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Bath Plant

Biomass Use in the Cement Sector


A Fuel Users Perspective
April 14, 2011
Outline


Cement 101 Cement and
Concrete Primer


Biomass Fuels a cement
industry perspective


Cement 2020 whats next in
the development process
Photos: Front slide, hemp produced for trial;
Above Shredded mixed biomass for the trial:
Below Close up of shredded biomass mix
About Lafarge Canada


Lafarge Canada is part of the Lafarge Group,
headquartered in Paris, France.


Lafarge is the world leader in building materials, with top-
ranking positions in all of its businesses: Cement,
Aggregates & Concrete, and Gypsum.


Lafarge is ranked 6th in the Carbon Disclosure Project,
for the sixth year in a row is listed in the Global 100 most
Sustainable Corporations in the World, and entered the
global Dow J ones Sustainability Index in 2010 in
recognition of its sustainable development actions.


With the worlds leading building materials research facility,
Lafarge places innovation at the heart of its priorities,
working for sustainable construction and architectural
creativity.


With 78,000 employees in 78 countries, Lafarge posted
sales of 15.8 billion Euros in 2009.


Lafarge Canada is the largest cement producer in Canada.
Cement 101
Our product


Cement is to concrete as
yeast is to dough


Cement is the glue that holds
concrete together


More concrete sold per year
than all other building
materials combined.


Excellent Environmental
features


Long lasting


LEED building materials


Low embodied energy
LIMESTONE
CLAY
FLYASH
IRON
Lime

CaO
Silica

SiO2
Alumina

Al2O3
Iron

Fe2O3
Major Oxides
7
The Cement Manufacturing Process
Kiln Feed:
79% Limestone (calcium source - CaO)
16% Shale (silica and alumina source-SiO
2
, Al
2
O
3
)
3% Slag (iron source - Fe
2
O
3
2% Sand / Silica Rock (silica source - SiO
2
)
Minor elements present in kiln feed:
Sulphur, chloride, sodium, potassium
Calcination of limestone
CaCO
3
CaO + CO
2
(60% of GHG emissions)
Clinkering:
CaO + SiO
2
+ Al
2
O
3
+ Fe
2
O
3
Calcium Silicates + Calcium Aluminates
Calcium Alumino-ferrite
Cement:
Clinker + gypsum + limestone (+ flyash + slag) cement
Typical Cement Kiln


The burner heat
source is at the
discharge end of
the kiln, so the feed
gets hotter as it
moves its way
down the kiln


Flame
temperature is
2300C


At 1450C
clinker material
pours out the end of
the kiln into the
cooler
Kiln
Important Cement 101 Implications for Ag Fuels


Ash components are partitioned (sequestered) into the
product (see cobalt example below)


Unique combustion conditions (high temperatures,
ultra-long residence times)


Systems are sized and designed for coal use


At 5% of the worlds CO
2
emissions, the opportunity is
huge. Ideas to emerge out of Cement 2020 could be
adopted worldwide (e.g. 40% reduction in CO
2
from
cement industry is equivalent to removing Canadas
CO
2
emissions.
Inputs Outputs
(Coal/Coke)/biomass
(90:10)
Raw mix Stack Emissions Clinker
by difference
Partitioning
Factors
Cobalt 26.0 506.8 0.126 533
99.976%
Biomass Fuel Opportunities & Challenges
Photo of the injection
of biomass into the
kiln during the
biomass
demonstration test in
October, 2010
Results will be made
available at
www.cement2020.com
What are the important questions for fuel use?


Chemistry


C-H ratio
Lower Heating value
Refractory compounds


Particle size


Ash & metals
Partitioning
Effects on product
quality


Free moisture


Practical Matters


Storage


Transportation


Reliability of Supply


Processing
C
x
H
y
+ (x+0.5y)O
2
=>
xCO
2
+ (0.5y) H
2
O
Cobalt example
99.98% sequestered
in cement
A pile of coal will
require 2.5-3 same
size piles of biomass
for the same energy
value.
Coal is
typically 60-
80% carbon
while biomass
is 40-50%
carbon.
Wood can be 50%
moisture
Note: We may
end up
consuming more
energy when
using biomass
Challenge 1: Producing
biomass fuels
Supply
Forest
Slash, Harvest
Solid
Power, Steel,
Cement, Home,
Greenhouse, other
thermal
Fuel Product Processing
Liquid
Transportation,
Thermal, Power
Gas
Power, Home,
Commercial, other
thermal
Purpose
Grown
Crops, Agriforest,
stover
Waste /
Byproduct
Pulp & paper,
post consumer,
biosolids, other
Pelletization
Baling /
Shredding
Torrefaction
Liquefaction
Pyrolysis
Gasification
These technologies
may be applicable
to a variety of
feedstock sources.
A brief aside what is a Gigajoule???


A unit of energy, 1 million
joules = GJ


It is accepted practice to
compare prices of fuels,
apples to apples, using $/GJ


1 GJ = 278 kW.h. *


1 GJ = 947,817 BTU


* As energy released which, with
electricity efficiency etc would not
equal the electricity delivered to an
end user.
Some mathematics (for illustration)


Start with 1 Acre


4 tonnes per Acre = 4 Tonnes


18 GJ /Tonne [dry] = 72 GJ /acre


Revenue of $150/ac = $2.08/GJ


Price to produce bales on the farm?


Pelletization = $50/tne = $2.8/GJ


Transportation of pellets


30 tonnes = 540 GJ /truck [minus water]


Cost at $5/loaded km = $0.93/GJ /100km


Price FOB to fuel user 200 km away is $6.74/GJ


Excludes additional costs at fuel users site
These are all
assumptions and
can be adjusted in
the privacy of your
own home.
Clearing the air on pellets


Doing the math assuming loose biomass at 20 tonnes per truck load results in
a transportation cost of $1.4/GJ/100 km (also and importantly avoids on site
cost to re-grind pellets, if necessary)


Breakeven is over 400 km assuming 1% of land within a 400 km radius1.24
million tonnes of biomass available


Advantages of pellets


Recognized product


Good for systems designed to use pellets


Economical at long transportation distances


Some benefit in heating value (GJ/tonne) [Drier]


Improved conveyability


Disadvantages


Cost & must be stored in covered storage


Cement kilns prefer smaller particle size fuel


Dusting and off-gassing
17
Challenge 2: Cost of Biomass Fuels
Fuel Type Cost per Gigajoule
Gasoline $24
Natural Gas $5-$12
Grown Biomass $6-$10 (OMAFRA est)
Coal $3-$5
Coke $2-$4
Note: Coal releases about 90 kg CO
2
/GJ; a Cap &
Trade cost of $50/tne CO
2
will add about $4.5/GJ to
the cost of coal.
Challenge 3: the Quality of Biomass as a Fuel
[Orknow thy enemy]
Characteristic Coal Biomass
$/GJ $3-$5 $6-$10
Energy Density 32 GJ/m3 13 GJ/m3
Shipping Boat Truck
% Ash 5-20% 3-10%
Ash Chemistry Useful Neutral
Availability High Low-Moderate
CO
2
Emissions 100% <10%
Other Emissions Present Lower (caution)
Water Use 0.16 m
3
/GJ Variable, TBD
Storage Outdoor Covered?
Problems to be solved (and how Cement 2020 is
working on them)


How to improve biomass fuel quality


Use waste heat


Carbonization? Torrefaction?


How to create biomass ready fuel
infrastructure


Start with biomass byproducts,
co-products


Continue crop development
research (yield improvement)


Water use


Include water in LCAs


Cost


What is the case for government
subsidies?


Food vs Fuel


Policy development


Emissions from combustion


Less of an issue when
replacing fossil fuels,
especially coal biomass
demonstration


For unsophisticated cases,
standards around biomass use
and associated emission
controls


Gasification for home use?


Other social aspects


Local fuel is a big positive


Trucks vs boats


Land use and biodiversity


Community involvement
Cement 2020


Life Cycle Assessment of ag biomass and other sources


Carbon


Water


Greener Fuel Screening Protocol


Landscape issues with land conversion to biomass production


How best to use waste heat


Electricity?


Carbonization?


Both?


Road map


Implementation in 2012
Partners
Lafarge, SVI, WWF Canada, NRCan, MOE, Env.
Canada, Queens, RMC, Portland Cement
Association
Steering Committee
Rob Cumming, Brian Gasiorowski, Warren Mabee,
Sebnem Madrali, Andrew Pollard, Glynn Robinson,
Steven Price
Researcher and Contributors
Darko Matovic, Ted Grandmaison, Tom Carpenter,
J ohn Chandler, Sam Fujimoto, Sharon Regan, Goni
Boulama, Mike Lepage, International Review Team,
Lafarge Engineer Team
Project Management
Ron Quick, Alison Obenauf, David Hyndman, Anjali
Varma, Sarah Harrison
Thank you to NRCan
and Environment
Canada for their
financial support
Follow us on Twitter! Cement 2020 business
cards are available at the front desk