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,
ISO 9001 Certified Institution

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API 510 DAY 1




API 510 -2006












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BENCH MARK QUIZ

Note: Encircle the letter of only one alternative which you think is most appropriate.


1. Which of the following types of discontinuities is not normally detected by
radiography?
a. Cracks
b. Incomplete penetration
c. Laminations
d. Slag

2. API 510 __________ be used as a substitute for the original
construction of pressure vessels before it is placed in-service.
a. Shall not
b. Should
c. May
d. Shall

3. Compared to ASTM A 515 Gr. 60 plates, ASTM A 516 Gr. 60 plates
have:
a. Better Tensile Strength
b. Better toughness
c. Better high temp properties
d. None of above

4. Who establishes inspection interval for thickness measurements and
external visual inspections.
a. Vessel engineer;
b. Owner-user or the inspector
c. Corrosion Engineer
d. NDE engineer

5. ASME Sec. VIII Div. 1 is based on factor of safety equal to
a. 4
b. 3
c. 3.5
d. 2.5













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6. Identify incorrect statement from following, if any.
a. A welder performing procedure test is also qualified in that position.
b. Supplementary essential variables become essential variables when
impact test is specified.
c. For procedure qualification, the test can be performed in any
position as the position is not essential variable for procedure
qualification.
d. None of above is incorrect statement

7. In plate specification A 516 Gr 70, the letter A indicates:
a. That material is ASME material. (A for ASME)
b. That material is Ferrous material
c. That material is Non-Ferrous material
d. None of the above

8. The symbol which indicates ASME code stamping for vessels
manufactured to ASME Section VIII Div. 1 is
a. U1
b. U2
c. U
d. None of these

9. What will be the applicable mandatory Edition and addenda for ASME
Sec. VIII, Div. 1 to be used if contract for manufacturing a new vessel
was signed on 14 December 20011?
a. 2010 edition and 2011 addenda
b. 2009 edition and 2010 addenda
c. 2010 edition
d. None of the above

10. Term E used in shell thickness formula in ASME Sec. VIII Div.1,
represents weld joint efficiency, whose value is equal to 1, if:
a. Longitudinal and circumferential welds are radiographed for their
entire length
b. Longitudinal welds are radiographed for their entire length and
circumferential welds are spot radiographed.
c. Both welds are spot radiographed
d. a and b above













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11. A restoration work by weld-overlay was carried out on corroded wall
of vessel and it can now be used as per the design conditions of the
vessel. This activity will be termed as:
a. Renewal of vessel
b. Repair of vessel
c. Alteration to vessel
d. Re-rating of vessel

12. In certain MP. Check of pr. Vessel, The size of "indication" for a
certain discontinuity was seen as 4 mm but after the MP. Check and
using magnifying glass it was seen having actual size as 2.5mm only.
If stipulated acceptance criteria for that type of discontinuity was 3
mm, your decision is:
a. The size of indication is higher than 3mm. Reject.
b. The size of discontinuity is lower than 3 mm, Accept.
c. Depends on opinion of Examiner.
d. Depends on the procedure adopted for MPI, i.e dry or wet particles.

13. ASME Code requires averaging of impact test values of how many
specimen for the relevant acceptance criteria.
a. 2
b. 3
c. 4
d. None of these

14. A stainless steel weld has a crack open to the surface. Which NDT method
will reveal it effectively?
a. Liquid Penetrant
b. Magnetic particle
c. Radiography
d. All of above.

15. PQR document normally may be revised and re submitted for acceptance.
a. True
b. False
c. Depends on company policy
d. Depends on Third party inspectors discretion.














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16. Hot tapping is best described by statement:
a. It is technique of preheating the vessel wall to specified temperature
and tapping with 1lb. rounded hammer to detect wall thinning
b. It is technique of providing a tapping connection while the system is
in operation
c. It is technique of fixing a on/off tap on drain nozzle of pressure
vessel
d. It is act of pre heating the component before using the tap and die
for threading so that less effort is required for threading operation.

17. Which of the following represent grouping of weld-metals in ASME
IX?
a. P Nos
b. F Nos
c. S Nos
d. A Nos

18. A inspector should be stricter while carrying out inspection on:
a. Longitudinal Joint
b. Circumferential Joints
c. Both are equally critical as per ASME Sec. VIII, Div.1
d. Depends on QA plan

19. PT examination is used to detect the surface cracks in welds as well
as in base metal plates. For proper detection,
a. We should allow higher penetrant time on weld
b. We should allow higher penetrant time on plates
c. Penetrant time on weld as well as plates is same
d. Depends on type of penetrant used.

20. As per ASME Sec. VIII Div. 1, Weld joint category means:
a. Type of weld, i.e., Single V type, Double V type, U type etc.
b. Type of weld, i.e., Full penetration, partial penetration etc.
c. Location of weld, i.e., longitudinal, circumferential, nozzle
attachment welds etc.
d. Type of weld joint, i.e., Butt-weld joint, fillet weld joint, lap joint, etc
.













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BENCH MARK QUIZ
ANSWER KEY

Q. NO. ANSWER REFERENCE
1 C Sec V Table A 110
2 A API 510 , 1.1.1
3 B ( SEC IX 422)
4 B ( 6.4.1 Last two line & 6.5.2.1)
5 C GK
6 D ( Sec IX WQ 461.9, QW 251.2, Page no 19-45)
7 B GK
8 C ( UG 116)
9 D ( Forward, 2 nd page, First column)
10 D ( Sec VIII UW 11 & UW 12)
11 B ( API 510 , 3.53)
12 A (Sec VIII Apx 6.3 & 6.4)
13 B ( UG 84 c)
14 A ( T 620)
15 B ( Qw 200.2.C )
16 B ( API 2201)
17 D ( Sec IX, QW 422)
18 A ( GK- Due to Hoof Stress )
19 B ( Sec V, Table T 672)
20 C ( UW 3 , First 2 lines)












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DAILY POINTS TO RECALL (DAY 1)

1. ASME codes edition is issued once in 3 years and addenda, once a year
both on 1 July. Edition and addenda become effective on 1
st
January of
next year (i.e., 6 months after issue).

2. ASME Sec VIII Div.1 is Unfired Pressure Vessel and is applicable to
pressures exceeding 15 psig, and diameters above 6.0. Pump and
turbine casings are excluded from scope.

3. Thickness of cylindrical shell t = + C

4. Longitudinal weld is more critical because it is subjected to double the
stress than Circ. Weld.

5. Weld joint categories A, B, C, D are based on joint locations in the
vessel and stress levels encountered weld Types (type 1, 2, 3 etc.)
describe the weld it self.

6. Depths of 2:1 Ellip and hemisph. heads are D/4 and D/2 respectively. (D=
Head diameter.)

____PR
SE 0.6P












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7. Weld Joint categories:
Category A: - All longitudinal welds in shell and nozzles.
- All welds in heads, Hemisph-head to shell weld

Category B: - All circumferential welds in shell and nozzles,
- Head to shell joint (other than Hemisph.)

Category C and D are flange welds and nozzle attachment welds
respectively.

8. Weld Types:
Type 1: Full penetration welds ( Typically Double welded)
Type 2: Welds with Backing strip.
Type 3: Single welded partial penetration welds.
Type 4, 5, 6 are various Lap welds (rarely used)

9. For full penetration welds (type 1),
Joint efficiency, E = 100% ( Full RT)
E = 85% ( SPOT RT )
E= 70%, ( NIL RT )
.













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10. Radiography marking on name plates (typically for Type-1 welds)

RT-1: (E=1) All butt welds full length radiography.
RT-2: (E=1.0) All Cat. A Butt welds Full length
Cat B- spot
RT-3: (E=0.85) Spot radiography of both Cat A and B
welds
RT-4: (E=0.7) Partial / No radiography

11. For seamless heads, E=1, If head to shell weld is fully radiographed
( if Cat. A), and at least spot radio graphed (if Cat. B)

12. For Welded Heads for E=1, all welds within the head require full length
radiography (since they are all Cat A welds) and head to shell weld is fully
radiographed (if Cat A), or at least spot radiographed (if Cat. B)

13. Compared to Cylindrical shell, thickness of 2:1 Ellipsoidal head is approx.
same as shell, Hemisph. head approx. half and Torisph head is 77% higher.

14. MAWP is calculated for: Working condition (Hot & Corroded). Vessel
MAWP is always taken at the top of the Vessel and is lowest of all part
MAWPs adjusted for static pressure.













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DAILY POINTS TO RECALL (DAY 2)

1. Hydro-Test is Standard Pressure test on Completed Vessels.
Hyd. Test Pr. = 1.3 x MAWP x stress ratio
Min. Insp. Pressure (hydro) = test pr. / 1.3
Min. Test temp. = MDMT + 30F (recommended)
Max. Inspection temp. = 120 deg. F

2. Pneumatic test is performed if Hydro is not possible due to design or process
reasons. Prior to the test, NDT as per UW-50 is mandatory. Pneumatic Test
pr = 1.1 x MAWP x Stress ratio, Pressure should be increased in steps (Total
6).

1
st
step 50% of Test pressure
2
nd
to 6 step 10% of Test Pr. Insp. Pr. (pneumatic) = Test pr. /1.1

3. Pressure Gauge range should be about twice the Test Pressure, However, in
any case it shall not be lower than 1.5 times and not higher than 4 times the
Test Pressure.

4. Vessel MAWP represents the Maximum Safe Pressure holding capacity of
the vessel. Vessel MAWP is measured at top-most point. And is lowest of
vessel part MAWPs adjusted for static pressure of liquid.

5. For vertical vessels, Hydrostatic pressure due to liquid with specific
gravity = 1
1 ft of height = 0.433 psig.

6. Total pressure at any point of Vertical vessel is given by:
Total Pr. = Vessel MAWP + h x 0.433.
(h = height from top in ft.)

7. If part MAWP and elevations are known, Vessel MAWP can be calculated by
the deducting hydrostatic pressure from part MAWP.













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8. External Pressure analysis is required when vessels are operating under
vacuum or they jacketed type.

9. Ext. pressure is worked out on basis of Geometric factor A (which depends
on L/Do and Do/t ratios) and factor B ( depends on A, )

Allowable Ext. Pressure, Pa =
t Do
B
/ 3
4

For values of A falling to left of material line in the material chart,
Pa =
) / ( 3
2
t Do
AE

10. Name plate shows The Code stamping, MAWP, design temp., MDMT, and
Extent of Radiography.

11. For the impact test requirement, use UCS 66 curve. If MDMT-thickness
combination falls on or above the curve, impact testing is exempted.
Additional Exemptions are given as per UG-20(f) and UCS 68 (c).

12. ASME materials (SA) shall be used for code stamped vessel fabrication
instead of ASTM (A) materials.












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DAILY POINTS TO RECALL (DAY 3)

1. Reinforcement pad is not required, if the size of finished opening is
Not exceeding 2 3/8 for all thicknesses of vessel
Not exceeding 3 1/2, if vessel thickness is < 3/8

2. Reinforcement pad with OD = 2d and thk = vessel thk is always safe (d= dia
of finished opening)

3. Reinforcement Limit along vessel wall = 2d

4. Reinf. Limit normal to vessel wall = smaller of: 2.5 t or 2.5 tn

5. In reinforcement pad calculations, credit can be taken for area available in
shell and nozzle.

6. Fillet weld Throat dimension = 0.707 x leg of weld

7. Adequacy of weld sizes shall be checked as required by UW-16. The
nozzles construction shall be one of the Code acceptable types.

8. The maximum permitted ovality tolerance (D max D min) shall not exceed
1% of nominal diameter of vessel.
If there is opening, then the tolerance can be increased by 2% x d (d =
diameter of opening) if measurement is taken within a distance of d from
axis of opening.

9. The mis-match tolerances and the maximum allowable weld reinforcement
is more strict on longitudinal welds compared to circumferential welds (UW-
35).

10. Principle of reinforcement: Area removed = Area compensated.
Compensation area shall be within reinforcement limits.

11. For use as pressure parts, the plates shall be fully identified. Maximum
permitted under tolerance on plates is 0.01 (0.3 mm) or 6% of ordered
thickness, whichever is less.













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12. All Welding (including welding of pr. parts to load carrying non-pr. parts)
shall be done using Qualified procedures and welders

13. Mandatory Full Radiography is required for all welding with thickness
exceeding Table UCS-57, and also for lethal service vessels and Unfired
boilers with Design Pr. More than 50 psig.

14. PWHT is Code Requirement if thickness exceeds those given in tables
UCS-56 (given in notes under the tables). These tables also give min.
PWHT temperature and min. holding time (soaking period) based on P-nos.
and thickness respectively.

15. For Furnace PWHT, Loading Temperature shall not exceed 800 deg. F,
Max. heating rate 400 deg F/hr/inch of thickness, Max. cooling rate 500 deg.
F /hr/inch of thickness. Still air cooling permitted below 800 deg. F. During
Soaking period, the temperature difference between hottest and coldest
part shall not exceed 150 deg. F.

16. Min. Overlap for PWHT in multiple heats = 5 ft.













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DAILY POINTS TO RECALL (DAY 4)


1. API 510 is applicable to vessels that have been placed in service, and it
cannot be adopted for new constructions.

2. Following are excluded from scope of API 510:
a. All mobile vessels
b. All exclusions of ASME Sec VIII, Div. 1
c. Vessels not exceeding 5 cubic feet and 250 psi design pressure or
1.5 cubic feet and 600 psi design pressure

3. Alteration: It is change in component that has design implications
affecting pressure and/or temperature rating.

4. Repair: It is restoring vessel suitable for operations at the present design
conditions. Repairs do not change Pr-Temp rating of vessel.

5. Authorized inspection agency. Any one of following:
a. Jurisdiction organization
b. Insurance company which under writes insurance of pressure
vessels
c. Inspection organization of owner-user
d. Inspection organization under contract with owner user

6. Repair Organization: Any one of following:
a. Holder of ASME certificate & appropriate code symbol stamp
b. Owner-user
c. Contractor under contract with owner-user
d. Organization authorized by jurisdiction

7. On-stream inspection means NDT inspection done on Vessel without
entering inside vessel. This inspection is basically to know process side
deterioration.

8. Re-rating: A change in either MAWP or temperature rating or change in
both.

9. Owner-User bears Ultimate responsibility for all activities (inspection,
Engineering, repairs etc.) under API 510.













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10. Authorised Inspector is responsible to Owner-User to:
a. Determine that all work (inspection, repairs ,alteration) is carried out
as per requirements of API-510
b. By getting involved in the actual activities performed
c. Evaluate & accept/reject results of NDT and other tests.

11. Repair Organization is responsible to Owner-User for the use of proper
materials, Quality Control, Workmanship during the repair work performed
by them.

12. Prior to any inspection, safety rules (OSHA or other) shall be reviewed
and followed. NDT equipment shall be as per Safety rules and Protective
clothing shall be used where required.

13. Modes of failure:

a. Chemical corrosion due to contaminants in fluid handled.
b. Fatigue: Due to stress reversals (vibration, changes of temperature
or pressure)
c. Creep: At elevated temp (in areas of stress concentration)
d. Freeze Damage: Failure due to freezing and expansion of
water/aqueous solutions.
e. Brittle failure: Due to loss of impact strength at lower temperature
f. Tamper Embrittlement: Loss of ductility in Cr-Steels due to
improper PWHT or service at high temperature (>700F)












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DAILY POINTS TO RECALL (DAY 5)

1. For new service, or for changed service, if corrosion rate is not known,
The corrosion rate may be calculated based on corrosion data for similar
service, or based on published data. If both are not available, on-stream
determination after 1,000 hours shall be made to establish the corrosion
rate.

MAWP =
SEt
/
(R+0.6t)


Where t = t
actual
2 x C
n

C
n
= metal loss up to next inspection

2. For corrosion area of considerable size; thickness averaging along most
critical element shall not exceed following length (l) measured
longitudinally:

a. Vessel I.D. < 60... l = D/2 or 20 use smaller value
b. Vessel I.D. > 60... l = D/3 or 40 use smaller value

3. The widely scattered pits, can be ignored if:

a. Remaining thickness below the pit is greater than half the required
thickness.
b. Total pit area does not exceed 7 square inches within 8 inch
diameter circle.
c. Total sum along any line in circle does not exceed 2 inches.

4. As alternative, evaluation of thinning of pressure retaining walls may be
performed by employing methods outlined in ASME Sec. VIII Div. 2, in
consultation with the Pr. Vessel Engineer.

5. For surface remote from weld, (weld E < 1), shell thickness can be
recalculated with E = 1. Shell area is considered remote from weld if it lies
on either side weld beyond 1 or 2 times the thickness (whichever is
greater).

6. For dished Heads, the Crown portion lies within a circle concentric to dish
but with circle dia. = 0.8 x shell dia.













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7. For Ellipsoidal or Torispherical heads, crown portion thickness can be
recalculated considering the Crown as part of sphere of radius equal to D,
(for standard Torispherical) or K
1
D (for Ellipsoidal). Where, D is shell
diameter

8. For ellipsoidal head K
1
depends on D/2h ratio (h=head depth) For 2:1
Ellipsoidal Head, K
1
= 0.9

9. Fitness for Service evaluations are performed as per API RP 579.

10. RBI methodology is based on assessment of Likelihood of failure (LOF)
and Consequence of Failure (COF) and is conducted and documented as
per API RP 580.

11. RBI assessment may be used as an alternative to establish the Frequency
of Internal and External Inspections.

12. If 10 year limit Is increased based on RBI, the RBI assessment shall be
reviewed and approved by both Pressure Vessel Engineer and Inspector
at intervals not exceeding 10 years or more often if LOF or COF changes.













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DAILY POINTS TO RECALL (DAY 6)

1. Frequency of inspection:

a. External visual: 5 years or same as internal (or on-steam) inspection,
use smaller duration.
b. Internal/on-stream: Smaller of half remaining life or 10 years, if
remaining life is < 4 years full remaining life up to maximum of 2 years.
c. For non-continuous service external same as (a) above but internal
will be after 10 years of actual exposed life for non corrosive, where as
for corrosive it will be smaller of half remaining life or 10 years.

2. For Insulated vessels, CUI is likely to occur If there is possibility of
moisture ingress and operate between 25 to 250 degrees F.

3. On-Stream inspection may be substituted for internal inspection if:

a. There is no access to enter.
b. If Corrosion rate is less than 5 mpy and R. L. is more than 10 years
there are no questionable conditions found during external inspection.
Also, the vessel is not subject to Environmental damage or Strip/plate
lined.

4. Remaining life = Remaining C.A. / Corrosion rate

Corrosion rate =
loss metal of period
period a over loss metal


5. Pressure test:

Min. Test temp. = MDMT + 30F (thickness > 2)
= MDMT + 10F (thickness 2)

Perform Pneumatic test, if hydro is impractical.

6. If service conditions are changed, the allowable service conditions (Max.
pressure, max. and min. temperature) and inspection intervals shall be
determined for new condition.













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7. If both ownership and location are changed vessel shall be cleaned
internally and externally and allowable conditions of service and next
period of inspection shall be established.
8. Inspection records shall have 4 type of information:

a. Design and Construction (permanent) records
b. Running (progressive) inspection records
c. Repair and alteration (modification) records
d. Fitness for service records

9. For vessels whose material is not known, MAWP can be calculated
assuming stress value for A 283 Gr. C material and Joint Efficiency equal
to 0.7.

10. Pressure relieving devices: Inspection interval not to exceed 5 years
normally but for clean non-corrosive service may be 10 years.

11. Authorization for repairs/alteration of vessels constructed as per:

ASME Sec. VIII, Div. 1:
Repairs API inspector
Alterations API inspector and P.V. engineer
ASME Sec. VIII, Div.2:
Repairs & Alterations API inspector and P.V. engineer

12. If PWHT is impracticable, materials under P No. 1 (group 1, 2, 3) and P
No. 3 (group 1, 2) shall be repair welded as follows (if impact testing is not
required).

a. Preheat to 300 degrees F for a distance 4 or 4t on either side of
groove (t = weld metal thickness)
b. Welding process shall be SMAW, GMAW, or GTAW
c. Control interpass temperature not to exceed 600 degrees F

13. If impact testing is required and PWHT is impracticable, the materials
under P No. 1, 3, 4 shall be welded as follows:

a. Adopt SMAW/GMAW/GTAW process with temper bead of half bead
technique
b. Requalify the procedures as per table 7-1
c. Use low Hydrogen Electrodes. Carry out Hydrogen bake out treatment
if required (Electrodes designation > H4)












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14. For all other materials other than 12 and 13 above, PWHT shall be carried
out after repair if it was carried out originally as per code of construction.












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DAILY POINTS TO RECALL (DAY 7)

1. Local PWHT may be substituted for 360-degree banding if:
a. Original PWHT was not due to service requirement
b. Effects of Local strains/distortions are considered
c. Pre-heat & maintainance of 300 deg. F during welding
d. PWHT temp is maintained beyond the weld upto twice base metal
thickness
e. Heat is applied to any nozzles /attachments within PWHT area.

2. For repairs of following :

a. Cracks: By preparing V or U-shaped groove and depositing weld
metal
Cracks at area of stress concentrations (i.e., nozzle welds) shall not
be repaired without consulting the pressure vessel engineer.

b. Localized corroded area: By weld deposit. Low strength electrodes
may be used if thickness of deposit is increased by ratio of B.M.
strength to W.M. strength and
Depth of deposit does not exceed half of thickness
Increased thickness is blended with 3:1 taper

3. For repair welds, the weld preparation before welding, and the completed
weld shall be checked by PT or MT. Additionally, the butt-welds shall be
radiographed by the rules of original Code of construction (depending on
joint efficiency).

4. The carbon and alloy steel materials used in making repairs and
alterations shall not have carbon content over 0.35%.

5. Pressure test is required after repair/alterations, if authorised inspector
thinks it necessary. Pressure test is normally required after alteration.

6. Insert patches must be with full penetration welds. Fillet patches shall be
approved by P.V. Engineer. Normally, a fillet patch equivalent to
reinforced opening is okay.
7. Normally, temporary repairs are replaced by permanent repairs at next
available maintenance opportunity. But temporary repairs can remain for
longer period if approved by P.V. engineer.













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8. Non-penetrating nozzles (including pipe caps) are accepted method of
long term repairs for other than cracks.

9. Full encircle lap band is considered as long term repair for other than
cracks.

10. Full encircle lap band is considered as long term repair for other than
cracks.

11. Re-rating calculations shall be done by pressure vessel engineer, and the
inspector shall oversee the new stamping or New name plate showing
rerating (new MAWP, temp.) is attached to vessel.

12. Procedure qualifications give suitability of weld for required mechanical
properties (i.e., strength, ductility), while performance qualifications show
ability of the welder to make sound weld.

13. Tension test gives tensil value, while bend test shows ductility and
soundness. Radiography also indicates soundness.
Thus, Procedure Qualification : by Tension test + Bend test
Performance Qualification: by Bend test or Radiography

14. Tensile test for procedure qualification is passed if failure is in:

a. Weld metal at strength>= Base metal SMTS or
b. Base metal at strength>= 95% of base metal SMTS.

15. Bend test crack shall not exceed 1/8 in any direction. Radiography criteria
are stricter than radiography for job.

16. P-numbers represent parent metal classification of similar composition
and properties, i.e., similar strength and ductility.

F-numbers give similar usability aspects of filler material.
A-numbers give similar chem. comp. In As welded condition.

17. Essential variables (EV), if changed require new procedure qualification.
Non-essential variables (NEV) may be changed without new procedure
qualification.













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18. Supplementary essential variables (SEV) are considered as (EV) only if
there is impact strength requirement. Otherwise they are non-essential
variables.

19. EV and SEV are included in PQR document. EV, SEV and NEV are
included in WPS document.

20. PQR gives data used in PQR test and test results, and cannot be revised.

21. WPS gives parameters to be used in production job, and must be within
ranges qualified by the PQR test.

22. WPS may be revised within the EVs qualified. The NEVs can always be
revised without affecting validity of PQR.

23. For performance, 1G is flat, 2G is horizontal, 3G is vertical and 4G is
overhead position. Pipe 5G qualifies 1G, 3G and 4G, but pipe 6G qualifies
all positions.

24. Welder who welds test coupon for procedure qualification test in certain
position also qualifies for performance in that position if procedure
Qualification was OK

25. Performance Qualification of welder is affected if he has not welded with
that process for last 6 months.

26. Inspector can revoke performance qualification if welder is repeatedly
unable to produce satisfactory welds meeting the requirements.












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DAILY POINTS TO RECALL (DAY 8)


1. GENERAL:

a. ASME Sec. V is NDT procedure/methods code and is applicable only if
it is referenced by the relevant construction code. The extent of NDT
and acceptance standards is given in relevant construction code.

b. NDT equipment and their calibration shall be as per ASME Sec. V.

c. Examiner is NDT person in employment of fabricator or repair
organization. Inspector means Authorized Inspector who finally
accepts/rejects NDT results.


2. FOR RT:

a. Satisfactory radiograph shall meet requirements of density and IQI
image (2T hole for hole type and designated wire for wire type).
b. Backscatter:
Light image of B on dark background - Unacceptable

c. Density Limitations:
Min 1.8 for X Ray / 2.0 for G-Ray
Max 4.0 for X / G Ray
Density Variation = -15 % to + 30%

d. Double wall viewing (DWDI) - Up to 3.5 outside diameter

e. Penetrameter Selection: Table T-276. Thickness includes weld
reinforcement. But not backing.

f. Penetrameter shall be normally placed on source side. If not possible,
it may be placed on film side with lead letter F.













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FOR PT:
a. Control of Contaminants: Sulphur (for Nickel alloys) shall not exceed
1% of residue. Chlorine + Fluorine (for S.S. and Titanium) shall not
exceed 1% of residue.
b. Temp. shall be between 10oC to 52oC, for standard procedures.
c. Penetrants are colour (visible) type and fluorescent type. Each of these
have:
water washable
post emulsifying
solvent removable
Thus, total 6 categories of penetrant are available.
d. Emulsifier is applied after applying penetrant and required dwell time is
completed. Lipopholic emulsifier is applied without pre-rinsing.
Hydropholic emulsifier is applied after pre-rinsing.
e. For dwell time for penetrant and developer refer Table T-672.
f. After applying developer, interpretation shall be done within 10 to 60
minutes.
g. All penetrant materials should be from same manufacturer













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4. FOR MT:
a. Prod Technique:
Use direct (rectified) current for magnetization
Prod spacing 3 to 8
Useful for surface and sub-surface defects.

b. Yoke Technique:
Use D.C. or A.C. or permanent magnet
Suitable for surface defects only.

c. Calibration:
Equipment Ammeter to be calibrated once a year comparing with
standard Ammeter, take 3 readings. Deviation shall not exceed
10% of full scale.

d. Lifting Power of Yokes
AC shall have lifting power of at least 4.5 kg (10 lb.)
DC shall have lifting power of at least 18.1 kg (40 lb.)

e. Minimum two examinations on each area, the second is perpendicular
to first














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5. SE-797 UT MEASUREMENT:

a. Pulse-echo method can be adopted up to 200F

b. Apparatus: 3 types
CRT read out
CRT + direct read out
Direct thickness read out

c. Search Units: 3 types
Straight beam contact type
Delay line type (delay block to minimize dead zone)
Dual element type. There are two crystals set at
a small range. Low roof angle used for higher
range and higher angle for low range.

d. High thickness measurement:
Use of multiple echoes is made. (i.e., for thickness between
50 mm and 60mm, use 10mm calibration block then 5
th

back echo will be 50 mm and 6
th
will be 60mm. Set the 5
th

echo to zero and 6
th
at the screen range. The screen is
calibrated to 50-60mm.

e. While taking measurement for high temperature condition a positive
error of 1% per 55C (100F) results. Hence temperature correction is
necessary.

f. CRT read out is recommended on corroded and rough surface.












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DAILY POINTS TO RECALL (DAY 9)

1. Vessel inspections are for the safety, continuity, reliability.
2. Graphitization in Carbon Steels takes place due to prolonged exposure
in 825 to 1400 deg. F range resulting in decomposition of Steel into
Ferrite Crystals and Graphite Nodules. In-situ metallography is used to
detect the Graphitization
3. External inspection of Pressure Vessels and Exchangers should start
with ladders, platforms, stairways connected to or bearing on vessel.
4. External surfaces of vessels shall be examined for not only for corrosion
but also for leaks, cracks, buckles, etc.
5. If any settling is seen on vessel, nozzles and adjacent shell area shall be
inspected for distortion and cracking.
6. Hammer test shall be followed by suitable NDT.
7. Grounding connection resistance shall not exceed 25 ohms but 5 ohms
is normally preferred.
8. In presence of acidic corrodents (PH < 7) hydrogen blistering is
expected above and below (close to) liquid level.
9. Auxiliary equipments (Pressure gauges, sight glass, safety valves etc.
may be visually inspected while in service. Undue vibrations shall be
arrested by providing additional supports or qualified engineer should
determine if these could lead to fatigue failure.
10. First step for internal inspection is review of previous records.
11. For heavy wall vessels at high pressure, major concern is crack damage
particularly at the welds (Weld & HAZ).
12. Laminations run slant while cracks run normal to surface.












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13. Spark testing is effective method for breaks/leaks in paint, glass, plastic
and rubber lining.
14. UT is the primary means of obtaining thickness measurements. Other
methods like profile radiography, Step-wedge comparison radiographs,
Corrosion buttons, test holes and depth drilling are some other
methods.
15. Tamper embrittlement of chromium steel occurs due to loss of ductility
due to prolonged exposure to high temperature above 650oF. It can be
controlled by limiting "J" factor for base metals and "X" factor for weld
metals.
16. All fatigue failure take place due to initiation of surface crack and
propagation of crack due to stress fluctuation. There are 3-types of
fatigue failures.
If surface cracks are due to stress concentration, weld undercuts,
notches etc and stress fluctuation due to mechanical reasons (vibrations,
water hammer etc.) then it is Mechanical Fatigue. If stress fluctuation is
due to temperature swing, it is Thermal Fatigue. If initial surface cracks
are due to corrosion, pitting etc., it is Corrosion Fatigue.
17. Corrosion Erosion is due to combined action of corrosion and erosion. It
can be reduced by controlling corrosion (by coating or using corrosion
resistant materials) and by controlling erosion (by controlling flow
velocity, providing harder surface).
18. Caustic embrittlement occurs due to combined action of high caustic
strength and higher temperature. It can be controlled by carrying out
PWHT and upgrading materials by Nickel alloys.
19. Sulphidation occurs due to sulpher or H
2
S content in the fluid handled. It
can be reduced by using Chromium containing steels as construction
materials.
20. Hydrogen blistering takes place due to migration of Hydrogen items in
the steel vessel walls. Hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) takes place if
several Hydrogen blisters join together in the material.












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21. Stress assisted HIC (SAHIC) takes place due to propogation of HIC
cracks under effect of applied stress. Crack propagates perpendicular to
stress direction.
22. High temperature Hydrogen Attack (HTHA) is due to migration of
Hydrogen atoms in the carbon steels which combines with carbon in
carbons steel at high temperature to form Methane gas (CH
4
) which
collects at grain boundaries causing internal cracks. It can be reduced by
selecting the construction materials according to Nelsen Curves. (The
material should be above the point of temperature and Hydrogen
pressure).












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DAILY POINTS TO RECALL (DAY 10)

1. API 576 provides practical guidelines to meet API 510 requirements for
pressure relieving devices (PRDs). It does not cover training
requirements.

2. Inspection of PRDs is essential for:

a. Protection of equipments and safety of personnel
b. To determine condition of device itself and its operational
characteristics

3. Inspection frequency:

a. Inspection and shop maintenance Normal frequency is 5 years
(max.) but may be up to 10 years for clean, non-corrosive, non-fouling
medium
b. Visual on-line survey 5 years max.

4. Safety valve is pop-opening valve, used on gases and vapors. Relief valve
is proportional opening valve used on liquids. Safety relief valves can
function both ways. Backpressure correction is done on balanced safety
relief valves.

5. After the valve is removed from service, first action is to check its relieving
pressure (pop pressure) in the as received condition. Subsequently,
carry out detailed visual examination, dismantling, cleaning, and lapping of
valve seat. Set the pop at desired pressure and confirm the same at least
once. Carry out leak test.

6. Leak test is carried out (at 90% of relieving pressure) by monitoring air
bubbles appearing per minute under head of and comparing with
acceptance chart.













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IMPORTANT INFORMATION

API 510 EXAM

It is an 8 hour exam, Morning 4 hours- open book Questions. Here you can refer
code books and answer. It may contain 50- 55 questions.

Afternoon 4 hours session is a closed Book exam. Here no reference material is
allowed. Total No 0f questions may be 95 to 100, making the Total Q no 150.
To pass, you have to answer minimum 105 questions correctly.

The books you can refer are the code books
API Publication
API 510 Pressure VVessael inspection code
API P 571 Damage mechanisms affecting the equipment in thee refinery
industries
API RP 572 Inspection of Pressure Vessels
API RP 576 Inspection of pressure Relieving devices
API RP 577 welding inspection and Technology

ASME Publication
Sec V NDT Examination
Sec VIII- Division i- rules for constructing Pressure Vessels
Sec IX- welding & brazing qualifications

Items to study in Recommended Practice 571,
ATTENTION: Only the following mechanisms to be included:
Par. 4.2.3 Temper Embrittlement
4.2.7 Brittle Fracture
4.2.9 Thermal Fatigue
4.2.14 Erosion/Erosion-Corrosion
4.2.16 Mechanical Failure
4.3.2 Atmospheric Corrosion
4.3.3 Corrosion Under Insulation (CUI)
4.3.4 Cooling Water Corrosion
4.3.5 Boiler Water Condensate Corrosion
4.4.2 Sulfidation
4.5.1 Chloride Stress Corrosion Cracking (Cl-SCC)
4.5.2 Corrosion Fatigue
4.5.3 Caustic Stress Corrosion Cracking (Caustic Embrittlement)
5.1.2.3 Wet H2S Damage (Blistering/HIC/SOHIC/SCC)












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5.1.3.1 High Temperature Hydrogen Attack (HTHA)













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API 510 - Authorized Pressure vessel Inspector

1. Pressure vessel inspectors are to be certified as stated in this (Api 510)
inspection code.

2. When the ASME Code cannot be followed because of its new construction
orientation (new or revised material specifications, inspection requirements,
certain heat treatments and pressure tests, and stamping and inspection
requirements), the engineer or inspector shall conform to this inspection code
rather than to the ASME Code.

3. Authorized pressure vessel inspector: An employee of an authorized
inspection agency who is qualified and certified to perform inspections under
this inspection code.

4. The owner-users inspection program shall provide the controls that are
necessary when contract inspectors are used.

5. Examiner: A person who assists the API authorized pressure vessel inspector
by performing specific NDE on pressure vessels but does not evaluate the
results of those examinations in accordance with API 510, unless specifically
trained and authorized to do so by the owner or user

6. The examiners employer shall maintain certification records of the examiners
employed, including dates and results of personnel qualifications and shall
make them available to the API authorized pressure vessel inspector.

7. Authorized pressure vessel inspectors shall have education and experience
in accordance with Appendix B of this inspection code.

8. OWNER-USER ORGANIZATION RESPONSIBILITIES: Reports to the
authorized pressure vessel inspector any process changes that could affect
pressure vessel integrity.

9. When inspections, repairs, or alterations are being conducted on pressure
vessels, an API authorized pressure vessel inspector shall be responsible to
the owner-user for determining that the requirements of API 510 on
inspection, examination, and testing are met, and shall be directly involved in
the inspection activities.













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10. The API authorized pressure vessel inspector may be assisted in performing
visual inspections by other properly trained and qualified individuals, who may
or may not be certified vessel inspectors












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11. Personnel performing nondestructive examination shall meet the
qualifications identified in 3.18 but need not be API authorized pressure
vessel inspectors. However, all examination results must be evaluated and
accepted by the API authorized pressure vessel inspector.

12. The thickness measurement procedure shall be approved by the authorized
pressure vessel inspector.

13. The authorized pressure vessel inspector should be familiar with the
operating conditions of the vessel and with the causes and characteristics of
potential defects and deterioration.

14. INSPECTION OF PARTS - list - Authorized pressure vessel inspectors must
supplement this list with any additional items necessary for the particular
vessel or vessels involved.

15. The inspection, as deemed necessary by the authorized pressure vessel
inspector, may include many of a number of nondestructive techniques,
including visual inspection. Internal inspection is preferred because process
side degradation (corrosion, erosion, and environmental cracking) can be
nonuniform throughout the vessel and, therefore, difficult to locate by external
NDE.

16. A RBI assessment may be used to establish the appropriate inspection
intervals for internal and on-stream inspections, including a potential increase
in the 10-year inspection limit described in 6.4, as well as the external interval
described in 6.3. When used to increase the 10-year limit, the RBI
assessment shall be reviewed and approved by a pressure vessel engineer
and authorized pressure vessel inspector at intervals not to exceed 10 years,
or more often if warranted by process, equipment, or consequence changes.

17. At the discretion of the authorized pressure vessel inspector, on-stream
inspection may be substituted for internal inspection.

18. If an on-stream inspection is conducted, the authorized pressure vessel
inspector shall be given sufficient access to all parts of the vessel (heads,
shell, and nozzles) so that the inspector is satisfied that an accurate
assessment of the vessel condition can be made.

19. Long-term and short-term corrosion rates should be compared as part of the
data assessment. The authorized inspector, in consultation with a corrosion
specialist, shall select the corrosion rate that best reflects the current process.












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20. The determination of corrosion rate may include thickness data collected at
more than two different times. Suitable use of short-term versus long-term
corrosion rates shall be determined by the authorized pressure vessel
inspector.

21. When there is a discrepancy between short-term and long-term corrosion
rates, a pressure vessel engineer experienced in corrosion may need to be
consulted about the use of these rates, at the discretion of the inspector, for
calculating the remaining life and next inspection date.

22. When the authorized pressure vessel inspector believes that a pressure test
is necessary or when, after certain repairs or alterations, the inspector
believes that one is necessary (see 7.2.9), the test shall be conducted at a
pressure in accordance with the construction code used for determining the
maximum allowable working pressure.

23. Before any repairs or alterations are performed, all proposed methods of
execution, all materials, and all welding procedures that are to be used must
be approved by the authorized pressure vessel inspector and, if necessary,
by a pressure vessel engineer experienced in pressure vessel design,
fabrication, or inspection.

24. All repair and alteration work must be authorized by the authorized pressure
vessel inspector before the work is started by a repair organization

25. The authorized pressure vessel inspector will designate the fabrication
approvals that are required.

26. The authorized pressure vessel inspector may give prior general authorization
for limited or routine repairs as long as the inspector is sure that the repairs
are the kind that will not require pressure tests.

27. The authorized pressure vessel inspector shall approve all specified repair
and alteration work after an inspection of the work has proven the work to be
satisfactory and any required pressure test has been witnessed.

28. No crack shall be repaired without authorization from the authorized pressure
vessel inspector.

29. The repair organization shall maintain records of its qualified welding
procedures and its welding performance qualifications. These records shall
be available to the inspector prior to the start of welding.












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30. After the weld is completed, it shall be examined again by either of the above
methods to determine that no defects exist using acceptance standards
acceptable to the Inspector or code of construction most applicable to the
work planned.

31. In situations where it is not practical to perform radiography the accessible
surfaces of each non-radiographed repair weld shall be fully examined using
the most appropriate nondestructive examination method to determine that no
defects exist, and the maximum allowable working pressure and/or allowable
temperature shall be reevaluated to the satisfaction of the authorized
pressure vessel inspector and jurisdiction at the location of installation.

32. The repair procedure(s) to restore removed, corroded, or missing clad or
overlay areas shall be reviewed and endorsed prior to implementation by the
pressure vessel engineer and authorized by the inspector.

33. Repairs shall be monitored by an inspector to assure compliance to repair
requirements.

34. Temporary repairs using fillet-welded patches shall be approved by the
authorized pressure vessel inspector and a pressure vessel engineer
competent in pressure vessel design; and the temporary repairs should be
removed and replaced with suitable permanent repairs at the next available
maintenance opportunity.

35. Temporary repairs may remain in place for a longer period of time only if
evaluated, approved, and documented by the pressure vessel engineer and
the authorized API pressure vessel inspector.

36. Fillet-welded patches may be applied to the internal or external surfaces of
shells, heads, and headers as long as, in the judgment of the authorized
pressure vessel inspector.

37. A full encirclement lap band repair may be considered a long term repair if the
design is approved, and documented by the pressure vessel engineer and the
authorized API pressure vessel inspector.

38. Where use of these nondestructive examination techniques is not possible or
practical, alternative nondestructive examination methods may be used
provided they are approved by the pressure vessel engineer and the
authorized pressure vessel inspector.













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39. After repairs are completed, a pressure test shall be applied if the authorized
pressure vessel inspector believes that one is necessary.

40. Substituting nondestructive examination procedures for a pressure test after
an alteration may be done only after a pressure vessel engineer experienced
in pressure vessel design and the authorized pressure vessel inspector have
been consulted.

41. For cases where UT is substituted for radiographic inspection, the owner/user
shall specify industry-qualified UT shear wave examiners for closure welds
that have not been pressure tested and for weld repairs identified by the
pressure vessel engineer or authorized inspector.

42. The pressure vessel inspection and rerating is acceptable to the authorized
pressure vessel inspector.

43. The pressure vessel rerating will be considered complete when the
authorized pressure vessel inspector oversees the attachment of an
additional nameplate or additional stamping that carries the following
information:
Rerated by

Date
Copyright American Petroleum Institute

44. An API 510 authorized pressure vessel inspector certificate may be issued
when an applicant provides documented evidence of passing the National
Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors examination and meets all
requirements for education and experience of API 510.

45. An API certificate for an authorized pressure vessel inspector is valid for three
years from its date of issuance.

46. An API 510 authorized pressure vessel inspector certification s valid in all
jurisdictions and any other location that accepts or otherwise does not prohibit
the use of API 510.

47. Recertification by written examination will be required for authorized pressure
vessel inspectors who have not been actively engaged as authorized
pressure vessel inspectors within the most recent 3-year certification period.

48. Once every other recertification period, (every six years) inspectors actively
engaged as an authorized pressure vessel inspector shall demonstrate












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knowledge of revisions to API 510 that were instituted during the previous six
years.













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API 510 QB

1. Post weld heat treatment of vessel welds generally results in:
a. Reduction in hardness
b. Increase of tensile strength
c. Increase of both strength and ductility
d. None of the above

2. A pressure vessel fabricated in 1960 was in service. It has been
decided to remove the top head and extend the height and replace
the dish head with a new one. The proposal is:
a. The proposal can be accepted for review by authorised inspector
b. No modification is allowed on this vessel
c. A pressure vessel engineer should be consulted for approval
d. None of the above

3. Vessels that are known to have a remaining life of over
__________ years or that are protected against external corrosion
need not have insulation removed for the periodic external
inspection.
a. 10
b. 15
c. 5
d. 20

4. After an inspection interval is completed and if calculations
indicate that an inaccurate rate of corrosion has been assumed
initially, how do you determine the corrosion rate for the next
inspection period?
a. Check the original calculations to find out what the error is in the
original assumption.
b. Unless the corrosion rate is changed by Jurisdiction, the initial rates
shall be used.
c. The corrosion rate shall be adjusted to agree with the actual rate
found.
d. Call in a corrosion specialist













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5. If a vessel is made up of unknown materials and computations
must be made to determine the MAWP what can the inspector or
the vessel engineer do to establish the MAWP?
a. The lowest grade material and highest joint efficiency in the
applicable code may be assumed for calculations.
b. Assume MOC as SA 283 Gr. C and joint efficiency = 0.7
c. The vessel made of the unknown material must be removed from
service and vessel of known material must be installed.
d. The vessel of unknown material shall be subjected to hydrostatic
tests while having strain gages on it to determine its yield strength
and thus allowable stress.

6. RBI assessment can be used to alter the inspection strategy
provided:
a. The degradation methods are identified and evaluated
b. The RBI is fully documented.
c. A third party conducts the RBI
d. Both A and B above

7. The minimum hydro test temperature for in-service vessel of 2
thickness is:
a. MDMT+10F
b. MDMT+30F
c. MDMT+ 0C
d. MDMT+ 0C

8. What type of repairs and procedures may the inspector give prior
general authorization to continue (provided the inspector is
satisfied with the competency of the repair organization)?
a. Major repairs and minor procedures
b. Limited or routine repairs
c. Major alterations and re-ratings
d. Minor re-ratings and alterations

9. A vessel in service has different zones of corrosion. The next
inspection frequency will be decided by:
a. Zone with highest rate of corrosion
b. Zone with lowest remaining life
c. Average rate of corrosion shall be taken into consideration
d. Average remaining life of the vessel shall be considered
e. None












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10. Inspection records contain the following information for a TML on
a dished head. (Thk. in inches) On the basis of this information,
the long-term corrosion rate for the location is:

Thickness Year
0.500 0
0.425 5
0.400 10

a. 1 mils per year
b. 5 mils per year
c. 10 mils per year
d. 100 mils per year

11. A certain C. S. vessel which required impact testing was required
to have PWHT initially according to code requirement. After 10
years when repaired by welding PWHT is to be carried out.
Performing PWHT is found to be impracticable. Which of the
following is relevant (as per API-510)?
a. PWHT may be exempted, if proper NDE is carried out.
b. Carry out temper-bead welding as alternative to PWHT.
c. Carry out both hydro-testing and pneumatic testing in lieu of the
PWHT.
d. Carry out preheating to minimum 200F

12. Materials used for making repair by welding in carbon steel
vessels shall have the following limitations?
a. They shall meet the requirements stipulated in NACE Standard.
b. The carbon content shall not be over 0.35%
c. Welding repair shall be done by using only the GTAW process
d. All of the above

13. For non-continuous corrosive service with remaining life 25 years,
external inspection shall be performed not later than:
a. 10 years
b. 12.5 years
c. 5 years
d. None of above












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14. An 2: 1 ellipsoidal head has an internal diameter of 76 inches and
depth of 21 inches (including a straight face dimension of 2
inches). What should its spherical (crown) radius be?
a. 76.9 inches
b. 15.6 inches
c. 68.4 inches
d. All of the above

15. For carrying out temper bead welding technique in lieu of PWHT,
apart from other requirements, which of the following is
acceptable?
a. The root and final pass of weld shall be radiographed.
b. Weld metal shall be deposited for second pass while the first pass
below the second pass is still not cooled down and its cooling rate
is retarded due to the heat of second pass.
c. After depositing each layers of the weld, the weld shall be PT
checked.
d. Both b and c

16. Calculate the remaining life and external insp. interval of a vessel
given the following data:

Actual thickness = 0.955 inch
Minimum thickness required = 0.759 inch
Thickness at previous inspection 5 years prior to present
inspection = 1.025 inch

a. 20 years, 10 years
b. 14 years, 5years
c. 28 years, 10 years
d. None of the above

17. As per API 510, the organization who carry out PRV repair, testing
has to be:
a. Needs to be a certified company to perform all repair work in
accordance to ASME.
b. Needs to have have documented quality control procedure
c. Needs to have qualified personnel to carry out the job within scope
of repair
d. Only b and c above













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18. A vessel which was inspected six years ago and had shell
thickness = 0.870. As on today the thickness as reported by filed
inspection is 0.786. What was the corrosion rate over last six
years?
a. 10 mpy
b. 12 mpy
c. 14 mpy
d. none of above

19. If the vessel in above question has minimum permissible
thickness = 0.618 for the present design conditions. What will be
estimated remaining life of the vessel if corrosion rate remains
same?
a. 10 years
b. 12 years
c. 14 years
d. None of above

20. For a vessel, remaining life is estimated as 22 years from now,
next planned internal and external inspection shall not be later
than:
a. 11 Years, 5 Years
b. 10 Years, 5 Years
c. 5 Years, 5 Years
d. None of the above

21. Which of the following are commonly preferred to know the
process side degradation of pressure vessels?
a. On stream inspection.
b. Internal inspection
c. External inspection as alternative to internal inspection
d. Any of above is OK

22. While deciding the governing thickness for crown portion for
corroded 2:1 ellipsoidal head, API 510 stipulates that & crown
thickness shall be calculated:
a. According to relevant ellipsoidal dished head formula
b. According to code formula for spherical heads with head radius
equal to 0.9 D, where D is shell dia meter.
c. Thickness of crown shall be same as knuckle thickness.
d. None of the above













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23. Part MAWP for lower dished head in vertical vessel will generally be:
a. Lower than top head
b. Lower than shell
c. Higher than both shell and top head
d. Same as both top head and shell

24. Vessel MAWP is 200 psi. What will be the total pressure at a point
20 feet from top, if vessel is completely filled with liquid (specific
gravity = 1).
a. 220.00 psi
b. 208.66 psi
c. 204.33 psi
d. 191.34 psi

25. The size of a properly deposited equal fillet weld is shown as 10
mm. The throat dimension for this weld will be approximately:
a. 10 mm
b. 8 mm
c. 7 mm
d. 9 mm

26. The notch test is better described as:
a. Plastic formation and fracture
b. Brittle failure
c. Energy observed at the notch
d. toughness

27. The material not requiring PWHT by code requirement has been
heat-treated. The PWHT carried out on this material is most likely
due to:
a. Due to process requirement
b. Because of the material
c. As per authorized inspector requirement
d. Because of welding process.

28. For a vertical column, Int. dia. = 48'' and height (T-T) = 80ft, The
vessel MAWP is 60 psi. Minimum vessel part MAWP for bottom
dished head (2:1 Ellip type) shall be:
a. 94.6 psi
b. 82.8 psi
c. 95.5 psi
d. None of above












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29. The size of a properly deposited equal fillet weld is shown as 10
mm. The throat dimension for this weld will be approximately:
a. 10 mm
b. 8 mm
c. 7 mm
d. 9 mm

30. The hydrostatic pressure caused by 10 ft. of liquid column
(sp. gr. = 1) will be:
a. 10 psi
b. 43.3 psi
c. 4.33 psi
d. None of the above

31. A new pressure vessel should be inspected to which of the
following codes?
a. API 510 ,
b. ASME Sec. 1,
c. ASME Sec. VIII Div. 1,
d. None of these

32. Code rules for testing vessels in service are detailed in:
a. API 510
b. API 570
c. ASME Section VIII Div.1
d. None of above

33. Which of the following statements is true?
a. All defects are not discontinuities.
b. All discontinuities are defects.
c. Discontinuities are rejectable defects.
d. Defects are rejectable discontinuities.

34. If there is a conflict between ASME VIII & API 510 Code, for
vessels in-service:
a. ASME will precedent
b. API will precedent
c. ASNT will precedent
d. Owner user will decide













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35. The API authorized pressure vessel inspector may give prior
authorization for repairs that do not involve:
a. Pressure tests
b. Radiography
c. Pneumatic testing of pads
d. Final visual inspections

36. Widely scattered pits may be ignored as long as the following
conditions are satisfied:
i. Thickness at bottom of pits is greater than one half the
vessels required wall thickness
ii. The total area of the pits does not exceed 7 square inches
(45 square centimeters) within any 8-inch (20-centimeter)
diameter circle.
iii. The sum of their dimensions along any straight line within
the circle does not exceed 2 inches (5 centimeters).
iv. ?

What is the missing item in iv above?

a. The thickness at bottom of pit must be measured by pit gauge.
b. The 8diameter is to be measured from the center of the deepest
pit.
c. There are no missing items; there are only 3 items to be considered
d. The total area of the pits cannot exceed 3.5 square inches in a 4-
inch diameter circle.

37. Before any repair to a pressure vessel in accordance with its code
of construction, what if any additional requirements (over and
above those in API 510) may need to be considered?
a. Jurisdictional requirements that might override the API 510 Code.
b. Is repair being done by repair organisation?
c. The quality of the repair materials.
d. The need for qualified welding procedures.

38. A new vessel has been installed, what must be done in order to
accept the vessel for operation?
a. A first internal inspection
b. A first internal inspection, however if a manufacturers data report
(U1) assuring that the vessel is satisfactory for its intended service
is available the first internal inspection may be waived.
c. Base line thickness readings must be taken per OSHA 1920 (j).












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d. Base line thickness reading must be taken per OSHA 1910 (j).












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39. Temper embrittlement is best described as:
a. Cracking due to operating at high temperatures above 700F
b. Loss of ductility and notch toughness due to exposure above 700F
c. Flaking of the metal surfaces, causing dip pits
d. Cracking due to low temperature service

40. Which of the following are essential elements of a Quality control
system of a repair organization?
a. Statement of authority and responsibility
b. Welding procedures used for repair/alterations
c. The Control of procedures and Qualifications of NDE personnel
d. All of the above

41. A repair work on a pressure vessel is to be carried out. Who is
responsible to have WPS/PQR made for the repair work?
a. Owner user
b. Repair organization
c. Authorized inspector
d. Third party who does the inspection work

42. Before entering into a vessel for inspection the vessel shall be
evaluated for safety in accordance to:
a. OSHA
b. API
c. ASME/API
d. ANSI

43. The __________ shall be responsible to the owner-user for
determining that the requirements of API 510 for inspection, and
testing are met.
a. Vessel engineer
b. Authorised inspector
c. Repair organisation
d. Operating personnel













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44. A pressure vessel of 60 ID has three pits within a circle of 7
diameter. The nominal thickness of the shell is 0.75 and the CA
is 0.15. The details and dimensions of the pits are listed
below. Your assessment is:
Pit 1: 0.5 dia depth 0.28
Pit 2: 0.8 dia depth 0.22
Pit 3: 0.4 x 0.5, depth 0.23
a. The pit area is more than the acceptable
b. The pit length is more than the acceptable
c. The pit depth is more than the acceptable
d. The pits are acceptable as they are meeting the requirement

45. Insulation inspection on an insulated vessel with no damage to
insulation shall be done by:
a. Removing at least 10% of insulation to check the condition
b. Removing insulation on at least 25% area
c. Removing the entire insulation
d. Not required to remove insulation

46. Vessel MAWP of existing vessel will be affected:
a. If higher corrosion allowance is provided from existing vessel
thickness
b. If design pressure is reduced (other factors remaining same)
c. If design temperature is changed
d. (a) and (c)

47. The Code formula for a torispherical head thickness as per ASME
Section VIII Div. 1 actually gives the thickness required:
a. At crown portion
b. At knuckle portion
c. Mean of (a) and (b)
d. Lower of (a) and (b)

48. Original construction code of a pressure vessel is ASME Sec. VIII,
Div.1. The vessel has corrosion problems and is being evaluated
according to ASME Sec. VIII Div. 2. Who should approve the
evaluation based on Sec. VIII, Div. 2?
a. Pressure vessel engineer/organization who is experienced in design
b. An authorized inspector
c. A pressure vessel engineer/organization who is experienced in
design and authorized pressure vessel inspector
d. Only the owner-user












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49. The factors of LOF and COF are considered for which
methodological evaluation?
a. FFS
b. RBI
c. API 510
d. ASME Sec. VIII Div. 1 and API 510

50. Where can fatigue cracking typically be first detected?
a. At points of low-stress intensification such as reinforced nozzles
b. At points of high-stress intensification such as branch connections
c. At points where cyclic stresses are very low
d. At points where there are only the primary stresses

51. For a new vessel the corrosion rate will be established based on:
a. Run the vessel for 6 weeks and establish the corrosion rate
b. Run the vessel for 12 weeks and establish the corrosion rate
c. Run the vessel for 18 weeks and establish the corrosion rate
d. A corrosion engineer should be consulted for establishing
corrosion rate
52. A pressure vessel internal inspection frequency can be increased
more than 10 years provided RBI evaluation is carried out. It
should be approved by?
a. Owner user/Jurisdiction
b. Pressure vessel engineer
c. Authorized inspector
d. Pressure vessel engineer & authorized inspector

53. Identify incorrect statement.
a. ASME Sec. VIII, Div. 1 may be adopted for unfired steam boilers
b. ASME Sec. VIII, Div. 1 may be adopted for vessels containing
lethal fluids
c. ASME Sec. VIII, Div. 1 may be used for design of mobile vessel
d. ASME Sec. VIII, Div. 1 may be used for design of pump casings

54. Typical mode of failure in ferrous metals at low temperatures is:
a. Ductile failure
b. Creep failure
c. Fatigue failure
d. Brittle failure













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55. Which of the following is typical phenomenon in low-alloy
chromium steels?
a. Creep failure
b. Temper embrittlement
c. Caustic embrittlement
d. Stress corrosion cracking

56. The term away from weld for recalculating the required
thickness (Vessels with E<1), means area lying away from weld
__________ on either side of the weld or __________ times the
minimum measured thickness on either side of the weld,
whichever is greater.
a. 1, 4
b. 1", 2
c. 2", 2
d. 2, 4

57. Scope of API 510 covers:
a. Nuclear vessels
b. Vessels for human occupancy
c. Power boilers
d. None of these

58. If there is conflict between API 510 rules and prevailing
jurisdictional requirements:
a. API 510 shall prevail over jurisdiction requirements.
b. Jurisdiction requirements will prevail over API 510 requirements.
c. Depends on authorised inspector, which one to adopt
d. Depends on owner / user, which one to adopt

59. On stream-inspection means inspection carried out:
a. Only when a vessel is in operation
b. Only when a vessel is not in operation
c. From outside and vessel may or may not be in operation
d. On-stream inspection is same as external inspection













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60. As per API 510, all NDE results for in-service inspection shall be
evaluated and accepted by:
a. NDE Level II or Level III person only, as he already possesses
requisite knowledge and skill to evaluate and accept NDE results
b. Authorized inspector only
c. Since NDE is specialist job, authorised inspector need not be
involved
d. (a) and (c)

61. As per API 510, responsibility to develop a Quality Assurance
Inspection Manual shall rest with:
a. Owner-user
b. Authorised inspection agency
c. Jurisdiction authority
d. None of the above

62. For recertification of API 510 authorised inspector, he shall be
Actively engaged in inspection of pressure vessels during the
most recent 3-year period. The term actively engaged means:
a. Minimum of 25% of time shall be spent on inspection activities
b. Minimum of 20% of time shall be spent on inspection activities AND
shall cover inspection on at least 75 pressure vessels
c. Minimum of 20% of time shall be spent on inspection activities OR
performance of inspection on 75 pressure vessels
d. Performance of inspection on 100 pressure vessels as minimum

63. Prior to internal inspection, the vessel should be made ready as
follows:
a. Drained, purged, gas tested, isolated
b. Isolated, gas tested, drained, purged
c. Gas tested, isolated, drained, purged
d. Isolated, drained, purged, gas tested

64. A vessel failure occurred due to repeated stress fluctuations. The
failure is called:
a. Brittle failure
b. Creep failure
c. Fatigue failure
d. Stress corrosion cracking (SCC)













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65. Fatigue failure of pressure vessels may be caused due to:
a. Temperature changes
b. Pressure changes
c. Any of (a) or (b)
d. None of (a) or (b)

66. Likely areas where fatigue failure may be caused are:
a. Areas of high secondary stresses (stress concentration)
b. Areas of uniform stress
c. Areas exposed to stagnant flows
d. Only (a) and (b)

67. Which of the following are characteristics of creep in carbon
steel?
a. Creep is aggravated at lower temperature
b. Creep is aggravated at elevated temperatures
c. Creep is aggravated at points of stress concentrations
d. Only (b) an (c)

68. Choose the correct statement.
a. Higher the material ductility, higher is possibility of brittle failure.
b. Carbon and low alloy steels are susceptible to temper
embrittlement if operated at sub-zero temperatures.
c. Locations where metals with different thermal coefficients are
welded together are susceptible to thermal fatigue.
d. None of the above is correct statement.

69. For MAWP calculations as per API 510, the thickness as
determined by inspection shall be used in these calculations after:
a. Deducting corrosion loss up to next inspection
b. Deducting twice the corrosion loss up to next inspection
c. Use the thickness as it is.
d. As regards thickness reduction due to corrosion, Code does not
give specific guidelines.

70. Temper embrittlement is:
a. Brittleness due to low temperature operation
b. Brittleness due to Hydrogen Sulphide attack at high temperatures
(exceeding 700F)
c. Loss of ductility in Crsteels due to incorrect PWHT and High
temperature service
d. None of above












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71. Crown portion for both Ellipsoidal and Torispherical heads may
be considered to be the ____________ located entirely within a
circle whose center coincides with the center of the head and
diameter equal to 80% of vessel diameter.
a. Spherical segment
b. Conical segment
c. Ellipsoidal segment
d. Knuckle portion

72. API 510 can be applied to in-service pressure vessels built as per:
a. ASME Section VIII
b. Other international standard
c. Non-standard vessel which may be in operation
d. All of the above

73. For a vessel which was in service, top dished head (2:1 Ellip.) was
corroded severely was replaced by a properly designed Hemisph.
The head is designed as per the present design conditions of the
vessel. This is:
a. A repair
b. An alteration
c. New vessel MAWP will have to be worked out.
d. b and c above

74. Repair Organization is__________ and carries out repairs as per
API 510
a. Holder of ASME certificate & appropriate code symbol stamp
b. Owner-user
c. Contractor under contract with owner-user
d. Any of above

75. Which of the following are essential elements of a Quality control
system of a repair organization?
a. Organisational Structure and documentation methods
b. Statements about working procedures
c. Statement of controls to ensure quality
d. All of the above













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76. Which of the following is a typical deterioration that can take place
on the external surfaces of insulated vessels?
a. CUI
b. Caustic embrittlement
c. Erosion
d. All of the above

77. Corrosion and minimum thickness evaluation may be conducted
by?
a. Use of a external micrometer
b. Ultrasonic testing
c. Using LPI
d. None of above

78. In API-510, the term RBI means:
a. Repairing Before Inspection
b. Report Based Inspection
c. Repair Based Inspection
d. Risk Based Inspection

79. Which of the following defines the term hold point in inspection
practice?
a. For a vertical pressure vessel held in position by guy-wires, the
holding points on the vessels connected to guy-wires.
b. A support lug welded onto the vessel.
c. A point beyond which work may not proceed until inspections have
been performed and documented
d. A holding clamp used for aligning the joints for welding

80. Repair on pressure vessels will:
a. Restore the vessels to intended (original)design conditions
b. Not change the rating of vessel.
c. a and b above
d. Restore the vessels to some other usable conditions

81. Which of the following best describes creep cracking?
a. Creep cracking is caused due to loss of ductility at low
temperatures.
b. Creep is high temperature phenomenon and is dependent upon
time, temperature and stress
c. Hydrogen attack aggravates creep cracks
d. b and c












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82. The failure mechanisms common in vessels subjected to
vibrations is:
a. Creep
b. Fatigue
c. Erosion
d. All of above

83. Widely scattered pits may be ignored if which of the conditions
are satisfied:
a. Thickness available at bottom of pit is greater than one half the
required vessel wall thickness
b. The total area of the pits does not exceed 7 square inches within
any 8 inch diameter circle
c. The sum of their dimensions along any straight line within the circle
of diameter 8 inches does not exceed 2 inches
d. All of the above

84. Which of the following are areas on pressure vessel which are
susceptible to CUI?
a. All the area which is below insulation
b. Insulated areas below steam vents
c. Insulated areas exposed to cooling tower mist
d. b and c above

85. Corrosion under insulation (CUI) due to environmental factors like
humidity, moisture, will be more pronounced at temperature:
a. 25DegF to 250 DegF
b. More than 250 Deg F
c. Lower than 25F
d. CUI is independent of temperature

86. What can be done to extend the life of a 2 thk. vessel with a
corroded area in the shell plate 6 inches from the weld, a joint
efficiency of less than 1, and a corrosion thickness currently near
the minimum required thickness?
a. Recalculate t minimum for current operating conditions using E < 1.
b. Recalculate t minimum for current operating conditions using E = 1.
c. Recalculate t minimum for design conditions using E = 1.
d. Monitor the thickness during the run.













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87. Shells of vessels adjacent to inlet impingement plates are
susceptible to:
a. Stress-corrosion cracking
b. Erosion
c. Hydrogen embrittlement
d. Tamper emrittlement

88. For all repairs and alterations under API 510, the ultimate
responsibility rests with:
a. Owner user
b. API Committee
c. API-510 Inspector
d. Jurisdiction authority

89. Which of the following changes on a vessel could be termed as an
alteration?
a. Addition of a reinforced nozzle of size equal to an existing nozzle
b. Addition of a nozzle not requiring reinforcement
c. Addition of a reinforced nozzle of greater size, at same location.
d. Only b and c

90. For corrosion area of considerable size; thickness averaging
along most critical element shall not exceed following length for
48 ID vessel and 72 ID vessel.
a. 20 and 40 respectively
b. 16 and 24 respectively
c. 20 and 24 respectively
d. None of the above

91. A carbon steel pressure vessel has to be repaired with the
substitute plate of carbon steel with: 8.1.4
a. Carbon content <0.35% and compatible with original material
b. Carbon Equivalent <0.35% and of known weldable quality
c. Carbon Equivalent <0.35% and compatible with original material
d. Equivalent weldable quality material













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92. Which of the following are areas on the pressure vessel which are
susceptible to CUI?
a. All the area which is below insulation
b. Insulated areas below steam vents
c. Insulated piping exposed to cooling tower mist
d. b and c above

93. Corrosion under insulation (CUI) due to environmental factors like
humidity, moisture, will be more pronounced at temperature
a. 25F to 250F
b. More than 250F
c. Lower than 25F
d. CUI is independent of temperature

94. For a vessel find estimated remaining life and next planned
external inspection if actual thickness measured during inspection
is 0.45 and minimum required thickness is 0.37. Estimated
corrosion rate is 10 mpy.
a. 10 years, 5 years
b. 8 years, 5 years
c. 8 years, 4 years
d. 10 years, 10 years

95. In above question, if estimated corrosion rate is 20 mpy. The next
planned internal and external inspection shall not be later than:
a. 8 years, 4 years
b. 4 years, 4 years
c. 2 years, 2 years
d. 8 years, 5 years

96. For a vessel, remaining life is estimated as 24 years from now,
next planned internal and external inspection shall not be later
than:
a. 12 Years, 5 years
b. 10 Years, 10 years
c. 10 Years, 5 years
d. None of the above














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97. For a vessel, remaining life is estimated as 3 years from now, next
planned internal and external inspection may be planned _______
years from now.
a. 1.5 years, 3 years
b. 2 years, 2 years
c. 1.5 years, 1.5 years
d. b and c

98. A stainless steel cladded vessel, working in hydrogen
environment at elevated temperature, repair of the missing
/corroded cladding is to be carried out. What heat treatment on
base metal (prior to cladding repair) and what NDT should be done
after clad repair is performed.
a. Local post weld heat treatment and MT check
b. Local post weld heat treatment and RT check
c. Base metal out gassing and PT check
d. Base metal out gassing and MT check

99. Which of the following is / are to be undertaken in case the
ownership and location of vessel are changed?
a. The vessel shall be hydro tested only.
b. The vessel shall be internally and externally inspected before it is
re-used.
c. The allowable conditions of service shall be established and the
next period of inspection shall be established for the new service.
d. Only b and c

100. After completion of repairs, a pressure test:
a. Must always be conducted.
b. Shall be applied if the authorized pressure vessel inspector
believes that one is necessary.
c. Must never be conducted.
d. Shall be conducted only if repair is done on pressure parts.

101. After completion of alterations a pressure test is:
a. Normally required
b. Subject to approval of the jurisdiction (where applicable)
appropriate NDE shall be required where pressure test is not
performed
c. Generally not required
d. Only a and b above













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102. Authorization for which of the following approval from pressure
vessel engineer is not mandatory:
a. Repairs for vessels that comply with Sec. VIII, Div. 1
b. Alterations for vessels that comply with Sec. VIII, Div. 1
c. Repairs for vessels that comply with Sec. VIII, Div. 2
d. Alternations for vessels that comply with Sec. VIII, Div 2

103. For vessel with M.O.C. = 516 gr 70, PWHT was carried out initially
as required by construction code, major welding repairs were
carried out. PWHT is inconvenient. What can be done to avoid the
PWHT? Impact testing is not required.
a. Welding shall be done using SMAW/GMAW/GTAW
b. Weld shall be pre-heated to 300F (min) and interpass temperature
limited to 600F
c. Pre-heating to be maintained up to 4 or four times thickness
(whichever is higher) on either side of weld groove.
d. All of the above shall be done.

104. Who is responsible for re-rating calculations for re-rating of
pressure vessels?
a. API certified inspector
b. The pressure vessel engineer
c. The national board inspector
d. Corrosion expert

105. For avoiding PWHT after welding repair is done on Vessels with
M.O.C. falling in P Nos. 1, 3, 4 (with impact testing), The welding
repair shall be done with:
a. Procedure qualification as per ASME Sec. IX only
b. Procedure qualification shall be done as per Sec. IX and API-510
c. Any one of the above is okay
d. Procedure shall be qualified as per API 1104

106. Procedure qualification in above question shall be done using:
a. Temper-bead technique
b. Half-bead technique
c. Any one (a) or (b)
d. None of the above shall be used.













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107. Which of the following type of patches are permitted by API 510
for repairs on pressure vessels?
a. Insert patch with full penetration weld
b. Insert patch with partial penetration weld
c. A full encirclement lap band
d. a and c only

108. API 510 requires that NDE of repair welds shall include:
a. Prior to welding, the area prepared for deposit be examined by MT
or PT
b. After weld is completed it shall be examined again by MT or PT
c. Any one of a or b
d. Both of a and b

109. If remaining life for a vessel is estimated as 2 years from now, next
planned internal and external inspection shall not be later than:
a. 1 year, 1 years
b. 2 years, 2 years
c. 1 years, 2 years
d. Any of the above

110. What is the greatest allowed time between the testing of pressure
relieving devices per API 510?
a. 5 years
b. Pressure relief valves shall be tested at intervals that are frequent
enough to verify that the valves perform reliably.
c. 10 years.
d. Pressure relief devices must be tested at every shutdown

111. Who is responsible for the rerating calculations of a vessel?
a. The manufacturer or an owner-user engineer (or his designated
representative)
b. The chief inspector and the unit engineer.
c. The API authorized inspector.
d. A professional engineer only, is allowed to perform these
calculations.













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112. If the requirements of API 510 are met who determines if a
temporary fillet weld patch may be used in a repair?
a. The API authorized inspector.
b. An engineer competent in pressure vessel design and the API
authorized inspector.
c. A repair concern which holds a valid NBIC R stamp
d. Any of the above

113. The maximum carbon content of weldable steel per ASME Code
is?
a. .35 %
b. .035 %
c. .0035 %
d. 3.5 %

114. Per API 510 what is the recommended shell temperature during a
hydrostatic test of a vessel 1 thick?
a. 30F above ambient.
b. 65F above ambient
c. 10F above MDMT
d. 30F above testing liquids temperature.

115. If you were looking for the last date that a pressure relief valve
was set, where should this information always be?
a. In the product literature from the valve company
b. The API 510 mandatory computer inspection records.
c. Relief valves tag.
d. In the records of the repair shop

116. In what two ways may the probable corrosion rate for a new vessel
be determined before the first internal inspection?
a. Corrosion tabs and UT readings.
b. Consult Psychic Hot Line and Mr. Wizard
c. Ask a more experienced inspector or engineer
d. From data collected on vessels providing the same or similar
service or from published data on vessels providing comparable
service.













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117. Which of the following should a progressive record for a pressure
vessel contain?
a. The exact location on a plot plan.
b. The piping schedule for the vessel.
c. A complete weld map from the original construction plans.
d. Construction and design information, operating and inspection
history.

118. If performing an external inspection of a vessel what consideration
need be given the external insulation?
a. It shall always be removed to inspect underneath
b. If insulation is in good condition and the vessel operates within the
high and low temperatures stated in API 510 removal of insulation
is not necessary for inspection of the vessel.
c. Select portions must be removed for inspections.
d. You may not use any plug locations used for UT thickness reading
to inspect the vessel.

119. What must be done prior to using special inspection procedures
after an alteration to a vessel in place of a hydrostatic test?
a. Check with the NBIC Authorized inspector
b. Consult with the chief inspector of the jurisdiction.
c. Make certain it is permitted by any jurisdictional rules that may exist
and consult with an engineer experienced in pressure vessel
design and the Authorized Pressure vessel Inspector.
d. Review all NDE procedures prior to commencement of the NDE
used to waive the hydrostatic test requirement.

120. If the corrosion rate of a vessel is determined to be less than a
given amount per year, it is possible to exempt the vessel from
internal inspections. What is the value of the corrosion rate that
cannot be exceeded?
a. 0.001 per year
b. 0.001 between inspections not to exceed 5 years between
inspections
c. 0.005 per year
d. 0.005 between inspection not to exceed 3 years between
inspections













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121. What may happen if vessels are subjected to temperatures above
design?
a. The relief device may fail
b. The rupture disk may implode
c. Phosphoric granulation at the grain boundaries
d. Creep of the vessels material may occur.

122. The definition of pressure vessels is;
a. A vessel for the containment of process fluids with or without
internal pressure
b. A container designed to operate below atmospheric pressure.
c. A container no greater than 6 in cross section
d. A container designed to withstand internal or external pressure

123. Of the following heads; which is normally required to be thickest
all things being equal?
a. Hemispherical
b. Flanged and dished
c. 2 to 1 elliptical
d. Forged flat heads

124. The maximum interval between external visual inspections for an
above the ground vessel is;
a. Three years
b. Ten years
c. Five years
d. There is no maximum interval

125. What is the maximum inspection interval for a vessel with a
remaining safe operating life of less than four years?
a. The full remaining safe operating life up to a maximum of 4 years.
b. The full remaining safe operating life up to a maximum of 2 years
c. The full remaining safe operating life up to a maximum of 1 year.
d. The full remaining life of the vessel.













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126. What does the term construction code mean, as it regards repairs
to a pressure vessel?
a. The current ASME code edition
b. The NBIC
c. The code the vessel was constructed to including non-standard and
jurisdictional special vessels.
d. The API 510 code.

127. What code is used to evaluate a vessel after it has been placed in
service?
a. ASME section VIII
b. ASME Section V
c. API 510
d. RP 572

128. When a vessel is to be entered for inspection which of the
following precautions should be observed?
a. The area should be roped off and no one else is to be working in
the area
b. Inspect the vessel for proper electrical grounding if a thunderstorm
is in the area
c. All hot work permits in the immediate area must be revoked until
the inspection is complete
d. OSHA rules should be reviewed and followed where applicable.

129. Liquid penetrant inspection can find which type of discontinuity?
a. Internal cracking of welds
b. Cracks open to the surface
c. Subsurface porosity
d. Subsurface plate laminations

130. For proper internal or external visual inspection surfaces must be;
a. Wire brushed
b. Walnut shell blasted
c. Hydro blasted
d. The type of surface preparation depends on individual
circumstances and could be any of the above













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131. What is the definition of a construction code?
a. Any standard used to repair vessel
b. Any technique of construction
c. Any standard used to build a vessel
d. The code or standard to which a vessel was originally built.

132. The maximum content of iron in a nonferrous metal is
a. 35%
b. 50%
c. 75%
d. 45%

133. If steel of a vessel has exceeded its yield point upon the removal
of pressure and heat it will;
a. return to its original shape
b. Contain a permanent deformation
c. Split or rupture
d. Be oblong

134. Which of the following inspection techniques requires direct
visual examination of the test specimen?
a. Radiography testing
b. Ultrasonic testing
c. Magnetic particle
d. Eddy current

135. The API authorized pressure vessel inspector may give prior
authorization for repairs that do not involve;
a. Pressure tests
b. Radiography
c. Pneumatic testing
d. Final visual inspections

136. An above the ground vessel is required to receive an external
inspection ;
a. Every 4 years
b. At the half corrosion-rate life.
c. Every 10 years
d. Every five years or at the same interval as the internal inspection
whichever is less












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137. Widely scattered pits may be ignored as long as the following are
true
a. No pit depth is greater than one half the vessels required wall
thickness exclusive of the corrosion allowance.
b. The total area of the pits does not exceed 7 square inches (45
square centimeters) within any 8-inch (20-centimeter) diameter
circle
c. The sum of their dimensions along any straight line within the circle
does not exceed 2 inches (5 centimeters)
d. ?

What is the missing item in d above is?
a. The pit depths must be measured from the side the pit is located on
b. The 8 inch diameter is to be measured from the center of the
deepest pit
c. There are no missing items there are only 3 items listed for this rule
d. The total area of the pits cannot exceed 3.5 square inches in a 4-
inch diameter circle.

138. The surface remote from a welded joint is determined as follows;
a. 1 inch on either side of the weld or twice the minimum thickness
which ever is greater.
b. 1 inch on either side of the weld or twice the minimum thickness
which ever is less.
c. For vessels with inside diameters less than 60 inches 20 inches or
the vessel diameter
d. 2 inches on either side of the weld

139. Are nondestructive procedures allowed in lieu of hydrostatic
testing, if so what must be done?
a. Engineer experienced in pressure vessel design and the API
inspector must be consulted
b. The API inspector and NBIC inspector must be consulted
c. The API inspector must be consulted
d. An experienced engineer must be consulted













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140. A new vessel has been installed what must be done in order
accept the vessel for operation?
a. A first internal inspection
b. A first internal inspection, however if a manufactures data report
(Ut) assuring that the vessel is satisfactory for its intended service
is available the first internal may be waived
c. Base line thickness readings must be taken per OSHA 1920 (j)
d. Base line thickness reading must be taken per OSHA 1910(j)

141. Temper embrittlement is best described as;
a. Cracking due to operating at high temperatures above 700 degrees
F
b. Loss of ductility and notch toughness due to exposure above 700
degrees F
c. Flaking of the metal surfaces, causing dip pits
d. Cracking due to low temperature service

142. The first consideration that must be given when the half bead
temper bead technique of repair is proposed should be;
a. Consultation with the jurisdiction
b. Time required to do the repair, and personnel safety
c. Suitability for a given fluid service and any corrosion resistance
required
d. Close monitoring of the welding operation.

143. Under which of the following condition(s) should you require to
the removal of safety relief device(s)?
a. If a pressure test is being conducted in which the test pressure will
exceed the set pressure of the safety relief valve with the lowest
setting.
b. The safety relief device was opening on a regular, usexplainable
basis
c. Seepage had been discovered and operators have been consulted.
d. Surface corrosion on the body of the device.













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144. The rerating of vessel involves the;
a. Calculations from only a manufacturer experienced in pressure
vessels.
b. Use of Non-Code requirements as established in accordance with
the alternative rules of B31.3.
c. Review Inspection records verify the pressure vessel has been in
the proposed service previously
d. Calculations from either the manufacturer or an owner-user
engineer experienced in pressure vessels.

145. When a crack is discovered in a vessel that is in a highly stressed
area. What action should you recommend be considered as a first
step in any effort to correct the flaw?
a. Using an insert patch.
b. Removing the crack using by grinding and inspect using an NDE
procedure before repair by welding.
c. Call in a pressure vessel engineer.
d. Design an overlay patch that has rounded corners.

146. When rerating a pressure vessel, one of the steps of the rerating is
the documentation of the;
a. Calculations from the manufacturer or the owner-users engineer.
b. Approval of the operations engineering department.
c. Report from a professional engineer.
d. Approval of the ASME.

147. The thinned areas of a vessel are to be evaluated for continued
service using the design by analysis methods of Section VIII
Division 2. When using this technique it is always true that;
a. The insurer of the vessel must be consulted with first.
b. Corporate engineering must approve this method of evaluation.
c. Consulation with a pressure Vessel engineer is required.
d. You must determine the materials used in the fabrication of the
vessel.

148. Which of the following is considered a construction code?
a. ASME B 31.23
b. ASME 33.2
c. ASME Section V
d. ASME Section VIII Div. I












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API 510 QB

ANSWERS

Q.NO. ANS. REFERENCE
1 A General Knowledge
2 C 8.1.1
3 A API 510, 9.3.3 C
4 C API 510 7.1.2 last para
5 B API 510, 7.7, third para
6 D API 510, 5.2.1 first line & 5.2.3 first line
7 A API 510, 5.8.6.2
8 B API 510, 8.1.1
9 E API 510, 6.5.3
10 C API 510, 7.1.1
11 B API 510, 8.1.6.4.2.1
12 B API 510, 8.1.6.4.2.3, d, 2 nd para, last line
13 C API 510, 6.4.1
14 C API 510, 7.4.6.3
15 B API 510, 3.11
16 B API 510, 6.4.1
17 D API-510 6.6.1.1 & 6.6.1.2
18 C API 510, 7.1.1
19 B API 510, 6.4.1 & 7.1.1
20 B API 510, 6.4.1 & 7.1.1
21 B API 5.5.2.1
22 B API 510, 7.4.6.3
23 C Body of Knowledge,
24 B Body of Knowledge,
25 C Body of Knowledge
26 D General Knowledge
27 A General Knowledge
28 C BOK, 60 + 82 x 0.433
29 C BOK, 10 x 0.7 = 7 mm
30 C Body of Knowledge,
31 C API 510, Sec2 Referrence
32 A API 510, 1.1 .1
33 D General Knowledge
34 B API 510, 1.1.1, last para , 4
th
& 5 th line
35 A API 510, 8.1.1 last line
36 C API 510, 7.4.3












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37 A API 510, 5.3, 3 rd & 4 th lines
38 B API 510, 6.2.1.2
39 B Ref 571
40 D API 510, 6.6.1.1
41 B API 510, 4.2.3
42 A API 510, 5.3
43 B API 510 , 4.2.4
44 D API 510, 7.4.3
45 D API 510, 5.5.6.3
46 D API 510, 7.3
47 B API 510, 7.4.6.1 a
48 C API 510, 7.4.4.2
49 B API 510, 5.2, Ist two lines
50 B API 510, API 572 RP
51 A API 510, 7.1.2 d
52 D API 510 5.2, 2 nd para
53 B BOK
54 D API 510, G.K and UCS 66
55 B API 5.8.6.1 last line
56 B API-510 7.4.5
57 D API 510, App. A
58 B API 510, 1.1 .3
59 C API 510, 3.4.3
60 B API 510, 4.2.4, 2 nd page 1 st line
61 A API 510, 4.2.1
62 C API 510, App. B 3.2
63 D API 510, 5.3.3 first 2 lines
64 C API 510, 5.4
65 C API 510, 571
66 A API 510, 571
67 D API 510, 571
68 C API 510, 5.25.4.1 & 571
69 B API 510, 7.3.3
70 c API 510, 571
71 A API 510, 7.4.6.1
72 D API 510, 1.1.1
73 D Application of API 3.2
74 D API 510, 3.5.9
75 D API 510, 6.6.1.1
76 A General Knowledge of Any Inspector












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77 B API 510, 5.7.2.1 c
78 D API 510, 3.57
79 C 3.24 General Knowledge of Any Inspector
80 C API 510, 3.53
81 D API 571
82 B API 510, 571
83 D API 510, 7.4.3
84 D API 510, 5.5.6.2
85 A API 510, 5.5.6.1
86 C API 510, 7.4.5
87 B 571, General Knowledge
88 A API 510, 4.1
89 C API 510, 3.2
90 C API 510, 7.4.2.1
91 A API 510, 8.1.9
92 D API 510, 5.5.6.2
93 A API 510, 5.5.6.1
94 C API 510, 6.4.1
95 C API 510, 6.4.1
96 C API 510, 4.2 and 6.4.1
97 D API 510, 6.5.1.1
98 C API 510, 8.1.5.4.3
99 D API 510, 6.2.2
100 B API 510, 5.8.1.1
101 D API 510, 5.8.1.1
102 A API 510, 8.1.1
103 D API 510, 8.1.6.4.2.2.2
104 B API 510, 8.2.1
105 B API 510, 8.1.6.4.2.3
106 C API 510, 8.1.6.4.2.3 f (7)
107 D API 510, 8.1.5.2.2 & 8.1.5.1.3
108 D API 510, 8.1.7.1
109 B API 510, 6.5.1.1
110 C API 510 6.6.2.2
111 A API 510 8.2.1 a
112 B API 510 8.1.5.1.2.1
113 A API 510 8.1.6.4.2.3
114 C API 510 5.8.6.2
115 C API 576 6.2.2
116 D API 510 7.1.2












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117 D API 510 7.8.1
118 B API 510 5.5.6.3
119 C API 510 5.8.7.1
120 C API 510 6.5.2.1.b 1
121 D API 510, 571
122 D API 510 3.47
123 D Due to Geometry the flatter the thicker required
124 C API 510 6.4.1
125 B API 510 6.5.1.1
126 C API 510 3.10
127 C API 510 1.1.1
128 D API 510 5.3
129 B API 510 GK
130 D API 510 5.7.1.1
131 D API 510 3.10
132 B GBOK
133 B GBOK
134 C GK
135 A API 510 8.1.1
136 D API 510 6.4.1
137 C API 510 7.4.3
138 A API 510 7.4.5
139 A API 510 5.8.7.1
140 B API 510 6.2.1.2
141 B API 510 571
142 C API 510 GK & 577
143 A API 510 5.8.3.2
144 D API 510 8.2.1
145 C API 510 8.1.5.1.2.1
146 A API 510 8.2.1 a
147 C API 510 7.4.4.2 last line
148 D B31.23&B33.2 nonexistent V is a support Code















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API 510
(OPEN QB)

1. During the recent planned internal inspection showed two pits of
following description. (Min. vessel thickness required = 5/8
including C.A = 1/8). Pits are separated by 12 inch distance (edge to
edge).

Pit A: Available thickness at bottom of pit = 0.4 inch.
Pit dia. = 1.5
Pit B: Available thickness at bottom of pit = 0.34 inch.
Pit dia. = 0.75

Your assessment is:
a. Pitting is not harmful hence acceptable
b. Pit A may be ignored but not Pit B
c. Pit B may be ignored but not Pit A
d. Both pits can not be ignored

2. For a vessel which is planned for internal inspection after 8 years
what should be the minimum remaining corrosion allowance in the
vessel if corrosion rate is 150 microns per year.
a. 2.0 mm
b. 2.4 mm
c. 1.2 mm
d. None of above

N.B; It is 2.4 mm, because the answer involves future inspection and hence
invoke section 7.3.3

3. After completion of alterations a pressure test is:
a. Normally required
b. Subject to approval of the jurisdiction , appropriate NDE shall be
required where pressure test is not performed
c. Substituting NDE for a pressure test after an alteration should be
done only after consulting a pressure vessel engineer experienced
in pressure vessel design
d. All of the above













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4. The crown portion for torispherical head (ID=40 inches) may be
considered as the portion lying entirely within a circle whose centre
will be same as head centre and diameter will be:
a. 36
b. 40
c. 32
d. 200

5. For 2:1 Ellip. Head (ID=75 inches), the crown portion would lie within
similar circle of diameter:
a. 60
b. 30
c. 54
d. 48

6. The temperature measured at a weld layer for a magnetic material is
around 45
0
C, but weld is in vertical position. It is decided to carryout
a surface NDT method. Choose a suitable NDT method.
a. Penetrant testing wet developer
b. Magnetic particle testing with dry particles-prod type
c. Magnetic particle testing with dry particles-yoke type
d. None of above

7. During the External inspection, observed resistance of electrical
grounding connections for Pressure vessels was 42 ohms. Your
advice is:
a. Accept
b. Resistance must be reduced to 25 Ohms Maximum
c. Resistance must be increased to 25 Ohms minimum
d. Depends on opinion of electrical engineer.

8. According to API 510, for vessels with I.D. = 48 corrosion averaging
along most critical element can be done over a length not exceeding:
a. 12 inches
b. 16 inches
c. 20 inches
d. 24 inches













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9. If diameter of vessel above in Q. 8 is changed to 72, the length for
corrosion averaging will be:
a. 36 inches
b. 24 inches
c. 40 inches
d. 18 inches

10. A cluster of scattered of pits was observed on exterior of vessel
shell. The description of pits is as follows:

Nomial vessel thickness = 5/8
Corrosion allowance = 1/8 inch
Total area of pits = 5.8 sq inch
Pit of largest depth: 0.5 inch dia., 0.20 deep

All pits could be enclosed in a circle of 8 inch dia. and maximum
cumulative length is 1.75 inch within the circle.
a. Pits may be ignored as per API 510
b. Pits are unsafe as the total area pf the pits is beyond limits
c. The cluster is unsafe as depth of deepest pit is beyond limits
d. The cluster is unsafe , they are exceeding cumulative length criteria

11. If in Q.10 above, depth of deepest pit was 0.15, cumulative length
was 2.3 inch ( other data remaining same) your analysis will be:
a. The cluster is still safe
b. Cluster is unsafe as depth is still beyond limit
c. Unsafe as cumulative length is beyond limit
d. b and c

12. If total area of cluster is 8 sq inch other data remain same as Q.10,
what is your evaluation?
a. Cluster is unsafe due to increased cluster area
b. Cluster is unsafe due to pit depth still being unsafe
c. Cluster is unsafe due to a and b
d. Cluster is safe

13. Which standard is applicable for selecting Sulphide stress cracking
resistant materials for oilfield equipment?
a. ASTM A516
b. ASME Sec. II
c. NACE MR- 0175
d. ASME Sec. VIII












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14. Which of the following are excluded from the scope of application of
API 510?
a. Pressure vessels on movable structures covered by other
jurisdictional regulations
b. All classes of containers listed for exemption from construction in
ASME Section VIII, Div. 1
c. Pressure vessels which do not exceed volume of the five cubic feet
and pressure of 250 psi
d. All of the above

15. In establishing a Mandatory Quality System manual which of the
following need not be included as mandatory requirement?
a. Organization and reporting Structure
b. Control system to ensure that only Qualified procedures and
welders are employed in repair/ alterations.
c. Control system to ensure that only the qualified NDE personnel and
procedures are employed during inspection, repair, alteration
d. Frequency (interval) for Internal and External in-service inspections.

16. A pressure vessel has been measured to have a minimum wall
thickness of .235 inch after 5 years of service. The vessels original
wall thickness was .250. Its minimum allowable wall thickness is
.195 inch. How long until the next required internal inspection per
API 510?
a. 10 years
b. 2. 5 years
c. 6.6 years
d. 6-12 years

17. During the internal inspection of a vertical vessel a minimum
thickness reading of 1.270 was found on a shell course. The Data
Report reflects an original thickness of 1.50, and allowable stress at
600 degrees of 14,500 psi, full RT, and a MAWP of 650 psi. The
MAWP was based on retirement diameter of 49.02 inches after the
corrosion allowance was expended; this yields a retirement
thickness of 1.129 inches. Inspection records indicate a corrosion
rate of 0.025 inches a year. If the corrosion rate does not change
what is the maximum time before the next on-stream or internal
inspection?
a. 5 years
b. 5.6 years
c. 10 years












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d. 2.8 years.












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18. Regarding corrosion evaluation, for the purposes of determining
whether a weld joint efficiency or the surface remote from the weld
governs in calculations the following must be true for this to be a
consideration.
a. The joints efficiency must be 1.0.
b. The joints efficiency must be less than 1.0
c. The joints efficiency must be exactly .90
d. The joints efficiency has no bearing on corrosion evaluations.

19. The following describes the location of corrosion as measured in a
vessel shell with the following dimensions and minimums.
.700 inch thickness minimum for shell from original calculations
Longitudinal joint E = .85
The thickness of the shell in the welded joint is .701 inch
The thickness 3 inches remote from the welded joint is .698 inch.

Using the rules for corrosion evaluation in API 510 the following
conclusion can be made about the evaluation of the vessel for its
continued service with out repair;

a. The thickness at the weld governs calculations.
b. The thickness remote from the weld governs calculations.
c. No such rule exits in API 510
d. Separate calculations will be required to determine which thickness
governs.

20. A 2 to 1 ellipsoidal head has experienced uniform corrosion on its
inner surface. To determine the governing thickness and evaluate
the head for continued service or the need for repair or derating we
would.
a. Calculate the required thickness of the knuckle region using the
formula given in UG-32 of Section VIII Div 1.
b. Calculate the thickness required of the spherical portion of the head
using the formula from UG-27 of Section VIII Div, 1 for a spherical
shell
c. Calculate the equivalent shell based on the heads inside diameter
d. Calculate both 1 and 2 above to determine the need for repair or
derating.












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21. A 2 to 1 ellipsoidal head has experienced corrosion in the central
portion of the head and will require calculations for continued
service Using the following information, what is to be used as the
dimension of the spherical segment when evaluating the corrosion?
The vessels shell diameter is 96 inches
a. 96 inches
b. 76.8 inches
c. 80 inches
d. 38.4 inches

22. For calculating the required thickness of a standard torispherical
head which has a corroded area in its central portion, the head must
be evaluated using a spherical shell calculation. What shall be used
as the radius of the dished portion in the calculation?
a. One half the shells inside diameter.
b. 80 % of the shells diameter.
c. The shells diameter
d. The measured central portion of the head taken from its center and
based on 80 % of the shells diameter

23. An ellipsoidal head has experienced corrosion at a radius 31 inches
away the center of the head. The head is attached to a shell that is
8 in diameter using a type 2 weld that has been fully radiographed.
This corroded area may be considered within the spherical portion
because the greatest distance allowed for this calculation form the
heads center is;
a. 76.8 inches
b. 38.4 inches
c. 80.0 inches
d. 40.0 inches

24. A vessel shell has scattered corrosive pits caused by hydrochloric
acid. The greatest pit depth found is .333 inches deep in a shell,
which has minimum required thickness of .521 inch. The sum of pits
areas in a 8 inch diameter circle do not exceed 7 sq inches. This pit
must be repaired because the limit of the pit depth in this situation
is;
a. .1302
b. .2605
c. .3000
d. .3250












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25. While inspecting a vessel you notice that there is corrosion that is
general, but varies over an area of the affected shell course, the
vessel has an inside diameter of 88 inches. You wish to average this
corrosion for purposes of evaluation. Circumferential stress governs
in this vessel, in inches what is the greatest length that can be used
to average this corrosion?
a. 40 inches
b. 39 inches
c. 29.33 inches
d. 88 inches

26. During an internal inspection the following minimum thickness
readings were taken on a vertical vessel
Top Head Present = .235
Shell Course Present = .225
Bottom Head Present = .195

This vessel has been in service for 6.5 years and all components had
an original thickness of .250 inch. The engineer calculated a
minimum thickness of the top head to be .145 and the bottom head
minimum thickness to be .155 and the shells minimum thickness to
be 205 Based on the readings what is the Corrosion Rate for the
shell element?
a. .025/ year
b. .0023/ year
c. .020/ year
d. .00384/ year

27. Pitting has been discovered to be localized in a small area of an
ellipsoidal head. The depth of the pits does not exceed half of the
required wall thickness. A circle is drawn that takes in all the pits
and its diameter is 8 inches. The maximum area of all the pits in
square inches to allow averaging is;
a. 8 square inches;
b. 6 square inches
c. 7 square inches.
d. 5 square inches.













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API 510 OPEN QB ANSWERS

Q. NO. ANSWER REFERENCE
1 A API 510, 7.4.3
2 B API 510, 7.3.3
3 D API 510, 5.8.1.1 & 5.8.7.1
4 C API 510, 7.4.6.1 b
5 A API 510, 7.4.6.1.b
6 A General Knowledge
7 B API 572, 9.3.10
8 C API 510 7.4.2.1
9 B API 510 7.4.2.1
10 A API 510 7.4.3
11 C API 510 7.4.3
12 A API 510 7.4.3
13 C API 510, Section 2
14 D API 510, APX A
15 D API 510, 4.2.1
16 C API 510 6.5.1
17 D API 510 6.5.1
18 B API 510 7.4.5
19 D API 510 7.4.5
20 D API 510 7.4.6.1 a & b
21 B API 510 7.4.6.1
22 C API 510 7.4.6.2
23 B API 510 7.4.6.1 { 0.8 x ( 8 x 12) }/2 = 38.6 inch
24 B API 510 7.4.3
25 C API 510 7.4.2.1
26 D API 510 7.1.1.1
27 C API 510 7.4.3













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SOLUTION

8. ID or 20 use smaller value (ID 60)
2

24 or 20 - - - - - - - - 20

Correct answer: c


9. ID or 40 use smaller value (ID 60)
3

72 or 40
3

24 or 40 . . . . 24

Correct answer: b


10. Area within 8 diameter circle = 5.8 sq. in. (OK)

Length along straight line in circle = 1.75 (OK)

Depth 5/8 1/8 0.25 (OK)

Correct answer: a


11. Length 2.3 inch > 2 ---------- (NOT OK)

Correct answer: c


12. Area 8 sq. in > 7 sq. in -------- (NOT OK)

Correct answer: a













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CLOSED BOOK API 510

1. The definition of ductility in metal is;
a. The ability to fail smoothly with minimum elongation.
b. The ability to deform plastically with deformation.
c. The ability to deform plastically with out rupture.
d. The ability to deform with rupture.

2. The reason a plate retains it shape after rolling is:
a. It is welded in place.
b. The outer fibers of the metal are stretched beyond the ultimate tensile
strength.
c. The outer fibers of the metal are stretched beyond the elastic limit of the
metal.
d. The inner fibers of the metal are stretched beyond the elastic limit of the
metal.

3. Which of the following utilizes direct visual inspection?
a. Radiography.
b. Ultrasonics.
c. Eddy current.
d. Dye penetrant.

4. When determining the Maximum Allowable working pressure for a
vessel in corrosive service which of the following is the correct wall
thickness to use in the required calculations?
a. The as measured thickness, minus the expected corrosion loss before
the date of the next inspection..
b. The as measured thickness, minus twice the expected corrosion loss
before the date of the next inspection.
c. The as measured thickness minus three times the expected corrosion
loss before the date of the next inspection
d. May be a, b, or c above depending on circumstances.













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5. In the Standard Practice For Measuring Thickness by the Manual
Ultrasonic pulse Echo Method SE 797 the scope statement includes an
temperature limit which is ______________
a. 250 F
b. 200 F
c. 50 F
d. 150 F

6. Which of the following is not re-rating a vessel
a. Increasing the MAWP.
b. Increasing the maximum design temperature.
c. Increasing the RV settings above the marked MAWP.
d. Adding a 4 nozzle to a vessel which has other 4 nozzles.

7. Hammer testing is not advisable when a vessel;
a. Is suspected of having very thin areas.
b. Is made of a soft metal such as aluminum.
c. Is under pressure
d. Has a flange face exposed.

8. Requalification by written exam is required for an API inspector who has
not been actively engaged in API inspections in the past;
a. One year.
b. Two years.
c. Three years
d. Four years.

9. For alteration or repairs, half bead/temper bead welding may be used as
an alternative for post weld heat treatment on vessels that require notch
toughness tests, but is limited to;
a. P No. 1
b. P No. 3.
c. P Numbers 1,3, and 4 steels.
d. P Numbers 3 and 1 but are restricted to certain group numbers.













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10. The mechanical working of weld metals using impact blows is defined as;
a. Hammering.
b. Forge welding.
c. Impact conditioning.
d. Peening.

11. The maximum inspection interval for a vessel with a remaining life of 16
years is;
a. 10 years.
b. 5 years.
c. 8 years.
d. 16 years.

12. A crack at a stress concentration must not be repaired without the
permission of the;
a. The unit engineer.
b. A pressure vessel engineer.
c. A professional engineer
d. Plant Manager.

13. If a pressure test is deemed necessary by the API inspector, it shall be
at a pressure that;
a. Conforms to the construction code used to establish the vessels MAWP.
b. Does not exceed the set pressure of the lowest relief device.
c. Is always 1.5 times the MAWP.
d. Allows for the weight of the testing fluid.

14. All pressure relieving devices must be tested and repaired by;
a. The original valve manufacturer.
b. The Authorized Inspector.
c. A repair concern which holds the NBIC VR symbol.
d. A repair concern experienced in valve maintenance.













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15. Sometimes it is allowed to substitute a higher preheat as an alternative
to PWHT, if this is done a;
a. Professional engineer must be consulted.
b. The authorized inspector must perform UT readings.
c. Metallurgical review must be performed.
d. Two PQRS must be completed.

16. If stresses are high in a vessel and reversals are frequent the vessel
may fail because of;
a. Embrittlement.
b. Stress corrosion cracking
c. Fatigue.
d. Creep.

17. If distortion of a vessels parts are suspected;
a. It should be shut down immediately.
b. The overall dimensions of the vessels parts should be checked and
compared to original design details.
c. It should be subjected to profile radiography.
d. It should be decommissioned and scrapped.

18. When calculating the MAWP of a vessel after it is in service, the
resulting MAWP from these calculations cannot be higher than the
original MAWP unless;
a. The actual thickness as determined by inspection is used in calculations
b. The actual thickness minus any expected corrosion loss before the next
inspection date is used in calculations.
c. The actual thickness is minus twice any expected corrosion loss before
the next inspection date is used in calculations.
d. A re-rating is performed per paragraph 7.3 of the API 510 Code.

19. The minimum actual thickness and maximum corrosion rate for any part
of a vessel may be;
a. Estimated.
b. Adjusted at any inspection.
c. Changed to fit production schedules.
d. Ignored if the vessel is not operating at pressures above 30 psig.













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20. Per API 510 the definition of actual thickness for determining MAWP of a
vessel is;
a. The as measured thickness less 2 times the present corrosion rate.
b. The most critical value of the average thickness that has been
determined.
c. The as measured thickness.
d. The original thickness less the original corrosion allowance.

21. When measuring the thickness of a corroded area of a ellipsoidal head,
the governing thickness may be as follows;
a. The thickness of the serrated region.
b. The thickness of the skirt of the head.
c. The wall reading at the spin hole within the head.
d. The thickness of the knuckle and/or the spherical regions.

22. The API authorized inspector shall not approve repairs to a vessel until;
a. After inspection has proven the repairs have been satisfactorily
completed and all required pressure test have been performed and
witnessed.
b. He has satisfied himself that the repairs have been completed.
c. Item b above plus all isolation steps used before the pressure test have
been removed and the vessels have been returned to an operable
condition.
d. He has been given permission by the plant manager.

23. All repair and alteration welding must be performed in accordance with;
a. Acceptable company standards.
b. API approved welding procedures
c. The applicable requirements of the ASME Code or another Code of
construction to which the vessel was built.
d. NBIC.













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24. Vessels with the following dimensions are exempt from both the API 510
and the ASME Section VIII codes
a. Vessels with an internal or external working pressure of not more than
50 psi with a limit on size.
b. Vessels with an internal or external working pressure of not more than
15 psi with a limit on size.
c. Vessels with an internal or external working pressure of not more than
50 psi with no limit on size.
d. Vessels with an internal or external working pressure of not more than
15 psi with no limit on size.

25. Of the following which indicates a very acidic pH measurement?
a. 7.0
b. 8.5
c. 3.5
d. 6.0

26. Define re-rating according to the API 510 Code.
a. A change in either the temperature ratings or the maximum allowable
working pressure rating or change in both.
b. Replacement of parts with those rated at a higher pressure and
temperature than original design.
c. Replacement of a part with and identical component.
d. A change in the operating flows in the vessel above the original design.

27. A Permissible way to allow for corrosion in a vessel is to;
a. Place epoxy liners in the corroded area.
b. Increase safety device settings.
c. Re-rate below original design conditions.
d. Lower temperature and increase pressure on parts of the vessel not in
question.

28. According to API 510 when would a repair constitute a rerating?
a. The repair changes the design pressure.
b. The repair changes the design temperature.
c. The repair changes the design pressure and/or the design temperature.
d. A new name plate stating a new design pressure or temperature.













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29. What is the most important method of vessel inspection?
a. Radiographic profile surveys.
b. Ultrasonic onstream inspections.
c. Thermograph surveys.
d. Careful visual survey and inspections.

30. What metals might be subject to brittle fracture even at room
temperature?
a. Carbon Steel.
b. Low Alloy Steel
c. Some Ferritic Steels.
d. Carbon, Low alloy and Ferritic steels

31. Before an inspection starts in a vessel, who else besides the safety man
should be informed?
a. Co-workers who will assist in the inspection.
b. Operations dept
c. Repair concerns.
d. All persons working in the area of the vessel

32. A used vessel has been bought and moved to a new site and installed.
What must the inspector do before certification of the vessel for
operation?
a. Insure that complete set of drawings is generated nothing areas of
special interest.
b. An internal inspection
c. Make sure that the vessel is properly supported and do a complete
hydrostatic test.
d. Witness a pneumatic pressure test.

33. A New weld repair project is just starting, as the inspector you should
review the
a. The repairs concerns quality plan.
b. The procedures (WPR) (PWR).
c. The materials chemical test reports, as they become available
d. Welders certifications, the welding procedures, and the MTRs.

34. Who should be consulted with if an alteration is planned for a section
VIII Div.1.vessel?
a. A professional engineer
b. The NBIC inspector.
c. The department engineer over production












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d. A pressure vessel engineer experienced in pressure vessel design.

35. What Codes may be used to determine a vessels MAWP?
a. The latest edition of the ASME Code or the construction Code to which
the vessel was built.
b. The latest edition of the ASME Code or the edition of the ASME Code
used for construction.
c. The API 510
d. The alternative rules of section VIII Div 2

36. If deciding on a technique(s) to use to inspect a vessel you must
consider;
a. The condition of the vessel and when the last inspection was.
b. The condition of the vessel during the last inspection.
c. The condition of the vessel and the environment under which it operates
d. The latest operational data such as logs.

37. The period between internal inspections or on-stream inspections shall
not exceed;
a. The quarter corrosion rate life
b. One half the corrosion rate life.
c. The estimated remaining life of the vessel or based on the corrosion rate
or 10 years which ever is which ever is less
d. One half the estimated remaining life of the vessel or based on the
corrosion rate or 10 years which ever is less.

38. A repair to restore missing, removed or corroded clad or overlay must
by approved by;
a. The pressure vessel engineer.
b. The API inspector
c. Both the pressure vessel engineer and the API inspector
d. A professional engineer.

39. For clad vessels constructed with P-3, P-4 or P-5 base materials, the
base material in the area of a welded repair should be examined for
cracks using;
a. Visual inspection
b. Magnetic particle inspection
c. Ultrasonic examination
d. Dye penetrant examination













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40. The spherical radius R to be used for the calculation of a standard
torispherical heads corrosion in it central dished portion is;
a. The diameter of the shell.
b. 80% of the shells diameter.
c. The equivalent radius of the shell.
d. 80% of the heads diameter.

41. When repairing a vessel using welding by the half-bead / temper bead
technique when notch toughness is not a requirement, you may use
the;
a. Shielded metal arc welding with the 7018 electrode only.
b. Gas metal arc welding with S70 sold core wire only.
c. Gas tungsten arc welding with E309 through E316 rod only.
d. Shielded metal, Gas metal and/or Gas Tungsten arc welding processes.

42. A vessel due to corrosion has a remaining thickness that is below the
minimum required thickness. If the thinned areas are to be evaluated
for continued service using the design by analysis methods of Section
VIII Division 2. When this approach is used it is always true that;
a. The NBIC Authorized Inspector must be consulted.
b. Operations must agree.
c. Consultation with a pressure vessel engineer experienced in pressure
vessel design is required.
d. The materials used in the fabrication of the vessel and their notch
toughness must be known.

43. A welded repair to a vessel in planned, which of the following
statements does not apply to this situation?
a. The welding procedures must be qualified.
b. The welders performing the work must pass a performance qualification
test to Section IX.
c. Consultation with a pressure vessel engineer may be required.
d. The parts to be welded cannot be below 35 F

44. Which of the following items should not be included in a fully
documented quality control program for pressure relief devices?
a. Organizational chart, Statement of authority and responsibility, Repair
and Inspection program.
b. Organizational chart, Statement of authority and responsibility, welding,
non-destructive examination procedures and heat treatment.
c. Organizational chart Statement of authority and responsibility general
example of valves repair name plate.












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d. The maximum set pressure for each rupture disk device.

45. As regards corrosion evaluation of a vessel part which contains a butt
weld how far on each side the weld does the welded joints efficiency E
extend when performing minimum thickness required calculations?
a. 1 inch
b. 1 inch or twice the minimum thickness of the weld which ever is less
c. 1 inch or twice the minimum thickness of the shell which ever is greater.
d. This is not allowed the entire vessel part must be evaluated using the E
of the affected butt joint.

46. Plate that has been rolled into a cylinder retains its shape, this is
because;
a. It is not a spring
b. Plastic deformation has occurred
c. It has been stretched beyond its elastic point.
d. It has experienced the Bolinger effect.

47. You inspected a weld and it conforms to the minimum requirements of
the construction codes, but you rejected it because you learned that;
a. The welding procedure was too old.
b. The welder tested in accordance with section X not Section IX.
c. The procedure was qualified to ASME section IX not API 510
d. The procedure had not been qualified to Section IX

48. The pulse echo contact method can be applied to any material in which
ultrasonic waves will propagate at a ________________ throughout the
part, and from which back reflections can be obtained and resolved.
a. Varying velocity
b. Constant velocity
c. Constant velocity with attenuation
d. Varying velocity with attenuation

49. A welding electrode has the following marking E-7018-1. Explain the
meaning of the number-1 on the end.
a. The first lot of 7018 electrodes produced that month at the plant.
b. The electrodes are certified to be moisture free.
c. The electrodes have passed testing which allows use in certain impact
tested vessel fabrications, without further testing of the weld metal.
d. First quality electrode according to the Section IX.













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50. Using the contact pulse echo method of ultrasonic thickness
examination the basic formula for the instrument uses to calculate
thickness is ________________________
a. T = Vt/3
b. T = Vt/2
c. T = Vt/3
d. T = Vt/2

51. Notch toughness is defined as;
a. Charpy V notch
b. Breaking force.
c. The amount of force required to cause a material to deform plastically.
d. The amount of energy necessary to cause fracture in the presence of a
stress concentrator












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CLOSED BOOK API 510 ANSWER


Q.No. ANSWER LOCATION OF ANSWER
1 C SEE ASME Q&A IN TEXT
2 C SEE ASME Q&A IN TEXT
3 D OTHERS USE O-SCOPE NOT DIRECT
4 D API510 7.3.3
5 B SE-797 1.1
6 D API 510 3.56
7 C API 572, 9.7.1
8 C API 510 Appendix B 3.1
9 C API 510 8.1.6.4.2.3 b
10 D ASME Q&A IN TEXT
11 C API 510 6.5.1.1
12 B API 510 8.1.5.2 last para
13 A API 510 5.8.2.1
14 D API 510 8.1 1 st para last line, 6.6
15 C API 510 8.1.6.4.2.1.1
16 C API 510 5.2
17 B API 510 5.6
18 D API 510 8.2.1
19 B API 510 7.1.2 last para
20 B API 510 7.3.3
21 D API 510 7.4.6.1 a & b
22 A API 510 8.1.2.2
23 C API 510 8.1
24 D API 510 APPENDIX A
25 C ASME Q&A IN TEXT
26 A API 510 3.56
27 C API 510 3.56
28 C API 510 3.56
29 D API 572 9.1 2
nd
page 2 nd para first 2 lines
30 D API 510 5.8.6.1
31 D API 510 5.8.2 3
rd
& 4 th lines
32 B API 510 6.2.2.2
33 D API 510 8.1.4 & 8.1.2.1 & Sec IX
34 D API 510 8.1.1
35 A API 510 7.3.12
36 C API 510 5.2 2
nd
page 1
st
para
37 D API 510 6.5.1.1












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38 C API 510 8.1.5.4.1
39 C API 510 8.1.5.4.4
40 A API 510 5.7(h)
41 D API 510 8.1.6.4.2.2.1
42 C API 510 7.4.4.1 & 7.4.4.2
43 D API 510 8.1.1 & Sec IX
44 D API 510 6.6.1.1
45 C API 510 7.4.5
46 C SEE ASME Q&A IN TEXT
47 D SEVERAL REFERENCES IN ALL CODES
48 B SE-797 1.2
49 C SEE TEXT AND ASME Q&A
50 B SE-797 4.1
51 D ASME Q&A TEXT













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OPEN BOOK API 510


1. During the internal inspection of a vertical vessel a minimum thickness
reading of 1.270 was found on a shell course. The Data Report reflects
an original thickness of 1.50, and allowable stress at 600 degrees of
14,500 psi, full radiography, and a MAWP of 650 psi. The MAWP was
based on a retirement diameter of 49.02 inches after the corrosion
allowance was expended. Inspection records indicate a corrosion rate
of 0.025 inches a year. If the corrosion rate does not change what is the
maximum time before the next on stream or internal inspection?
a. 56 years
b. 10 years
c. 90 days
d. 2.815 years

2. A pressure vessel has been measured to have a minimum wall
thickness of .235 inch after 5 years of service. The vessels original wall
thickness was .250. Its minimum allowable wall thickness is .195 inch.
How long until the next required internal inspection per API 510?
a. 13.3 years
b. 10 years
c. 5 years
d. 6 and 2/3 years

3. During an internal inspection a vessels shell was measured and found
to have a remaining wall thickness of .486 inches. It was last inspected 4
years ago. The retirement thickness of the vessel shell is .475 inches
and its previous thickness was .500 inches Based on this data, per API
510 what is the present corrosion allowance of the vessel?
a. 0.025
b. 0.110
c. 0.011
d. 0014













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4. In corrosive service the wall thickness used in the MAWP calculation
must be the actual thickness as determined by the inspection, but must
not be thicker than original thickness on the vessels original material
test report or Manufacturers Data Report __________________.
Fill in the blank;
a. Plus twice the estimated corrosion loss before the next inspection.
b. Minus twice the estimated corrosion loss before the next inspection.
c. Minus three times the estimated corrosion loss before the next
inspection.
d. Plus four times the estimated corrosion loss before the next inspection.

5. A weld repair using the preheat and deposition welding methods
described in the API 510 is to be performed on a groove type repair in a
vessel wall, and will require a welding procedure qualified using notch
toughness tests. What would be the allowed depth of repair if the
procedure test groove was 2 inches in depth?
a. 2 inches or more
b. Less than 2 inches.
c. Not more than 1-1/2 inches.
d. Unlimited thickness would be permissible.

6. The inner wall of a jacketed vessel has corroded down to 0.635 inch; the
inner cylinder has a 45 O D in this corroded state, its unsupported
length is 120 inches. The vessel operates at an external pressure of 175
psig and a temperature of 300 F. The factor A has been calculated to be
00085, using the CS- 2 factor B chart what is the approximate value of
Factor B?
a. 17,000
b. 14,500
c. 11,500
d. 9,500













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7. A vessel was placed in service on 1/15/60 with an original wall thickness
of .875 It lost wall at an average rate of .005 per year until 1/15/75.
Service conditions have changed and this inspection, 1/15/96 the vessel
has a present wall thickness of .630. The previous thickness 5 years
ago was .789. If the present rate of corrosion continues and the
retirement thickness is .525, what will be the retirement year of the
vessel?
a. First quarter of 1997.
b. Second quarter of 1999.
c. Second quarter of 2001.
d. Last quarter of 1999

8. Local PWHT per API 510 Specifies that the area to be heat treated shall
extend for a given distance from the weld what would be the distance
required for the local PWHT of a 10 inch .500 thick nozzle in a 3 inch
thick shell?
a. 12 inches in all directions.
b. 3 inches in all directions.
c. 1 inch in all directions.
d. 6 inches in all directions.

9. When averaging a vessels corrosion over an area in which
circumferential stress governs, the corrosion must be a averaged using;
a. An 8 diameter circle.
b. The diameter of the vessel.
c. The most critical element in the corroded area
d. The longitudinal weld involved.

10. A vessel has pitting in a small area; the area will fit in an 8 inch diameter
circle with its center at the deepest pit. The shell course has a minimum
thickness of .740. The pits within the circle are more than 2 inches
apart in any straight line with the following depths;

#1 - .385 #2- .301 #3- .235 #4- .287, this area cannot be ignored
because;

a. The pits are too many in number.
b. The pits are too close together.
c. The square inches of the pits exceed 7 square inches.
d. One of the pits is too deep to allow averaging.













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11. When an owner-user chooses to conduct a RBI assessment, it must
include a systematic evaluation of both the likelihood of failure and the
associated consequence of failure. This likelihood of failure assessment
should be repeated whenever what happens?
a. Each time equipment or process changes are made.
b. After it has been in service for 5 additional years.
c. If operations reports any significant upset in the unit.
d. Each time equipment or process changes are made that could
significantly affect degradation rates or cause premature failure of the
vessel.

12. Preheat and controlled deposition welding, as described in 7.2.3.1 and
7.2.3.2, may be used in lieu of postweld heat treatment (PWHT) where
PWHT is inadvisable or mechanically unnecessary. Which of the
following describes the circumstances where an alternative to PWHT is
allowed?
a. Preheating when notch toughness testing is not allowed and
controlled deposition welding when notch toughness testing is
allowed.
b. Preheating when notch toughness testing is required and controlled
deposition welding when notch toughness testing is not required
c. When the pressure vessel engineer has approved the technique or the
API A.I. has approved this method.
d. Preheating method when notch toughness testing is not required and
controlled deposition welding when notch toughness tests are required.

13. While inspecting a torispherical head it was discovered to have some
severe corrosion and must be evaluated for continued service. This
corrosion occurs at a radius 33.256 from the exact center of the head.
The shell diameter of the vessel the head is attached to is 84. To
evaluate this head for continued service what is the greatest distance
from the center that the corrosion can be and still be allowed to use the
formula for spherical shells given is Section VIII Div. 1 of the ASME
Code?
a. 67.2
b. 48.0
c. 33.6
d. 84.0













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14. If the head in problem number 13 corrosion cannot be evaluated using
the spherical formula for shells, what shall be done to evaluate it for
continued service?
a. Use finite element analysis.
b. Average the corrosion over the area in an 8-inch diameter circle.
c. Use the appropriate formula from UG-32 for torispherical heads.
d. Call in a pressure vessel engineer per the API 510 Code.

15. What is the remaining life of a vessel corroding at a rate of 0.017 inch
per year when the last inspection measured 0.638 inch and the minimum
required thickness is 0.513 inch.
a. 4 years
b. 10 years.
c. 6.3 years.
d. 7.3 years.

16. In the pulse echo contact method of measuring thickness, the velocity
of the material being measured is a function of the materials physical
properties and is usually assumed to be a constant for a
a. its entire thickness
b. given class of materials
c. all ferrous materials
d. all non ferrous materials.

17. Thickness measurement instruments are divided into groups which are
________________
a. Flaw detectors with CRT readout, Flaw detectors with CRT and direct
readout, and Flaw detectors with direct readout
b. Flaw detectors with direct and CRT readout
c. Flaw detectors with CRT or Flaw detectors with direct readout
d. All flaw detectors are direct read out, one has a meter the other has a
CRT display












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OPEN BOOK API 510 ANSWERS

Q.No. ANSWER LOCATION OF ANSWER

1 D API 510 6.5.1.1
2 D API 510 6.5.1.1
3 C API 510- 7.1.1.1
4 B API 510 7.3.3
5 B API 510 Table 8.1
6 C SEE FACTOR B CS-2 CHART IN TEXT
7 B API 510 7.1.1.1
8 A API 510 8.4.6.4.1 d first 2 lines
9 D API 510 7.4.2.3
10 D API 510 7.4.3
11 D API 510 6.2.2.1
12 D API 510 8.1.6.4. 2.2.1 & 2.2.2
13 C API 510 7.4.6
14 C API 510 BOK
15 D API 510 7.2.1
16 B ASME SEC V SE-797 4.3
17 A ASME- SEC V SE-797 6.1

HINTS:
Q.NO.10













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Q.NO. 13

Crown Radius
Torispherical Head: Dia of shell
2:1 Ellipsoidal Head: 0.9 Dia of Shell