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Research paper for reciprocating machine

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Department of Earthquake Engineering Building

IIT Roorkee, Roorkee

October 20-21, 2012

Paper No. C018

ANALYSIS OF RECIPROCATING MACHINE FOUNDATIONS RESTING

ON PILES

M. Bharathi

1

, Dr. Swami Saran

2

and Dr. Shyamal Mukerjee

3

1

M.Tech. Student, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, bharathi.iitr@gmail.com

2

Professor Emeritus, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, saranswami@yahoo.co.in

3

Assistant Professor, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, shyamfeq@iitr.ernet.in

ABSTRACT

Machine foundations are generally classified as special foundations. They require a detailed

analysis of the foundation response to the dynamic load resulting fromthe anticipated operation of

the machine. Reciprocating type machines produce periodic unbalanced forces. The basic operating

mechanismof a reciprocating machine consists of a piston crank system and the operating speeds of

such machines are usually less than 1000 rpm. Dynamic forces developed in reciprocating machines

are much larger when compared to those generated in rotary machines. Reciprocating machines are

normally founded on block foundations. Under unavoidable situations reciprocating machines have

also been founded on piles. Reciprocating machines resting on piles are analyzed with the help of

solutions developed for dynamic behavior of pile groups.

This paper describes the behavior of reciprocating machines resting on piles. An attempt has

been made to study the behavior of the reciprocating machine foundation system subjected to

dynamic loads. A reciprocating machine resting on a pile group was selected such that the soil, pile

and machine parameters resemble actual field conditions and it was analyzed for the dynamic

conditions. MATLAB programs were developed for different modes of vibration i.e. (vertical,

sliding, rocking and coupled) and the machine foundation systemwas analyzed for different soil, pile

and machine parameters and the variation in the natural frequency and amplitude of the systemwas

studied. Results of the analysis have been presented in the formof charts for vertical and coupled

modes of vibration.

Keywords: Reciprocating Machines, Pile groups, Coupled Vibration, Frequency, Amplitude

INTRODUCTION

Machine foundations require a special consideration because they transmit dynamic loads to soil in

addition to static loads due to weight of foundation, machine and its accessories [8]. The amplitude of

vibration of a machine at its operating frequency is the most important parameter to be determined in

designing a machine foundation, in addition to the natural frequency of the machine foundation soil

system[3].

Reciprocating machines produce periodic unbalanced forces. Engines, Compressors and Pumps

belong to this category. The basic mechanismconsists of a piston that moves within a cylinder, a

connecting rod, a piston rod and a crank. The operating speed of these machines is less than

1000rpm, but the dynamic forces developed are more than that of rotary machines [13].

Fig. 1 Parts of a reciprocating machine

Reciprocating machines are very frequently encountered in practice. They are rested on a concrete

block or a hollow concrete block. In the latter case, the mass of the system is less and hence the

natural frequency will be greater than the former case. The depth of embedment plays a vital role in

the stiffness and damping values of the system [14]. The foundation for the machines thus formed

rests either on soil or pile groups. When the foundation rests on the pile group the block formed

serves the purpose of the pile cap [12].

Fig. 2 Foundation on soil

Fig. 3 Foundation on piles

CODAL PROVISIONS

Codes suggest guidelines and limitations in the design of a structure. For machine foundations ACI

351 -3R -04 [1], SAES Q 007[11], DIN 4024[5], IS 2974- Part 1[6], CP 2012[4] and 1S0 10816

[7] were some of the codes given by different nations. But none of the codes suggested the limitations

or guidelines for the design of machine foundations resting on piles. Among all the codes the most

common emphasis was on the eccentricity of the machine foundation soil system. Finally, from the

Indian Code IS 2974 - Part 1 the limit for permissible value of amplitude was adopted for the design

process. This, amplitude was decided based on the type of the machine. For reciprocating type of

machines the value was 0.2 mm[6].

DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF PILE GROUP FOR MACHINE FOUNDATION

The machine foundation system vibrates in all six degrees of freedom. Of the six modes, translation

along vertical axis and rotation around vertical axis can occur independently of any other motion and

are called decoupled modes. But the translation along the longitudinal or lateral and the

corresponding rotations always occur together and are called coupled modes [13]. In field conditions

the machine foundation system is subjected to coupled sliding and rocking vibration. Hence the

dynamic analysis of the machine foundations subjected to coupled sliding and rocking motion passing

through the common centre of gravity of machine and foundation becomes must.

Fig.4 Reciprocating machine on pile group

METHODS FOR ANALYSIS

There are two types of analysis of the dynamic behavior of pile group and they are adopted to analyze

and design the reciprocating machine supported on the pile group.

Pseudo-Static Analysis

In this approach, approximate values of horizontal and vertical seismic co-efficient, are adopted and

equivalent seismic forces are calculated to design the pile foundation for structures located in seismic

regions. When these equivalent seismic forces are added to the static forces, the pile foundation is

subjected to eccentric inclined load [13].

Dynamic Analysis

In this method, the pile is subjected to sinusoidally varying dynamic force which is modeled as a

single degree of freedomsystem. Here, the soil was assumed to be composed of independent

infinitesimally thin horizontal layers of infinite extent which could be considered as a generalized

Winkler material possessing inertia and dissipates energy [13].

METHOD ADOPTED

Analysis of pile groups supporting machine is done with the help of relations developed by Novak

and others based on the dynamic analysis for different modes of vibration.

The stiffness and damping of a pile depends on soil properties, pile properties and type of pile

support. When the stiffness and damping of a pile is calculated then applying the interaction factor to

it the group stiffness and damping is determined. Thus the amplitude and frequency variation of a

pile group for varying pile, machine and soil parameters are calculated.

PARAMETERS SELECTED

A 3x3 pile group is selected and the variation in the frequency and amplitude for vertical, sliding,

rocking and coupled modes of vibration are studied varying the parameters. The soil, machine and

pile parameters are selected in such a way that they represent the actual field conditions.

Soil

The soil parameter is represented by the Shear modulus of the soil. For the multiple soil layer the

shear modulus of the soil increases with depth. This is represented by the parabolic variation of soil

profile.

Pile Group

For the Machine foundation the pile group is selected according to the plan area of the Machine.

Usually the plan area of the machine is not symmetrical. But in our problem the pile group

arrangement is assumed to be symmetrical to simplify the analysis. The spacing between the piles is

varied from 2d to 4d [2] and the variation of natural frequency and the amplitude of the system are

studied. The piles in a pile group may be arranged in any of the following pattern.

Machine

The operating frequency and the weight of the reciprocating machine are selected such that the

parameters suite the values of the machines that are used in the industries. The operating frequency of

the reciprocating machines used in the industries varies between 300 to 1000 rpm usually. The weight

of the reciprocating machine varies from300kN to 1700 kN.

ANALYSIS RESULTS FROM MATLAB

The MATLAB [9, 10] programs were written for different modes of vibration and the results obtained

were checked manually and the program was verified. Based, on the results obtained from MATLAB

programs conclusions were drawn. The following charts were prepared with the results obtained from

the MATLAB programs varying the parameters.

Case (i) The machine parameters i.e. the machine weight and the operating

frequency are kept constant and the spacing between the piles are varied.

Wm = 400 kN ( = 41.88 rad/sec) & OS = 400 rpm

When the weight of the machine & the operating frequency are kept constant and the spacing

between the piles are increased

i. The weight of the pile cap increases

ii. The distance fromthe c.g of the pile systemincreases

When the spacing is increased from2d to 4d the total mass increases from

253kg to 608kg whereas the stiffness in vertical direction increases from

2.7x10

5

to 3.35x10

5

. Thus the increase in stiffness is less when compared

to the increase in total mass. Hence, the natural frequency decreases.

Case (ii) The machine weight and the spacing between the piles are kept constant

and the operating frequency are varied.

Wm = 400kN ( = 41.88 rad/sec) and S = 3d

0

10

20

30

40

50

1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5

N

a

t

u

r

a

l

f

r

e

q

u

e

n

c

y

i

n

r

a

d

/

s

S/d

wnz (rad/s) wn1 (rad/s)

wn2 (rad/s)

Fig.5 Natural frequency variation with S/d

0.0001

0.001

1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

i

n

m

S/d

Az (m)

Fig. 6 Vertical Amplitude variation with S/d

1.00E-05

1.00E-04

1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

i

n

m

S/d

AX (m)

Fig. 7 Horizontal amplitude variation with S/d

1.00E-06

1.00E-04

1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

i

n

m

S/d

AR (rad)

Fig. 8 Rotational amplitude variation with S/d

When the machine weight & spacing between the piles are kept constant

and the operating frequency is increased the amplitude decreases as the

natural frequency moves away fromthe operating frequency.

Case (iii) The operating frequency of the machine and the spacing are kept constant

and the weight of the machine is varied.

OS = 400rpm ( = 41.88 rad/sec) & S = 3d

0.00001

0.0001

0.001

200 400 600 800 1000 1200

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

i

n

m

OSin rpm

Az

Fig.9 Vertical Amplitude variation with

operating speed

1.00E-06

1.00E-05

1.00E-04

200 400 600 800 1000 1200

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

i

n

m

OS in rpm

Axc

Fig.10 Horizontal Amplitude variation with

operating speed

1.00E-06

1.00E-05

1.00E-04

200 400 600 800 1000 1200

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

i

n

m

OSin rpm

Arc

Fig.11 Rotational Amplitude variation with operating speed

When the operating frequency and the spacing between the piles are kept

constant and the weight of the machine is increased the natural frequency

of the systemdecreases with nominal change since the mass of the system

increases. The amplitude also decreases as the natural frequency moves

away fromthe operating frequency of the system.

Case (iv) The operating frequency of the machine, the weight of the machine and the

spacing are kept constant and the pile parameters i.e. the length and the

diameter of the pile are varied.

OS = 400rpm ( = 41.88 rad/sec), Wm=400kN & S =3d

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

200 400 600 800 1000 1200

N

a

t

u

r

a

l

f

r

e

q

u

e

n

c

y

i

n

r

a

d

/

s

Weight in kN

wnz (rad/s) wn1 (rad/s)

wn2 (rad/s)

Fig.12 Natural frequency variation with

Machine weight

0.0001

0.001

200 400 600 800 1000 1200

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

i

n

m

Weight inkN

Az (m)

Fig.13 Vertical Amplitude variation with

Machine weight

1.00E-05

1.00E-04

200 400 600 800 1000 1200

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

i

n

m

Weight inkN

AX (m)

Fig.14 Horizontal Amplitude variation with

Machine weight

1.00E-06

1.00E-05

1.00E-04

200 400 600 800 1000 1200

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

i

n

m

Weight inkN

AR (rad)

Fig.15 Rotational Amplitude variation with

Machine weight

Thus, when the operating frequency of the machine, the weight of the machine and

the spacing are kept constant and the L/d ratio of the pile is varied the amplitude

attains a maximumvalue when the natural frequency is far away from the

operating frequency.

Case (v) The operating frequency of the machine is kept constant and the

weight of the machine is varied along with the spacing.

OS = 400rpm ( = 41.88 rad/sec)

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55

F

r

e

q

u

e

n

c

y

L/d

wnz(rad/s) wn1(rad/s)

wn2(rad/s)

Fig.16 Natural frequency variation with L/d

1.0E-04

1.0E-03

1.0E-02

10 20 30 40 50 60

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

i

n

m

L/d

Az(m)

Fig.17 Vertical Amplitude variation with L/d

1.0E-05

1.0E-04

1.0E-03

10 20 30 40 50 60

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

i

n

m

L/d

AX(m)

Fig.18 Horizontal Amplitude with L/d

1.0E-06

1.0E-05

1.0E-04

10 20 30 40 50 60

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

(

i

n

r

a

d

)

L/d

AR(rad)

Fig.19 Rotational Amplitude with L/d

10

30

50

70

90

110

300 450 600 750 900

2 2.5 3 3.5 4

F

r

e

q

u

e

n

c

y

Weight in kN and S/d

wnz (rad/s) wn1 (rad/ s)

wn2 (rad/ s)

Fig.20 Frequency variation with varying

machine weight and spacing

0.0001

0.0002

0.0003

0.0004

0.0005

0.0006

0.0007

0.0008

0.0009

0.001

300 450 600 750 900

2 2.5 3 3.5 4

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

Weight in kN and S/d

Az (m)

Fig.21 Vertical amplitude variation with varying

machine weight and spacing

0.00001

0.00002

0.00003

0.00004

0.00005

0.00006

0.00007

300 450 600 750 900

2 2.5 3 3.5 4

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

Weight in kN and S/d

AX (m)

Fig.22 Horizontal amplitude variation with

varying machine weight and spacing

0.000006

0.000008

0.00001

0.000012

0.000014

0.000016

0.000018

0.00002

300 450 600 750 900

2 2.5 3 3.5 4

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

Weight in kN and S/d

AR (rad)

Fig.23 Rotational amplitude variation with

varying machine weight and spacing

As the spacing between the piles increases the weight of the pile cap

increases which possibly may intend the increase in the machine weight.

In this case the operating frequency is kept constant and as the natural

frequency of the systemmoves away fromit the amplitude gets reduced.

CONCLUSIONS

When the spacing between the piles is increased, the increase in the stiffness is less when compared to

the increase in the mass of the systemand hence the natural frequency decreases. As the difference

between the natural frequency and operating frequency increases the amplitude decreases. The

increase in machine weight contributes a nominal change in the natural frequency, hence, the

reduction in amplitude is also very less. When L/d ratio of the pile is increased the natural frequency

attains a maximumvalue when it moves far away fromthe operating frequency. Varying both the

spacing between the piles and the machine weight the natural frequency of the system moves far apart

from the operating frequency for coupled mode of vibration. Hence, coupled mode of vibration has

the least amplitude when compared to vertical mode of vibration.

REFERENCES

1. ACI: 351-3R (2004), Foundations for Dynamic Equipment, American Concrete Institute.

2. Barkan D.D (1962), Dynamics of Bases and Foundation, McGraw hill book company, New

York.

3. Bhatia, K.G. (2008), Foundations for Industrial MachinesA Handbook for Practicing

Engineers, D-CAD Publishers, New Delhi.

4. CP: 2012-1974, Code of practice for Foundations for Machinery, BSI, London.

5. DIN: 4024-1988,Machine Foundations, German Standards.

6. IS: 2974 (Part I)-1982, Foundation for Reciprocating Type Machines, I.S.I. New Delhi.

7. IS0:10816-1995,Evaluation of Machine Vibration by Measurements on Non-rotating Parts,

International Organization for Standardization, Switzerland.

8. Major A. (1962), Vibration Analysis and Design of foundation for Machines and Turbines,

Akademiai kiado, Budapest, Collets Holdings ltd, London.

9. Rudra Pratap,Getting Started with MATLAB, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

10. S R Otto, Denier,An Introduction to Programming and Numerical Methods In MATLAB,

Springer.

11. SAES: Q007 2003, Foundations and Supporting Structures for Heavy Machinery, Onshore

Structures, Saudi Arabia.

12. Srinivasulu P, Vaidyanathan C.V (1976), Handbook of Machine Foundation, Tata McGraw

Hill Publishing Company Ltd, New Delhi.

13. Swami Saran (2006), Soil Dynamics and Machine Foundation, Galgotia Publications Pvt.

Ltd, New Delhi.

14. Swami Saran (2010), Analysis and Design of Substructures Limit State Design, Oxford &

IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi.

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