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Locauon 1echnologles

"#$ %&'(, unlverslLy of Mlnho, orLugal


8ul !ose :: Locauon 1echnologles 1
Cb[ecuves
Locauon lnformauon has become an lnLegral parL of
many ublqulLous compuung sysLems
Many new Lechnologles Lo deLermlne Lhe posluon of
people and devlces
1hls module lnLroduces sLudenLs lnLo Lhe )*$+
,-./+$0#-' #'-1 2&3 4&'$5&+$+6 and lnLo Lhe 7-8
43&4-35-' &2 .#33-+, 9&.*5&+ ,-./+&9&6$-'
8ul !ose :: Locauon 1echnologles 2
osluonlng Lechnlques
1echnlques (noL Lechnologles!) for deLermlnlng
locauon
CeomeLrlc (1rlangulauon, LrllaLerauon, .)
Scene analysls
roxlmlLy
Self-posluonlng



3 8ul !ose :: Locauon
osluonlng Lechnlques
CeomeLrlc Lechnlques
Assume reference polnLs for whlch preclse locauon ls known ln advance
8ased on Lhe geomeLrlc properues of Lrlangles
Angulauon
osluon ls deLermlned based on angles from ob[ecL Lo reference polnLs
LaLerauon
osluon ls deLermlned based on dlsLance from ob[ecL Lo reference
polnLs
Pyperbollc posluonlng
osluon ls deLermlned based on dlerenL umes of arrlval from ob[ecL Lo
reference polnLs
4 8ul !ose :: Locauon
osluonlng Lechnlques
1rlangulauon

3 8ul !ose :: Locauon
osluon ls deLermlned based on angles
from ob[ecL Lo reference polnLs
osluonlng Lechnlques
Angulauon
Pow Lo measure angles
Llne of slghLs
ulrecuonal anLennas
8ecelver anLenna dlverslLy
8ul !ose :: Locauon 6
osluonlng Lechnlques
1rllaLerauon

7 8ul !ose :: Locauon
Pow many reference polnLs
do we need Lo deLermlne
posluon ln a 2u space?
Pow many reference polnLs
do we need Lo deLermlne
posluon ln Lhe surface of Lhe
LarLh?
osluon ls deLermlned based on dlsLance
from ob[ecL Lo reference polnLs
osluonlng Lechnlques
1rllaLerauon
Pow Lo measure dlsLance
ulrecL
1lme of lghL
8equlres synchronlsed clocks beLween emluer and recelver
Lasler ln open space buL can be aecLed by obsLacles
Auenuauon
lmplles propagauon model
Lasler ln open space buL can be aecLed by obsLacles
8ul !ose :: Locauon 8
osluonlng Lechnlques
Pyperbollc laLerauon

9 8ul !ose :: Locauon
osluon ls deLermlned based on dlerenL umes
of arrlval from ob[ecL Lo reference polnLs
osluonlng Lechnlques
Pyperbollc laLerauon
Pow Lo measure dlerences ln ume of arrlval
We can have an emluer sendlng a slgnal LhaL ls recelved by
muluple recelvers
We can have muluple emluers slmulLaneously sendlng a
slgnal Lo be recelved by a slngle recelver

8ul !ose :: Locauon 10
osluonlng Lechnlques
Scene Analysls
ueLermlnes posluon based on whaL ls vlslble aL
any parucular momenL
1he maln Lechnlque humans use
8equlres Lralnlng of Lhe sysLem Lo creaLe
assoclauons beLween scenes and locauons
WhaL Lo use as a scene?
An lmage
1he seL of dlscoverable wl- (or CSM or 8lueLooLh)
hoLspoLs and Lhe power of Lhelr radlo slgnal

11 8ul !ose :: Locauon
osluonlng Lechnlques
roxlmlLy
ueLermlnes Lhe posluon of an ob[ecL
based on lLs proxlmlLy Lo a known
posluon
ueLecung physlcal conLacL
MonlLorlng wlreless cellular access polnLs
Cbservlng auLomauc lu sysLems
Symbollc locauon
12 8ul !ose :: Locauon
osluonlng Lechnlques
Self-posluonlng
lmplles LhaL people know Lhe
locauon
May be useful lf
1here ls a map lnLerface LhaL
faclllLaLes daLa enLry
Cnly occaslonally needed
users have lmmedlaLe reward
13 8ul !ose :: Locauon
osluonlng 1echnologles
CS
Cellular posluonlng
Wl- posluonlng
ulLrasonlc
CLhers




8ul !ose :: Locauon 14
!"#$%" '#()*#+)+, -.(/01
2!'-3
SaLelllLe-based sysLem LhaL can be used Lo locaLe posluons
anywhere on Lhe earLh
1he mosL ublqulLous locauon Lechnology
Composed by 3 segmenLs
Space SegmenL: a consLellauon of 24 saLelllLes, orblung aL around
20.000 kms from LarLh (nAvS1A8)
ConLrol sysLem: 3 land-based conLrol sLauons on earLh Lo monlLor Lhe
saLelllLes, correcL clock error and orblL change
user SegmenL: Moblle recelvers LhaL allow any person Lo access Lhe
sysLem.

13 8ul !ose :: Locauon
!"#$%" '#()*#+)+, -.(/01 2!'-3
Avallable anywhere on LarLh
24 SaLelllLes movlng around Lhe LarLh
AL any momenL, on any polnL of Lhe
LarLh, Lhere should always be enough
vlslble saLelllLes for allowlng a recelver
Lo deLermlne lLs posluon.
Works beuer ln some locauons Lhan
oLhers


16 8ul !ose :: Locauon
l am saLelllLe x, my posluon ls ? and
Lhls lnformauon was senL aL ume Z.
8ul !ose :: Locauon 1echnologles 17
Lach saLelllLe LransmlLs:
lLs ldenucauon
lLs locauon ln space
1he exacL ume when Lhe slgnal
was senL
!"#$%" '#()*#+)+, -.(/01 2!'-3
1he ume of lghL of Lhe slgnal from
Lhe saLelllLe Lo Lhe recelver allows
Lhe recelver Lo deLermlne lLs
dlsLance from Lhe saLelllLe
8ecelver clock needs Lo be
synchronlsed
1he recelver can deLermlne
osluon (lncludlng aluLude)
Speed
8earlng
LxacL ume
18 8ul !ose :: Locauon
8ul !ose :: Locauon 1echnologles 19
8ul !ose :: Locauon 1echnologles 20
!"#$%" '#()*#+)+, -.(/01 2!'-3
Locauon accuracy ls Lyplcally wlLhln 20 meLers, buL
depends very heavlly on clrcumsLances
CuLdoor
A sLrong and qulck x on a good number of saLelllLes
Well posluoned saLelllLes
no nearby obsLacles
21 8ul !ose :: Locauon
8ul !ose :: Locauon 22
hup://lllab.com/Lhlnk/fablen/2006/06/23/globalsaL-bL338/
8ul !ose :: Locauon 23
hup://lllab.com/Lhlnk/fablen/2006/06/23/globalsaL-bL338/
8ul !ose :: Locauon 24
8ul !ose :: Locauon 1echnologles 23
8ul !ose :: Locauon 1echnologles 26
!"#$%" '#()*#+)+, -.(/01 2!'-3
SelecLed avallablllLy
lnLenuonal degradauon of Lhe saLelllLe slgnal by Lhe uou unul May 2000
CS mlsslon plannlng can be used Lo guaranLee Lhe besL
condluons (number and posluon of saLelllLes)
When lnluaung, a CS recelver can Lake 30 Lo 40 seconds Lo
compuLe a locauon lf lL does noL have any recenL lnformauon
abouL Lhe locauon of Lhe saLelllLes
ulerenual CS (dCS)
AsslsLed CS (A-CS)

8ul !ose :: Locauon 1echnologles 27
!"#$%" '#()*#+)+, -.(/01 2!'-3
1here are oLher Clobal navlgauon SaLelllLe SysLems (CnSS)
Clobal'naya navlgaLslonnaya SpuLnlkova SlsLema (CLCnASS)
8usslan sysLem
Slmllar Lo CS buL recelvers are noL avallable
Callleo
romoLed by Lhe Luropean unlon as an lmproved alLernauve Lo CS
romlses Lo dellver real-ume posluonlng accuracy down Lo Lhe
meLre range.
romlses lnLeroperablllLy wlLh CS and CLCnASS
AL Lhe lnlual deploymenL phase and scheduled Lo be operauonal ln
2014


28 8ul !ose :: Locauon
Cellular osluonlng
Locauon ls an lnLegral parL of call rouung ln moblle
cellular neLworks
Why noL Lake advanLage of LhaL Lo generaLe general
purpose locauon lnformauon abouL moblle devlces
lCC
lrom CcL. 2001 lL should be posslble Lo deLermlne, aL leasL
ln 67 of slLuauons, Lhe locauon of emergency calls wlLh
an accuracy of aL leasL 123 meLres
Ma[or lnvesLmenL ln locauon Lechnologles for cellular
neLworks and locauon-based appllcauons
29 8ul !ose :: Locauon
Cellular osluonlng
SLandardlsauon by Luropean
1elecommunlcauons SLandards lnsuLuLe-L1Sl
!"#$%" 40"" 560+*/. (CCl)
!"#$%" 40"" 560+*/. %+6 7)10 869%+:0 (CCl+1A)
;<")+= 7)10 #> 8??)9%" (uL 1CA)
@+A%+:06 B$(0?906 7)10 C)D0?0+:0
30 8ul !ose :: Locauon
Cellular osluonlng
Clobal Cell ldenuLy
Lach cell ls ldenued by a unlque lu: Lhe Cell Clobal lu (CCl)
1hls meLhod deLermlnes Lhe CCl of Lhe cell belng used by Lhe
moblle devlce
Accuracy ls dependenL on Lhe slze of Lhe cells
Small areas ln urban areas (130m)
Large areas ln rural areas (20km)
SLrengLhs
Lasy Lo lmplemenL
8educe response ume
uM1S promoLes smaller cells
Weaknesses
noL enough accuracy for requlremenLs of many locauon-based appllcauons

31 8ul !ose :: Locauon
Cellular osluonlng
Cell Clobal ldenuLy and 1lme Advance
(CCl+1A)
lncludes Lhe lnformauon abouL Lhe cell
and Lhe propagauon ume from Lhe
anLenna Lo Lhe moblle devlce
laces Lhe moblle devlce wlLhln Lhe cell
reglon and aL Lhe esumaLed dlsLance from
Lhe Lower
Accuracy of abouL 300 meLres and only
adequaLe for large cells and open spaces


32 8ul !ose :: Locauon
Cellular osluonlng
;<")+= 7)10 #> 8??)9%" (uL-1CA)
A new elemenL called E#:%*#+%" F0%(G?010+/ ;+)/ (LMu) ls added Lo Lhe neLwork
Slgnals senL by Lhe moblle devlce are capLured by muluple LMus, whlch are reference
polnLs aL known locauons
1he dlsLance Lo Lhe devlce ls esumaLed from Lhe propagauon ume of Lhe slgnal
osluon ls calculaLed by LrllaLerauon
Accuracy ln Lhe range 30 meLers (rural) Lo 130 meLers (urban).
SLrengLhs
no need for any changes ln Lhe moblle devlces
Weaknesses
8equlres conslderable lnvesLmenL ln Lhe lnfrasLrucLure
LMus musL be synchronlsed Lo measure Lhe dlerences ln Lhe umes of arrlval


33 8ul !ose :: Locauon
Cellular osluonlng
@+A%+:06 B$(0?906 7)10 C)D0?0+:0
Slmllar Lo uL-1CA buL posluon ls deLermlned aL Lhe moblle devlce
Moblle devlce recelves slgnals from sLauons and deLermlnes
posluon
Cr sends daLa Lo neLwork for calculauon
Accuracy slmllar Lo uL-1CA
SLrengLhs
no ma[or changes ln Lhe neLwork
Weaknesses
new Lermlnals are needed
1ermlnals need lnformauon abouL neLwork sLrucLure




34 8ul !ose :: Locauon
Cellular osluonlng
neLwork AsslsLed CS (A-CS)
Pybrld sysLem comblnlng CS recelver on Lhe moblle devlce and
CS-relaLed lnformauon dlssemlnaLed by Lhe neLwork
LsumaLe of posluon
Locauon of CS saLelllLes
Local correcuons Lo Lhe CS slgnal (dlerenual CS)
SLrengLhs
CS x ls fasLer
Accuracy ls lmproved
Saves CS bauery
Weaknesses
8equlres some changes Lo Lhe neLwork
Cnly works for CS-equlpped devlces

33 8ul !ose :: Locauon
Wl-ll osluonlng
Wlll neLworks are exLremely ublqulLous
Access olnLs (As) nearly everywhere
Many moblle devlces wlLh lnLegraLed wl-
Moblle devlces can llsLen Lo sLauons slgnals and
measure Lhe power of Lhose slgnals
8SSl - "8ecelve Slgnal SLrengLh lndlcaLor",
As are Lyplcally xed ln space

36 8ul !ose :: Locauon
An lnLeresung alLernauve for urban
envlronmenLs where gemng a clear
CS slgnal ls more dlmculL and Lhere
are loLs of wl- As.
Wl-ll osluonlng
8AuA8
ueveloped by Mlcroso 8esearch for lndoor envlronmenLs
As carefully placed Lo ensure overlap beLween coverage
areas
8esearch lncluded a LrllaLerauon and a scene analysls
approach
8oLh approaches requlred Lhe prevlous ngerprlnung of Lhe
radlo slgnals ln Lhe bulldlng
1o correcL Lhe eecL of auenuauon ln walls (for LrllaLerauon)
1o provlde Lhe scene daLabase (for scene analysls)
Accuracy wlLhln a few meLers
37 8ul !ose :: Locauon
Wl-ll osluonlng
laceLab
CllenL soware deLermlnes locauon prlvaLely wlLhouL
consLanL lnLeracuon wlLh a cenLral servlce
uevlce can llsLen for wl- access polnLs, CSM cell phone
Lowers, and xed 8lueLooLh devlces.
CllenLs compuLe Lhelr own locauon by hearlng one or
more lus, looklng up Lhe assoclaLed beacons' posluons
ln a locally cached map, and esumaung Lhelr own
posluon referenced Lo Lhe beacons' posluons.
hup://www.placelab.org
Wlgle daLabase
hup://www.wlgle.neL/
38 8ul !ose :: Locauon
Wl-ll osluonlng
Skyhook wlreless
www.skyhookwlreless.com
Comblnes Wl-ll osluonlng SysLem,
(WS), CS saLelllLes and cell Lowers
lrom 2008-2010 was Lhe maln
locauon englne for many locauon-
based appllcauons on Lhe lphone.


39 8ul !ose :: Locauon
vldeo: hup://www.skyhookwlreless.com/ash/skyhookhowlLworks.swf
Wl-ll osluonlng
Skyhook wlreless

Wl-ll osluonlng SysLem (WS)
8ased on worldwlde daLabase of known Wl-ll access
polnLs
erforms besL where CS ls weakesL, ln urban areas
and lndoors.
CS
rovldes hlghly accuraLe locauon resulLs ln "open sky"
envlronmenLs, llke rural areas and on hlghways. 8uL ln
urban areas and lndoors, Lall bulldlngs and celllngs
block CS' vlew of saLelllLes, resulung ln serlous
performance declencles ln ume Lo rsL x, accuracy
and avallablllLy.
Cell 1ower 1rlangulauon
8ased on a worldwlde daLabase of cell Lower locauons.
Cenerallzed locauon resulLs wlLh only 200 - 1000 meLer
accuracy. lL serves as a coverage fallback when nelLher
CS nor WS ls avallable.


40 8ul !ose :: Locauon
hup://www.skyhookwlreless.com/howlLworks/
Acuve 8adge
8:*90 H%6,0 -.(/01 (Cllvem)
4?0%/06 %/ 87I7 E%$(J 4%1$?)6,0J $0/K00+ LMNM OLMMP
5+6##? "#:%*#+ (.(/01
llxed lnfrasLrucLure of lnfrared recelvers
8adges carrled by people
8adge sends lnfrared slgnal wlLh unlque lu
8ecelvers capLure Lhe badge pulse and communlcaLe slghung
Lo a cenLral server
loneerlng locauon sysLem wlLh ma[or lmpacL on research
and press

vldeo 1he Acuve 8adge SysLem"

41 8ul !ose :: Locauon
C8L ulLrasonlc locauon sysLem
lndoor locauon sysLem
Plgh accuracy sysLem (1-3 cm)
8oom needs Lo be equlpped wlLh recelvers, Lyplcally ln Lhe
celllng
eople carry a speclal devlce LhaL LransmlsLs a unlque lu uslng
ulLra-sounds every 200 ms
8ecelvers measure Lhe dlerences ln Lhe ume of arrlval Lo
deLermlne posluon of Lhe Lransmluer
WlLh more Lhan one Lransmluer per person, lL also becomes
posslble Lo deLermlne orlenLauon

:$1-& ;9,3*'&+$. <&.*5&+ =-+'$+6


42 8ul !ose :: Locauon
vldeo
=-+5-+, >&)4#5+6
?&@$>&) ABBB CD6&',& ABBBE
lrom Lhe vldeo collecuon aL A1&1 LaboraLorles, Cambrlge
hup://www.uk.research.au.com/labvld.hLml
43 8ul !ose :: Locauon
CrlckeL
1ransmluers of 8l and ulLra-sounds placed on Lhe
rooms
1ransmluers do noL need Lo know Lhelr locauon
1ransmluers do noL need Lo be synchronlsed
Lach Lransmluer randomly lnluaLes Lhe slmulLaneous
Lransmlsslon of boLh slgnals (8l and ulLra-sound),
whlch lnclude Lhe Lransmluer lu.
osluon ls deLermlned from Lhe dlerenL umes of
arrlval of boLh slgnals., as Lhey have dlerenL
propagauon speeds
osluon ls deLermlned aL Lhe moblle devlce
44 8ul !ose :: Locauon
8:*90 Q##?
WelghL sensors on Lhe oor
ueLecLs Lhe dlsLrlbuuon and varlauons ln Lhe
pressure
ressure daLa ls lnLerpreLed Lo deLermlne
peoples' posluons
Some unlque ldenucauons are posslble buL noL
very rellable

43 8ul !ose :: Locauon
roxlmlLy-based Lechnologles
8ar code readlng
8ar codes (or oLher slmllar Lags) are placed ln Lhe lnfrasLrucLure
Moblle devlces can read Lhese codes Lo deLermlne Lhelr
posluon
8llu
8llu Lags are placed ln Lhe lnfrasLrucLure and Lhelr slgnals
capLured by moblle devlces Lo deLermlne Lhelr locauon
8llu Lags are carrled by moblle enuues and Lhelr slgnals
capLured by readers ln Lhe lnfrasLrucLure LhaL deLermlne
Lhelr posluon
46 8ul !ose :: Locauon
lmage-based Lechnologles
lmage-based locauon
use vldeo lmages Lo deLermlne Lhe posluon of
people ln a room
SmarL rooms (Ml1)
Lasy Llvlng (Mlcroso)
klnecL
8equlres complex lmage processlng and
powerful hardware
ldenufylng muluple people ln crowded
envlronmenLs can be Lrlcky
47 8ul !ose :: Locauon
roperues of posluonlng sysLems
Common lssues LhaL arlse when dlscusslng locauon
sysLems
Cenerally lndependenL of Lhe Lechnologles or
Lechnlques a sysLem uses
noL all orLhogonal, nor equally appllcable Lo every
sysLem
A Laxonomy for characLerlzlng or evaluaung locauon
sysLems




48 8ul !ose :: Locauon
!. PlghLower and C. 8orrlello, "Locauon SysLems for ublqulLous
Compuung," 5@@@ 4#1<G/0?, vol. 34, pp. 37-66, 2001.
roperues of posluonlng sysLems
hyslcal posluon vs symbollc locauon
Locauon lnformauon provlde by locauon sysLems can be physlcal or symbollc.
hyslcal posluon
osluon ls glven as a posluon ln space
CS ls Lhe mosL well-known example of a physlcal posluon sysLem
Symbollc locauon
Locauon ls expressed as an absLracL ldea of where someLhlng ls: ln room 102, aL Lhe
enLrance, aL posLal code 4700-102
An 8llu reader slgnals presence ln Lhe areas nexL Lo lL
A converslon servlce can help Lo map symbollc locauon lnLo physlcal posluons or
Lhe oLher way around, e.g. CS coordlnaLes lnLo a posLal code. Converslon
eecuveness can be aecLed by Lhe resoluuon of physlcal-posluonlng sysLems or
by Lhe slze of symbollc locauons.

8ul !ose :: Locauon 1echnologles 49
roperues of posluonlng sysLems
AbsoluLe vs 8elauve
AbsoluLe locauon
Locauon ls expressed ln relauon Lo a shared reference grld for all
locaLed ob[ecLs
Lxample: Clobal WCS84 coordlnaLes (lauLude, longlLude, and aluLude)
used by CS mean LhaL any recelvers aL Lhe same locauon wlll reporL Lhe
same coordlnaLes.
8elauve locauon
Lach ob[ecL can have lLs own frame of reference.
Lxample: A mounLaln rescue Leam searchlng for avalanche vlcums can
use hand- held compuLers Lo locaLe vlcums' avalanche Lranscelvers.
Lach rescuer's devlce reporLs Lhe vlcums' posluon relauve Lo lLself.
8ul !ose :: Locauon 1echnologles 30
roperues of posluonlng sysLems
Locallzed Locauon CompuLauon
Locauon ls deLermlned by Lhe ob[ecL
Locauon lnfrasLrucLure oers some Lype of locauon capablllLy, buL lL musL be Lhe
locaLed ob[ecL lLself Lo use LhaL capablllLy Lo compuLe lLs posluon.
May provlde sLronger prlvacy guaranLees
Locauon ls deLermlned by Lhe lnfrasLrucLure
LocaLed ob[ecL musL perlodlcally broadcasL, respond wlLh, or oLherwlse emlL
LelemeLry Lo allow Lhe exLernal lnfrasLrucLure Lo locaLe lL.
Lxamples lnclude personal-badge-locauon sysLems, bar codes and 8llu Lags
8urden ls on Lhe lnfrasLrucLure, decreaslng Lhe compuLauonal and power
demands on Lhe ob[ecLs belng locaLed


8ul !ose :: Locauon 1echnologles 31
roperues of posluonlng sysLems
Accuracy and reclslon (0R%*6S# 0 <?0:)(S#)
Accuracy ls Lhe proxlmlLy of measuremenL resulLs Lo Lhe Lrue value (Wlklpedla)
reclslon ls Lhe repeaLablllLy or reproduclblllLy of Lhe measuremenL. lL
represenLs Lhe degree Lo whlch repeaLed measuremenLs under unchanged
condluons show Lhe same resulL (Wlklpedla)
1he ldeal locauon sysLem should reporL locauons accuraLely and conslsLenLly
from measuremenL Lo measuremenL.
1he quallLy of Lhe lnformauon generaLed by a locauon sysLem musL express an
accuracy, or esumaLed error of Lhe measuremenL, and a preclslon, as Lhe
percenLage of umes we can expecL Lo geL LhaL accuracy, e.g. 1 Lo 3 meLer
accuracles 99 percenL of Lhe ume.
ldenufylng accuracy and preclslon requlremenLs ls an lmporLanL parL of Lhe
selecuon of a locauon Lechnology

8ul !ose :: Locauon 1echnologles 32
hup://en.wlklpedla.org/wlkl/Accuracy_and_preclslon
Cual a exacudo e a preclso desLe slsLema?
8ul !ose :: Locauon 33
Cual a exacudo e a preclso desLe slsLema?
8ul !ose :: Locauon 34
reclso ou exaLo?
8ul !ose :: Locauon 1echnologles 33
hup://callbraend.blogspoL.pL/2013/02/voce-conhece-dlferenca-enLre-preclsao-e.hLml
roperues of posluonlng sysLems
Scale
Scale Lhe coverage area (slngle room, bulldlng, clLy,
global)
Scale Lhe number of ob[ecLs LhaL can be locaLed over a
glven ume
lor assesslng scale, conslder lLs coverage area per unlL
of lnfrasLrucLure and Lhe number of ob[ecLs Lhe sysLem
can locaLe per unlL of lnfrasLrucLure per ume lnLerval.
LlmlLauons Lo scalablllLy may lnclude cosL buL also
mlddleware complexlLy or Lechnlcal llmlLauons, e.g
number of communlcauon channels ln 8llu.



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8ecognluon
A sysLem wlLh recognluon can noL only deLermlne
Lhe posluon of ob[ecLs, buL also ldenufy Lhem
Lxample: AlrporL baggage handllng
CS ls an example of a sysLem wlLhouL recognluon

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Cost is essential for estimating the ROI and the consequent
viability of a location system
Multiple ways to assess the cost of a location-sensing system
Time costs include factors such as the installation processs length and
the systems administration needs.
Space costs involve the amount of installed infrastructure and the
hardwares size and form factor.
Capital costs include factors such as the price per mobile unit or
infrastructure element and the salaries of support personnel.
Incremental costs can be important for assessing scalability
How much does it cost to have a new GPS receiver?
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Limitations
Any location system will have some limitations that may restrict the set
of scenarios in which it can be used.
Example: GPS receivers do not usually work indoors.
Combining multiple location technologies may help to overcome those
limitations.
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