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Common apparatus used in A Level Chemistry April 2007

Names of apparatus you should know for the exam are:


Burette (50cm
3
), pipette (25 cm
3
, 10cm
3
), dropping pipette, pipette filler, conical
flask, volumetric flask (150 to 250 cm
3
), measuring cylinder (25 and 50 cm
3
), wash
bottle, filter funnel, porcelain crucible, 15cm
3
with lid, evaporating basin at least 30
cm
3
, beaker 100 cm
3
, 250 cm
3
, thermometer 10
o
! to "110
o
! at 1
o
! inter#al$ 5
o
! to
"50
o
! at 0%2
o
! inter#al, plastic beaker of approximate capacity 150 cm
3
, test-tubes,
boiling tubes, clock or stop-watch to measure accuracy of 1s, balance 0%01&
accuracy%
! "itration
'ou are familiar now with the titration experiment often used to accurately find the end
point in a neutrali(ation or redox experiment and find unknown concentrations to )e used
in further calculations or plannin& * analysis%
e%&% Na+,(a-) " ,!l(a-) . Na!l(a-) " ,2+(l)
/olumetric flask !onical flask measurin& cylinder
0f the solution )ecomes cloudy to reach endpoint (e%&% formation of sulphur in redox
reaction) then a cross (#) drawn on a white piece of paper will disappear under the
conical flask%
0f you were asked to descri)e a titration experiment, you should write these steps:
1% 1ipette 25 cm
3
of 0%5 moldm
3
Na+,(a-) solution into a 250 cm
3
conical flask%
2% 2dd three drops of )romophenol )lue indicator%
3% 3itrate the alkali with the a-ueous hydrochloric acid (422) to reach endpoint (the
colour will chan&e from a li&ht )lue to a permanent yellow or red) and take the
a#era&e of a)out three titres% 2ccuracy of "5 0%05 cm
3
in measurin& #olume
chan&es with the )urette (no need to draw a picture only ta)ulate results if
asked)%
"5 0%05 cm
3

'ou would record the results as shown:
2#era&e titre66666%%cm
3
7uch titrations can )e used in other ways such as determinin& the amount of )ase in
a mixture of compounds (e%&% a car)onate) or used in neutrali(in& acids in an
e-uili)rium experiment (which you pro)a)ly carried out )efore)%
0n &eneral, plannin& and analysis follows this chart:
8here there exists a potential dan&er, e%&% corrosi#e acid (conc% ,27+9),
concentrated alkali or poisonous &as released (N+2, 7+2) a precaution should )e
mentioned (wear &lo#es, use fume hood)%
2! $easuring enthalpy changes in e%othermic or endothermic reactions

8ith some chemical reactions or dissol#in& a solid in water (e%&% Na+,), heat is
&i#en out (,soln)% 0f you were asked to measure an enthalpy chan&e you could write
to this effect:
1% 8ei&h out a)out 0%1 mol of the solid%
2% :easure 100 cm
3
of distilled water into the plastic cup% :easure its temperature
to accuracy of 0%2
o
!%
3% ;uickly dissol#e a)out 0%1 mol of the su)stance in water and measure its hi&hest
temperature (this may take a minute)%
Calculation (processing of results)
4. 3akin& the specific heat capacity, c, of water to )e 9%2 <&
1
=
1
which can )e
assumed to )e the same for the solution, so & ' mc" and is )ased on one
mole of su)stance and remem)er to &i#e the #alue a ne&ati#e si&n for exothermic
enthalpies% 'ou may ha#e to show how the calculation is worked out and in that
case 3 is the temperature chan&e shown )elow:
0nitial temperature (31)5
o
! 4inal temperature(32)5
o
! 3 (3231)5
o
!
1
2
3
2#era&e 3 . 66666666%
0n a similar way, if it was a chemical reaction then you would measure the
temperature of a known amount of su)stance 421 dissol#ed in water and the add
su)stance 422 (can )e a solid or known amount in a #olume of water)% >emem)er
the mass, m, is the mass of the total #olume of water in &%
7ee also October/November 2003 Paper 5, :ay5<une 2009 1aper 5%
thermometer
)eaker
plastic cup
lid
(! "hermal )ecomposition
1orcelain cruci)le and lid
2 porcelain cruci)le (with lid) is used to heat a small amount of su)stance (a)out 2 &)
usin& a ?unsen )urner (or alcohol spirit )urner), tripod and &au(e% 2 )oilin&tu)e
may alternati#ely )e used if supplied as these can withstand hi&h temperatures of a
flame%
Find te percentage of copper(!!) carbonate in te mineral roc" malacite%
1% 8ei&h an empty cruci)le%
2% 8ei&h the cruci)le and a)out 2%0 & of the mineral ("5 0%01&)%
3% ,eat the cruci)le and contents for 10 minutes on a tripod and &au(e
9% >ewei&h the cruci)le%
3he results are ta)ulated as )elow:
:ass of cruci)le 5 &
:ass of cruci)le " malachite
:ass of cruci)le and contents after heatin&
:ass of !+2 produced
2ssumin& the mineral to contain no other decomposition products, then accordin& to
the e-uation:
!u!+3(s) . !u+(s) " !+2(s)
3he difference in mass )efore and after heatin& is the mass of !+2 released% 0f we
calculate the predicted mass of !+2 for the same wei&ht of pure !u!+3, the
percenta&e )y mass of !u!+3 in the malachite is therefore:
@ !u!+3 in malachite . mass of !+2 from malachite x 100
mass of !+2 from pure !u!+3
7ee also #a$/%une 2003 Paper 5%
*! +,uilibria
3his summari(es the steps used in Practical &'( Cemistr$ in Conte)t( *aborator$
#anual( page '2+''%
Plan
Asin& a )urette, add the exact amount of ,!l(a-), water, ethyl ethanoate, ethanoic
acid and water to a stoppered 100cm
3
#olumetric flask (or wellstoppered flask) so
that the total #olume is exactly 10cm
3
% 7hake well%
2fter one week (to allow the mixture to reach e-uili)rium) titrate the whole of the
mixture with 1%0 moldm
3
sodium hydroxide (422) solution usin& phenolphthalein as
indicator in the flask% 3he first permanent si&n of pink is the end point%
0n order to find the exact concentration of the ,!l(a-) catalyst, titrate 5 cm
3
of the 3
moldm
3
with 1%0 moldm
3
Na+,
8ei&h 5%0 cm
3
of each of the li-uids used in the e-uili)rium experiment to determine
their densities and thus find the mass of materials used ( . m5#)%
3a)ulate results:
,nal$sis
3he steps findin& the e-uili)rium constant in the manual will show you how to
calculate the e-uili)rium constant, =c% 7ee also October/November 2005 Paper 5 for
another e-uili)rium experiment%
-! )etermining the order of a reaction
7ee Practical &5, Cemistr$ in Conte)t *aborator$ #anual% 7ee also
+cto)er5No#em)er 2009 1aper 5, +cto)er5No#em)er 2002%