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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION
A. BACKGROUND
Language is a means to give or exchange information; news, idea or
opinions, through language people learn from one another the things they
want to know. Imagine if human beings could not communicate with one
another. If a person cannot communicate, he will not talk to other people,
and no other people will talk to him anything. So it would be impossible for
him to learn anything.
One of language is nglish. It is a compulsory sub!ect in Indonesia that
must be learned by the Indonesian students from the "unior high school up to
#niversity
nglish as a foreign language will arise some difficulties which are
faced by Indonesian people $ students because in learning a new language
will arise some difficulties which are faced by Indonesian people$students
because in learning a new language the students tend to transfer their native
language habit to the new language.
%ccording to the statement above, the writer tries to present a
comparative study of the two languages, Indonesian and nglish specially
on the adverb to avoid mistransformation which is made by the Indonesian
students.
A. THE PROBLEM OF THE STUDY
&he general teaching'learning process of nglish in the classroom, the
teacher rare relates the materials with the native language of the students, in
this case, Indonesian language, as comparison. (hereas the teacher can
relate the materials of nglish teaching with the Indonesian language. )y
seeing this fact, the writer tries to arise some problems, those are*
+. ,ow many kinds of the nglish and Indonesian adverbs-
.. %re the kinds of the nglish and Indonesian adverbs the same or
not-
/. (hat are the rules of the process of the nglish and Indonesian
adverbs formation-
0. %re the rules of the process the same or not-
1. 2rom what part of speech are they formed-
3. Is there similarity between nglish and Indonesian adverb
formation-
4. In what aspect are they similar-
5. Is there difference between nglish and Indonesian adverb
formation-
6. In what aspects are they different-
+7. (here is the position of &he nglish and Indonesian adverb in
sentences-
B. HYPOTHESIS
+. &here are many kinds of the nglish and Indonesian adverbs, for
examples* adverbs of manner, place, time, 8kata keterangan
kualitatif, tempat, waktu9.
.. In general kinds of the nglish and Indonesian adverbs are the
same.
/. &he rules of the process depend on the part of speech or their
formations.
0. &he rules of the process may be different.
1. &hey are formed from base and affixations.
3. &here are similarities between nglish and Indonesian adverb
formation.
4. &hey are similar in their process.
5. &here are differences between the nglish and Indonesian adverb
formation.
6. &hey are different in their process.
+7. &he position of the nglish and Indonesian adverbs are before
sub!ect, verb, or after verb.
C. THE SCOPE OF THE STUDY
)ecause of the limited time, energy, facilities, knowledge and
opportunity, the writer wants to compare between nglish and Indonesian
adverb in the kinds, formation, and their position in the sentences.
. THE AIM OF THE STUDY
+. &o know some kinds of the nglish and Indonesian adverbs.
.. &o know the process of the nglish and Indonesian adverbs formation.
/. &o know the rules of the process of the nglish and Indonesian adverb
formation.
0. &o know the position of the nglish and Indonesian adverb in
sentences.
F. DEFINITION OF THE KEY TERM
&o avoid misinterpretation and make this study clearly, the writer :uotes
some definition from the experts as follows*
+. ;<omparative study is comparison of the structures of two languages
to determine the points where they differ. &hese differences are the
chief source in learning a second language.= 8Louse>s book foundation
as :uoted by %dib ?armawan9.
.. ;%nalysis is separation into part possibly with comment
!udgment.=8,ornby, +640* .69 Oxford #niversity press.
/. ;%dverb is a word that answers :uestion with ;how, when, where,=
8,ornby, +640* +09 Oxford #niversity press.
CHAPTER II
THEORITICAL BACKGROUND
In this chapter the writer will discuss the problems that are re/lated to the
title ;% comparative study between nglish and Indonesian %dverbs=. 2rom that
title the writer discusses the problem in detail. So the writer needs many kinds of
theories concepts and Ideas of experts. In order to make this study clearly, the
writer tries to give definition as follows*
A. ENGLISH AND INDONESIAN LANGUAGE
+. ;Language is an arbitrary system of articulated sound made use of by
group of human as a means of carrying on the affairs of their society.
8(. @elson, 2rancies, +615= +/9.
.. %nother features of human language is that it is productive or creative.
&his refers to the ability of the native speaker to understand produce
any member of sentences. 8(hich have never been heard before9 in
their mother tongue, as Aorys Beraf Stated*
;)ahasa adalah alat komunikasi antar anggota masyarakat, berupa
lambing bunyi suara yang dikeluarkan oleh alat ucap manusia.=
8Aorys Beraf nde, 2lores, +636* +39.
B. COMPARATIVE STUDY
Comparativ means comparison or comparing, measuring, by comparing.
St!"# devotion of time and thought to get knowledge, examining carefully.
+. ;<omparative study is a comparison of the structures or the languages
to determine the points where they differ. &hese differences are the
chief source in learning a second language.= 8Louse>s book
foundations as :uoted by %dib ?armawan9.
.. ;Ilmu bahasa comparatif memperbandingkan system bahasa yang
lain.=8C. Damlan, Eogyakarta, +631* .9.
/. ;%nalysis is separations in to parts possibly with comment and
!udgment.= 8,ornby. +640* .69 Oxford #niversity press.
C. DEFINITION OF MORPHEME AND $ORD
+. CODF,C
Aeorge Eule defines that*
Morpheme is a minimal unit of meaning or grammatical function.
(1985: 60).
Let>s clarify this definition with some examples*
(e would say that the word ;DOF@?= in the sentence ;&he police
reopened the investigation ; consists of / morphemes. One minimal unit
of meaning is ;Open= another minimal unit of meaning is ;D= 8means
again9 and a minimal unit of grammatical function is* ;ed= 8indicating
past tense9. &he word ;patiently= consists of two morphemes. One
minimal unit of meaning is ;patient=, another minimal unit of
grammatical function is ;ly=8adverb of manner9. Frobably between
nglish and Indonesian are similar in term of morpheme.
C. Damlan defines it in his book*
; Corfem ialah satuan gramatik yang paling kecil satuan gramatik
yang tidak mempunyai satuan lain sebagai unsurnya.= 8Eogya, +631*
.59.
?r. Aorys Beraf defines it in his book ;&ata bahasa Indonesia as
follows*
;Corfem adalah kesatuan yang ikut serta dalam pembentukan kata
dan dapat dibedakan artinya.;
2or example, the word ;seenaknya= is composed of two units. &he first
is ;se'nya= as afiks, and the second is ;enak= as a stem 8ad!ective9.
.. CODF,C &EFS
2rom these examples above, we can make abroad distinction
between two types of morphemes. &hese are* 2ree morpheme, that is
morpheme which can stand by it self as a single word. xample* Open,
patient, and enak. In nglish this typed can be stated as ;base=$=stem=.
&here are also bound morphemes that are those which cannot normally
stand alone, but which are typically attached to another form. xamples*
se', ly, se'nya, a', 'ive. &he set of affixes which fall in to the bound
category can also be divided into two types.
&he first is derivational morphemes. &hese are used to makes new
words in the language and are of ten used to make new words of
different grammatical category from the stem. &hose, the addition of
derivational suffixes ;'ly= change the ad!ective to adverb =patiently.=
&he second, set of bound morpheme contains what are called
inflectional morphemes. &hese are not to produce new words in the
nglish language, but rather to indicate aspects of grammatical function
as words.
xample* ;ed= to make ;reopen= into the past tense form* ;reopened.=
/. (OD?
Learning a language is to convey ideas whether it is oral or written.
(hen the people produce utterances to convoy ideas, of course the use
sentences which contain many words as one of the most illusive of the
linguistic unit of the language. (ord, according to the @elson 2rencies
8+615* .709 means a thing when we are talking about written language
and another when we are talking about speech. ven though there is a
considerable over lapping between the two, they are not identical. It has
known in some languages that written language 8the first definition of
word9 is derived from spoken; while it is merely an arbitrary sets of
symbols used in recording an approximation of what is said. In other
word it is called that written nglish is identical with people write while
oral language is identical with face'to'face part of communication.
;Bata adalah kesatuan'kesatuan yang terkecil, yang diperoleh
sesudah sebuah kalimat dibagi atas bagian'bagiannya, dan mengandung
satuan ide. ; 8+650* 1/9.
0. F%D& O2 SF<,
In this sub'chapter, the writer does not discuss the part of speech in
detail explanation.
,e !ust probably describes adverbs in details, because adverb is the
target discussion in this study.
&alking about part of speech between nglish and Indonesian
language have a little differences. &he writer deals with the topic
clarified as follows*
0.+. nglish part of speech
&he grammarians classify for traditional names of part of
speech. &hese are verbs, noun and ad!ective. &he four types of
them have their own function and characteristics. It is described
as follows*
0.+.+. GD)
%ccording to the @elson 2rancis 8+6159 that there are five
criteria in recogniHing verb*
0.+.+.+. Gerbs are class of lexical words marked by their use of four
inflections, 8's9, 8'ed9, 8'ing9; by their appearance in verb'
phrases with certain auxiliaries such as can, must, is, has,
please about$to by a small group of derivational affixes, such as
8en'9 and 8'ate9; by certain position relative to clearly marked
noun; and usually by the superfix>.
0.+.+... Cost auxiliary may build complex combination with other
auxiliaries, making possible a very number repertory of verb'
phrases.
0.+.+./. %uxiliaries may seem as function verbs.
0.+.+.0. &he verbs do in its various inflectional and phrasal form may
seem a change for an ordinary verb which has appeared in the
immediate linguistics contexts. ;?o= is the only verb'
substitute.
0.+.+.1. Separable verbs, made up of a full verb followed an adverb like
form, may seem with their two parts together or separated by
intervening words.
0.+... %?"<&IG
In dealing with )etty S. %Har state that ad!ective is
describing noun, describe means change a little or means modify
noun. It makes noun different from others if added or modified or
preceded by ad!ective. In the line with that, @elson 2rancis
8+6159 defines*
;%d!ective are a class of lexical words identified by their
ability to fill the position between noun'determiner and noun and
the position after a linking verb and the :ualifier such as very,
rather and :uite.=82rancis* .579.
)esides, ad!ective actually falls into one of two groups*
base ad!ective and derived ad!ective. )ase ad!ective is not
formation, but it is usually happened to degrees of comparison
and mostly and mostly consists of one syllable, though some
have to even three. It usually forms its comparative and
superlative degrees by means of the inflectional suffixes 8'er9 and
8'est9. (hile, derived ad!ective are created from bound stems,
and verbs by means of :uite a large group of derivational
suffixes, such as 8'ous9, 8'able9, and in comparative and
superlative by means of the :ualifier 8more9 and 8most9.
0.+./. %?GD) 8see sub'chapter; %dverb as a part of speech9
0.+.0. @O#@
@oun is a class of lexical words identified by their
determiners to fill the positions according to their function as
sub!ect of verbs, or complements of the verb be, become, seem,
or ob!ects of verbs, ob!ect of prepositions.
@oun determiners are* pronoun 8the, an, a, my, your, etc9.
@ouns can be formed by adding derivational suffixes to*
' Gerbs 8'age9, 8'ance9, 8'er9, 8'ment9
' %d!ectives* 8'ce9, 8'cy9,8'ness9, 8'ity9
' Other nouns* 8'er9, 8'cy9, 8'ian9, 8'ism9,8'ist9, 8'ship9,
8'ster9
' )ound stems 8'er9, 8'ism9, 8'ist9
0... I@?O@SI%@ F%D& O2 SF<,
&he basic distinction between nglish and Indonesian part of
speech are on two different points.
&he first, in nglish there is an adverbs while in Indonesian is
no. It is substituted by ;kata tugas= 8function word9. &he other
three are the same 8kata ker!a, kata benda, kata sifat9. It is a new
classification of word in Indonesian by Aorys keraf9. &hus, the
Indonesian classifications of words are*
0...+ kata benda 8nomina9
Aorys Beraf defined it in his book; tata bahasa Indonesia*
;Bata benda adalah segala kata yang dapat diterangkan atau
diperluas dengan yang I kata sifat.= 8Aorys Beraf, ndi +657*
539.
ADDITION%
Bata benda means every word that can be enlarged by the
phrase E%@A I B%&% SI2%&. 2or example, the word me!a can
be enlarged by the phrase yang bersih. 8'bersih is an ad!ective9. etc.
0..... B%&% BD"% 8GD)%9
Aorys Beraf defined*
;Segala macam kata yang dapat diperluas dengan
kelompok kata dengan I kata sifat adalah kata ker!a.= 8Aorys
Beraf, nde +657* 539.
It means that every word that is able be enlarged with the
part of speech ?@A%@ I B%&% SI2%&. 2or example, the
word* menyanyi in the sentence*Aadis itu menyanyi dengan
nyaring, is a word that is enlarged by phrase; dengan nyaring.
?engan nyaring is an adverbs with the description* dengan I
nyaring. 8nyaring is an ad!ective9.
0.../. B%&% SI2%& 8%?"<&IG%9
;Segala kata yang dapat mengambil bentuk se I reduplikasi
I nya, serta dapat diperluas dengan paling, lebih, sekali adalah
kata sifat.=
It means every word that can be enlarged by the phrase S
I D?#FLIB%SI I @E% or with the words*
F%LI@A, L)I,, SB%LI, 2or example* &he word &inggi
is an ad!ective 8kata sifat9, because it can be enlarged into
S&I@AAI'&I@AAI@E%, F%LI@A tinggi, L)I, &I@AAI,
tinggi SB%LI.
0...0. B%&% &#A%S 82#@<&IO@ (OD?S9
Bata tugas 82unction words9 is all words that are not
included of the three parts of speech above. It means that ;kata
depan= 8preposition and ;kata sambung= 8con!unction9 are
classified as function words. &he function of it is to change a
minimum sentence into transformational sentence. )ut in this
case, the function words are used as adverb. %ddition* ;Balimat
minim 8minimum sentence9 is a meaningful word that can stand
itself as a sentence. xamples* %dik. <epat. ;Balimat
transformasi 8transformational sentence9 is a minimum sentence
that have been enlargedby adding clauses that are started by
function words. xamples* %dik, Barena kamu sakit. <epat,
Supaya tidak tertinggal keretaJ
D. ADVERB AS A PART OF SPEECH
&he primary function of an adverb is modifying a verb. )ut it can also
modify an ad!ective or another adverb.
,ornby defines adverb as follows*
;%dverb is a word that answers :uestion with how, when, where, and
modifies verb, ad!ective, and other adverb.=8,ornby, +640*+09 Oxford
#niversity Fress.
CLASIFICATION OF ADVERB BY FUNTION
+. %?GD)S O2 C%@@D
&his type of adverb modifies the verb to answer the :uestion ;,ow=.
&he words that indicates this adverb are*
Kuickly, bravely, happily, hard, fast, well, etc.
.. %?GD)S O2 FL%< %@? ?ID<&IO@
&his type of adverb modifies the verb to answer the :uestion ;where=.
&he words that indicate this adverb are*
,ere, there, in the cupboard, in %merica, etc.
/. %?GD)S O2 &IC
%dverbs of time modify the verbs or predicate complements to answer the
:uestion ;(hen$what time=
&he words that usually used*
%fter wards, eventually, now, tomorrow, yesterday, the day before yesterday,
soon, late etc.
0. %?GD)S SFDSSI@A ?ADS O2 <D&%I@&E
&his type of adverb modifies the verb to express degrees of certainty of an
activity.
&he words that indicate this adverb are*
a. %pparently, certainly, evidently, obviously
b. ?efinitely, clearly
c. Surely.
1. %?GD)S O2 ?#D%&IO@
&his is used for those adverbials that answer the :uestion 8for9 how long.
a.2or a long time, for several minutes, etc.
b. 2rom morning to evening, from Cay to %ugust, etc.
c.&ill tomorrow morning, till last week, etc.
3. %?GD)S O2 2DK#@<E
&hese adverbs are used for those adverbials that answer the :uestion ;,ow
often=.
&he words that express this adverb are*
a. 2re:uency, always, continually, often, once, etc.
b. ver, never, rarely, seldom, hardly ever.
4. %?GD)S O2 ?AD
&his adverb modifies ad!ectives or other adverbs.
&he words that indicate this adverb are*
%lmost, nearly, :uite, !ust, too, enough, extremely, only, so, well, etc.
5. %?GD)S O2 F%D&I<LS
Sometimes the particles are functioned as adverbs. &he particles are up, down,
in, out, away, over, etc. Sometimes particles are followed the nouns to become
preposition.
ADVERB FORMATION
In nglish, adverbs can be formed by some rules as follows*
+. %dding the derivational suffix 8'ly9 to derived ad!ectives. ?erived
ad!ectives are made from noun I suffix 8'ful, 'less, 'ive, etc9. &he derived
adverbs can be formed are* healthily, remarkably, hopefully, etc.
.. %dding the derivational suffix 8'ly9 to base ad!ectives, examples* slowly,
strangely, falsely, usually, etc.
/. %dding the derivational prefix 8a9 to nouns, stems, ad!ectives, examples* a
head, a part, a slide, a long, a broad, etc.
0. %dding derivational suffix 8'wise9 to noun, example* lengthwise, actor
wise, etc.
1. %dding derivational suffix 8'ward9 to limited group of nouns, example*
backward, homeward, forward. &he process number + L 1 is called
affixation process.
3. <ombining the noun determiners 8some, any, every, no9 with a limited list
of nouns and function words, for example* someplace, somewhere,
anywhere, nobody, etc.
4. #se of certain function words 8particles$preposition9 as adverbs, examples*
up, down, out, over, etc.
THE POSITION OF ADVERBS
&here are / possible positions of adverbs as follows*
+. Initial$front position. It means that adverb can be placed in the
beginning of a sentence. xample*
&omorrow I am going to go to your office.
.. Cid position. It means that adverb can be placed at the mid of a
sentence, example*
(e are usually happy to see you.
/. nd$final position It means that adverb can be placed at the end of
a sentence, example*
Eou must do your homework carefully.
INDONESIANS ADVERB
Bata keterangan 8adverb9 in Indonesian based on the traditional structure is a
word or more that modify$ies ad!ectives, verbs, or all of the sentence.
%s Aorys Beraf stated*
;Bata keterangan atau adverbia adalah kata'kata yang memberi keterangan
tentang kata ker!a, kata sifat, kata keterangan, kata bilangan, dan seluruh
kalimat.= 8Aorys Beraf, nde, +657*479
;Bata keterangan= can be stated in a word or a group of words with the
description as follows*
a. I@ % (OD?* It means adverbs that are stated in word, and formed by*
+. #sing base adverbs, example* sekarang, lusa, besok.
.. #sing function words 8con!unction9 as adverb indicator, example* karena,
sebab, untuk, guna, etc.
/. #sing affixation process*
/.+. S&CI%2IBS 8derivational suffix9,
xample*
)iasaInya ; biasanya
,endakInya ; hendaknya
DasaInya ; rasanya, etc.
/... %2IBS S L @E% I S&C,
xample*
Se L nya I lama ;selamanya
Se L nya I enak ;seenaknya
Se L nya I kira ;sekiranya, etc.
/./. %2IBS S L @E% I D?#FLI<%&IO@ O2 %?"<&IG
Se'nya I reduplication; selama'lamanya, etc.
0. Deduplikation Of Gerb
2or example*
tiba ; tiba'tiba
diam ; diam'diam
sampai ; sampai'sampai
b. I@ % ADO#F O2 (OD?S
It means adverbs that are stated in two or more words that support a
meaning only. &hese groups of words are formed by combining*
+. Freposition 8kata tugas9 I noun$phrase,
xamples*
?engan pisau
?engan besi yang kuat
?i %merika, di Indonesia, di Surabaya
?ari !endela, dari <ikini
Be "akarta, etc.
.. Freposition I personal pronoun,
xample*
?engan bapak Sasmita
?engan kakak dan %dik
tc.
CLASSIFICATION OF KATA KETERANGAN%
+. B%&% B&D%@A%@$%?GD)I#C B#%LI&%I2
&his adverb modifies the condition of an activity. It is stated by
preposition 8kata tugas9 ?@A%@ I B%&% SI2%& 8ad!ective9. 2or
example*
Ia menyanyi dengan nyaring.
.. B%&% B&D%@A%@ &CF%&$%?GD)I#C LOB%&I2
&his adverb modifies a verb, where an activity is done. &he words that
are used as kata keterangan tempat can be formed by combining prepositions
8kata tugas9* di, ke, dari, di dalam, with noun$phrase, example* di dapur, di
halaman, ke rumahku yang baru, etc.
/. B%&% B&D%@A%@ (%B&# 8%?GD)I#C &CFOD%L9
&his adverb modifies a verb, when an activity is done. &he words
indicate these adverbs are sekarang, luas, besok, kemarin, tahun lalu,
sebelum ini, bulan depan, etc.
0. B%&% B&D%@A%@ CO?%LI&%S$B<%D%%@
&his adverb modifies how an activity is according to the speaker. &he
list bellow is the kind of kata keterangan modalitas and the words that
indicate it*
a. Bepastian * memang, niscaya, pasti, tentu, bukan, etc.
b. Fengakuan * ya, betul, benar, malahan, sebenarnya.
c. Besangsian * agaknya, barangkali, entah, mungkin,
rasanya, rupanya, etc.
d. Beinginan * moga'moga, mudah'mudahan.
e. %!akan * baik, hendaknya, kiranya.
f. Larangan * "angan.
g. Beheranan * masakan mustahil, mana boleh, mana ada.
h. Bondisional * kalau, !ikalau, seandainya, sekiranya.
1. B%&% B&D%@A%@ %SFB
&his adverb modifies a verb$an activity ob!ectively based on the
degrees of the event. &he kind of it and the words indicate it is as follows*
a. Inkoatif * pun'lah
b. ?uratif * sedang, sementara.
c. Ferfektif * sudah, telah.
d. Comental * tiba'tiba, begitu sa!a.
e. Depetitif * memukul'mukul, memi!at'mi!at, 8reduplication of
adverb9.
f. 2re:uentitatif * sering, !arang, kadang, kadang kala.
g. ,abituatif * biasanya.
3. B%&% B&D%@A%@ ?D%"%?.
&his adverb modifies the verb, how certain an activity is done. &he
special words indicate this adverbs are* amat, hanya, hampir, cukup,etc.
4. B%&% B&D%@A%@ %L%&$I@S&D#C@&%L
&his adverb modifies the verb to answer the :uestion*= what is used to
do an activity.; &o form words indicate this adverbs we need a combination
of them will be shown on the following page. &he researcher shows them
8the words that indicate this adverbs are* pattern* ?@A%@ I
@O#@$F,D%S, examples* dengan pisau, dengan tinta merah, etc.
5. B%&% B&D%@A%@ BOCI&%&I2$BSD&%%@
&his adverb modifies the participation of someone in an activity. &he
pattern* ?engan$)ersama I FDSO@%L FDO@O#@, examples* dengan
ayahku, bersama adik, etc.
6. B%&% B&D%@A%@ FDL%(%@%@$BO@S@SI2
&his adverb opposes in activity the speaker tells. &he function words
are use used as this adverb, they are* tapi, biarpun, kendatipun, namun.
+7. B%&% B&D%@A%@ B%#S%L$S)%)
Bata keterangan sebab modifies the verbs to answer the :uestion ;why
the activity is done. ;&his adverb uses the function words* karena,sebab.
++. B%&% B&D%@A%@ BO@SB#&I2$%BI)%&
&his adverb modifies the result that happened because an activity. &he
function words that are used* Sehingga, sampai'sampai.
+.. B%&% B&D%@A%@ 2I@%L$&#"#%@
&his adverb modifies$describes the result of an activity that wants to be
achieved. &he function words that are used as this adverb are* untuk, supaya,
agar.
+/. B%&% B&D%@A%@ BOCFD%&I2$FD)%@?I@A%@
&his adverb modifies an activity by comparing* a process to another
process, or a condition to another condition. &he con!unctions that are used
are* bagai,seperti, seakan'akan.
+0. B%&% B&D%@A%@ FD(%&%S%@
&his adverb describes exception about an activity. &he word that used*
hanya,kecualy.
THE POSITION OF ADVERBS IN INDONESIAN
+. &here are some numerous adverbs, which are placed at initial$front position
e.g. &adi aku tak masuk sekolah.
.. Some of them are placed at the mid position 8at the mid of sentence9.
xample* )agiku dia amat baik.
/. Sometimes those adverbs are placed at the end position that means at the end
of a sentence, example* %ku ber!an!i akan datang kerumahmu besok pagi.
CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHOD
In accordance with the aim of study, the approach is directed and outlined to
answer the research problem. &he study in this case, involves two components of
languages; nglish and Indonesian language, especially on the kind, formation
and position of adverb. &he study here is comparative study, which seeks and
analyHes the similarities and differences between nglish and Indonesian adverbs
kind, formation and position.
A. POPULATION AND SAMPLE
+. Fopulation
&he population of this study is all base and derived adverbs and new
forms. &he population is taken from written language, for example*
novel from the two languages. &he writer, here, does not take the oral
population of language, because it is very difficult to record and needs
a long time.
.. Sample
%s sample, the writer chooses to novels that consist of best and derived
adverbs$new form. &hese are written by reputable authors. One is an
nglish novel and the other is an Indonesians novels. &hey are*
a. ntitled* ;&he big kill.= )y Cicky Spillane. &he choice of this
novel is based on to main reasons* first, Cicky Spillane is one of
the reputable contemporary nglish novelists and also well
known for his novels and plays. Second, as a reputable author,
Cicky Spillane>s nglish is reliable both they use of the
language and the contain of this novel.
b. ntitled* ;Se!uta pintu cintaku= by Cotinggo )usie. &he reason
for choosing Cotinggo>s novel is also basic on two reasons.
2irst, he is one of the well'known authors for novel, short story
and plays. ,e also writes poetry. Second, as a reputable author,
the use of Indonesian language is reliable, too.
B. DATA COLLECTION
In collecting the data, as the writer stated before that the study is a
comparative analyHes story, which emphasiHes on linguistics competent, so
he uses instrument.
&hose are*
+. Literature
,ere, reading some books, which has relationships with the study, is to
gain some theories on the adverb formations, gain and position and its
related discussion. It is used to support the view on the morphological
process for analyHing the data and presenting them according to the
aim of the research. &he book taken the support the description of the
study are from many sources especially linguistics or morphology.
.. ?ocumentation
In this instrument, the writer documented the data from the target
population of the two differences novels. Fut it is, as a matter of fact,
used three main steps of documentation the data;
..+. Identification
&he first step is mainly done by reading the novels. (hile reading the
novels the writer identifies the base and derived adverb of new forms
by underlining or circling the target words.
.... Caking Lists
%fter identifying the base and derived adverbs or new form of the two'
difference novel, the writer makes lists to both of them.
../. <lassification
In this step, the writer classifies the lists made according to their
process of adverbs.
xample*
TABLE I
&he resultant formation of adverb of manner that used in the novels*
;&he )ig Bill.= )y @icky Spilane 8on the following page9.
Doot Suffix Fart of Speech Desultant <ombination
Slow Lly
@ice Lly
etc
%d!ective
%d!ective
Slowly
@icely
TABLE II
&he resultant formation of adverbial kualitatif based on the novel
;Se!uta Fintu <intaku=
Freposition Doot Deduplication Desultant <ombination
?engan
?engan
@yaring
Canis
'
'
?engan
?engan
@yaring
Canis
&herefore the tables made are depending on the kind and the process of
adverb formation.
C. DATA ANALYSIS
)reaking down the to know the description of similarities and
differences between nglish and Indonesian adverb, the writer does the
following steps*
+. <omponent 8based or derived adverb or new forms9
.. 2inding the relation among the components.
/. Bnowing the process of formation.
xample for number +, ., /.
&he derived adverb % LO#?
&he word ;% LO#?= is created from % I LO#?*
+. % is a derivational prefix
.. LO#? 8ad!ective as a stem9
% is derivational prefix that changes the part of a speech; ad!ective to
adverb.
<onse:uently, after it is done, either base or derived adverbs of nglish
and Indonesian languages to be analyHed, finally the writer does the last
step.
0. %nalyHing the similarities and differences between nglish and
Indonesian adverb formation, kind, or position by writing parallel, for
example*
&he similarities on classification based on the function*
@ALIS, I@?O@SI%@
+. %dverbials ofmanner +. %dverbium kualitatif
.. %dverbials of time, etc. .. %dverbium temporal
CHAPTER IV
DATA PRESENTATION ANALYSIS
)ased on the research done by the researcher on the nglish and Indonesian
adverbs classification and formation that used two novels as sub!ect, the gathered
data or the resultant classification is going to be presented and analyHed in this
chapter to obtain the answer of the research problem.
A. ENGLISH ADVERBS
CLASIFICATION ANALYSIS
&his analysis is employed to know how many types of adverbs used in
this novel 8&he )ig Bill9 by Cickey Spillane. &he <lassification by the
function is as follows*
%.+. %?GD)S O2 C%@@D
a. 2unction*
&his type of adverb modifies the verb to answer the :uestion ;how=.
b. 2ormation*
&he resultant classification of adverbs of Canner and the formation*
F%A$LI@
%22IM&IO@
FDO<SS
FF%A$
LI@
%@O&,D
FDO<SS
4$.. Seductively 5$.5 )etter
+.$.4 Strictly 5$/7 (ell
+7$.5 <arefully 1/$3 Somehow
1/$.+5 Frotectively
+4$/6 %part
)ased on the samples above, the analysis below will show of how the
words are created*
a. %22IM%&IO@ FDO<SS
+. S?#<&IGLE and S&DI<&LE are created from
ad!ective 8seductive and strict9 I derivational suffix Lly. &his
affixation changes the part of speech; ad!ectives to adverb. &he
words that have the same process are*
8+7$0/9 purpose I ly; purposely
8++$/9 patient I ly; patiently
8+.$+69 close I ly; closely
N 8+0$09 sarcastic I ly; sarcastically
NN 8+1$//9 steady I ly; steadily, etc.
N %ccording to the spelling rules to add Lly to ad!ectives, ending Lic
must be added Lal before ly.
NN2inal y preceded by a consonant is changed to i.
.. ;<%D2#LLE= is created from <%D I 2#L I LE, with
the component*
a. <%D is noun
b. 2#L is derivational suffix, changes the noun to
derived ad!ective.
c. LLE is a derivational suffix, changes the derived
ad!ective to adverb.
&he words that have the same process as <%D2#LLE are*
81/$+59 protect I ive I ly; protectively
8+/$./9 help I less I ly; helplessly
81/$.19 grace I ful I ly; gracefully
816$.59 pain Iful I ly; painfully
/. %F%D& is corrected from a I part with component*
a. a is a derivational prefix
b. part is noun
&his affixation makes a new form; apart. &his process changes
the part of speech; noun to adverb
0. ;AO?= is an ad!ective. &o make it become ;(LL=. &his
irregular process changes the part of speech; ad!ective to adverb.
1. &here is a word expresses the comparative form of the
adverb (LL. It is better 85$.59. &his process does not change the
part of speech.
3. ;SOC,O(= is created from the words= some I how
with the component*
a. SOC is an ad!ective as a stem.
b. ,O( is an adverb as a stem, too.
&he combination of the two words 8compound9 changes the part
of speech; ad!ective'adverb to adverb.
c. Fosition*
+. %dverbs of manner are usually placed at the end of the
sentence$clause, example*
8+6$+49 ,er breath caught in her throat sharply.
.. Sometimes it is placed at the mid position.
xample*
8/7$.69 Eou had better be properly sympathetic.
%... %?GD) O2 FL%< %@? ?ID<&IO@
a. 2unction*
&his type of adverb modifies the verb to answer the :uestion ;(here=.
b. 2ormation*
&he words that used as adverbs of place and direction are formed by the
ways below*
F%A
$LI@
%22IM
%&IO@
F%A
$LI@
FDFOSI&IO@
O@ #S%A
F%A LI@$
<OCFO#@?
4$.
+7$+.
5$..
6$//
around
across
along
forward
4$0
+4$+6
+1$+
/.$3
in the door
on the table
under the coat
in ,ollywood
.$/ somewhere
)ased on the samples above, the analysis will show of how the words are
formed*
+. ;%DO#@?= is created from % I DO#@? with the
component*
a. % is a derivational prefix
b. DO#@? is a noun as a stem
&he combination of the two components makes a new form; % DO#@?
8adverb9. &his process changes the part of speech; noun to adverb.
&he other words that are formed by this way are %<DOSS, %,%?,
%SI?.
.. ;%LO@A= is created from % I LO@A with the
component*
a. % is a derivational prefix
b. Long is an ad!ective as a stem
&he combination 8affixation9 of the two components make a new
form; %LO@A 8adverb9. &his process changes the part of speech;
ad!ective to adverb.
/. ;2OD(%D?= is created from 2OD I (%D? with the
component*
a. 2OD is a preposition
b. (%D? is a derivational suffix
&his affixation makes a new form; 2OD(%D? 8adverb9. &hese
two components form an adverb.
%./. %?GD)S O2 &IC
a. 2unction*
%dverb of time modify the verbs or predicate complements to answer the
:uestion*= (hen or what time.=
b. 2ormation*
&he resultant classification of formation of adverbs of time 8table9*
F%A
$LI@
I@ % (OD? F%A
$LI@
I@ % ADO#F
O2
(OD?S
F%A$LI@
%2IM%&IO@
+1$.+
+5$++
//$04
veryday
&onight
Soon
++$4
+.$6
In the morning
Last week
+/$3 Comentarily
+0$/0 Suddenly
)ased on the samples above, the researcher classifies the adverbs into .
parts*
a. ?2I@I& &IC*
&he words that are used in the novel 8&he )ig Bill9 are*
a.+. 8+/$+.9 tomorrow 8.0$/09 now
a... 8+1$.+9 everyday 8+5$++9 tonight
8.3$./9 today
b. I@?2I@I& &IC
b.+. Soon 8//$049
b... COC@&%DILE 8+/$39 and S#??@LE 8+0$/09
&he words in a.+ are base adverbs.
&he words in a.. are derived adverbs with the analysis*
a...+ GDE?%E is created from GDE I ?%E with the component*
' GDE is an ad!ective.
' ?%E is a noun of speech ad!ective
&he combination of the two components makes a new for;
GDE?%E 8adverb9. &his process changes the part noun to adverb.
a..... ;&O@IA,&= and ;&O?%E= are created from &O 8preposition9 and
@IA,&$?%E 8noun9.
&he compounding of the two words makes new forms* tonight and
today. &his compound changes the part of speech; nouns to adverbs.
a./.+ ;I@ &, COD@I@A= is created from I@ I &, I COD@I@A with
the component*
a. &he combination of the tree I@ is preposition
b. &, is an definite article
c. COD@I@A is a noun
<omponents makes a new form; I@ &, COD@I@A 8adverb9. &his
process changes the part of speech; noun to adverb.
a./... ; L%S& (B= is created from L%S& 8ad!ective9 I (B 8noun9.
&he ad!ective modifies the noun, so the pattern of this combination*
CO?I2ID I ,%? 8last I week9.
&his combination changes the part of speech> ad!ective'noun to
adverb.
a././ ;% 2( CI@#&S L%&D= is created from a % 2( CI@#&S I
L%&D with the component *
a. % 2( CI@#&S is a noun phrase with the component*
% is an indefinite article, 2( is an ad!ective modifies the noun.
CI@#&S is a noun % few minutes IS % @O#@ F,D%S.
L%&D is an ad!ective modifies the noun phrase.
b. &he combination of the components above changes the
part of speech; noun ad!ective to adverb.
&he words in b.+ are base adverbs.
&he words in b.. are derived adverbs from %?"<&IG I
?DIG%&IO@%L S#22IM LLE. &his process changes the part of
speech; ad!ective to adverb.
c. Fosition*
+. %dverbs of time are usually placed at the end of
the sentence, example*
&he opt was here last night.
.. Sometimes it is placed at initial position.
xample* % long time ago he worked for <harlie 2.
%.0. %?GD)S MFDSSI@A ?ADS O2 <D&%I@&E
a. 2unction*
&his adverb modifies the verb.
b. 2ormation*
&hat word that is found by the researcher is S#DLE 8.5$.19. &his
derived adverb created from S#D 8noun9 I LE 8derivational suffix9.
&his affixation changes the part of speech* noun to adverb.
c. Fosition;
&he word surely is placed at the mid of a sentence, example*
)ut surely you can>t be serious. 8.5$.19
%.1. %?GD)S O2 2DK#@<E
a. 2unction
&he term %dverbs of fre:uency is used for those adverbials that answer
the :uestions ;,ow often=.
b. 2ormation*
+. )ase adverbs* 8+/$+19 always
8.4$+69 never
.. ?DIG? %?GD)S*
.a. 84$.+9 #S#%LLE is created from #S#%L ILE with the
component*
'#S#%L is an ad!ective as a stem LLE is a derivational suffix
changes the ad!ective to adverb.
..b. ;SOC&ICS= is created from SOC I &ICS with the
component*
' SOC is an ad!ective as a stem
' &ICS is a noun as a stem, too
&he compounding of the two stems changes the part of speech;
ad!ective to adverb.
..c. O@< % (B is created from O@< I % (B with the
component*
' O@< is an adverb modifies the noun
' % (B is a noun, % is an indefinite article,
(B is a noun.
&he combination of the two components does not change the part
of speech because it contains adverb.
c. Fosition
%dverb of fre:uency are possible to be placed at initial, mid, or end
position with some examples*
' Initial position*
Sometimes you can>t do what you want to do.
' Cid position*
?on>t gentlemen usually buy ladies a drink-
' nd position*
O
I might find Lou Arindle on 14
th
street in a place called the ,op
Scootch where a room was available for some heavy sugar card games
once a week.
%.3. %?GD)S O2 ?#D%&IO@
a. 2unction*
%dverb of duration is used for those adverbials that answer the
:uestion ;for how long.=
b. 2ormation*
8/0$.9 2or I % LO@A &IC is combination created from* 2OD I %
LO@A &IC with the component*
+. 2or is a preposition.
.. % LO@A &IC is a noun phrase contains % 8indefinite
article9, LO@A 8ad!ective9 modifies the noun, &IC is a noun.
&he combination above changes the part of speech; noun to adverb.
c. Fosition*
&his word 8for a long time9 is placed in the mid position. e. g*
,e was on the level for a long time, then, !ust like that, he went bed.
%.4. %?GD)S O2 ?AD
a.2unction*
%dverbs of degree modify ad!ectives or other adverbs.
b. 2ormation*
&he stems indicate adverbs of degree are 84$19 enough 8.4$+9 only
804$+79 too 8.5$.9 much
c.Fosition*
&hey are placed at the mid position. )efore adverbs or ad!ectives,
exception* enough much.
%.5. %?GD)S O2 F%D&I<LS
a. 2unction*
%dverbs of particles are used for groups of adverbs with characteristics
of their own. &he particles are used with verbs to form combinations
with meanings that are sometimes regular$obvious.
b. 2ormation*
&he particles are*
84$+9 down 84$+.9 back 85$019 off 8+.$039 up 84$49 over 85$+9 out etc.
c. Fosition*
&his adverb is placed in the mid position, example It was one of those
nights when the sky came down, and wrapped itself around the world.
B. INDONESIAN ADVERB
CLASSIFICATION ANALYSES
&his analyses is employed to know how many types of Indonesian
adverbs that are used in the novel ;Se!uta Fintu <intaku= by Cotinggo
)usye and how they are formed. &his analysis is as follows*
).+. B&D%@A%@ B#%LI&%&I2 8%?GD)I#C B#%LI&%&I29
a. 2unction*
&his type of adverb modifies a verb to answer the :uestions
;bagaimana$dengan cara apa=.
b. 2ormation*
&he table below is the sample of the resultant formation of keterangan
kualitatif*
)ased on the samples above, the analysis will show of how the words
are formed*
+. S'@E% is afiks 8according to;S@%B@E%= is
created from S'@E% I @%B with the component*
a. C. Damlan9
b. @%B is ad!ective as a stem
&his affixation changes the part of speech; ad!ective to adverb.
.. ;?@A%@ <B%&%@= is combination from ?@A%@ I
<B%&%@ with the component*
a. ?@A%@ is preposition 8kata tugas9
b. <B%&%@ is an ad!ective
F%A$
LI@
%2IBS FDF
OSI&IO@
DOO&$F,D%S$
D?#FL%<%&IO@
F%D& O2 SF<,$
DS#L&%@&
<OC)I@%&IO@
.0$+ Se'nya ' nak Seenaknya 8ad!.9
.1$+3 ' ?engan <ekatan ?engan
cekatan 8ad!.9
4+$+0 ' ?engan Fanggilan man!a ?engan panggilan
man!a 8noun phrase9
+..$0 Se ' <ara diam'diam Secara
diam'diam 8ad!.9
+/7$+ ' ' &erkikih'terkikih &erkikih'kikih 8adv.9
&he new form made by this combination is ?@A%@
<&%B%@ 8adverb9. &his process changes the part of speech;
ad!ective to adverb.
/. ;?@A%@ F%@AAIL%@ C%@"%= is combined from ?@A%@ I
F%@AAIL%@ C%@"% with the component*
a. ?@A%@ is a preposition 8kata tugas9
b. F%@AAIL%@ C%@"% is a noun phrase contains head
8panggilan is a noun9 and the modifier 8man!a is ad!ective9.
&he combination of the two component changes the part of
speech; noun to adverb.
0. ;S<%D% ?I%C'?I%C ; is created from S I <%D%I?I%C'
?I%C with the component*
a. S is affiks 8derivational prefix9
b. <%D% is a noun. &he affixation of S I <%D% means the same
way.
c. ?iam'?iam is reduplication from ?I%C 8verb9&his combination
changes the part of speech; noun'verb to adverb.;&DBIBI,'
BIBI,= is a reduplication of the base * terkikih. 8adverb9.
&DBIBI, is a stem because it isn>t able to be described into
morphemes. %s a prove of it, the researcher finds the word*
&DBIBI, in the novel ;Se!uta Fintu <intaku= on page; 1+,
line+6th.
c. Fosition*
&he most usual position in this novel, keterangan kualitatif is
placed at the end 8after verb$ob!ect.9, for example*
Lewat lubang tembok batas teras aku lmelihat dia memetik bunga
anggrek seenaknya.
Sometimes it is placed at the beginning, example* dan dengan
cekatan pula aku menaiki tangga.
).. B&D%@A%@ &CF%& 8%?GD)I#C LOB%&I29
a. 2unction*
%dverbium Lokatif modifies the Gerb to answer the :uestion ;?I
C%@%$BC%@%$?%DI C%@%=. xample* ?i dalam keme!amu ada
buku. ?i mana ada buku-
b. 2ormation*
&he words that are used as keterangan tempat can be formed by
combining a preposition with noun or noun phrase. &he table shows of
the resultant formation of them*
F%A
$LI@
FDFOSI&IO@I@O#@ F%A
$LI@
FDFOSI&IO@I@O#@
6$/ ?i surat surat kabar +7$.3 ?i sini
+/$5 ?i dalam me!a +.$4 ?ari
//$4 Be )erkeley university 05$1 ?i langit cerah
)ased on the samples above, the analysis will show of how the words
happened*
+. ;?I S#D%&'S#D%& B%)%D= is created from ?I I S#D%&'S#D%&
B%)%D with the component*
a.?I is a preposition
b. S#D%&'S#D%& B%)%D is the plural of S#D%&B%)%D
8noun9
the combination of the two words makes a new form; ?I
S#D%&'S#D%& B%)%D 8adverb; keterangan tempat9. &his
changes the part of speech; noun to adverb. &his is the most usual
process in Indonesian
.. ;?I SI@I= is created from ?I I SI@I with the component*
a.?I is a preposition 8kata tugas9
b. SI@I is a demonstrative pronoun
&he combination of the two components changes the part of
speech; kata tugas to adverb.
/. ;?I ?%L%C BC"%C#= is created from ?I I ?%L%C I
BC%"%C# with the component*
a.?I is a preposition
b. ?%L%C is adverb.
&he combination of ?I I ?%L%C makes a new preposition; di
dalam.
c.BC"%C# is a noun with keme!a is a stem and C# as a
possessive pronoun.
&his combination changes the part of speech; noun to adverb.
0. ;?I L%@AI& <D%,= is created from ?I I L%@AI& <D%, with
the component*
a.?I is a preposition
b. L%@AI& <D%, is a noun phrase with the component*
L%@AI& is a noun as a head, and <D%, is an ad!ective
modifies the noun. So L%@AI& <D%, is a noun phrase. &he
combination of the three components change the part of speech;
noun to adverb.
c.2rom the description number +'0, the resultant is* keterangan tempat
can be formed with the pattern*
Freposition I @oun, or
Freposition I @oun phrase, or
Freposition I ?emonstrative pronoun, or
Freposition I %dverb 8of place9
d. Fosition*
+. &he most usual position is at the end of the
sentence8s9. 2or example* 86$/9 pastilah kau sering membaca rna
,adi pranata di surat'surat kabar.
.. Sometimes this adverb is placed at the beginning,
for example* 8+.$49
?ari !endela saya teropong kamu.
/. If there are two main clause or other adverbs, it can
be placed at the mid position, for example*8+7$+.9.
&api ketika dia menaruhkan setangkai bunga mawar di me!a sudut
tempat tidurku, lalu dia ulurkan tangan, kudengar dia menyebut
namanya. @agib.
)./. B&D%@A%@ (%B&# 8%?GD)I#C &CFOD%L9
a. 2unction*
&his type of adverb modifies the verb to answer the :uestion B%F%@
8when9
)ased on the novel =Se!uta Fintu <intaku=, the simple of the words that are
used in it is follows*
)%S %?GD)S
8F%A$LI@9
?GI?? %?GD)S 8F%A$LI@9
%22IM%&IO@ I
D?#FLI<%&IO@
<OC)I@%&IO@ O2
&(O OD COD
<OCFO@@&S
&adi 8++$.9 8++$59 Sebelum ini
Bini 8+1$.+9 8/+$.39 )eberapa menit
kemudian
?ulu 8+73$59 8//$+9 &ahun lalu
)ased on the samples above, the analysis below will show of how the words
happened*
+. ;&%?I=, BI@I,=?#L#= are stems as adverbs, so they don>t
need any change.
.. ;SL%C%'L%C%@E%= is created from S I @E% I lama'
lamanya with the component*
a. S'@E% is derivational ;affiks= adverb maker.
b. L%C%'L%C% is a reduplication from the ad!ective L%C%.
&he combination of the two components makes a new form=;
selama'lamanya 8adverb9. &his process changes the part of
speech; ad!ective to adverb.
/. ;S)L#C I@I= is created from S I )L#C I I@I, with
the component*
a. S is derivational prefix 8afiks9
b. )elum is B%&% &#A%S 8function word9
&he affixation makes an adverb 8sebelum9
c.I@I is a demonstrative pronoun, modifies the adverb.
&his process changes the part of speech; kata tugas to adverb.
0. ;))D%F% C@I& BC#?I%@= is a phrase, created
from ))D%F% I C@I& I BC#?I%@ with the component*
a. ))D%F% is an ad!ective modifies C@I&.
b. C@I& is a noun.
&he combination of the two words forms a noun phrase
8beberapa menit9.
c. BC#?I%@ is an adverb.
&he new form is ))D%F% C@I& BC#?I%@ 8adverb9.
BC#?I%@ modifies the noun phrase. So the pattern of this
process is* ,%? I CO?I2ID.
b. Fosition
+. &he most usual position is in initial position. e. g.* ,anya
beberapa menit kemudian ayahku pulang.8/+$.39
.. Sometimes this adverb 8keterangan waktu9is placed at the
end position.xample* 8.70$.49 &api mana ada orang
menangis selama'lamanya-
).0. B%&% B&D%@A%@ CO?%LI&%S$B<%D%%@
a. 2unction*
Beterangan modalitas $kecaraan modifies the verb based on the
speaker>s respons to the event.
b. 2ormation*
&his kind of adverb uses special words to indicate it. So the table
below will show of the words that used only, in several kinds of adverb
modalitas Se!uta Fintu <intaku*
BI@?S &, (OD?S &,%& <%@ ) #S?
8F%A$LI@9
F@A%B#%@ Calahan 8+7$+79 betul 8+.$.39 ya 8+/$+/9 sebetulnya
863$+69
BF%S&I%@ &entu, pasti 86$+9 memang 8++$.79
BS%@ASI%@ Dasanya 8+7$+39 mungkin 8+0$+9 barang kali 8+1$/9
rupanya 8.1$+69
L%D%@A%@ "angan 8++5$.49
BO@?ISIO@%L SBID%@E% 8+73$59 B%L%# 8++5$.49
B,D%@%@ "ika 8+07$+49 mana ada 8.71$.49
)ased on the table above we have known that ;kata keterangan
modalitas$kecaraan= is most usually indicated by base adverb. )ut there
are some of them need affixation process, such as* D#F%@E%P D#F%
8stem9 I '@E% 8afiks9 that changes the part of speech; noun to adverb.
&he other is SBID%@E% from afiks S L@E% I BID%, that changes
the part of speech; verb to adverb.
c. Fosition*
+. &he most usual position of ;kata keterangan modalitas= based on
the novel ;Se!uta Fintu <intaku= is in initial$beginning position.
xample 8.1$+69.
Dupanya dia masih punya rasa kasihan.
.. Other possible position is at the mid of the sentence. xample*
845$49
%da baiknya kamu !angan berhubungan lagi dengan @agib.
).1. B%&% B&D%@A%@ %SFB
a. 2uncton*
Bata keterangan aspek modifies the verb ob!ectively based on the
degrees of the event.
b. 2ormation*
Bata keterangan aspek is devided into 3 types 8based on the novel
;Se!utam Fintu <intaku=9. &hey are*
+. I@BO%&I2* pun 8.7$49
.. ?#D%&I2* sewaktu 8+.3$++9
ketika 8+7$+.9
/. FD2B&I2* sudah 8+1$..9 84+$69
0. COC@&%L* tiba'tiba86$.9
begitu sa!a 8+73$+79
1. 2DB#@&%&I2* sering 86$.9 kadang 8..$./9 !arang
8++$.39 kadang kala 8+3$.9
3. ,%)I&#%&I2* biasanya 8+7$/9
)ased on the list above, the resultant a formation of keterangan
aspek is* that it can be formed by*
+. #sing base adverb such as* number +,.,/,0.
.. Deduplicating a verb* tiba'tiba. &his process changes the part
of speech; verb to adverb.
/. %dding suffix L@E% to an ad!ective*)I%S% I @E%;
)I%S%@E%8adverb9. &his process changes the part of
speech; ad!ective to adverb.
0. <ombining two words as adverbs* begitu sa!a, kadang kala.
&his process does not change the part of speech.
c. Fosition*
&his kind of adverb is usually placed*
+. In initial position, M%CFL* 8+70$.79. &iba'tiba sa!a aku
melihat bersama ibuku perubahan besar papa.
.. Sometimes it is placed at the mid position.
xample* 8/7$/9 Aoyangan kursi goyang berhenti ketika mama
melihatku duduk di sofa.
).3. B%&% B&D%@A%@ ?D%"%&$B#%@&I&%&I2
a. 2unction*
Beterangan dera!at modifies the verb how certain$how often an activity
is done.
b. 2ormation*
Beterangan dera!at is formed by using*
+. )ase adverbs*hampir 86$19 hanya 86$+79 amat8++$++9
.. Frefix I reduplication of noun*
)erkali'kali 804$49
c. Fosition*
+. Beterangan dera!at is usually placed at the mid position;
xample* 8++$++9.
Besanku dia amat, amat, amat baik.
.. Sometimes it is placed at the beginning. .g. 804$49;
)erkali'kali aku menghela nafas dalam'dalam.
).4. B%&% B&%D%@A%@ %L%&$I@S&D#C@&%L
a. 2unction*
&his type of adverb modifies the verb to answer the :uestion ;what is
used to do an activity=.
b. 2ormation*
&he words that are used as keterangan instrumental is formed with the
pattern*
Freposition I noun$noun phrase.
?engan
&he words that are used in the novel ;Se!uta Fintu <intaku= are*
8+7$19 dengan bando biru putih merah dengan* preposition.
bando biru putih merah* noun phrase
head modifier
806$39 dengan tinta cetak emas dengan * preposition
tinta cetak emas* noun phrase
head modifier
8+/5$+79 dengan mobilnya.
?engan * preposition
Cobilnya* noun
&his process changes the part of speech* noun$phrase to adverb.
c. Fosition;
In this novel 8Se!uta Fintu <intaku9 this adverb is always placed at the
end position.
xample* "am +7 rumah kami sudah sepi, namun Hain tidak langsung
pulang dengan mobilnya. 8+/5$+79
).5. B%&% B&D%@A%@ BOCI&%&I2$BSD&%%@
a. 2unction*
Beterangan komitatif modifies the participation of someone in an
activity.
b. 2ormation*
&he words as keterangan kesertaan $komitatif can be formed with the
pattern*
Freposition I personal pronoun
?engan$bersama
&hey are* 8+7$49 dengan )!orn )org
8.0$.9 dengan kamu
8+70$.79 bersama ibu, etc.
c. Fosition*
&he most usual position of this adverb in the novel ;Se!uta Fintu
<intaku= is at the end .the sentence. xamplle8+7/$+49. Calam itu !uga
dia berkenalan dengan papa.
.6. B%&% B&D%@A%@ FDL%(%@%@$BO@SSI2.
a. 2unction*
Beterangan Bonsesif is a type of adverb that express an activity the
speaker tells.
b. 2ormation
Beterangan perlawanan uses some con!unctions as adverbs. &hey are *
8+7$+.9 tapi.
8/.$+79 biarpun
845$49 kendatipun
8+/5$49 namun.
c. Fosition*
+. &his adverb is usually placed at initial position. for example*
8+7$+.9.
&api ketika dia menaruhkan setangkai bunga mawar di me!a
sudut tempat tidurku, Lalu ia ulurkan tangan, kudengar dia
menyebut namanya, nagib.
.. Sometis it is placed at the mid position. xample* 645$49* %da
baiknya kamu !angan berhubungan dengan @a!ib, kendatipun
kamu cinta padanya.
).+7. B%&% B&D%@A%@ B%S#%L $S)%)
a. 2unction*
Beterangan kasual$sebab modifies the verb to answer the :uestion
;why the activity is done=.
b. 2ormation*
&his kind of adverb can be formed by using same con!unction as
adverb. &hey are* 84+$69 karena
8+..$/9 sebab
c. Fosition*
Beterangan sebab sebab is usually placed at the mid position, after
ob!ect or another adverb.xample* 864+$69.
;AibJ= aku berseru agak lantang dengan panggilan man!a, karena
mungkin dia sudah duduk dibawah.
)ut sometimes it is placed in initial position, example* 845$49
Sebab aku yakin sekali bahwa Hain !atuh cinta padaku biarpun secara
diam'diam, tapi cintanya mungkin membara.
).++. B%&% B&D%@A%@ BO@SB#@&I2$%BI)%&
a. 2unction*
Beterangan Bonsekuetif modifies the result that happened because of
anactivity.
b. 2rmation*
&here are two word used that used as keterangan konsekuentif in the
novel*Se!uta Fintu <intaku. &hey are*
8..$39 sehingga 8+50$.+9 sampai.
S%CF%I is a verb that is functioned as adverb.
c. Fosition*
&his type of adverb 8keterangan akibat 9 is placed at the mid position,
after ob!ect or main clause, ample 8..$39
?an mungkin ketika aku duduk disitulah aku diteropongnya, sehingga
dia tahu letyak tahi lalatku dileher.
).+.. B%&% B&D%@A%@ 2I@%L$&#"#%@
a. 2unction*
&his adverb descripts the result of an activity that wants to be
achieved.
b. 2ormation*
&o form this type of adverb we use some con!unctions that function as
adverbs. In the novel ;Se!uta Fintu <intaku= the researcher find two
words*
8+7$39 supaya and 8+.$.09 untuk
c. Fosition*
In the novel the researcher had read, this type of adverb is placed at the
mid position, example* 8+7$379
)ahkan ada yang memelihara kumis supaya mirip dengan )!orn )org.
8+.$.09 &adi ketika, papa mau men!enguk orang sakit, papa memberi
uang untuk beli bunga.
).+/ B%&% B&D%@A%@ BOCF%D%&IG$FD)%@?I@A%@
a. 2unction*
Beterangan komparatif modifies an activity by comparing*
' a process to another process, or
' a condition to another condition.
b. 2ormation*
&here are some definite words that express this adverb 8keterangan
perbandingan9. In the novel ;Se!uta Fintu <intaku= there are two
words only, they are*
8+1$.+9 seperti
8+3$.9 bagai
)oth of them are stems,so there is not any change to use them as
adverb.
c. Fosition*
&he position or this adverb in the novel ;Se!uta pintu <intaku= is at the
mid of the sentence. xample* 8+1$.+9
Bini aku seperti berubah.
8+3$.9 Badang kala Cas )as memperlakukanku bagai anak kecil.
).+0. B%&% B&D%@A%@ FD(%&%S%@
a. 2unction*
;Beterangan perwatasan= describes exception about an activity.
b. 2ormation*
&here is one base adverb that in use in the novel ;Se!uta Fintu <intaku*
and expresses QBeterangan perwatasan=. It is 66$+79 hanya.
c. Fosition*
In the novel ;Se!uta pintu cintaku ; the word expressing this adverbs is
placed at the mid position.
86$+79 yang kudengar hanya !erit Eanie, lawanku, lalu aku tak
sadarkan diri lagi.
C. THE SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES BET$EEN ENGLISH
AND INDONESIAN ADVERB.
%fter doing the analysis, what is presented for the result or data
analysis on the similarities and differences- Some similarities and
differences aspects are on the kind, formation and position.
<.+. &, SICIL%DI&IS )&(@ @ALIS, %@? I@?O@SI%@
%?GD)
c.+.+. &he similarities on the kind*
@ALIS, I@?O@SI%@
+. %dverbs of Canner +
.
%dverbium Bualitatif
.. %dverbs of &ime
8?efinite time9
.
.
%dverbium &emporal
/. %dverbs of Flace and
?irection
/
.
Beterangan &empat
0. %dverbs of xpressing
?egrees of <ertainty
0
.
Beterangan Codalitas
8Bepastian dan Besangsian9
1. %dverbs of 2re:uency 1
.
Beterangan %spek 8frekuentatif
R habituatif9
3. %dverbs Of degree 3
.
Beterangan ?era!ad
<.+... &he similarities on formation
&%)L*O
@ALIS, 8F%$LI@9 I@?O@SI%@ 8F%A$LI@9
+. %
dverb of place and direction
FDFOSI&IO@I@O#@$F,D%S
84$09 in the door* in I the door
8+1$+9 under the coat* under I the
coat, etc.
..
%dverbs of &ime
)%S %?GD)S
8.0$/09 now
8+/$+.9 tomorrow
8//$049 soon
<OC)I@%&IO@
8+1$//9
a. long minutes ago
+. Beterangan&empat$%dverbium Loktif
FDFOSI&IO@ I @O#@$F,D%S
86$/9 diIsurat'surat kabar* disurat'surat kabar
8//$49 ke I )erkeley #niversity, etc.
.. Beterangan (aktu)ase
%?GD)S
8+1$.+9 kini
8++$.9 tadi
8+73$59 dulu
<OC)I@%&IO@
8/+$.39
beberapa menit kemudian
C , kemudian
,ead Codifier
C , ago
,ead Codifier
Similarities on formation
/.
%dverbs of fre:uency
8+/$+19 always
8.4$+69 never
/. Beterangan %spek
82rekuentative R ,abituatif9
)%S %?GD)S
8..$./9 kadang
8++$.39 !arang,etc
0. %dverbs of 2re:uency
S&C I ?S
#S#%L I ly; usually
<OC)I@%&IO@
%?GD)'@O#@
Once a week
1. %dvebs expressing degrees of
certainty
Stem I ds
Sure I ly; surely
3. %dverbs of degree
)%S %?GD)S
nough
Only
Gery
tc.
0.
Beterangan %spek 82rekuentatif R
,abituatif9
S&C I ?S
)iasa I nya
<OC)I@%&IO@
%?GD)'@O#@
Badang kala
1.
Beterangan Codalitas 8kepastian
dan Besangsian9
S&C I ?S
rupa I nya; rupanya
rasa I nya; rasanya
3.
Bata Beterangan ?era!at
)ase %dverbs
,ampir
,anya
%mat
tc.
/. &, ?GD@<S )&(@ @ALIS,
%@? I@?O@SI%@ %?GD)S.
..+ &he differences on the kind*
@ALIS, I@?O@SI%@
+. %dverbs of &ime
8indefinite time9
+ L
.. L
'
'
'
'
/. %dverbs of ?uration
0. %dv
erbs of particle
0. L
'
'
'
'
'
1.
L
3. L
4. L
5. L
6. L
+7. L
++. L
+.. L
/. Beterangan
modalitas*
' Fengakuan
' Larangan
' Bondisional
' Beheranan.
0. L
0. L
1. Bata
Beterangan %spek*
' Inkoatif
' ?uratif
' Ferfektif
' Comental
' Bondisional
3. Bata Beterangan
Instrumental
4. Bata Beterangan
Bomitatif
5. Bata Beterangan
Bonsesif
6. Bata Beterangan
Bausal
+7. Bata Beterangan
%kibat
++. Bata Beterangan
2inal
+.. Bata Beterangan
Bomperative
+/. Bata Beterangan
Ferwatasan
/..... &he differences on the formation
@ALIS, I@?O@SI%@
I. %?GD)S O2 C%@@D I. B&D%@A%@
B#%LI&%&I2
+. %22IBS I S&C
'
+. %2IBS I S&C
Se'nya I enak; seenaknya
.. %?"<&IG I ?S
Slow I ly; slowly
Furpose I ly; purposely
etc
.. %?"<&IG I ?S
'
'
/. @O#@ I ?. S#22IMS
<are I ful I ly; carefully
,elp I less I ly; helplessly
Frotecti I ve I ly; protectively
/. @O#@ I ?. S#22IMS
'
'
'
0. ?F I @O#@
% I part; apart
0. ?F I @O#@
'
1. IDDA#L%D FDO<SS
good; well
1. IDDA#L%D FDO<SS
'
3. <OCF%DISO@ O2 %?GD)
(ell; better
3. <OCF%DISO@ O2
%?GD)
'
4. FDFOSISI I %?"<&IG
'
'
4. FDFOSISI I %?"<&IG
dengan I cekatan; dengan
cetakan
dengan I fasih; dengan fasih
5. FDFOSISI I @O#@
F,D%S
'
5. FDFOSISI I @O#@
F,D%S
dengan I panggilan man!a;
dengan panggilan man!a
6. D?#FLI<%&IO@
'
6. D?#FLI<%&IO@
&erkikih'terkikih
II. %?GD)S O2 FL%< R
?ID<&IO@
II. B%&% B&D%@A%@
&CF%&
+. %22IM%&IO@ FDO<SS +. %22IM%&IO@ FDO<SS
+.
a.
?F I S&C
a I cross; across
a I round; around
a I long; along
etc.
+
a.
?F I S&C
a I round; around
'
+.b. S&C I ?S +.b. S&C I ?S
2or I ward; forward
)ackI ward; backward
'
'.
.. <OC)I@%&IO@
Freposition I demonstrative
'
.. <OC)I@%&IO@
Freposition I demonstratif
pronoun
di I sini; disini
/. <OCFO#@?
Some I where; somewhere
/. <OCFO#@?
'
III %?GD)S O2 &IC III B%&% B&D%@A%@
(%B&#
+. S&C I ?S
Comentary I ly; momentarily
Sudden I ly; suddenly
+. S&C I ?S
'
'
.. <OC)I@%&IO@
Codifier I ,%?
&his time
C ,
.. <OC)I@%&IO@
CO?I2ID I ,%?
'
/ %2IBS I D?#FLI<%&IO@
'
/ %2IBS I
D?#FLI<%&IO@
Se ' nya I lama; selama'
lamanya
IG %?GD)S MFDSI@A
?ADS O2 <D&%I@&E
IG B%&% B&D%@A%@
CO?%LI&%S
+. )%S %?GD)S
'
+. )%S %?GD)S
tentu$pasti$mungkin, etc
.. %2IBS I S&C
'
.. %2IBS I S&C
Se'nya I kira; sekiranya
G. %?GD)S O2 2DK#@<E
D?#FLI<%&IO@
'
G. B%&% B&D%@A%@
%SFB D?#FLI<%&IO@
&iba'tiba
GI %?GD)S O2 ?#D%&IO@
FDFOSI&IO@ I @O#@ F,.
2or a long time
GI '
'
GII. %?GD)S O2 F%D&I<LS
down
back
off, etc.
GII. '
GIII ' GIII B%&% B&D%@A%@
%L%& ?@A%@ I @O#@
F,D%S
dengan tinta cetak emas
dengan bobilnya,etc.
IM. ' IM. B%&% B&D%@A%@
BOCI&%&I2 ?@A%@ I
FDSO@%L FDO@O#@
dengan )!orn )org
dengan kamu etc
M. ' M. B%&% B&D%@A%@
FDL%(%@%@
<O@"#@<&IO@$B%&%
&#A%S
tapi
namun
etc.
MI. ' MI. B%&% B&D%@A%@
S)%)
<O@"#@<&IO@$B%&%
&#A%S
karena
sebab
etc.
MII. ' MII. B%&% B&D%@A%@
BO@SB#&I2
<O@"#@<&IO@$B%&%
&#A%S
sehingga
sampai,etc.
MIII ' MIII B%&% B&D%@A%@
2I@%L
<O@"#@<&IO@$B%&%
&#A%S
untuk
Supaya,
etc.
MIG
.
' MIG
.
B%&% B&D%@A%@
BOCF%D%&I2
BO@"#@<&IO@ $B%&%
&#A%S*
seperti
sebagai
MG. ' MGI B%&% B&D%@A%@
FD(%&%S%@
<O@"#@<&IO@$$B%&%
&#A%S*
hanya
kecuali
/.../. &he differences in the position.
@ALIS, I@?O@SI%@
+ %dverbs of Canner
Cid position
'
+. Bata Beterangan Bualitatif
'
)eginning$initial position
. %dverbs of Flace
Cid position
'
. Bata Beterangan &empat
'
)eginning$initial position
/ '
'
/ Bata Beterangan Codalitas
Initial position
%dverbs of ?egree
'
0. Bata keterangan dera!ad
Initial position
1. %dverbs of ?uration
Cid position
1. '
'
3. ' 3. Bata Beterangan
Instrumental
nd$final position
4. ' 4. Bata Beterangan Bomitatif
nd position
5. ' 5. Bata Beterangan Bonsensif
Initial position
Cid position
6. ' 6. Bata Beterangan Bausal
Cid position
Initial position
+7. ' +7. Bata Beterangan
Bonsekuetif
Cid position
++. ' ++. Bata Beterangan 2inal
Cid position
+.. ' +.. Bata keterangan Bomparatif
Cid position
+/. ' +/. Bata keterangan perwatasan
Cid position
+0. %dverbs of fre:uency +0. Bata keterangan aspek
nd position '
CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
A. CONCLUSION
%fter reading the data presentation and analysis of nglish and
Indonesian adverb in chapter IG, the researcher tries to draw conclusion as
follows*
+. &here are 5 kinds of nglish %dverb and +0 kinds of Indonesian adverb
with the description as follows*
@ALIS, I@?O@SI%@
+. %dverbs of manner +. Bata keterangan kualitatif
.. %dverbs of Flace R ?irection .. Bata Beterangan &empat
8%dverbium Lokatif9
/. %dverbs of &ime
8definite R indefinite9
/. Bata Beterangan waktu
0. %dverbs expressing degrees of
certainty
0. Bata keterangan modalitas *
' pengakuan
' kepastian
' kesangsian
' larangan
' kondisional
' keheranan
1. %dverbs of 2re:uency 1. Bata keterangan %spek
' Inkoatif
' ?uratif
' Ferfective
' Comental
' 2rekuentatif
' ,abituatif
3. %dverbs of ?uration 3. '
4. %dverbs of ?egree 4. Bata Beterangan
Instrumental$alat
5. %dverbs of Farticle 5. Bata Beterangan Bomitatif
6. Bata keterangan Bonsesif
+7. Bata Beterangan Bausal
++. Bata keterangan %kibat
+.. Bata keterangan &u!uan
+/. Bata Beterangan
Bomparatif$Ferbandingan
+0. Bata Beterangan Ferwatasan
.. 2rom the kinds of the nglish and Indonesian adverbs above we know
that some types of the nglish adverbs are the same of Indonesian
adverbs, but some of them are different.
a. &he similarities are*
a.+ %dverbs of Canner P Bata Beterangan Bualitatif
a.. %dverbs of Flace P Bata Beterangan &empat
a./ %dverbs of &ime P Bata keterangan waktu
a.0 %dverbs expressing P Bata Beterangan Codalitas in ?egrees
of <ertainty8Bepastian dan Besangsian9
a.1 %dverbs of fre:uency P Bata keterangan %spek8frekuentatif R habituatif9
a.3 %dverbs of ?egree P Bata keterangan ?era!ad
b. &he differences of the kind between nglish and Indonesian %dverbs*
@ALIS, I@?O@SI%@
+. %dverbs of time
8indefinite time9
+. Bata keterangan kualitatif
.. %dverbs of ?uration. .. Bata Beterangan &empat
8%dverbium Lokatif9
/. %dverbs of Farticles /. Bata Beterangan waktu
0. '
'
'
'
'
0. Bata keterangan modalitas*
In*
' pengakuan
' larangan
' kondisional
' keheranan
1. '
'
'
'
'
1. Bata keterangan %spek
' Inkoatif
' ?uratif
' Ferfektif
' Comental
3. ' 3. Bata keteranganinstrumental
4. ' 4. Bata Beterangan instrumental
5. ' 5. Bata Beterangan Bonsesif
6. ' 6. Bata keterangan Bausal
+7. ' +7. Bata Beterangan Bonsesif
++. ' ++. Bata keterangan akibat
+.. ' +.. Bata keterangan Bomparatif
+/. ' +/. Bata Beterangan perwatasan
/. &he rules of the process of the nglish and Indonesian %dverbs
formation are as follows*
@ALIS, I@?O@SI%@
a. &he use of base adverb
8+/$+.9 tomorrow
8.0$/09 now
8+/$+19 always
8.4$+69 never
a. &he use of base adverbs
8++$.9 tadi
86$+9 pasti
86$.9 sering
8+1$.+9 kini
etc etc.
b.
b.+
%22IM%&IO@ FDO<SS*
S&C I ?S
84$..9 seductive I ly*
seductively
8++$/9 patient I ly;
patiently
86$//9 for I wards
forward;
b.+ S&C I ?S8%2IBS9
8+7$+39 rasa I nya; rasanya
8.1$+69 rupa I nya; rupanya
8+7$/9 biasanya; biasanya
b.. @O#@ I S#22IMS
8+7$.59 care I ful I ly*
carefully
8+/$./9 help I less I ly;
helplessly
81/$+59 protect I ive I ly;
Frotecttively
tc.
%??* 8nounI?S9 makes
derived ad!ectives 8derived
ad!ectiveI?S9 makes
adverbs.
?S* derivational suffix
b.. @O#@ I S#22IMS
'
'
'
b./ ?F I S&C
@ALIS,
8+4$/69 a I part; apart
8+1$+19 a Ihead; ahead
85$..9 a I long; along
b./ ?F I S&C
I@?O@SI%@
'
b.0 ' b.0 %2IBS S'@E% I DOO&
8.6$+9 se'nya I enak; seenaknya
8++$+9 se'nya I betul; sebetulnya
b.1 ' b.1
.
%2IBS S'@E% I D?#FLI<%&IO@
8++$.9 se'nya I lama 8red.9;
selama'lamanya
c. D?#FLI<%&IO@
'
c. D?#FLI<%&IO@
8+..$09 diam'diam
8+/7$+9 tirkikih'kikih
d. <OCFO#@?I@A
8./$039 some I where;
somewhere
8+5$++9 to I night; tonight
d. <OC)I@%&IO@
e. <OC)I@%&IO@ e. <OC)I@%&IO@
e.+ <ombination with
Freposition
e.+. <ombination with preposition
F%&&D@* FDF I
@O#@$ F,D%S
84$09 in the door
8+7$59 in my moth
8/.$39 in ,ollywood
?p* ?erivation Frefix
F%&&D@* FDF I
FDSO@%L FDO@O#@
@ALIS,
'
F%&&D@* FDFI @O#@$F,D%S
86$/9 di surat'surat kabar
8+/5$+79 dengan mobilnya
8//$49 ke )erkeley #niversity
F%&&D@* FDF I FDSO@%L
FDO@O#@
I@?@SI%@
8.0$+.9 dengan kamu
8+70$.79 bersama ibuku, etc
e.. <OC)I@%&IO@
(I&,O#&
FDFOSI&IO@
F%&&D@*
CO?I2ID I ,%?
85$09 this time
C ,
8+.$69 last week
C ,
F%&&D@*
,%?ICO?I2ID
8+5$++9 a few minutes ago
,ead Codifier
8/5$+9 a long time ago
C ,
<OC)I@%&IO@ (I&, FDFOSI&IO@
'
F%&&D@*
,%? ICO?I2ID
8/+$.39 beberapa menit kemudian
,ead modifier
8//$+9 tahun lalu
f. #se particles as adverbs
84$+9 down
84$+.9 back
84$49 over, etc.
f. #se of participle as adverbs
'
'
g. #se of con!unctions as
adverbs
'
g. #se of con!unction 8functions words9 as
adverbs
8+7$+.9 tapi
8+/5$49 namun
84+$69 karena, etc
h. IDDA#L%D FDO<SS
85$/79 good; well
h. IDDA#L%D FDO<SS
'
i. %?GD) I@
<OCF%DISO@
85$+.9 (ell; better
i. %?GD) %@? <OCF%DISO@
'
0. )ased on the description of adverbs formation above in both of in two
languages, the researcher finds some similarities and differences of
nglish and Indonesian adverbs 8on the formation9, with the explanation*
a. &hey are similar on the uses of
@ALIS, I@?O@SI%@
a.+. )ase %dverbs a.+. )ase %dverbs
In this process there is no change of part of speech.
a.. %22IM%&IO@
FDO<SS
@ALIS,
a... %22IM%&IO@ FDO<SS
I@?O@SI%
a...+. S&C I ?S a...+. S&C I?S
&his process changes the part of speech; ad!ective to adverb, or noun to adverb.
a./ <OC)I@%&IO@ a./ <OC)I@%&IO@
a./.+ <OC)I@%&IO@ (I&,
FDFOSI&IO@
8@ALIS,9
Fattern* Frep I
@oun$phrase
a./.+ <OC)I@%&IO@ (I&,
FDFOSI&IO@
8I@?OSI%@9
Fattern* Frep I @oun$phrase
a./... <OC)I@%&IO@
(I&,O#&
FDFOSI&IO@
Fattern* ,ead I Codifier
.a./.. <OC)I@%&IO@ (I&,O#&
FDFOSI&IO@
Fattern* ,ead I Codifier
&he combination in a. /.+ changes the part of speech; noun to adverb. &he
combination in a. /. . changes the part of speech; noun L ad!ective$adverb to
adverb.
b. &he process of nglish and Indonesian adverbs are different in the uses
of*
@ALIS, I@?O@SI%@
b.+ @O#@ I S#22IMS
e.g. care Iful I ly;
carefully
8nounIthe first suffix9
makes derived ad!ective
8derived ad!ectiveI
the second suffix makes
adverb9
b.+. '
b.. ?F I S&C
e.g. a I part; apart
a I long; along
&his process changes the
part of speech; noun or
ad!ective to adverb.
b.. '
b./ ' b./ %2IBS S'@E% I DOO&
e.g. se'nyaIenak; seenaknya
&his process changes the part of speech;
ad!ective to adverb
b.0 '
@ALIS,
b.0 %2IBS S'@E% I D?
e.g se'nyaIlamaIred; selama'lamanya
I@?O@SI%@
%ffiks I reduplication of an ad!ective
changes the part of speech; ad!ective to
adverb.
&he formation process in b.+ L b.0 is called affixation process.
b.1 <OCFO#@?I@A
8@ALIS,9
&his process means
combination of some
words to become a
word$group of words with
a new meaning. &his
process changes the part
of speech; noun to adverb;
).1
I@?O@SI%@
'
or ad!ective to adverb,.
e.g.;
sometimes8some is
ad!ective, times is a noun9.
@ALIS, I@?O@SI%@
b.3. '
@ALIS,
b.3 D?#FLI<%&IO@
It is a grammatical repetition process of
word, fully or not.
e.g diam* diam'diam.
&his process changes the part of speech;
verb to adverb.
I@?O@SI%@
b.4 <OC)I@%&IO@ (I&,
FDFOSI&IO@
Fattern* '
b.4 <OC)I@%&IO@ (I&,
FDFOSI&IO@
Fattern; dengan I personal pronoun
8.0$+.9 dengan kamu
8+70$+.9 bersama ibuku
b.5 <OC)I@%&IO@
(I&,O#&
FDFOSI&IO@
Fattern*
CO?I2ID I ,%?
85$09 this time
C ,
8+.$69 last week
C ,
b.5 <OC)I@%&IO@ (I&,O#&
FDFOSI&IO@
'
b.6 #se of con!unction as
adverbs.
'
b.6 #se the particles 8preposition as adverb9
b.+
7
#se of con!unction as
adverbs.
b.+
7
#se of con!unctions as adverbs*
Sebab, karena, untuk, sehingga, etc
b.+
+
#se of irregular process*
good; well
b.+
+
'
b.+
.
#se adverb in comparison*
(ell; better
b.+
.
'
%??* &he process in b.4 changes the part of speech; noun to adverb.
&he process in b.5 changes the part of speech; ad!ective'noun to
adverb.
&he process in b.6 changes the part of; particles to become adverb. &he
process in b.++ changes the part of speech to; ad!ective to adverb.
&he process in b.+. uses a comparative form of an adverb.
1. Some of the nglish and Indonesian adverbs can be placed in three
categories of position* initial$ front, mid, and, the end$final position,
they are stated as follows*
1.+ Some adverbs that are placed at initial$front position*
@ALIS, I@?O@SI%@
+ ' +. Bata keterangan waktu, e.g* ,anya
beberapa menit kemudian ayahku
pulang.
. ' .. Bata keterangan modlitas*
8Dupanya dia masih punya
perasaan9
/ ' /. Bata keterangan perlawanan*
&api ketika dia menaruhkan
setangkai bunga mawar di tempat
tidurku, namanya, @agib
1.. &he nglish %nd Indonesian adverbs that are placed at the mid position
@ALIS, I@?O@SI%@
+. %dverbs expressing degrees of
certainty
+. '
.. %dverbs of fre:uency .. '
/. %dverbs of degree /. Bata keterangan dera!at
0. %dverbs of particles 0. '
1. ' 1. Bata keterangan kausal
3. ' 3. Bata keterangan akibat
4. ' 4. Bata keterangan final
5. ' 5. Bata keterangan
Bomparatif
6. ' 6. Bata keterangan
perwatasan
+7
.
%dverbs of duration +7. '
1./ &he nglish and Indonesian adverbs that are placed at the end $final
position*
@ALIS, I@?O@SI%@
+. %dverbs Of manner +. Bata keterangan kualitatif
.. %dverbs Of time .. '
/. %dverbs Of place /. Bata keterangan tempat
0. %dverbs Of fre:uency 0. '
1. ' 1. Bata keterangan alat
3. ' 3. Bata keterangankomitatif
B. SUGGESTION
2rom the discussion and analyses in chapter Iv, the researcher finds
some similarities and differences between nglish and Indonesian adverb,
especially on the kind, formation and position. &he similarities on the kind,
for example* %dverb of manner is the same kind as kata keterangan
kualitatif. In the formation, adverbs of place have the same process as
keterangan tempat in using the combination of preposition and noun phrase
8in the door; disebelah kamarku9. On the position, adverb s of manner have
the same position as kata keterangan kualitatif in Indonesian 8end9.
&he researcher also gives some examples about the differences, as
follows; on the kind, nglish has adverbs of particles but Indonesian
doesn>t. On the formation, Indonesia has reduplication process, but nglish
does not. On the position keterangan tempat has beginning$initial position
(hile adverbs of place does not.
Seeing this fact, the researcher assumes that the learners of nglish
sub!ect as a foreign language will get some problem 8difficulties9 in to the
materials that have differences from mother tongue, but not in the similar
ones. So the researcher would like to suggest to the learning nglish writers
as follows*
+. &he nglish teaching materials on the formation of adverbs made by
the teacher of nglish or the authors of nglish teaching materials
books should be based on the comparison of nglish and Indonesian
adverbs'formations;
.. &he nglish teaching materials on the formations of adverb which
have the similarities with Indonesian for examples, the rules of
derivational process on pattern its changes, should be put in the first
order; (hile those which have the differences, for examples; the rules
of compounding and adverbs in comparison, should be put in the
second order and be given more attention and explanation than those
which have the similarities land
/. &he nglish teaching materials on the formation of adverbs which
arranged based on the formation in comparison of nglish and
Indonesian adverbs'formations should be done correctly. So, the mis
interference of the two languages can be avoided.
BILBIOGRAPHI
+. %" &homson and Cartinet, +657, % Fractical
nglish Arammar, Oxford #niversity Fress.
.. %drian %kma!ian, Dichard %. ?amers,
Doberto, C. ,arnish, Linguistics* %n Introduction to Language %nd
<ommunication, +650, #niversity of %riHona, London, ngland, &he CI&
Fress <anbridge Cassachusetts.
/. )alai Fustaka, Fedoman #mum )ahasa
Indonesia yang ?isempurnakan, +65., "akarta ?epdikbud.
0. 2rencies, (. @elson, &he Structure of
%merican nglish Arammar, +615, <o. @ew york, &he Donald Fress.
1. Aeorge Eule, &he Study of Language,
Lousiana State #niversity.
3. Beraf, Aorys, ?r, &ata )ahasa
Indonesia,+650, nde, @usa Indah, 2lores.
4. C. Damlan,?rs, Frof, Corfologi, +651,
Eogyakarta, <v. Baryomo.
5. Cotinggo )usye, Se!uta Fintu <intaku,
Aultom %gency, "akarta.
6. Cickey Spillane, &he )ig Bill, <orgi )ook,
<ash Sale ?epartment, F.O. )ox. ++, 2almouth, <ornwall.
+7. Dobert Bhorm, nglish Sentence Structure,
+64+, &he #niversity of Cichigan.
++. Surana, 2x, ,impunan Catery &ata )ahasa,
+66., &iga Serangkai.
App&"i' (
&, LIS& O2 S@&@<S &,%& <O@&%I@ SOC @ALIS, %?GD)S
)%S? O@ &, @OGL ; &, )IA BILL= )E CI<BE
SFILL%@.
PAGE LINE SENTENCES $ITH THE ADVERBS
+ + It was one of those nights when the sky came down and
wrapped itself around the world.
. &he rain clawed at the windows of the bar like an angry cat
and tried to sneak in every time some drunk lunched in the
door.
1 &he placed rocked of stale beer and angry man with enough
cheap perfume thrown in.
4 &wo drunks with a nickel between them arguing over what to
play on the !uke until a tomato in a dress that was tight a year
ago pushed the key that started off something.
+. She saw me sitting there with my stool tipped back against the
cigarette machine and change of a fin on the bar.
.+ ?on>t gentlemen usually buy ladies a drink-
.. She tried to lower her eyelids seductively.
5 + She finished her drink and was going to stick it out anyway.
0 &his time she scowled a little bit.
.. % fight started down at the other end and spread along the bar.
.5 )ut biology got the better of common sense again.
5 /7 )ut enough so that in about five minutes I damn well.
0+ ,e shuffled over to ones of the both and dropped the bundle
on the seat.
5 01 ,e set the drink down and took off the bundle.
6 +. (hen they came away he bent his heat.
// It only took two of them and the guy slammed forward on his
face.
/0 %nother shadow ran under the light.
+7 5 I opened the cigarettes and stuck one in my mouth.
+. % !agged streak of lighting cut across the sky to answer me.
+6 I pointed my butt at the thing on the sidewalk.
.3 ,e dipped his hand in my coat.
.5 ,e looked them both over carefully.
0/ &he driver of the car ran over him, purposely.
++ / &he cop said patiently.
4 So at one o>clock in the morning.
+. 0 )ut one show had a whole in the bottom.
++ (e had to scrape him away from between the tires.
6 Eou should a seen what we had last week.
+6 Fat was vague figure in a trench coat, watching me closely.
.4 (hat I knew him of him came strictly from the papers.
03 I want to know what the hell goes on. Eou got another wild
hair up your tail.
+/ 3 &he rain stopped momentarily.
+. ,ow many people behind the walls and windows were alive
today who wouldn>t be alive tomorrow.
+/ +1 ,e looked teed off like he always did when he came face to
face with a corpse.
./ )y that, time most of the customers were so helplessly drunk.
&hey could not remember anything anyway.
+0 0 I said sarcastically.
.5 (hen it hit him it was too late hit him.
/0 Suddenly he grinned at me.
+1 + I knew his shoulders were bunching up under the coat so go a
head and rave.
+1 So go a head.
+4 I>ll tell you how sick I>m of what goes on in this town.
.+ "ust take a look at the papers everyday.
// ,e look at me steadily a long minute.
/4 I>ll call you in the morning.
3 ++ I stared at the door, swinging shut, my arms tight around the
kid, hearing his words come.
++ )ack slowly.
/+ I might find low Arindle on 14
th
street in a place called the
,op Scatch were a room was a available for some heavy sugar
card games once a week.
0+ ,e turned around in his seat to make sure I wasn>t.
.. I wrapped the coat around the kid and went out in the
doorway.
+4 +6 ,e left the tray on the table.
/6 ,is fingers were curled up like he wanted to take me apart at
the seams.
+4 00 It was as close as he could come to looking normally
surprised.
05 I learned forward and leaned on the table.
+5 + % long time go he worked for <harly 2allon.
/
I>m wondering whether or not he was winking for you tonight.
05 I said ;Fenn station=, to the driver, held the kid against to
soften the !oys of the ride and paid of the driver a few minutes
later.
+6 +4 ,er breath caught in her throat sharply.
+5 ,e smiled sleepily.
./ / On the floor downstairs was an elderly retired nurses
,ollywood.
.. .+ (hen I come in, he tossed them aside.
./ 6 Sometimes you can>t do what you want to do.
.3 @ow spell it back words.
/ (hen they entered they found a woman sprawled on the floor
/7 ,e would have taken the dough along.
03 &hat>s on top of a garbage pail somewhere.
.1 .0 % four'story brownstone that seemed to tilt out towards.
/6 I stood balancing my self on my toes lightly.
6 )oth the priest and the super exchanged glances :uickly.
+/1 %pparently they thought that when he came back to get his kit
he stashed the money.
.. &he cop was here last night.
.1 ./ &oday-
.4 + Ce and the father here was the only ones around here that
knew he had a record.
+6 @ever had a drop all that time.
.5 . I liked the guy pretty much.
.1 )ut surely you can>t be serious.
.6 .7 I got playing all the angles against each other until all I could
see was ?ackier>s face
/7 .6 Eou had better be properly sympathetic, Cr. ,ammer.
/. 3 &en years ago she was an up'and'coming star in ,ollywood.
// 04 &wo guys are dead already and there>ll be another on the way
soon.
04 + (e aren>t drinking very fancy tonight, are we-
0 Oh, occasionally. I don>t go much for these places.
1+ 0 @ow, if you will stay put I will whip up a couple of
sandwiches.
.5 She looked painfully unhappy.
1/ 3 Some how I got my eyes open.
1+
10
+5
.0
,er arms tightened protectively around the kid.
&he nurse was still eying suspiciously.
+11 +/ It was an involuntarily spasm of hate suffusing her entire body
at once.
+14 /5 "erry was in a chair holding his broken arm to his chest.
+15 +5 #nfortunately, you killed each other.
LIS& * &, <L%SSI2I<%&IO@ O2 @ALIS, %?GD)S )%S? O@ &,
@OGL ;&, )IA BILL ; )E Cickey Spillane.
I. TABLE % ADVEBS OF MANNER.
PAGE)
LINE
AFFI*ATION PROCESS PAGE)
LINE
ANOTHER
PROCESS
4$.. Seductively /0$0+ awfully 5$.5 )etter
+7$.5 <arefully 5+$. softly 5$/7 (ell
+7$0/ Furposely 5+$00 really 1/$3 Somehow
++$/ Fatiently 1/$.1 Aracefully ' '
+.$+6 <losely 1+$.5 painfully ' '
+.$.4 Strictly 10$.0 suspiciously ' '
+/$./ ,elplessly 1/$+5 protectively ' '
+0$0 Sarcastically ' '
+1$// Steadily +11$+/ Infortunately ' '
+4$/6 %part ' '
+4$00 @ormally ' '
+6$+4 Sharply ' '
+6$+5 Sleepily ' '
.1$/6 Lightly ' '
.3$+. Kuickly ' '
/7$.6 Froperly ' '
/.$.6 Fromptly ' '
//$+3 <uriously ' '
//$.7 ?irectly ' '
/0$+3 2inancially ' '
II. TABLE % ADVEBS OF PLACE AND DIRECTION
PAGE)LINE + PAGE)LINE + PAGE)LINE +
AFFI*ATION PREPOSITON USAGE COMPOUND ,
OTHERS
4$. %round 4$0 In the door ./$03 Somewhere
+7$+. %cross 5$0+ On the seat /.$05 there
5$.. along +7$+6 in my mouth '
..$.+ aside +7$+6 On the side walk '
..$.+ aside +.$0 In the button '
6$//2orward +4$+6 On the table '
./$.3 )ackward +7$.3 In my coat '
' +1$+ #nder the coat '
' +1$ +4 In this town '
' +3$.. In the door way '
' ./$./ On the floor '
' /.$3 In ,ollywood '
' /1$+ In &he building '
' /5$+ %t the corner '
' 0.$4 %t home '
' +14$/5 In a chair '
III. TABLE % ADVEBS OF TIME
PAGE)LINE +
IN A $ORD
PAGE)LINE +
IN A GROUP OF
$ORDS
PAGE)LINE
AFFI*ATION
+/$+. tomorrow 3$0 &his time +/$3 Comentarily
+1$.+ very day ++$4 In the morning +0$/0 Suddenly
+5$++ tonight +.$6 Last week '
.0$/0 now +1$// % long minutes ago '
.3$./ today +5$++ % few minutes later '
//$03 already +5$+ % long time ago '
./$.3 )ackward .3$.. Last night '
' /.$1 &en years ago '
' /1$+ &hat afternoon '
' 07$0 &en minutes ago '
' 0+$0/ very week '
IV. ADVERBS E*PRESSING DEGREES OF CERTAINTY
8.5$.19 Surely8derivative adverb9.
V. ADVERBS OF DEGREES
BASE ADVERBS DERIVED ADVERBS
8+/$+19 %lways 84$.+9 #sually
8.4$+69 @ever 8./$69 Sometimes
8.3$/+9 Once a week
804$09 Occasionally.
VI. ADVERBS OF DURATION
8/0$.9 2or a long time
VII. ADVERBS OF DEGREES
84$19 nough
8.4$+9 Only
804$+9 Gery
8+0$.59 &oo
8.5$.9 Cuch
VIII. ADVERBS OF PARTICLES
84$+9 ?own 84$49 Over
84$+.9 )ack 85$+9 Out
85$019 Off 86$+.9 away
App&"i' (
&, LIS& O2 S@&@<S &,%& <O@&%I@ SOC I@?O@SI%@
%?GD) )%S? O@ &, @OGL ;S"#&% FI@&# <I@&%B#=
)E CO&I@AAO )#SEI.
PAGE LINE SENTENCES $ITH ADVERBS
6 + Bau tentu kenal siapa diriku.
. Fastilah kau sering membaca nama rna ,adi pranata di
surat'surat kabar.
1 ?i halaman pertama pada headline hampir semua Boran
tertera berita bahwa rna tidak akan mungkin bermain tennis
lagi selama'lamanya.
+7 Eang terdengar hanya !erit Eanie, lawanku lalu aku tidak
sdarkan diri lagi.
+7 . ?an teman'teman cewek sesekolahku yang kurasa ada hati
padaku biasanya meman!angkan rambutnya lalu mengikat
kepalanya dengan bande biruputihmerah atau merah putih
biru.
3 )ahkan ada yang memelihara kumis supaya mirip dengan
)!urie )org.
+7 Busangka dia malahan dia tamu yang kasar.
+.. &api ketika menaruhkan setangkai bunga mawar di me!a
sudut tempat tidurku, lalu dia ulur kan tangan, kudengar dia
menyebut namanya, @agib.
+7 +3 @ama itu rasanya pernah diucapkan oleh guru se!arah.
.4. ;Bo: kamu disini-= tanyaku.
++ + Sebetulnya belum boleh
. ;Cemang tadi suster melarng,= katanya.
4. ;Saya memang baru diIndonesia ini.=
5 ;Sebelum ini dimana-= tanyaku.
++ Besanku dia amat, amat, amat baik.
+3 %ku !arang menemukan cowok seusia @agib O
.3 ;%ku sih bukan tamu. %ku sudah kenal siapa kamu.
+. + Dumahku &ak !auh dari rumah kamu.
4 ?ari !endela saya teropong kamu.
... &adi, ketika saya bilang mau men!enguk orang sakit, papa
memberi uang untuk beli bunga.
.1 #ang pas betul.
+/ 5 Itu di dalam keme!amu ada buku.
+/ Ea. Dasanya aku !adi tokoh pria di buku ini.
+0 .. Suatu saat ketika aku sudah kenyang penngalaman.
+1 / )arang kali sa!a begitu.
+3 .. Badangkala Cas )as memperlakukanka bagai anak kecil.
+6 .4 &etapi Berinduan untuk !umpa cowok yang namanya @agib
Burnia dewa itu rasanya seperti melon!ak'lon!ak.
.7 1 ?i sebelah kamarku adalah kamar Bak Lili.
04 4 )erkali'kali aku menghela nafas dalam'dalam.
05 1 )ulan purnama bagai bersandar di langit cerah.
06 3 O. dicetak dengan tinta cetak emas dengan warna dasar
kertas military color.
1+ .+ O tampak dua tiga lembar uban di kepalanya.
30 . @agib )aladewa dengan begitu !u!ur menceritakan seluruh
hidupnya secara telan!ang.
4+ 6 ;AibJ= aku berseru agak lantang dengan panggilan man!a,
karena mungkin dia sudah duduk di bawah.
45 4 %da baiknya kamu !angan berhubungan lagi dengan @agib,
kendatipun kamu cinta padanya.
50 5 &entu ada sesuatu yang amat penting yang mau kamu
katakana.
+7/ +4 Calam itu !uga dia berkenalan dengan Fapa.
+70 .7 &iba'tiba sa!a, aku meliahat bersama ibuku perubahan besar
papa.
+73 5 Sekiranya )apak ini dulu mau memberi sebagian dari
hartanya sa!a, hartanya yang lebih besar mungkin tidak
dirampas begitu sa!a.
+74 + ?engan fasih Fak Sein mengutip ayat itu.
++5 .4 @anti kalau ke!adian beneran, kamu tunggu aku di rumah
dengan palang pintu.
... / Sebab aku yakin sekali bahwa Sein !atuh cinta padaku
biarpun secara diam'diam, tapi cintanya mungkin membara,
ibarat api dalam sekam.
+.1 .0 ngkau seorang yang beribadat dengan taat.
+.3 ++ Badangkala, sewaktu selesai sembahyang dalam keadaan
masih bersimpuh menghadap kiblat, aku seperti kena
hipnotisO
+/7 .7 Cendengar kisah'kisah sedih begini rasanya memberi
hikmah daripada mendengar orang ketawa terkikih'kikih
sebab kelewat gembira.
+/1 +6 Cenggembleng !iwa papa kamu, sekalipun menyodorkan diri
dengan topeng agama agar dia diminta papa kamu untuk !adi
menantunya.
+/5 6 Onamun Sain tidak langsung pulang dengan mobilnya.
+07 +3
+4
Bataku dengan nada mantap, hampir menangis namun
kutahan !ua.
"ika pertunangan itu soal pertunangan rna sama @agib,
boleh'boleh sa!a.
+30 +3 Bini aku menginap di @ipa Ledge bersama suamiku.
+36 +1 ?alam rahimku bayi ini sering bergerak kencang.
+46 . )etapapun aku berdoa dengan sebaik'baik doa, akhirnya
setiap kenyataan harus kuhadapi secara nyata.
+60 1 )anyak orang malahan mendatangiku, memelukku,
menciumku dengan penuh simpati.
.71 .4 &api mana ada orang harus menangis selama'lamnya.
+1 .+ Bini aku seperti berubah.
+1 .. Cungkin hal ini timbul karena aku sekarang ini sudah merasa
mempunyai seseorang.
/+ .3 ,anya beberapa menit kemudian ayahku pulang.
// +
3
&ahun lalu, kakak perempuanku yang kamarnya berada di
sebelah kamarku O
?ua tahun yang lalu, kakak lelakiku dward melan!utkan
studi ke )erkeley #niversity di %emrika.
53 3 )iasanya dia !uga sarapan pagi di dapur, tapi pagi ini
langsung sa!a dia kutarik untuk mendatangi rumah tante
Dam.
++ + ;Sebetulnya belum boleh=, kataku.
+0 + ;Bamu mungkin berbakat mengarang=, kataku.
.. ./ Cemang cinta pertama itu kadang mengalami nasib lagi apes.
.0 +. Beluarga kami memang mungkin beda dengan kamu.
3+ .3 Seorang wanita Cesir yang konon cantik, pernah
berhubungan dengan seorang diplomat Indonesia di Cesir.
63 +0 ?i ruang tunggu rumah sakit itu aku !umpa dengan Om dan
&ante Dam.
+5+ .5 ;Carilah sembahyang bersama Cama=, kataku.
+50 .+ Sungguh, ketika Dina mengaminkan doa yang kubaca sampai
terkantuk'kantuk.
.7 4 ?an malam itu entah malam apa akupun lupa.
.. 0
1
6
%ku memeng suka duduk di kursi tuaO.
?an mungkin ketika aku duduk di situlah diteropongnya,
sehingga dia tahu letak tahi lalatku, di leher.
Itu cowok yang namanya @agib baru datang dari luar negeri.
./ +5
.+
Omungkin karena aku seorang gadis yang banyak berbeda
dengan teman'temanku yang sebaya.
?an tiba'tiba sa!a muncul dia
.1 +3
+6
.5
?engan nada mengemis aku berkata,O
Dupanya dia masih punya rasa kasihan,
?an dengan cekatan pula aku menaiki tangga ke balkon dan
kemudian akupun sudah berada di kamarku.
.6 .3 ?an akupun melangkah ke tangga balkon, lalu ke kamarku.
/7 / Aoyangan kursi goyang berhenti ketika Cama melihatku
duduk di sofa.
/+ .1 ,anya beberapa menit kemudian ayahku pulang.
/. +7 )iarpun rumah kami bertingkat dua dan terdiri dari delapan
buah kamar dengan ruang tamu luas di atas dan di bawah,
kini malahanO
&, <L%SSI2I<%&IO@ O2 I@?O@SI%@ %?GD) )%S? O@ &,
@OGL ;S"#&% FI@&# <I@&%B#= )E CO&I@AAO )#SE
I. TABLE % KETERANGAN KUALITATIF
PAGE)
LINE
AFIKS PREPOSI
TION
ROOT)PHRA
SE)REDUPLI
CATION
PART
OF
SPEECH
RESULTANT
COMBINATI
ON
.0$+ Se'nya ' nak %d!ective Seenaknya
.1$+3 ' ?engan @ada mengeluh @oun
phrase
?engan nada
mengeluh
30$. ' ?engan )egitu !u!ur %d!ective ?engan begitu
!u!ur
4+$6 ' ' %gak lantang %d!ective %gak lantang
30$/ Se ' <ara telan!ang @oun
phrase
Secara
telan!ang
4+$+0 ' ?engan Fanggilan
man!a
@oun
phrase
?engan
panggilan
man!a
+74$+ ' ?engan 2asih %d!ective ?engan fasih
+..$0 Se' ' <ara diam'diam Gerb Secara diam'
diam
+.1$.0 ' ?engan &aat %d!ective ?engan taat
+/7$+ ' ' &erkikih'kikih %dverb &erkikih'kikih
II. TABLE% KETERANGAN TEMPAT -ADVERBIUM LOKTIF.
PAGE)
LINE
PREPOSITION+NOUN PAGE)
LINE
PREPOSITION+NOUN
6$/ ?i surat'surat kabar 6$1 ?i halaman pertama pada
headline
+7$5 ?i kamar +7$.3 ?i sini
+7$+/ ?i me!a sudut tempat tidurku +.$4 ?ari !endela
++$4 ?i Indonesia +/$+/ ?i buku ini
+/$5 ?i dalam keme!amu ..$0 ?i kursi tua
.7$1 ?i sebelah kamarku ..$4 ?i leher
..$1 ?i situlah /7$0 ?i sofa
..$6 ?ari luar negeri /.$+. ?i bawah
/.$+. ?i atas 05$1 ?i langit cerah
//$4 Be )erkeley #niversity di
%merika
III. TABLE% KETERANGAN $AKTU -ADVERBIUM TEMPORAL.
BASE ADVERB
-PAGE )LINE.
DERIVED ADVERB
-PAGE )LINE.
AFFI*ATION+REDUPLICATION COMBINATION
&adi 8++$.9 Selama'lamanya 86$49 Sebelum ini8++$59
Bini8+1$.+9 ' Suatu saat8+0$+9
Sekarang8+1$.+9 ' )eberapa menit
kemudian8/+$.39
Bemudian8.1$.59 ' &ahun lalu8//$+9
?ulu8+73$59 ' . tahun yang
lalu8//$39
pagi ini853$39
malam itu8+7/$+49
IV. TABLE% KETERANGAN MODALITAS)KECARAAN
KINDS THE $ORDS THAT
CAN BE USED
-PAGE)LINE.
F@A%B#%@ Calahan 8+7$+79 )etul 8+.$.39
Ea 8+/$+/9 Sebetulnya 863$+69
BF%S&I%@ &entu, pasti 86$+9 Cemang 8++$.9
BS%@ASI%@ Dasanya 8+7$+39 Cungkin 8+0$+9
Dupanya 8.1$+69 )arangkali 8+1$/9
L%D%@A%@ "angan 845$49
BO@?ISIO@%L Sekiranya 8+73$59 Balau 8++5$.49
"ika 8+07$+49
B,D%@%@ Cana ada 8.71$.49
V. TABLE% KETERANGAN ASPEK
KINDS THE $ORDS THAT CAN BE USED -PAGE)LINE.
I@BO%&I2 Fun 8.7$49
?#D%&I2 Sewaktu 8+.3$++9 ketika 8+7$+.9
FD2B&I2 Sudah 8+1$..9 84+$69
COC@&%L &iba'tiba 8./$.+9 begitu sa!a 8+73$+79
2DB#@&%&I2 Sering 86$.9 kadang 8..$./9
"arang 8++$.39 kadangkala 8+3$.9
,%)I&#%&I2 )iasanya 8+7$/9
VI. KETERANGAN DERA/AD)KUANTITATIF
+. )ase adverb* hampir 86$19, hanya 86$+79, amat 8++$++9
.. prefix I Deduplication of stem* berkali'kali 804$49
VII. KETERANGAN INSTRUMENTAL
F%&&D@* ?@A%@ I @O#@$@O#@ F,D%S
8+7$19 dengan bande biru putih merah
806$39 dengan tinta cetak emas,dengan warna dasar kertas military color
8+/5$+79 dengan mobilnya
VIII. KETERANGAN KOMITATIF)KESERTAAN
F%&&D@* ?@A%@ I FDSO@%L FDO@O#@
)DS%C%
8+7$49 dengan )!orn )org
8.0$+.9 dengan kamu
83+$.39 dengan seorang diplomat Indonesia
863$+09 dengan Om dan &ante Dam
8+7/$+49 dengan papa
8+70$.79 bersama ibuku
8+30$49 bersama suamiku
8+5+$.59 bersam Cama
I*. KETERANGAN PERLA$ANAN
<O@"#@<&IO@S*
8+7$+.9 tapi
8/.$+79 biarpun
845$49 kendatipun
8+/5$49 namun
*. KETERANGAN KAUSAL)SEBAB
<O@"#@<&IO@S*
84+$69 karena
8+..$/9 sebab
*I. KETERANGAN AKIBAT)KONSEKUTIF
<O@"#@<&IO@S*
8..$39 sehingga
8+50$.+9 sampai
*II. KETERANGAN FINAL)t!0!a&
<O@"#@<&IO@S*
8+7$39 supaya
8+.$.09 untuk
*III. KETERANGAN KOMPARATIF)PERBANDINGAN
<O@"#@&IO@S*
8+1$.+9 seperti
8+3$.9 bagai
*IV. KETERANGAN PER$ATASAN
<O@"#@<&IO@S*
86$+79 hanya