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5/13/2014

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THE PHILOSOPHICAL ROOTS OF EDUCATION
J effrey Galvez
May 13, 2014
PHILOSOPHY AND ITS BRANCHES
Philosophy - derived from the Greek words philo (love) and sophos or sophia
(wisdom)
- defined as a systematic study of life and the universe as a whole in order to
frame a logical and necessary system of general idea so that every element
of human experience may be interpreted
- aims to seek the ultimate and absolute reality or truth
PHILOSOPHY AND ITS BRANCHES
1. METAPHYSICS
Introduced by Aristotle as meta ta physika or with the things of nature
Deals with the nature of being and reality
It answers the question: What is real? What is not real?
PHILOSOPHY AND ITS BRANCHES
1. METAPHYSICS
a. Cosmology the branch of metaphysics which tries to explain the theories of the
nature of the cosmos as well as its origin and development
b. Teleology this tries to elucidate subjects pertaining to whether or not there is a
purpose in the universe
c. Ontology the area of metaphysics which deals with the meaning of existence
PHILOSOPHY AND ITS BRANCHES
2. EPISTEMOLOGY
Originates from Greek words episteme (knowledge, science) and logos (study of)
Tries to answer the fundamental human questions such as: What is knowledge and
where does it came from?, How do we know?
PHILOSOPHY AND ITS BRANCHES
2. EPISTEMOLOGY
a. Agnosticism the position that conclusive knowledge of ultimate reality is an outright
impossibility
b. Skepticism refers to the philosophical approach based on the idea that everything is
open to doubt
PHILOSOPHY AND ITS BRANCHES
2. EPISTEMOLOGY
c. A posteriori the term used to determine knowledge that comes from experiences
d. A priori the term used to describe knowledge which can be acquired through pure
reason alone
e.
PHILOSOPHY AND ITS BRANCHES
3. AXIOLOGY
The area of philosophy that specifically deals with the problem of value
Seeks to rationalize questions like: What is value?, What are the important values
which are to be desired in living?
PHILOSOPHY AND ITS BRANCHES
3. AXIOLOGY
a. Ethics the examination of moral values and the rules of right conduct
b. Aesthetic fundamentally concerned with beauty and standards of tests and value
specially in art
PHILOSOPHY AND ITS BRANCHES
4. LOGIC
The branch of philosophy that is concerned with the systematic treatment of the relation
of ideas
The science and art of correct thinking and correct reasoning
PHILOSOPHY AND ITS BRANCHES
4. LOGIC
a. Induction a kind of reasoning that is done through the process of inferring a general
law as principle from the observation of particular instances of a general conclusion
b. Deduction a kind of reasoning with a process opposite of induction
PHILOSOPHY AND ITS BRANCHES
4. LOGIC
c. Syllogism an argumentation in which from two propositions called premises, you
derived a conclusion
d. Dialectic considered as a means of discovering truth by proceeding from an
assertion (thesis) to a denial (antithesis) to form synthesis
e.
PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION
(Kilpatrick) It refers to any distinctive socio-political outlook that wishes its own kind of
education to perpetuate its kind of life
o It is concerned with the social outlook of the school system, school management, and
teaching procedures it tends to support
(Gregorio) It is a systematic attempt to apply the findings of philosophy to the ultimate
questions of education.
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
1. IDEALISM
This goes back to Plato, who asserts that reality is spiritual, mental, and unchanging
(Metaphysics) Only the mental or spiritual is ultimately real. The universe is an
expression of a highly generalized intelligence and will on the universal mind.
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
1. IDEALISM
(Epistemology) We know through the recognition or reminiscence of ideas that are
latent already present but not evident in mind.
The teachers challenge is to bring the latent knowledge to consciousness through
Socratic Dialogue
(Axiology) This prescribes values that are unchanging and applicable to all people.

PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
1. IDEALISM
Implications It seeks to create an intellectual environment for teaching and learning.
It sees teachers as vital agents in helping students realize their fullest potential and
encourages teachers to acquaint themselves and their students with the finest elements
of the cultural heritage.
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
2. REALISM
It is based on Aristotles conception of knowledge as existing independently of human
knowledge therefore it exists objectively.
(Metaphysics) Real is the existence of a material world that is independent of and
external to the mind of the knower
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
2. REALISM
(Epistemology) We know through our sensory experience of the objects then we form
abstraction
(Axiology) Rational behaviour is based on reality for certain rules govern intelligent
behavior
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
2. REALISM
Implications The development of curriculum of organized subjects since education is
through subject-matter disciplines. It implies that teachers should be subject-matter
experts.
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
3. PRAGMATISM
It asserts that reality is the interaction of an individual with environment or experience
and it is always changing.
(Metaphysics) Reality is what will emerge out of ones interaction with the environment
or out of available information in the existing fund of knowledge and the existing
information available in the situation.
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
3. PRAGMATISM
(Epistemology) Knowing results from experience.
(Axiology) Values are situational or relative. They are relative to time, space, and
circumstance.
(Logic) Following the scientific method ; learning by doing
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
3. PRAGMATISM
Implications Instruction is organized around problem solving according to scientific
method. Pragmatist teachers are more concerned with the process of solving problems
intelligently unlike idealist and realist teachers who see teaching subject matter as
their primary responsibility.
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
4. EXISTENTIALISM
Primarily attributed to Soren Kierkegaard, a Danish philosopher
It focuses on the subjectivity of man and his experience. It sees reality from the point of
view of the experiencing person.
An existentialist education encourages deep personal reflection on ones identity,
commitment, choices, and authenticity.
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
4. EXISTENTIALISM
Key Concepts
Existence precedes essence.
Existentialism focuses on human angst or dread.
Do I choose to be self-determined person or do I choose to be defined by others?
Human beings create their own values through their personal choices.
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
4. EXISTENTIALISM
Key Concepts
It encourages students to philosophize, question, and participate in dialogues about
meaning of life, love, and death.
Same opportunities for all
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
4. EXISTENTIALISM
Implications Teaching from an existential perspective does not specify goals and
objectives in advance since these are determined by each students as an individual
persons. Existentialist education seeks to create open classrooms to maximize freedom
of choice.
The teacher has the right to teach his students how to think but not what to think.
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
5. HUMANISM
A philosophy that rejected supernaturalism, regarded man as a natural object, and
asserted the essential dignity and worth of man and his capacity to achieve self-
realization through the use of reason and scientific method.
Learning is not an end in itself.

PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
5. HUMANISM
Much of a humanist teacher's effort would be put into developing a child's self-esteem.
It would be important for children to feel good about themselves (high self-esteem),
and to feel that they can set and achieve appropriate goals (high self-efficacy).

PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
5. HUMANISM
Implications
Student-centred teaching
social personal development
De-emphasize rigorous, performance-oriented, test-dominated approaches
Provide opportunity for success
Discovery learning
Respects students feelings and aspirations. Right to self-determination.
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
6. PROGRESSIVISM
This was rooted from pragmatism; its aim is to educate the individual according to his
interest and needs.
Progressive education is a reaction against traditional schooling.
Progressive teachers developed teaching styles and methods that emphasized students
own interests and needs.
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
6. PROGRESSIVISM
Practices opposed by the Progressives
Authoritarian teachers
Book-based instruction
Passive memorization of factual information
Isolation of schools from society
Using physical/psychological coercion to manage classrooms
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
6. PROGRESSIVISM
Practices favored by the Progressives
The child should be free to develop naturally
Interest stimulated by direct experience is the best stimulus for learning
The teacher should be a facilitator of learning
There should be closer cooperation between the school and home
The progressive schools should be a laboratory for pedagogical reform and
experimentation
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
7. ESSENTIALISM
This was rooted in idealism and realism; its aim is to educate the useful and competent
person
It is a philosophical theory that ascribes ultimate reality to essence embodied in a thing
perceptible to senses.
CURRICULUM basic education (reading, writing, arithmetic, history, English, science,
foreign languages)
It puts emphasis on skill and subjects that transmit the cultural heritage and contribute
to socioeconomic efficiency.
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
7. ESSENTIALISM
Important Goals of Education
To transmit the basic skills and knowledge in the cultural heritage
To emphasize skills and subjects that can lead learners to higher-order skills and
knowledge
To use education as a civilizing agency that emphasizes continuity between the
knowledge and values of the past and the requirements of the present
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
7. ESSENTIALISM
Teaching and learning should focus on mastery.
Learners should meet rigorous standards. Promotions and graduation should require
mastery of needed skills and subjects. Social promotion based on age should be ended.
Thank you.
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5/13/2014
2
THE PHILOSOPHICAL ROOTS OF EDUCATION
J effrey Galvez
May 13, 2014
PHILOSOPHY AND ITS BRANCHES
Philosophy - derived from the Greek words philo (love) and sophos or sophia
(wisdom)
- defined as a systematic study of life and the universe as a whole in order to
frame a logical and necessary system of general idea so that every element
of human experience may be interpreted
- aims to seek the ultimate and absolute reality or truth
PHILOSOPHY AND ITS BRANCHES
1. METAPHYSICS
Introduced by Aristotle as meta ta physika or with the things of nature
Deals with the nature of being and reality
It answers the question: What is real? What is not real?
PHILOSOPHY AND ITS BRANCHES
1. METAPHYSICS
a. Cosmology the branch of metaphysics which tries to explain the theories of the
nature of the cosmos as well as its origin and development
b. Teleology this tries to elucidate subjects pertaining to whether or not there is a
purpose in the universe
c. Ontology the area of metaphysics which deals with the meaning of existence
PHILOSOPHY AND ITS BRANCHES
2. EPISTEMOLOGY
Originates from Greek words episteme (knowledge, science) and logos (study of)
Tries to answer the fundamental human questions such as: What is knowledge and
where does it came from?, How do we know?
PHILOSOPHY AND ITS BRANCHES
2. EPISTEMOLOGY
a. Agnosticism the position that conclusive knowledge of ultimate reality is an outright
impossibility
b. Skepticism refers to the philosophical approach based on the idea that everything is
open to doubt
PHILOSOPHY AND ITS BRANCHES
2. EPISTEMOLOGY
c. A posteriori the term used to determine knowledge that comes from experiences
d. A priori the term used to describe knowledge which can be acquired through pure
reason alone
e.
PHILOSOPHY AND ITS BRANCHES
3. AXIOLOGY
The area of philosophy that specifically deals with the problem of value
Seeks to rationalize questions like: What is value?, What are the important values
which are to be desired in living?
PHILOSOPHY AND ITS BRANCHES
3. AXIOLOGY
a. Ethics the examination of moral values and the rules of right conduct
b. Aesthetic fundamentally concerned with beauty and standards of tests and value
specially in art
PHILOSOPHY AND ITS BRANCHES
4. LOGIC
The branch of philosophy that is concerned with the systematic treatment of the relation
of ideas
The science and art of correct thinking and correct reasoning
PHILOSOPHY AND ITS BRANCHES
4. LOGIC
a. Induction a kind of reasoning that is done through the process of inferring a general
law as principle from the observation of particular instances of a general conclusion
b. Deduction a kind of reasoning with a process opposite of induction
PHILOSOPHY AND ITS BRANCHES
4. LOGIC
c. Syllogism an argumentation in which from two propositions called premises, you
derived a conclusion
d. Dialectic considered as a means of discovering truth by proceeding from an
assertion (thesis) to a denial (antithesis) to form synthesis
e.
PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION
(Kilpatrick) It refers to any distinctive socio-political outlook that wishes its own kind of
education to perpetuate its kind of life
o It is concerned with the social outlook of the school system, school management, and
teaching procedures it tends to support
(Gregorio) It is a systematic attempt to apply the findings of philosophy to the ultimate
questions of education.
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
1. IDEALISM
This goes back to Plato, who asserts that reality is spiritual, mental, and unchanging
(Metaphysics) Only the mental or spiritual is ultimately real. The universe is an
expression of a highly generalized intelligence and will on the universal mind.
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
1. IDEALISM
(Epistemology) We know through the recognition or reminiscence of ideas that are
latent already present but not evident in mind.
The teachers challenge is to bring the latent knowledge to consciousness through
Socratic Dialogue
(Axiology) This prescribes values that are unchanging and applicable to all people.

PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
1. IDEALISM
Implications It seeks to create an intellectual environment for teaching and learning.
It sees teachers as vital agents in helping students realize their fullest potential and
encourages teachers to acquaint themselves and their students with the finest elements
of the cultural heritage.
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
2. REALISM
It is based on Aristotles conception of knowledge as existing independently of human
knowledge therefore it exists objectively.
(Metaphysics) Real is the existence of a material world that is independent of and
external to the mind of the knower
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
2. REALISM
(Epistemology) We know through our sensory experience of the objects then we form
abstraction
(Axiology) Rational behaviour is based on reality for certain rules govern intelligent
behavior
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
2. REALISM
Implications The development of curriculum of organized subjects since education is
through subject-matter disciplines. It implies that teachers should be subject-matter
experts.
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
3. PRAGMATISM
It asserts that reality is the interaction of an individual with environment or experience
and it is always changing.
(Metaphysics) Reality is what will emerge out of ones interaction with the environment
or out of available information in the existing fund of knowledge and the existing
information available in the situation.
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
3. PRAGMATISM
(Epistemology) Knowing results from experience.
(Axiology) Values are situational or relative. They are relative to time, space, and
circumstance.
(Logic) Following the scientific method ; learning by doing
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
3. PRAGMATISM
Implications Instruction is organized around problem solving according to scientific
method. Pragmatist teachers are more concerned with the process of solving problems
intelligently unlike idealist and realist teachers who see teaching subject matter as
their primary responsibility.
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
4. EXISTENTIALISM
Primarily attributed to Soren Kierkegaard, a Danish philosopher
It focuses on the subjectivity of man and his experience. It sees reality from the point of
view of the experiencing person.
An existentialist education encourages deep personal reflection on ones identity,
commitment, choices, and authenticity.
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
4. EXISTENTIALISM
Key Concepts
Existence precedes essence.
Existentialism focuses on human angst or dread.
Do I choose to be self-determined person or do I choose to be defined by others?
Human beings create their own values through their personal choices.
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
4. EXISTENTIALISM
Key Concepts
It encourages students to philosophize, question, and participate in dialogues about
meaning of life, love, and death.
Same opportunities for all
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
4. EXISTENTIALISM
Implications Teaching from an existential perspective does not specify goals and
objectives in advance since these are determined by each students as an individual
persons. Existentialist education seeks to create open classrooms to maximize freedom
of choice.
The teacher has the right to teach his students how to think but not what to think.
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
5. HUMANISM
A philosophy that rejected supernaturalism, regarded man as a natural object, and
asserted the essential dignity and worth of man and his capacity to achieve self-
realization through the use of reason and scientific method.
Learning is not an end in itself.

PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
5. HUMANISM
Much of a humanist teacher's effort would be put into developing a child's self-esteem.
It would be important for children to feel good about themselves (high self-esteem),
and to feel that they can set and achieve appropriate goals (high self-efficacy).

PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
5. HUMANISM
Implications
Student-centred teaching
social personal development
De-emphasize rigorous, performance-oriented, test-dominated approaches
Provide opportunity for success
Discovery learning
Respects students feelings and aspirations. Right to self-determination.
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
6. PROGRESSIVISM
This was rooted from pragmatism; its aim is to educate the individual according to his
interest and needs.
Progressive education is a reaction against traditional schooling.
Progressive teachers developed teaching styles and methods that emphasized students
own interests and needs.
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
6. PROGRESSIVISM
Practices opposed by the Progressives
Authoritarian teachers
Book-based instruction
Passive memorization of factual information
Isolation of schools from society
Using physical/psychological coercion to manage classrooms
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
6. PROGRESSIVISM
Practices favored by the Progressives
The child should be free to develop naturally
Interest stimulated by direct experience is the best stimulus for learning
The teacher should be a facilitator of learning
There should be closer cooperation between the school and home
The progressive schools should be a laboratory for pedagogical reform and
experimentation
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
7. ESSENTIALISM
This was rooted in idealism and realism; its aim is to educate the useful and competent
person
It is a philosophical theory that ascribes ultimate reality to essence embodied in a thing
perceptible to senses.
CURRICULUM basic education (reading, writing, arithmetic, history, English, science,
foreign languages)
It puts emphasis on skill and subjects that transmit the cultural heritage and contribute
to socioeconomic efficiency.
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
7. ESSENTIALISM
Important Goals of Education
To transmit the basic skills and knowledge in the cultural heritage
To emphasize skills and subjects that can lead learners to higher-order skills and
knowledge
To use education as a civilizing agency that emphasizes continuity between the
knowledge and values of the past and the requirements of the present
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
7. ESSENTIALISM
Teaching and learning should focus on mastery.
Learners should meet rigorous standards. Promotions and graduation should require
mastery of needed skills and subjects. Social promotion based on age should be ended.
Thank you.
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2
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5
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7
8
9
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19
20
21
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35
36
5/13/2014
3
THE PHILOSOPHICAL ROOTS OF EDUCATION
J effrey Galvez
May 13, 2014
PHILOSOPHY AND ITS BRANCHES
Philosophy - derived from the Greek words philo (love) and sophos or sophia
(wisdom)
- defined as a systematic study of life and the universe as a whole in order to
frame a logical and necessary system of general idea so that every element
of human experience may be interpreted
- aims to seek the ultimate and absolute reality or truth
PHILOSOPHY AND ITS BRANCHES
1. METAPHYSICS
Introduced by Aristotle as meta ta physika or with the things of nature
Deals with the nature of being and reality
It answers the question: What is real? What is not real?
PHILOSOPHY AND ITS BRANCHES
1. METAPHYSICS
a. Cosmology the branch of metaphysics which tries to explain the theories of the
nature of the cosmos as well as its origin and development
b. Teleology this tries to elucidate subjects pertaining to whether or not there is a
purpose in the universe
c. Ontology the area of metaphysics which deals with the meaning of existence
PHILOSOPHY AND ITS BRANCHES
2. EPISTEMOLOGY
Originates from Greek words episteme (knowledge, science) and logos (study of)
Tries to answer the fundamental human questions such as: What is knowledge and
where does it came from?, How do we know?
PHILOSOPHY AND ITS BRANCHES
2. EPISTEMOLOGY
a. Agnosticism the position that conclusive knowledge of ultimate reality is an outright
impossibility
b. Skepticism refers to the philosophical approach based on the idea that everything is
open to doubt
PHILOSOPHY AND ITS BRANCHES
2. EPISTEMOLOGY
c. A posteriori the term used to determine knowledge that comes from experiences
d. A priori the term used to describe knowledge which can be acquired through pure
reason alone
e.
PHILOSOPHY AND ITS BRANCHES
3. AXIOLOGY
The area of philosophy that specifically deals with the problem of value
Seeks to rationalize questions like: What is value?, What are the important values
which are to be desired in living?
PHILOSOPHY AND ITS BRANCHES
3. AXIOLOGY
a. Ethics the examination of moral values and the rules of right conduct
b. Aesthetic fundamentally concerned with beauty and standards of tests and value
specially in art
PHILOSOPHY AND ITS BRANCHES
4. LOGIC
The branch of philosophy that is concerned with the systematic treatment of the relation
of ideas
The science and art of correct thinking and correct reasoning
PHILOSOPHY AND ITS BRANCHES
4. LOGIC
a. Induction a kind of reasoning that is done through the process of inferring a general
law as principle from the observation of particular instances of a general conclusion
b. Deduction a kind of reasoning with a process opposite of induction
PHILOSOPHY AND ITS BRANCHES
4. LOGIC
c. Syllogism an argumentation in which from two propositions called premises, you
derived a conclusion
d. Dialectic considered as a means of discovering truth by proceeding from an
assertion (thesis) to a denial (antithesis) to form synthesis
e.
PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION
(Kilpatrick) It refers to any distinctive socio-political outlook that wishes its own kind of
education to perpetuate its kind of life
o It is concerned with the social outlook of the school system, school management, and
teaching procedures it tends to support
(Gregorio) It is a systematic attempt to apply the findings of philosophy to the ultimate
questions of education.
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
1. IDEALISM
This goes back to Plato, who asserts that reality is spiritual, mental, and unchanging
(Metaphysics) Only the mental or spiritual is ultimately real. The universe is an
expression of a highly generalized intelligence and will on the universal mind.
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
1. IDEALISM
(Epistemology) We know through the recognition or reminiscence of ideas that are
latent already present but not evident in mind.
The teachers challenge is to bring the latent knowledge to consciousness through
Socratic Dialogue
(Axiology) This prescribes values that are unchanging and applicable to all people.

PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
1. IDEALISM
Implications It seeks to create an intellectual environment for teaching and learning.
It sees teachers as vital agents in helping students realize their fullest potential and
encourages teachers to acquaint themselves and their students with the finest elements
of the cultural heritage.
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
2. REALISM
It is based on Aristotles conception of knowledge as existing independently of human
knowledge therefore it exists objectively.
(Metaphysics) Real is the existence of a material world that is independent of and
external to the mind of the knower
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
2. REALISM
(Epistemology) We know through our sensory experience of the objects then we form
abstraction
(Axiology) Rational behaviour is based on reality for certain rules govern intelligent
behavior
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
2. REALISM
Implications The development of curriculum of organized subjects since education is
through subject-matter disciplines. It implies that teachers should be subject-matter
experts.
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
3. PRAGMATISM
It asserts that reality is the interaction of an individual with environment or experience
and it is always changing.
(Metaphysics) Reality is what will emerge out of ones interaction with the environment
or out of available information in the existing fund of knowledge and the existing
information available in the situation.
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
3. PRAGMATISM
(Epistemology) Knowing results from experience.
(Axiology) Values are situational or relative. They are relative to time, space, and
circumstance.
(Logic) Following the scientific method ; learning by doing
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
3. PRAGMATISM
Implications Instruction is organized around problem solving according to scientific
method. Pragmatist teachers are more concerned with the process of solving problems
intelligently unlike idealist and realist teachers who see teaching subject matter as
their primary responsibility.
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
4. EXISTENTIALISM
Primarily attributed to Soren Kierkegaard, a Danish philosopher
It focuses on the subjectivity of man and his experience. It sees reality from the point of
view of the experiencing person.
An existentialist education encourages deep personal reflection on ones identity,
commitment, choices, and authenticity.
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
4. EXISTENTIALISM
Key Concepts
Existence precedes essence.
Existentialism focuses on human angst or dread.
Do I choose to be self-determined person or do I choose to be defined by others?
Human beings create their own values through their personal choices.
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
4. EXISTENTIALISM
Key Concepts
It encourages students to philosophize, question, and participate in dialogues about
meaning of life, love, and death.
Same opportunities for all
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
4. EXISTENTIALISM
Implications Teaching from an existential perspective does not specify goals and
objectives in advance since these are determined by each students as an individual
persons. Existentialist education seeks to create open classrooms to maximize freedom
of choice.
The teacher has the right to teach his students how to think but not what to think.
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
5. HUMANISM
A philosophy that rejected supernaturalism, regarded man as a natural object, and
asserted the essential dignity and worth of man and his capacity to achieve self-
realization through the use of reason and scientific method.
Learning is not an end in itself.

PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
5. HUMANISM
Much of a humanist teacher's effort would be put into developing a child's self-esteem.
It would be important for children to feel good about themselves (high self-esteem),
and to feel that they can set and achieve appropriate goals (high self-efficacy).

PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
5. HUMANISM
Implications
Student-centred teaching
social personal development
De-emphasize rigorous, performance-oriented, test-dominated approaches
Provide opportunity for success
Discovery learning
Respects students feelings and aspirations. Right to self-determination.
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
6. PROGRESSIVISM
This was rooted from pragmatism; its aim is to educate the individual according to his
interest and needs.
Progressive education is a reaction against traditional schooling.
Progressive teachers developed teaching styles and methods that emphasized students
own interests and needs.
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
6. PROGRESSIVISM
Practices opposed by the Progressives
Authoritarian teachers
Book-based instruction
Passive memorization of factual information
Isolation of schools from society
Using physical/psychological coercion to manage classrooms
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
6. PROGRESSIVISM
Practices favored by the Progressives
The child should be free to develop naturally
Interest stimulated by direct experience is the best stimulus for learning
The teacher should be a facilitator of learning
There should be closer cooperation between the school and home
The progressive schools should be a laboratory for pedagogical reform and
experimentation
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
7. ESSENTIALISM
This was rooted in idealism and realism; its aim is to educate the useful and competent
person
It is a philosophical theory that ascribes ultimate reality to essence embodied in a thing
perceptible to senses.
CURRICULUM basic education (reading, writing, arithmetic, history, English, science,
foreign languages)
It puts emphasis on skill and subjects that transmit the cultural heritage and contribute
to socioeconomic efficiency.
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
7. ESSENTIALISM
Important Goals of Education
To transmit the basic skills and knowledge in the cultural heritage
To emphasize skills and subjects that can lead learners to higher-order skills and
knowledge
To use education as a civilizing agency that emphasizes continuity between the
knowledge and values of the past and the requirements of the present
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
7. ESSENTIALISM
Teaching and learning should focus on mastery.
Learners should meet rigorous standards. Promotions and graduation should require
mastery of needed skills and subjects. Social promotion based on age should be ended.
Thank you.
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5/13/2014
4
THE PHILOSOPHICAL ROOTS OF EDUCATION
J effrey Galvez
May 13, 2014
PHILOSOPHY AND ITS BRANCHES
Philosophy - derived from the Greek words philo (love) and sophos or sophia
(wisdom)
- defined as a systematic study of life and the universe as a whole in order to
frame a logical and necessary system of general idea so that every element
of human experience may be interpreted
- aims to seek the ultimate and absolute reality or truth
PHILOSOPHY AND ITS BRANCHES
1. METAPHYSICS
Introduced by Aristotle as meta ta physika or with the things of nature
Deals with the nature of being and reality
It answers the question: What is real? What is not real?
PHILOSOPHY AND ITS BRANCHES
1. METAPHYSICS
a. Cosmology the branch of metaphysics which tries to explain the theories of the
nature of the cosmos as well as its origin and development
b. Teleology this tries to elucidate subjects pertaining to whether or not there is a
purpose in the universe
c. Ontology the area of metaphysics which deals with the meaning of existence
PHILOSOPHY AND ITS BRANCHES
2. EPISTEMOLOGY
Originates from Greek words episteme (knowledge, science) and logos (study of)
Tries to answer the fundamental human questions such as: What is knowledge and
where does it came from?, How do we know?
PHILOSOPHY AND ITS BRANCHES
2. EPISTEMOLOGY
a. Agnosticism the position that conclusive knowledge of ultimate reality is an outright
impossibility
b. Skepticism refers to the philosophical approach based on the idea that everything is
open to doubt
PHILOSOPHY AND ITS BRANCHES
2. EPISTEMOLOGY
c. A posteriori the term used to determine knowledge that comes from experiences
d. A priori the term used to describe knowledge which can be acquired through pure
reason alone
e.
PHILOSOPHY AND ITS BRANCHES
3. AXIOLOGY
The area of philosophy that specifically deals with the problem of value
Seeks to rationalize questions like: What is value?, What are the important values
which are to be desired in living?
PHILOSOPHY AND ITS BRANCHES
3. AXIOLOGY
a. Ethics the examination of moral values and the rules of right conduct
b. Aesthetic fundamentally concerned with beauty and standards of tests and value
specially in art
PHILOSOPHY AND ITS BRANCHES
4. LOGIC
The branch of philosophy that is concerned with the systematic treatment of the relation
of ideas
The science and art of correct thinking and correct reasoning
PHILOSOPHY AND ITS BRANCHES
4. LOGIC
a. Induction a kind of reasoning that is done through the process of inferring a general
law as principle from the observation of particular instances of a general conclusion
b. Deduction a kind of reasoning with a process opposite of induction
PHILOSOPHY AND ITS BRANCHES
4. LOGIC
c. Syllogism an argumentation in which from two propositions called premises, you
derived a conclusion
d. Dialectic considered as a means of discovering truth by proceeding from an
assertion (thesis) to a denial (antithesis) to form synthesis
e.
PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION
(Kilpatrick) It refers to any distinctive socio-political outlook that wishes its own kind of
education to perpetuate its kind of life
o It is concerned with the social outlook of the school system, school management, and
teaching procedures it tends to support
(Gregorio) It is a systematic attempt to apply the findings of philosophy to the ultimate
questions of education.
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
1. IDEALISM
This goes back to Plato, who asserts that reality is spiritual, mental, and unchanging
(Metaphysics) Only the mental or spiritual is ultimately real. The universe is an
expression of a highly generalized intelligence and will on the universal mind.
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
1. IDEALISM
(Epistemology) We know through the recognition or reminiscence of ideas that are
latent already present but not evident in mind.
The teachers challenge is to bring the latent knowledge to consciousness through
Socratic Dialogue
(Axiology) This prescribes values that are unchanging and applicable to all people.

PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
1. IDEALISM
Implications It seeks to create an intellectual environment for teaching and learning.
It sees teachers as vital agents in helping students realize their fullest potential and
encourages teachers to acquaint themselves and their students with the finest elements
of the cultural heritage.
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
2. REALISM
It is based on Aristotles conception of knowledge as existing independently of human
knowledge therefore it exists objectively.
(Metaphysics) Real is the existence of a material world that is independent of and
external to the mind of the knower
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
2. REALISM
(Epistemology) We know through our sensory experience of the objects then we form
abstraction
(Axiology) Rational behaviour is based on reality for certain rules govern intelligent
behavior
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
2. REALISM
Implications The development of curriculum of organized subjects since education is
through subject-matter disciplines. It implies that teachers should be subject-matter
experts.
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
3. PRAGMATISM
It asserts that reality is the interaction of an individual with environment or experience
and it is always changing.
(Metaphysics) Reality is what will emerge out of ones interaction with the environment
or out of available information in the existing fund of knowledge and the existing
information available in the situation.
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
3. PRAGMATISM
(Epistemology) Knowing results from experience.
(Axiology) Values are situational or relative. They are relative to time, space, and
circumstance.
(Logic) Following the scientific method ; learning by doing
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
3. PRAGMATISM
Implications Instruction is organized around problem solving according to scientific
method. Pragmatist teachers are more concerned with the process of solving problems
intelligently unlike idealist and realist teachers who see teaching subject matter as
their primary responsibility.
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
4. EXISTENTIALISM
Primarily attributed to Soren Kierkegaard, a Danish philosopher
It focuses on the subjectivity of man and his experience. It sees reality from the point of
view of the experiencing person.
An existentialist education encourages deep personal reflection on ones identity,
commitment, choices, and authenticity.
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
4. EXISTENTIALISM
Key Concepts
Existence precedes essence.
Existentialism focuses on human angst or dread.
Do I choose to be self-determined person or do I choose to be defined by others?
Human beings create their own values through their personal choices.
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
4. EXISTENTIALISM
Key Concepts
It encourages students to philosophize, question, and participate in dialogues about
meaning of life, love, and death.
Same opportunities for all
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
4. EXISTENTIALISM
Implications Teaching from an existential perspective does not specify goals and
objectives in advance since these are determined by each students as an individual
persons. Existentialist education seeks to create open classrooms to maximize freedom
of choice.
The teacher has the right to teach his students how to think but not what to think.
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
5. HUMANISM
A philosophy that rejected supernaturalism, regarded man as a natural object, and
asserted the essential dignity and worth of man and his capacity to achieve self-
realization through the use of reason and scientific method.
Learning is not an end in itself.

PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
5. HUMANISM
Much of a humanist teacher's effort would be put into developing a child's self-esteem.
It would be important for children to feel good about themselves (high self-esteem),
and to feel that they can set and achieve appropriate goals (high self-efficacy).

PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
5. HUMANISM
Implications
Student-centred teaching
social personal development
De-emphasize rigorous, performance-oriented, test-dominated approaches
Provide opportunity for success
Discovery learning
Respects students feelings and aspirations. Right to self-determination.
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
6. PROGRESSIVISM
This was rooted from pragmatism; its aim is to educate the individual according to his
interest and needs.
Progressive education is a reaction against traditional schooling.
Progressive teachers developed teaching styles and methods that emphasized students
own interests and needs.
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
6. PROGRESSIVISM
Practices opposed by the Progressives
Authoritarian teachers
Book-based instruction
Passive memorization of factual information
Isolation of schools from society
Using physical/psychological coercion to manage classrooms
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
6. PROGRESSIVISM
Practices favored by the Progressives
The child should be free to develop naturally
Interest stimulated by direct experience is the best stimulus for learning
The teacher should be a facilitator of learning
There should be closer cooperation between the school and home
The progressive schools should be a laboratory for pedagogical reform and
experimentation
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
7. ESSENTIALISM
This was rooted in idealism and realism; its aim is to educate the useful and competent
person
It is a philosophical theory that ascribes ultimate reality to essence embodied in a thing
perceptible to senses.
CURRICULUM basic education (reading, writing, arithmetic, history, English, science,
foreign languages)
It puts emphasis on skill and subjects that transmit the cultural heritage and contribute
to socioeconomic efficiency.
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
7. ESSENTIALISM
Important Goals of Education
To transmit the basic skills and knowledge in the cultural heritage
To emphasize skills and subjects that can lead learners to higher-order skills and
knowledge
To use education as a civilizing agency that emphasizes continuity between the
knowledge and values of the past and the requirements of the present
PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
7. ESSENTIALISM
Teaching and learning should focus on mastery.
Learners should meet rigorous standards. Promotions and graduation should require
mastery of needed skills and subjects. Social promotion based on age should be ended.
Thank you.
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