the stiffness and damping values of the system [14]. The foundation for the machines thus formed
rests either on soil or pile groups. When the foundation rests on the pile group the block formed
serves the purpose of the pile cap [12].


Fig. 2 Foundation on soil

Fig. 3 Foundation on piles

CODAL PROVISIONS

Codes suggest guidelines and limitations in the design of a structure. For machine foundations ACI
351 -3R -04 [1], SAES Q 007[11], DIN 4024[5], IS 2974- Part 1[6], CP 2012[4] and 1S0 10816
[7] were some of the codes given by different nations. But none of the codes suggested the limitations
or guidelines for the design of machine foundations resting on piles. Among all the codes the most
common emphasis was on the eccentricity of the machine foundation soil system. Finally, from the
Indian Code IS 2974 - Part 1 the limit for permissible value of amplitude was adopted for the design
process. This, amplitude was decided based on the type of the machine. For reciprocating type of
machines the value was 0.2 mm[6].

DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF PILE GROUP FOR MACHINE FOUNDATION

The machine foundation system vibrates in all six degrees of freedom. Of the six modes, translation
along vertical axis and rotation around vertical axis can occur independently of any other motion and
are called decoupled modes. But the translation along the longitudinal or lateral and the
corresponding rotations always occur together and are called coupled modes [13]. In field conditions
the machine foundation system is subjected to coupled sliding and rocking vibration. Hence the
dynamic analysis of the machine foundations subjected to coupled sliding and rocking motion passing
through the common centre of gravity of machine and foundation becomes must.


Fig.4 Reciprocating machine on pile group
METHODS FOR ANALYSIS

There are two types of analysis of the dynamic behavior of pile group and they are adopted to analyze
and design the reciprocating machine supported on the pile group.

Pseudo-Static Analysis

In this approach, approximate values of horizontal and vertical seismic co-efficient, are adopted and
equivalent seismic forces are calculated to design the pile foundation for structures located in seismic
regions. When these equivalent seismic forces are added to the static forces, the pile foundation is
subjected to eccentric inclined load [13].

Dynamic Analysis

In this method, the pile is subjected to sinusoidally varying dynamic force which is modeled as a
single degree of freedomsystem. Here, the soil was assumed to be composed of independent
infinitesimally thin horizontal layers of infinite extent which could be considered as a generalized
Winkler material possessing inertia and dissipates energy [13].

METHOD ADOPTED

Analysis of pile groups supporting machine is done with the help of relations developed by Novak
and others based on the dynamic analysis for different modes of vibration.

The stiffness and damping of a pile depends on soil properties, pile properties and type of pile
support. When the stiffness and damping of a pile is calculated then applying the interaction factor to
it the group stiffness and damping is determined. Thus the amplitude and frequency variation of a
pile group for varying pile, machine and soil parameters are calculated.

PARAMETERS SELECTED

A 3x3 pile group is selected and the variation in the frequency and amplitude for vertical, sliding,
rocking and coupled modes of vibration are studied varying the parameters. The soil, machine and
pile parameters are selected in such a way that they represent the actual field conditions.

Soil
The soil parameter is represented by the Shear modulus of the soil. For the multiple soil layer the
shear modulus of the soil increases with depth. This is represented by the parabolic variation of soil
profile.

Pile Group

For the Machine foundation the pile group is selected according to the plan area of the Machine.
Usually the plan area of the machine is not symmetrical. But in our problem the pile group
arrangement is assumed to be symmetrical to simplify the analysis. The spacing between the piles is
varied from 2d to 4d [2] and the variation of natural frequency and the amplitude of the system are
studied. The piles in a pile group may be arranged in any of the following pattern.

Machine

The operating frequency and the weight of the reciprocating machine are selected such that the
parameters suite the values of the machines that are used in the industries. The operating frequency of
the reciprocating machines used in the industries varies between 300 to 1000 rpm usually. The weight
of the reciprocating machine varies from300kN to 1700 kN.
ANALYSIS RESULTS FROM MATLAB

The MATLAB [9, 10] programs were written for different modes of vibration and the results obtained
were checked manually and the program was verified. Based, on the results obtained from MATLAB
programs conclusions were drawn. The following charts were prepared with the results obtained from
the MATLAB programs varying the parameters.

Case (i) The machine parameters i.e. the machine weight and the operating
frequency are kept constant and the spacing between the piles are varied.
Wm = 400 kN ( = 41.88 rad/sec) & OS = 400 rpm


When the weight of the machine & the operating frequency are kept constant and the spacing
between the piles are increased
i. The weight of the pile cap increases
ii. The distance fromthe c.g of the pile systemincreases
When the spacing is increased from2d to 4d the total mass increases from
253kg to 608kg whereas the stiffness in vertical direction increases from
2.7x10
5
to 3.35x10
5
. Thus the increase in stiffness is less when compared
to the increase in total mass. Hence, the natural frequency decreases.

Case (ii) The machine weight and the spacing between the piles are kept constant
and the operating frequency are varied.
Wm = 400kN ( = 41.88 rad/sec) and S = 3d

0
10
20
30
40
50
1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5
N
a
t
u
r
a
l

f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y

i
n

r
a
d
/
s
S/d
wnz (rad/s) wn1 (rad/s)
wn2 (rad/s)


Fig.5 Natural frequency variation with S/d
0.0001
0.001
1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e

i
n

m
S/d
Az (m)


Fig. 6 Vertical Amplitude variation with S/d

1.00E-05
1.00E-04
1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e

i
n

m
S/d
AX (m)


Fig. 7 Horizontal amplitude variation with S/d
1.00E-06
1.00E-04
1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e

i
n

m
S/d
AR (rad)


Fig. 8 Rotational amplitude variation with S/d



When the machine weight & spacing between the piles are kept constant
and the operating frequency is increased the amplitude decreases as the
natural frequency moves away fromthe operating frequency.

Case (iii) The operating frequency of the machine and the spacing are kept constant
and the weight of the machine is varied.
OS = 400rpm ( = 41.88 rad/sec) & S = 3d

0.00001
0.0001
0.001
200 400 600 800 1000 1200
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e

i
n

m
OSin rpm
Az


Fig.9 Vertical Amplitude variation with
operating speed

1.00E-06
1.00E-05
1.00E-04
200 400 600 800 1000 1200
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e

i
n

m
OS in rpm
Axc


Fig.10 Horizontal Amplitude variation with
operating speed

1.00E-06
1.00E-05
1.00E-04
200 400 600 800 1000 1200
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e

i
n

m
OSin rpm
Arc


Fig.11 Rotational Amplitude variation with operating speed



When the operating frequency and the spacing between the piles are kept
constant and the weight of the machine is increased the natural frequency
of the systemdecreases with nominal change since the mass of the system
increases. The amplitude also decreases as the natural frequency moves
away fromthe operating frequency of the system.


Case (iv) The operating frequency of the machine, the weight of the machine and the
spacing are kept constant and the pile parameters i.e. the length and the
diameter of the pile are varied.
OS = 400rpm ( = 41.88 rad/sec), Wm=400kN & S =3d

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
200 400 600 800 1000 1200
N
a
t
u
r
a
l

f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y

i
n

r
a
d
/
s
Weight in kN
wnz (rad/s) wn1 (rad/s)
wn2 (rad/s)


Fig.12 Natural frequency variation with
Machine weight

0.0001
0.001
200 400 600 800 1000 1200
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e

i
n

m
Weight inkN
Az (m)


Fig.13 Vertical Amplitude variation with
Machine weight

1.00E-05
1.00E-04
200 400 600 800 1000 1200
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e

i
n

m
Weight inkN
AX (m)


Fig.14 Horizontal Amplitude variation with
Machine weight

1.00E-06
1.00E-05
1.00E-04
200 400 600 800 1000 1200
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e

i
n

m
Weight inkN
AR (rad)


Fig.15 Rotational Amplitude variation with
Machine weight


Thus, when the operating frequency of the machine, the weight of the machine and
the spacing are kept constant and the L/d ratio of the pile is varied the amplitude
attains a maximumvalue when the natural frequency is far away from the
operating frequency.

Case (v) The operating frequency of the machine is kept constant and the
weight of the machine is varied along with the spacing.
OS = 400rpm ( = 41.88 rad/sec)

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
L/d
wnz(rad/s) wn1(rad/s)
wn2(rad/s)


Fig.16 Natural frequency variation with L/d

1.0E-04
1.0E-03
1.0E-02
10 20 30 40 50 60
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e

i
n

m
L/d
Az(m)


Fig.17 Vertical Amplitude variation with L/d

1.0E-05
1.0E-04
1.0E-03
10 20 30 40 50 60
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e

i
n

m
L/d
AX(m)


Fig.18 Horizontal Amplitude with L/d

1.0E-06
1.0E-05
1.0E-04
10 20 30 40 50 60
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e

(
i
n

r
a
d
)
L/d
AR(rad)


Fig.19 Rotational Amplitude with L/d


10
30
50
70
90
110
300 450 600 750 900
2 2.5 3 3.5 4
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
Weight in kN and S/d
wnz (rad/s) wn1 (rad/ s)
wn2 (rad/ s)


Fig.20 Frequency variation with varying
machine weight and spacing
0.0001
0.0002
0.0003
0.0004
0.0005
0.0006
0.0007
0.0008
0.0009
0.001
300 450 600 750 900
2 2.5 3 3.5 4
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
Weight in kN and S/d
Az (m)


Fig.21 Vertical amplitude variation with varying
machine weight and spacing


0.00001
0.00002
0.00003
0.00004
0.00005
0.00006
0.00007
300 450 600 750 900
2 2.5 3 3.5 4
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
Weight in kN and S/d
AX (m)


Fig.22 Horizontal amplitude variation with
varying machine weight and spacing

0.000006
0.000008
0.00001
0.000012
0.000014
0.000016
0.000018
0.00002
300 450 600 750 900
2 2.5 3 3.5 4
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
Weight in kN and S/d
AR (rad)


Fig.23 Rotational amplitude variation with
varying machine weight and spacing


As the spacing between the piles increases the weight of the pile cap
increases which possibly may intend the increase in the machine weight.
In this case the operating frequency is kept constant and as the natural
frequency of the systemmoves away fromit the amplitude gets reduced.


CONCLUSIONS

When the spacing between the piles is increased, the increase in the stiffness is less when compared to
the increase in the mass of the systemand hence the natural frequency decreases. As the difference
between the natural frequency and operating frequency increases the amplitude decreases. The
increase in machine weight contributes a nominal change in the natural frequency, hence, the
reduction in amplitude is also very less. When L/d ratio of the pile is increased the natural frequency
attains a maximumvalue when it moves far away fromthe operating frequency. Varying both the
spacing between the piles and the machine weight the natural frequency of the system moves far apart
from the operating frequency for coupled mode of vibration. Hence, coupled mode of vibration has
the least amplitude when compared to vertical mode of vibration.


REFERENCES

1. ACI: 351-3R (2004), Foundations for Dynamic Equipment, American Concrete Institute.
2. Barkan D.D (1962), Dynamics of Bases and Foundation, McGraw hill book company, New
York.
3. Bhatia, K.G. (2008), Foundations for Industrial MachinesA Handbook for Practicing
Engineers, D-CAD Publishers, New Delhi.
4. CP: 2012-1974, Code of practice for Foundations for Machinery, BSI, London.
5. DIN: 4024-1988,Machine Foundations, German Standards.
6. IS: 2974 (Part I)-1982, Foundation for Reciprocating Type Machines, I.S.I. New Delhi.
7. IS0:10816-1995,Evaluation of Machine Vibration by Measurements on Non-rotating Parts,
International Organization for Standardization, Switzerland.
8. Major A. (1962), Vibration Analysis and Design of foundation for Machines and Turbines,
Akademiai kiado, Budapest, Collets Holdings ltd, London.
9. Rudra Pratap,Getting Started with MATLAB, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
10. S R Otto, Denier,An Introduction to Programming and Numerical Methods In MATLAB,
Springer.
11. SAES: Q007 2003, Foundations and Supporting Structures for Heavy Machinery, Onshore
Structures, Saudi Arabia.
12. Srinivasulu P, Vaidyanathan C.V (1976), Handbook of Machine Foundation, Tata McGraw
Hill Publishing Company Ltd, New Delhi.
13. Swami Saran (2006), Soil Dynamics and Machine Foundation, Galgotia Publications Pvt.
Ltd, New Delhi.
14. Swami Saran (2010), Analysis and Design of Substructures Limit State Design, Oxford &
IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi.