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Coordinate Geometry

1. (a) AB = ABBBBBBBBBBBB
(1 4)2 + (2 6)2

3.

= ABBBBB
9 + 16
= 5 units

(1 + 3)2 + (2 4)2
(b) PQ = ABBBBBBBBBBBBB

= ABBBBBB
16 + 36

= ABB
52 units

(c) RS = ABBBBBBBBBBBBB
(3 + 1)2 + (4 2)2

4.

= ABBBB
4+4
8 units
= AB

(2 2)2 + (0 5)2
(e) CD = ABBBBBBBBBBBB



1 + 5 ,
3+7
5. (a) Midpoint of AB =
2
2


= (3, 5)

= ABBBB
9+0
= 3 units

(g) GH =

= ABBBB
34.34
= 5.86 units

2.

+ (5 + 0.3)2

7 2 + (4.7)2

1 + 9 ,
5 1
(b) Midpoint of CD =
2
2


= (4, 2)

ABBBBBBBBBBBBBB
1 2
ABBBBBBBBBB
112 42

(p + 1)2 + 16 = 16 + 9
(p + 1)2 = 9
p + 1 = 3
p = 3 1
= 4, 2

Since C is in the quadrant IV, therefore p = 2.

= ABBBBB
0 + 25
= 5 units

(0 3)2 + (4 + 4)2
(f) EF = ABBBBBBBBBBBBB

AC = AB

ABBBBBBBBBBBBB
(p + 1)2 + (2 2)2 = ABBBBBBBBBBBB
(3 + 1)2 + (5 2)2

(d) UW = ABBBBBBBBBBBBB
(1 4)2 + (0 + 5)2

= ABBBBBB
25 + 25
ABB

= 50 units

PQ = ABB
16

ABBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB
(a 2)2 + [(a + 1) + 1]2 = ABB
16

(a 2)2 + (a + 2)2 = 16
a2 4a + 4 + a2 + 4a + 4 = 16

2a2 + 8 = 16

a2 = 4

a = 2

2 4 ,
3+5
(c) Midpoint of EF =
2
2


= (3, 4)

8 2 ,
10 6
(d) Midpoint of GH =
2
2


= (5, 8)

AB = ABB
10

BBBBBBBBBBBB
A(2
1)2 + (y 3)2 = ABB
10

1 + (y 3)2 = 10

(y 3)2 = 9

y 3 = 3

y = 3 + 3

y = 0, 6

0 + 8 ,
42
(e) Midpoint of IJ =
2
2


= (4, 1)

1
8
3 ,
0.6 + 6
(f) Midpoint of KL =
2
2
25


= , 3.3
6

1
1

6. Midpoint of AB = (3, 4)

12. (a)
2

2 + r ,
t 4 = (1, 3)
1
2
2
2

2 + r = 1
\
2
2 + r = 2

r = 0

1
1

46
t =
2
= 1

1
1(6) + 2
1(3) + 2(4)
2
(x, y) = ,
1 + 2
1 + 2

1 2

5 11
= ,
3 3

5 11
The coordinates of P are , .
3 3

B(6, 10)

P(x, y)

nx1 + mx2 ny1 + my2


(x, y) =
,
m+n
m+n
2(2) + 1(6) 2(4) + 1(10)

= ,
1 + 2
1 + 2
10

= , 6
3

10
The coordinates of P are , 6 .
3

P(x, y)

1
A(, 4)
2

2
1

P(x, y)

A(3, 2)

A(2, 4)

1 0)
B( ,
2

(d)

B(6, 3)

2 + y
= 2
2
2 + y = 4

y = 6

11.

(c)

The coordinates of C are (9, 6).

+4
1 +
0.2
2
10. (p, q) = ,
2
2
9

= 0.4,
4
9
Hence, p = 0.4, q =
4

3(1) + 2(3) 3(5) + 2(1)


(x, y) = ,
2+3
2+3
13
3

= ,
5 5
3 13
The coordinates of P are , .
5 5

2 + y
1 + x ,
= (4, 2)
1
2
2 2
and

B(3, 1)

P(x, y)

1 + 3 ,
4 6 = (s, t)
1
2
2 2

1 + x = 4
\
2
1 + x = 8

x = 9

A(1, 5)

8. PQ = QR,
that is, Q(s, t) is the midpoint of PR.

and

1(1) + 2(4) 1(0) + 2(5)


(x, y) = ,
2 + 1
2 + 1
10

= 3,
3
10
The coordinates of P are 3, .
3

(b)

t 4 = 3

2
t 4 = 6

t = 10

and

1 + 3
\ s =
2

= 1

B(4, 5)

P(x, y)

A(1, 0)

7. Midpoint of PQ = (1, 3)

9.

1 + 5 ,
t + 2 = (3, 4)

2
2
t + 2 = 4

\
2

t + 2 = 8

t = 6

1
1
1
1 + (3) 1(0) + (2)
2
2
2
(x, y) = ,
1
1
+ 1
+ 1
2
2
2
2

= ,
3
3

1
1

2
2
The coordinates of P are , .
3
3

QR
1
=
RS
3

3QR = RS
\ QR : QS = 1 : 2

(b) Area of ABC


1 1 4 5 1

=
2 3 2 6 3
1

= (2 + 24 + 15) (12 10 6)
2
1

= 41 + 4
2
45

= unit2
2

13.

2
1

S(2, 5)

Q(x, y)

R(1, 4)

2(1) + 1(2) 2(4) + 1(5)


(x, y) = ,
1 + 2
1 + 2
13

= 0,
3
13
The coordinates of Q are 0, .
3

1
1

(c) Area of ABC


1 0 4 2 0

=
2 1 3 5 1
1

= (0 20 + 2) (4 + 6 + 0)
2
1

= 18 2
2
1

= 20
2
1

= (20)
2

= 10 unit2

1
PS = RS
3
PS
1
=

RS
3
\ PS : PR = 1 : 2

14.

S(0, 8)

1
2

P(x, y)

1
2(0) + 1
2(8) + 1(4)
2
(x, y) = ,
1 + 2
1 + 2

1 2

1
= , 4
6

1
The coordinates of P are , 4 .
6

A(1, 5)

1(1) + 2(x) 1(5) + 2(y)


(2, 3) = ,
2 + 1
2 + 1
1 + 2x
\ = 2
3
7

x =
2

B( x, y)

1 0 1 3 0
16. (a) Area of ABC =
2 4 2 5 4
1

= (0 + 5 + 12) (4 + 6 + 0)
2
1

= 17 10
2
7

= unit2
2

7
The coordinates of B are , 2 .
2

1 1 4 3 2 1
=
2 2 5 6 3 2
1
= (5 + 24 + 9 + 4) (8 + 15 + 12 + 3)
2
1
= 42 38
2
= 2 unit2

(b) Area of ABCD


1 1 2 3 2 1

=
2 1 1 5 7 1
1

= (1 + 10 + 21 + 2) (2 3 10 7)
2
1

= 34 + 22
2

= 28 unit2

5 + 2y
= 3
3

y = 2

and

Q(2, 3)

17. (a) Area of ABCD


15.

(d) Area of ABC


1 1 2 3 1

=
2 2 4 6 2
1

= (4 + 12 + 6) (4 + 12 + 6)
2

= 0 unit2

1 4)
R( ,
2

(c) Area of ABCD


1 0 1 2 3 0

=
2 3 4 1 1 3
1

= (0 + 1 + 2 9) (3 8 + 3 0)
2
1

= 6 + 8
2
1

= 2
2

= 1 unit2

21. (a)


(d) Area of ABCD


1 0 1 2 3 0

=
2 1 3 5 7 1
1

= (0 + 5 + 14 + 3) (1 + 6 + 15 + 0)
2
1


= 22 22
2

= 0 unit2

3
\ x-intercept = ; y-intercept = 3.
2

3
x =
2

25
(b) Gradient =
43


= 3
4 2
(c) Gradient =
3 (1)
6


=
4
3


=
2

(0 + 15 + 0) (0 + 2x + 0) = 13

15 2x = 13

3 0
(d) Gradient =
4 (5)


= 3

15 2x = 13
or 15 2x = 13

2x = 15 13 or
2x = 15 + 13

x = 1
or
x = 14

y-intercept
23. (a) Gradient =
x-intercept
3


=
2
2
(b) Gradient =
3
2


=
3
4
(c) Gradient =
2

3
3


= 4
2


= 6

20. Area of PQRS


1 0 1 2 3 0
=
2 1 4 7 10 1
1
= (0 + 7 + 20 + 3) (1 + 8 + 21 + 0)
2
1
= 30 30
2
= 0 unit2
Since the area is zero, therefore P, Q, R and S are
collinear.

2x y + 3 = 0
When x = 0, 0 y + 3 = 0

y = 3
When y = 0, 2x 0 + 3 = 0

64
22. (a) Gradient =
23


= 2

13
Area of OBC =
2
0 3 x 0
13
1

=
2
2 0 2 5 0

19.

(b)


x
y
(c) + = 2
2
3
x
y


+ = 1
4
6

\ x-intercept = 4; y-intercept = 6

1 1 2 3 1
18. Area of PQR =
2 3 6 9 3
1

= (6 + 18 + 9) (6 + 18 + 9)
2

= 0 unit2
Since the area is zero, therefore the points P, Q and
R are collinear.

y = 2x + 1
When x = 0, y = 2(0) + 1

= 1
When y = 0, 0 = 2x + 1
1

x =
2
1
\ x-intercept = ; y-intercept = 1.
2

x
y
(d) = 2
2
5
x
y

= 1
10
4

(c) The equation of line AB is


y5
2 5

=
x (1)
0 (1)
y5


= 7
x + 1


y 5 = 7(x + 1)


= 7x 7

7x + y + 2 = 0

10
Gradient =
4
5

=
2
x
y
1

+ =
4
3
2
x
y
1
2 + = 2
4
3
2
x
2y
+ = 1
2
3
3

2
Gradient =
2
3

=
4

(e)

1 2

24. (a)


The equation of the straight line is


y 2 = 4(x 1)
y = 4x 4 + 2
y = 4x 2

(b)



(c)

The equation of the straight line is


y 3 = 4(x + 1)
y = 4x 4 + 3
y = 4x 1
The equation of the straight line is
1
y + 6 = (x 2)
4
1
1
y = x 6
4
2
1
1
y = x 6
4
2

26. (a) The equation of the straight line is


x
y

+ = 1
x-intercept y-intercept
y
x



+ = 1
3
4
y
x
(b) + = 1
1
3
x

y = 1
3
y
x
(c) + = 1
1
2
y

x = 1
2
y
x
(d) + = 1
1
4

2
y

2x = 1
4
y = 3x + 1
Gradient, m = 3
y-intercept = 1
When y = 0, 0 = 3x + 1
1


x =
3
1


\ x-intercept =
3
(b) 2y = 4x 3
3

y = 2x
2

Gradient, m = 2
3

y-intercept =
2
3

When y = 0, 2x =
2
3



x =
4
3

\ x-intercept =
4
(c) 2x + y = 5


y = 2x + 5

Gradient , m = 2

y-intercept = 5

When y = 0, 2x = 5
5


x =
2
5

\ x-intercept =
2

27. (a)


25. (a) The equation of line AB is


y 1
4 1

=
32
x2


= 3


y 1 = 3(x 2)


= 3x 6

3x y 5 = 0
(b) The equation of line AB is
y (3)
5 (3)

=
1 (2)
x (2)
y+3

= 2
x+2


y + 3 = 2(x + 2)


= 2x 4

2x + y + 7 = 0

29. (a) y = 3x 1........................ 1



y = 4x + 5........................ 2

1
(d) 2y x + 5 = 0
2
1



2y = x 5
2
1
5



y = x
4
2
1

Gradient, m =
4
5

y-intercept =
2
1
5

When y = 0, x =
4
2


x = 10

\ x-intercept = 10

1 = 2, 3x 1 = 4x + 5

4x 3x = 1 5

x = 6

Substitute x = 6 into 1,
y = 3(6) 1
= 19
\ Point of intersection = (6, 19)

(b) x + 2y = 1.................................... 1
x

4 = 3y.................................. 2
2

y
x
(e) + = 1
2
3

3
Gradient , m =
2
x-intercept = 2
y-intercept = 3

2 2, x 8 = 6y

x 6y = 8..................... 3

3 1,

1
1
(f) x y + 4 = 0
2
3
1
1

x y = 4
2
3
1x
1y

4
2
3 =


4
4
4
y
x

+ = 1
12
8
12

Gradient, m =
8
3


=
2

\ x-intercept = 8

y-intercept = 12

y
x

= + 1
2
3
y
x

6 = 6 + 1
2
3

3x = 2y + 6
3x 2y 6 = 0

(b)

1 2

7
y =
8

7
Substitute y = into 1,
8
7
x + 2 = 1
8
7

x = 1 +
4
11

=
4

11
7
\ Point of interception = ,
4
8

(c) 2x + 3y = 5................................... 1

6x 2y = 1................................. 2

28. (a)
2y = 3x 1

3x 2y 1 = 0

8y = 7

y
x + 1

(c)
=
3
4

4(x + 1) = 3y


4x + 4 = 3y

4x 3y + 4 = 0

1 3, 6x + 9y = 15................. 3
3 2,
11y = 16
16

y =
11
16
Substitute y = into 1,
11
16
2x + 3 = 5
11
48

2x = 5
11
7

=
11
7

x =
22
7 16
\ Point of intersection ,
22 11

1 2

30. (a) y = 2x 1

\ Gradient = 2

2y = 4x + 3


3
y = 2x +
2
\ Gradient = 2
Hence, the two lines are parallel.

(b) 3 x y + 4 = 0


y = 3x + 4

\ Gradient = 3


3x + y 5 = 0

y = 3x + 5
\ Gradient = 3

Hence, the two lines are not parallel.

y
x
(c) + = 1
2
3




3
\ Gradient =
2
2y = 3x 5
3
5
y = x
2
2
3
\ Gradient =
2
Hence, the two lines are parallel.

32. (a)




y = kx + 4
\ Gradient = k

Since the two lines are parallel,


\ k = 3

y = 3x 6
\ Gradient = 3
The equation for the parallel line is
y 2 = 3(x 1)
y = 3x 3 + 2
y = 3x 1

(b) 2y = 4x + 3
3

y = 2x +
2

\ Gradient = 2

31. (a) y = 3x 1

\ Gradient = 3

3 y kx 4 = 0

3y = kx + 4
k
4

y = x +
3
3
k
\ Gradient =
3
Since the two lines are parallel,
k
\ = 2
3

k = 6

The equation for the parallel line is


y 3 = 2(x + 1)
y = 2x + 2 + 3
y = 2x + 5

(b) y = 4x + 3

\ Gradient = 4
k

y = x 5
2
k

\ Gradient =
2

Since the two lines are parallel,
k

\ = 4
2


k = 8

(c) 4x y + 1 = 0


y = 4x + 1

\ Gradient = 4

(c) x + 2y = 4

6
\ Gradient =
2

=3

The equation for the parallel line is


y + 3 = 3(x + 1)
y = 3x + 3 3
y = 3x

The equation for the parallel line is


y + 2 = 4(x 0)
y = 4x 2

y
x = 1
(d)
2
6

1 x + 2
y =
2
1
\ Gradient =
2
y 2kx + 3 = 0

y = 2kx 3
\ Gradient = 2k

33. (a) y = 4x 1

\ Gradient = 4

Since the two lines are parallel,


1

\ 2k =
2
1

k =
4
y
x
(d) + = 0
2
4
4

\ Gradient =
2


= 2

1 x + 3
y=
4
1
\ Gradient =
4
1
m1 m2 = (4)
4

= 1
\ The two lines are perpendicular.

34. (a) y = kx 1

\ Gradient = k

(b) 2y = 6x + 5
5

y = 3x +
2

\ Gradient = 3




1 x 4
y=
3
1
\ Gradient =
3

m1 m2 = 1
(4)(k) = 1
1


k =
4
(b) 2x + ky = 1


ky = 2x + 1
2
1


y = x +
k
k
2

\ Gradient =
k
1

y = x 1
6
1

\ Gradient =
6

m1 m2 = 1
2 1

= 1
k 6
1


= 1
3k


3k = 1
1


k =
3
(c) 2y + 4kx = 3


2y = 4kx + 3
3


y = 2kx +
2

\ Gradient = 2k

1
m1 m2 = (3)
3

= 1
\ The two lines are perpendicular.

1 2

(c) x + 2y = 5

2y = x + 5
1
5


y = x +
2
2
1

\ Gradient =
2

2y 4x = 7


2y = 4x + 7
7


y = 2x +
2

\ Gradient = 2


1 (2)
m1 m2 =
2

= 1
\ The two lines are perpendicular.

y = 4x + 3
\ Gradient = 4

(d) x y = 8

y = x 8

\ Gradient = 1

21 2

2x + y = 1

y = 2x + 1
\ Gradient = 2

m1 m2 = (1)(2)

= 2
\ The two lines are not perpendicular.

y
x + = 1

2
6
6
\ Gradient =
2

= 3

m1 m2 = 1
(2k)(3) = 1

6k = 1

y
x = 1
(e)
2
4
4

\ Gradient =
2


=2





1
(d) kx + 2y = 5
2
1


2y = kx +
2
1


y = kx +
4
1

\ Gradient = k
4

4x + 3y = 6


3y = 4x + 6
4


y = x + 2
3
4

\ Gradient =
3

3y = x + 6
1
y = x + 2
3
1
\ Gradient =
3
1
m1 m2 = (2)
3
2

=
3
\ The two lines are not perpendicular.

1
k =
6

5
5

m1 m2 = 1

1 14 k21 43 2 = 1

The equation of the line is


y + 5 = 3(x + 2)
y = 3x + 6 5
y = 3x + 1

k = 1

3
k = 3

37. 2x y = 4

y = 2x 4
\ Gradient = 2

35. (a) y = 4x 1

\ Gradient = 4



The equation of the line is


y 2 = 2(x + 1)
y = 2x + 2 + 2
y = 2x + 4

The equation of the perpendicular line is


1
y 3 = (x 1)
4
1
1
y = x + + 3
4
4
1
13
y = x +
4
4

6 (3)
38. Gradient of AB =
5 (1)
9

=
6
3

=
2
2
Gradient of PQ =
3

1 x + 4
(b) y =
2
1

\ Gradient =
2

The equation of the perpendicular line is

y 2 = 2(x + 1)

y = 2x + 2 + 2

y = 2x + 4

The equation of line PQ is


2
y 6 = (x 5)
3
2
10
y = x + + 6
3
3
2
28
y = x +
3
3

(c) 2x y = 2


y = 2x 2

\ Gradient = 2

The equation of the perpendicular line is


1

y + 3 = (x 0)
2
1

y = x 3
2
y
x
(d) + = 1
3
4
4

\ Gradient =
3

The equation of the perpendicular line is
3

y + 2 = (x + 1)
4
3
3


y = x + 2
4
4
3
5

y = x
4
4

39. (a)


The equation of locus is


ABBBBBBBBBBBB
(x 0)2 + (y 0)2 = 2

x2 + y2 = 4

x2 + y2 4 = 0

(b) The equation of locus is





ABBBBBBBBBBBB

(x 1)2 + (y 2)2 = 3

(x 1)2 + (y 2)2 = 9
x2 2x + 1 + y2 4y + 4 9 = 0

x2 + y2 2x 4y 4 = 0

(c) The equation of locus is





36. y = 2x 1............................................. 1
y = 4x + 3............................................ 2

ABBBBBBBBBBBB

(x + 1)2 + (y 3)2 = 4

(x + 1)2 + (y 3)2 = 16
2
x + 2x + 1 + y2 6y + 9 16 = 0
x2 + y2 + 2x 6y 6 = 0

40. (a)

1 = 2, 2x 1 = 4x + 3

2x = 4

x = 2
Substitute x = 2 into 1,
y = 2(2) 1
= 5
\ Point of intersection = (2, 5)

PA
= 1

PB
PA = PB

(x 0)2 + (y 1)2 = ABBBBBBBBBBBB


(x 2)2 + (y 3)2
ABBBBBBBBBBBB

x2 + (y 1)2 = (x 2)2 + (y 3)2
x2 + y2 2y + 1 = x2 4x + 4 + y2 6y + 9

4x + 4y 12 = 0

x + y 3 = 0
Hence, the equation of locus is x + y 3 = 0.

ABBBBBBBBBBB
(x + 2)2 + (y 3)2 = 2ABBBBBBBBBBB
(x 1)2 + (y 2)2
2
2

(x + 2) + (y 3) = 4[(x 1)2 + (y 2)2]
2
x + 4x + 4 + y2 6y + 9 = 4(x2 2x + 1 + y2 4y + 4)

= 4x2 8x + 4 + 4y2 16y + 16
3x2 + 3y2 12x 10y + 7 = 0

Substitute x = 10 into 3,

y = 10

1
PA
=

PB 2
PB = 2PA

(b)

The points of intersection are (10, 10) and (10, 10).


44.

5 units
0

Hence, the equation of locus is


3x2 + 3y2 12x 10y + 7 = 0.

2
PA =

PB 3
3PA = 2PB

3ABBBBBBBBBBB
(x + 1)2 + (y 4)2 = 2 ABBBBBBBBBBBB
(x + 2)2 + (y + 3)2
9[(x + 1)2 + (y 4)2] = 4[(x + 2)2 + (y + 3)2]

9(x2 + 2x + 1 + y2 8y + 16)
= 16(x2 + 4x + 4 + y2 + 6y + 9)

9x + 18x + 9 + 9y 72y + 144


= 16x2 + 64x + 64 + 16y2 + 96y + 144

7x + 7y + 46x + 168y + 55 = 0
The equation of locus is
7x2 + 7y2 + 46x + 168y + 55 = 0.

(c)

5 units

The equations of locus are y = 5 and y = 5.

45.

P(x, y)

A(1, 2)
x


PA = y
ABBBBBBBBBBBB

(x 1)2 + (y 2)2 = y

(x 1)2 + (y 2)2 = y2
2
x 2x + 1 + y2 4y + 4 y2 = 0

x2 2x 4y + 5 = 0
The equation of the locus of P is x2 2x 4y + 5 = 0.

41. Substitute y = 0 into x2 + y2 = 4,



x2 = 4

x = 2
The points of intersection are (2, 0) and (2, 0).
42.
PA = PO
ABBBBBBBBBBBB

(x 1)2 + (y 2)2 = ABBBBB
x2 + y2

(x 1)2 + (y 2)2 = x2 + y2
x2 2x + 1 + y2 4y + 4 = x2 + y2

2x + 4y 5 = 0
The equation of locus P is 2x + 4y 5 = 0.

1.

2
3

R(t, 2t)

Q(r, s)

P(2r, 5s)

2(2r) + 3(t)
2(5s) + 3(2t)
+
(r, s) =
3+2
3+2

When x = 0, 4y 5 = 0
5

y =
4
5
\ y-intercept =
4
When y = 0, 2x 5 = 0
5

x =
2
5
\ x-intercept =
2

4r + 3t 10s + 6t
= ,
5
5
4r + 3t
\ r =
5
5r = 4r + 3t
r = 3t.............................................. 1
10s + 6t
and s =
5

5s = 10s + 6t
6t = 5s
5

t = s.................................... 2
6
Substitute 2 into 1,
5
r = 3 s
6
5
r = s
2

43. x2 + y2 200 = 0.................................. 1



y x = 0.................................. 2
From 2, y = x..................................... 3
Substitute 3 into 1,
x2 + x2 200 = 0

2x2 = 200

x2 = 100

x = 10

10

2. y = mx c
\ Gradient = m
y = (3 c)x + m
\ Gradient = 3 c

2
Substitute x = into 2,
5
2
y = 2 + 1
5
9
=
5

1
m
c = 3 +

9
2 ,
The coordinates of Q are
.
5 5

3. 2x + 4y 1 = 0

4y = 2x + 1
1
1

y = x +
2
4
1

\ Gradient =
2
y
x
= 1
6
3
y
x
+ = 1
6
3
6
\ Gradient =
3

=2
1
m1 m2 = (2)
2

= 1
The two straight lines are perpendicular to each
other.

2
x =
5

m1 m2 = 1
(m)(3 c) = 1
1

3 c =
m

5 x = 1

PA
3
=
2
PB

2PA = 3PB
2ABBBBBBBBBBBB
(x 3)2 + (y 5)2
(x 2)2 + (y + 1)2 = 3ABBBBBBBBBBBB
2
2
4[(x 2) + (y + 1) = 9[(x 3)2 + (y 5)2]

6.

4[(x2 4x + 4 + y2 + 2y + 1]
= 9[x2 6x + 9 + y2 10y + 25]
4x2 16x + 16 + 4y2 + 8y + 4
= 9x2 54x + 81 + 9y2 90y + 225
5x2 + 5y2 38x 98y + 286 = 0
The equation of the locus of P is
5x2 + 5y2 38x 98y + 286 = 0.

y
x + = 1.
7. (a) The equation of PQ is
4
8
(b)
1

y
x + = 1
4.
4
5

5
\ Gradient =
4
5

=
4
Coordinates of P = (4, 0)

1 2

S(x, y)

Q(0, 8)

P(4, 0)

The equation of the perpendicular line is


4
y 0 = (x + 4)
5
4
16
y = x
5
5

1(4) + 3(0) 1(0) + 3(8)


(x, y) = , )
3 + 1
3 + 1

= (1, 6)
The coordinates of S are (1, 6).

y
x + = 1
(c)
4
8

8
\ Gradient of PQ =
4

=2
1
\ Gradient of RS =
2
Let the coordinates of R be (x1, 0).
06
1
=
x1 (1)
2
6
1
=
x1 (1)
2
x1 + 1 = 12

x1 = 11

Hence, the x-intercept of RS is 11.

5. y = 2x + 1
\ Gradient of QR = 2
1
Gradient of PQ =
2
The equation of line PQ is
1
y = x + 2....................................1
2
y = 2x + 1....................................2

1
1 = 2, x + 2 = 2x + 1
2
1
x + 2x = 1 2

2

11

8. (a) (i)



Radius of the circle = ABBBBBBBBBBBB


(6 3)2 + (0 2)2
= ABBBB
9+4
= ABB
13 units
PB = ABB
13

ABBBBBBBBBBBB

(x 3)2 + (y 2)2 = ABB
13

(x 3)2 + (y 2)2 = 13
x2 6x + 9 + y2 4y + 4 13 = 0

x2 + y2 6x 4y = 0

The equation of the locus of point P is


x2 + y2 6x 4y = 0.

(ii) Substitute D(t, 4) into the equation of


locus,

t2 + 42 6t 4(4) = 0


t2 6t = 0


t(t 6) = 0


t = 0 or t 6 = 0




t = 6






(b)

(ii)
y = 2x 5................... 1

x + 2y 6 = 0............................ 2

Substitute 1 into 2,
x + 2(2x 5) 6 = 0
x + 4x 10 6 = 0

5x = 16
16

x =
5
16
Substitute x = into 1,
5
16
y = 2 5
5
7
=
5
16 7
The coordinates of Q are , .
5 5

1 2

(b)

S(x, y)
3

y
B(3, 2)
O

2
C(6, 0)

20
Gradient of BC =
36
2

=
3
3
\ Gradient of CE =
2

x + 2y 6 = 0

2y = x + 6
1

y = x + 3
2
1
\ Gradient of PQ =
2
Gradient of RQ = 2

The equation of line RQ is


y + 3 = 2(x 1)
y = 2x 2 3
y = 2x 5

16 7
3(1) + 2x
, 2 = 1 , 2
1
2+3
5 5
2+3

1 6 9
Area of COE =
2
= 27 unit2

3(3) + 2y

Let the coordinates of E be (0, y1).


y1 0
3

=
2
06
3

y1 = (6)
2

y1 = 9

9. (a) (i)

16 )
7
Q(,
5 5

R(1, 3)

E(0, y1)

3 + 2x 2y 9
= ,
5
5

2y 9
16
3 + 2x
7
\
= and
=
5
5
5
5
3 + 2x = 16
2y 9 = 7

y = 8
13

x =
2
13
The coordinates of S are , 8 .
2

(c)




RM = 3
ABBBBBBBBBBBB

(x 1)2 + (y + 3)2 = 3

(x 1)2 + (y + 3)2 = 9
x2 2x + 1 + y2 + 6y + 9 = 9
x2 + y2 2x + 6y + 1 = 0

The equation of the locus of point M is


x2 + y2 2x + 6y + 1 = 0.

10. (a) Area of ABC


1 0 2 2 0

=
2 3 1 4 3
1

= (0 + 8 + 6) (6 + 2 + 0)
2
1

= 14 + 4
2

= 9 unit2

12

3(2) + 1(2) 3(4) + 1(1)


(b) D = ,
1 + 3
1 + 3
11

= 1,
4

1
1

ABBBBBBBBBBBB
(x + 2)2 + (y 4)2 = 2ABBBBBBBBBBBB
(x 2)2 + (y + 1)2

x2 + 4x + 4 + y2 8y + 16
= 4[x2 4x + 4 + y2 + 2y + 1]
= 4x2 16x + 16 + 4y2 + 8y + 4

3x2 + 3y2 20x + 16y = 0

The equation of the locus of point P is


3x2 + 3y2 20x + 16y = 0.

(ii) Assume the locus intersects the x-axis,


substitute y = 0 into the equation of locus.

3x2 20x = 0

x(3x 20) = 0
20

x = 0, x =
3

Hence, the locus intersects the x-axis at two
points.

1
1

(x + 2)2 + (y 4)2 = 4[(x 2)2 + (y + 1)2]

7.

Area of ABC = 16
1
0 k 1
1

= 16
2 2 3 4 2

(3 + 0 + 2k) (0 + 3k 4) = 32

1 k = 32

1 k = 32 or 1 k = 32

k = 31 or
k = 33

3. E is the midpoint of AC.

1 + 7 ,
2+6
E =
2
2
= (4, 4)

5 (1)
8. (a) Gradient =
3 (3)


= 1
2

A(2, 0)

6. Area of quadrilateral PQRS


1 0 5 2 1 0
=
2 3 2 6 1 3
1
= (0 + 30 + 2 + 3) (15 4 6 + 0)
2
1
= 35 + 25
2
= 30 unit2

2.
AB = 16
BBBBBBBBBBBB
A(k
+ 1)2 + (4 3)2 = 16

(k + 1)2 + 1 = 256

(k + 1)2 = 255

k + 1 = ABBB
255

k = ABBB
255 1

= ABBB
255 1, ABBB
255 1

0 5 3 0
1
Area of BCD =
2 3 2 6 3
1

= (0 + 30 + 9) (15 + 6 + 0)
2
1

= 39 21
2

= 9 unit2

= ABBBBB
16 + 9
= 5 units
AB = 2BC
5
BC = units
2

4.

5. Let the coordinates of D(0, y).


Gradient CD = Gradient AC
y6
6 1
=
03
3 (2)
y 6 = 3(1)

y = 3

1. AB = ABBBBBBBBBBBB
(5 1)2 + (5 2)2

AB : AC = 1 : 3
\ AB : BC = 1 : 2
2(2) + 1(x) 2(0) + 1(y)
(0, 4) = ,
1 + 2
1 + 2
y
x 4 ,

=
3
3
y
x

4
\ = 0 and = 4
3
3

x = 4
y = 12
The coordinates of C are (4, 12).

PA = 2PC

(c) (i)



C(x, y)

B(0, 4)

13

The equation of line AD is


y 5 = 1(x 3)
y = x 3 + 5
y = x + 2

(b)


y-intercept = 2
When y = 0, 0 = x + 2

x = 2
\ x-intercept = 2

(b)




9. (a) Gradient of RQ = 2




1
\ Gradient of PQ =
2
The equation of PQ is
1
y + 1 = (x + 4)
2
1
y = x + 2 1
2
1
y = x + 1
2

12.

9x2 18x + 9 + 9y2 72y + 144


= 4x2 24x + 36 + 4y2 + 16y + 16
5x2 + 5y2 + 6x 88y + 101 = 0
The equation of locus of point P is
5x2 + 5y2 + 6x 88y + 101 = 0.
13. (a)


The equation of line AB is


y 5 = 2(x 2)
y = 2x 4 + 5
y = 2x + 1

1 2

1
Gradient of tangent at A =
AB3
The equation of tangent at A is
1
y AB
3 = (x 1)
AB3
1
1

y = x + + AB
3
AB3
AB3
1
4

y = x +
AB3
AB3

14. (a) Let the coordinates of C be (x, y).


2 + x 2 + y

(4, 0) = ,
2
2
2 + y
2+x

\ = 4 and = 0
2
2


x = 6
y = 2

The coordinates of C are (6, 2).

8
2 ,
.
The coordinates of D are
3
3

11. (a)
PA = 5
ABBBBBBBBBBBB

(x + 1)2 + (y 2)2 = 5

(x + 1)2 + (y 2)2 = 25
2
x + 2x + 1 + y2 4y + 4 25 = 0

x2 + y2 + 2x 4y 20 = 0

Substitute x = 1 and y = k into x2 + y2 = 4,


1 + k2 = 4
k2 = 3

k = AB
3

AB3 0
(b) Gradient of OA =
1 0
AB


= 3

(b)
y = x 2............................. 1

2x y = 4..................................... 2

2:3
2

3
2PB

9(x2 2x + 1 + y2 8y + 16)
= 4(x2 6x + 9 + y2 + 4y + 4)

2 x y = 4

y = 2x 4
Gradient of CD = 2
\ Gradient of AB = 2

Substitute 1 into 2,
2x (x 2) = 4
2x + x + 2 = 4

3x = 2
2

x =
3
2
Substitute x = into 1,
3
2
y = 2
3
8
=
3

AP : PB =
AP
=
PB
3AP =

3ABBBBBBBBBBBB
(x 1)2 + (y 4)2 = 2ABBBBBBBBBBBB
(x 3)2 + (y + 2)2
2
2
9[(x 1) + (y 4) ] = 4[(x 3)2 + (y + 2)2]

(b) For y = 2x + 1,

when y = 0, 0 = 2x + 1
1


x =
2
1

The x-intercept of RQ is .
2
10. (a)


Substitute x = 2 and y = k into the equation,


4 + k2 + 2(2) 4k 20 = 0

k2 4k 12 = 0

(k 6)(k + 2) = 0

k 6 = 0 or k + 2 = 0

k = 6 or
k = 2

0 (2)
(b) Gradient of BC =
42


= 1

\ Gradient of AD = 1


The equation of the locus of point P is


x2 + y2 + 2x 4y 20 = 0.

14

The equation of line AD is


y 0 = 1(x 4)
y = x + 4

(c) Let the point of intersection of BC at the y-axis


be E(0, y).

Gradient of BD = Gradient of BE
y (2)


1 =
02


2 = y + 2


y = 4

The y-intercept of line BC is 4.

(b) Gradient of AD = Gradient of BC


4 (8)


=
3 (1)


=3



(c) Midpoint of BD = Midpoint of AC


3 + (1) 6 + (8)
3+x 4+y

, = ,
2
2
2
2


= (2, 1)

15. (a) Area of PQR


1 3 2 6 3

=
2 5 3 1 5
1

= (9 2 + 30) (10 + 18 + 3)
2
1


= 37 11
2

= 13 unit2

2(2) + 1(6) 2(3) + 1(1)


(x, y) = ,
1 + 2
1 + 2

7
2 ,
The coordinates of M are
.
3 3

7
2 ,
=
3 3

2
1

16. (a) Let the intersection of the line BC and the y-axis
be E(0, y).

Gradient of BE = Gradient BC
4 (8)
y4


=
03
3 (1)
12


y 4 = 3


= 9 4

Substitute 1 into 2,
x 2(x 2) + 4 = 0

x + 8 = 0

x = 8

Substitute x = 8 into 1,
y = 8 2
=6

The coordinates of B are (8, 6).

(b)

B(8, 6)
3
2

1 2

The coordinates of D are (7, 6).

17. (a) Gradient of BC = Gradient of CD


0 (3)


=
2 (1)


= 1

The equation of line BC is



y 0 = 1(x 2)



y = x 2..........1

Equation of AB, x 2y + 4 = 0................2

R(6, 1)

(d) Area of rectangle ABCD


1 3 3 7 1 3

=
2 4 6 6 8 4
1

= (18 + 18 + 56 4) (12 42 + 6 24)
2
1

= 88 + 72
2

= 80 unit2

1
M(x, y)

2 1

4+y
3+x
\ = 2 and = 1
2
2

x = 7
4 + y = 2



y = 6

(b) Let the intersection of the line PQ and the y-axis


be S(0, y1).

Gradient of PS = Gradient of PQ
y1 5
53


=

3
(2)
03
2


y1 5 = (3)
5
6


y1 = + 5
5
19


=
5
19

The y-intercept of line PQ is .
5
1

(c)
QM = MR
2

\ QM : MR = 1 : 2
Q(2, 3)

The equation of line AD is


y 6 = 3(x + 3)

= 3x + 9
y = 3x + 15

E(x, y)


y = 5
The y-intercept of line BC is 5.

15

C(1, 3)

Use y-coordinate,

3x + 2(8) 3y + 2(6)
(1, 3) = ,
2+3
2+3
3y
+ 12
3x + 16

= ,
5
5
3y + 12
3x + 16
\ = 1 and = 3
5
5

3x = 21
3y = 27

x = 7
y = 9

The coordinates of E are (7, 9).

(c)



x 2y + 4 = 0
When x = 0, 2y + 4 = 0

y = 2
\ F(0, 2)

Area of BCF
1 0 1 8 0
=
2 2 3 6 2
1
= (0 6 + 16) (2 24 + 0)
2
1
= 10 + 26
2
= 18 unit2

0 1 2 0
1
(d) Area of BOC =
2 0 3 2 0
1


= (0 + 2 + 0) (0 6 + 0)
2
1


= 2 + 6
2


= 4 unit2

Gradient of CE = Gradient of BC
0 (3) 2 (3)
=

p 1
2 1

3 = 5(p 1)
3

p 1 =
5
8

p =
5

(c)

(c)



B(2, 2)

PA : PB = 1 : 2
1
PA

=
2
PB

PB = 2PA
ABBBBBBBBBBBB
(x 2)2 + (y 0)2 = 2ABBBBBBBBBBBB
(x 0)2 + (y 1)2

(x 2)2 + y2 = 4[x2 + (y 1)2]
x2 4x + 4 + y2 = 4(x2 + y2 2y + 1)

= 4x2 + 4y2 8y + 4
3x2 + 3y2 + 4x 8y = 0

4 and y = 0 into
(b) Substitute x =
3

3x2 + 3y2 + 4x 8y = 0,

LHS = 3x2 + 3y2 + 4x 8y
4 2
4


= 3 + 3(0) + 4 8(0)
3
3
16
16


=
3
3


=0


= RHS
4

Hence, the point , 0 lies on the locus of P.
3

The equation of line CD is


y + 3 = 2(x 1)

= 2x + 2
y = 2x 1

(b) Substitute x = 2 and y = k into y = 2x + 6,



k = 2(2) + 6

k = 2

19. (a)

18. (a) y = 2x + 6

Gradient of AB = 2

\ Gradient of CD = 2



(3)n + 2m
= 0
m+n

2m 3n = 0

2m = 3n
m
3


n = 2
\ CE : EB = 3 : 2

8 0)
E(,
5

(d)


C(1, 3)

16

Substitute y = 0 into 3x2 + 3y2 + 4x 8y = 0,


3x2 + 4x = 0
x(3x + 4) = 0

x = 0 or 3x + 4 = 0
4



x =
3
4
The points of intersection are (0, 0) and ( , 0).
3
Substitute x = 0 into 3x2 + 3y2 + 4x 8y = 0,
3y2 8y = 0
y(3y 8) = 0

y = 0 or 3y 8 = 0
8



y =
3
Since there are values for y-coordinate, then the
locus intersects the y-axis.

Area of ABC = 20
1
82 = 20
d ABB
2
40

d =
ABB
82

= 4.417 units

P(1, 3)

1 + h ,
3 + k
Midpoint of PQ =
2
2
Since the midpoint of PQ lies on the perpendicular
1 + h and
bisector, so we substitute x =
2
3 + k into 3x + 5y 16 = 0,
y =
2

2 1

1
PA
=
2
PB
PB = 2PA

21. (a)

Q(h, k)

Substitute h = 5 into 1,
3(5) + 5k = 50

k = 7

Let d be the perpendicular distance from B to line


AC.
[(8 (1)]2 + (3 2)2
Distance of AC = ABBBBBBBBBBBBBBB

= ABBBBB
81 + 1

= ABB
82 units

(b)

Substitute x = h, y = k into the equation of PQ,


5
4
k = h . ............................... 2
3
3
Substitute 2 into 1,
5
4
3h + 5 h = 50
3
3
25
20
3h + h = 50
3
3
25
20
3 3h + h = 3(50)
3
3

9h + 25h 20 = 150

34h = 170

h = 5

20. (a) Area of ABC


1 1 8 4 1

=
2 2 3 7 2
1

= (3 + 56 + 8) (16 + 12 7)
2
1

= 61 21
2

= 20 unit2

1 + h + 5
3 + k 16 = 0
3
2
2
3
+
3h
15
+ 5k 16 = 0
+
2
2

3 + 3h 15 + 5k 32 = 0

3h + 5k = 50..........1
3x + 5y 16 = 0

5y = 3x + 16
16
3

y = x +
5
5
3
Gradient of perpendicular bisector =
5
5
\ Gradient of line PQ =
3
The equation of line PQ is
5
y + 3 = (x + 1)
3
5
5


= x +
3
3
5
4
y = x
3
3

ABBBBBBBBBBBB
(x 0)2 + (y + 2)2 = 2ABBBBBBBBBBBB
(x 0)2 + (y 1)2
x2 + (y + 2)2 = 4[x2 + (y 1)2]
x2 + y2 + 4y + 4 = 4(x2 + y2 2y + 1)
= 4x2 + 4y2 8y + 4
2
2
3x + 3y 12y = 0
x2 + y2 4y = 0

The equation of locus of point P is


x2 + y2 4y = 0.

(b)




Substitute x = 2 and y = 2 into x2 + y2 4y = 0,


LHS = x2 + y2 4y

= 22 + 22 4(2)

=0

= RHS
Hence, C(2, 2) lies on the locus of point P.

2 1
(c) Gradient of AC =
20
1


=
2









17

1 x + 1...................1
Equation of AC, y =
2
Equation of locus, x2 + y2 4y = 0...........2
Substitute 1 into 2,
2
1
1
x2 + x + 1 4 x + 1 = 0
2
2
1
2
2
x + x + x + 1 2x 4 = 0
4
5 2


x x 3 = 0
4
2

5x 4x 12 = 0

(5x + 6)(x 2) = 0
5x + 6 = 0
or
x 2 = 0
6

x =
x = 2
5

6 into 1,
Substitute x =
5
1
6
y = + 1
2
5
3
= + 1
5
2

=
5

2
6 ,
The coordinates of D are
.
5 5

1
(d) Gradient of AC =
2
2

(2)
5

Gradient of BD =
6
0
5
12
5


=
6
5
=2

1 21

PQ = 10


RQ = 3PR
\ PR : RQ = 1 : 3
Q(0, q)

P(p, 0)

R(x, y)

3p + 0 0 + q
(x, y) = ,
1 + 3 1 + 3
3p q

= ,
4 4
3p
q
\ = x
and = y
4
4
q = 4y
4x

p =
3

1
1

16
(ii) Substitute y = 0 into x2 + 16y2 100 = 0,
9

16
x2 100 = 0
9
9

x2 = 100
16
900

x =
16
30

=
4
15

=
2
15
The x-coordinate of R is .
2

1 2

ABBBB

ABBBBBBBBBBBB
(q 0)2 + (0 p)2 = 10

p2 + q2 = 100

Hence, lines AC and BD are perpendicular to each


other.

(b) (i)

23. (a) Gradient of PQ Gradient of RQ = 1


52 t2


= 1
1 4 r 4
t2


(1) = 1
r4


t 2 = r 4


t = r 2
(b) Area of PQR
1 1 r 4 1

=
2 5 t 2 5
1

= (t + 2r + 20) (5r + 4t + 2)
2
1

= (t + 2r + 20 5r 4t 2)
2
1

= (3t 3r + 18)
2
3
3

= t r + 9
2
2
3

= 9 (r + t)
2
(c) Given area of rectangle PQRS = 30 unit2

\ Area of PQR = 15 unit2
3


9 (r + t) = 15
2
3



(r + t) = 6
2


r + t = 4................. 1

From (a),
t = r 2............. 2

1 (2)
Gradient of AC Gradient of BD =
2

= 1

22. (a)

The equation of the locus of point R is


16
x2 + 16y2 100 = 0.
9

4x
Substitute p = and q = 4y into
3
q2 + p2 = 100,
4x 2

(4y)2 + = 100
3
16

16y2 + x2 = 100
9
16 2

x + 16y2 100 = 0
9

1 2

18

21
1

2
2

Substitute 2 into 1,
r + r 2 = 4

2r = 2

r = 1

Substitute r = 1 into 2,
t = 1 2
= 3

The coordinates of R are (1, 3)