You are on page 1of 154

Occasional Papers on Antiquities, 2

Greek Vases
InTheJ. Paul Getty Museum
T H E J . P A U L G E T T Y M U S E U M
M A L I B U , C A L I F O R N I A
V O L U M E 3/198 6
Ji r Fre , Senior Curator fo r Research , an d
Mari on True , Curator o f Antiquities, Editor s
Sandra Knudse n Morgan, Managing Editor
Bndicte Gi l man, Manuscript Editor
Lynne Dean, Advisor y Editor
Karen Schmidt , Production Coordinato r
Elizabeth Burke , Photograph Coordinato r
Patrick Dooley, Designer
Patricia Inglis, Assistant Designe r
Kathe F l ynn, Production Artist
Typography b y Typographi c Service C o., Los Angeles
Printed b y Gardner/F ulmer Lithograph , Los Angeles
Photographs reproduce d i n thi s book hav e been
provided b y the institutio n that owns the objec t
unless otherwis e specified .
Greek Vases 3/198 6
198 6 The J. Paul Getty Museu m
17985 Pacifi c Coas t Hi ghway
Mal i bu, Californi a 90265-579 9
(213) 459-761 1
I nformation abou t other Gett y Museu m Publ ica-
tions may b e obtained b y wri ti ng to th e B ook-
store, The J. Pau l Getty Museum, P.O. B ox 2112,
Santa Moni ca , Californi a 9040 6
Cover: Red-figur e cu p b y the Brisi s Painter .
Mal i bu, The J. Paul Getty Museu m 86.AE.293.
Detail of side B . See articl e p. 35.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publicatio n Data
(Revised for vol . 3) :
Greek vases in the J. Paul Getty Museum.
(Occasional papers on antiquities ; v . 1, )
English ari d German.
Vol . 3 edited b y Ji r Fre l and Mari o n True .
Includes bibliographica l references.
1. Vases, Greek. 2. Vase-painting, Greek
Themes, motives . 3. Vases, Etruscan. 4. Vase-
painting, EtruscanThemes, motives . 6. Vases-
CaliforniaMalibu. I . Frel , Ji r. II . True,
Mari on. III . Series.
N K4623.M37J2 198 3 738.3
,
0938
,
074019493 82-4902 4
I S B N 0-89236-058- 5 (pbk . : v. 1)
I S B N 0-89236-078- X (pbk . : v. 3)
Contents
Etrusko-korinthische Vase n i n Mal i bu 1
Jdnos Gy Szildgyi
Some Plastic s i n Mal i b u 1 7
William R. Biers
A Kyl i x an d Fragment s by th e Borea d Painte r 2 9
Cynthia Hoyt-Grimes
Booners 3 5
Donna Carol Kurtz and JohnBoardman
T wo Pelika i b y th e Pa n Painte r 7 1
Martin Robertson
ov yp r)v fiio: A C hou s b y th e Oionokle s Painter 9 1
Elfriede R. Knauer
Polygnotos: A n Iliupersis Scene a t th e Gett y Museu m 10 1
Susan B. Matheson
Some Gnathi a Potter y i n the J. Paul Gett y Museu m 11 5
J. R. Green
A C l usi u m Group Duck-Asko s in Mal i bu 13 9
Mario A. Del Chiaro
Di ppi ng a s a Gl azi ng Technique i n Ant i qui t y 14 3
Toby Schreiber
This page intentionally left blank
D. M .
Ronald Dik
Etrusko-korinthische Vasen in Malibu
Jdnos Gy Szildgyi
Schon vo r ei ne m Jahrhundert ware n sic h di e Erforsche r
der antike n Kerami k de r Tatsach e bewufit , daf i di e au s
Kor i nt h, de m grofi te n E xpor t - Ze nt r u m gri echi sche r
bemalter Tonvase n i m 7 . Jh. v . C hr. , auc h nac h E truri e n
massenweise transportierte n Geffi e a n O r t un d Stell e i n
lokalen Werkstatte n nachgeahm t wurden. Kri t eri e n fu r di e
genaue Unterschei dun g griechische r P rodukt e un d ihre r
etruskischen N achahmunge n z u finden , schie n au s prak -
tischen wi e au s wissenschaftliche n Gr nde n wi chti g . U m
1880 begannen zwe i einheimisch e Mei ste r i n Tarqui ni a di e
i n de n antike n Gr ber n gefundene n korinthische n sowi e
andere griechisch e Vase n nachzuahmen.
1
Di e s gescha h
urspri i ngl i ch i n ehrlicher Absicht : ab und z u war auc h ihr e
Signatur au f den Vase n zu lesen. Spater abe r verschwande n
die Signaturen, un d e s wurde typisc h fii r di e Unsi cherhei t ,
die i n de r B eurtei l un g de r Echthei t korinthische r Vase n
herrschte, daf i ma n diejenigen , di e ni ch t ohn e weitere s al s
kori nthi sch klassifizierba r waren , fii r etruskisch e N ach -
ahmungen erkl rte . Dami t offnet e sic h ei n weites F el d fii r
F lscher, un d ohn e di e genaue Kenntni s de r Eigenschafte n
der etrusko-korinthische n Vase n lafit sic h ni cht vermeiden ,
dafi ma n einfach e Falschunge n korinthische r Vase n fii r
etrusko-korinthische Ori gi nal e halt , al s solch e fii r P ri v t -
samml ungen ode r Musee n ankauft , un d si e manchma l
sogar i n wissenschaftlichen H andbcher n reproduziert.
2
Di e E rforschun g de r et rusko-kori nt hi sche n Vasen -
mal erei ha t abe r auc h ei n e andere , weni ge r prakti sch e
Bedeutung. M a n hat l ngs t de n Quel l enwer t diese s Mat e -
rials fi i r di e Kunst geschi cht e de r E t ruske r un d fi i r di e
Handelsgeschichte de s ganze n Mittelmeere s i m 7.-6. Jh. v .
C hr . erkannt.
3
F i i r F orschunge n solche r A r t war abe r ni ch t
genug, zwi sche n antike n O ri gi nal e n un d moderne n F al -
schungen, zwi sche n korinthische n Vorbi l der n un d ihre n
etruskischen N achahmunge n z u unterscheiden : ma n sa h
si ch gezwungen , de n Versuc h z u unt ernehmen , mi t
1. D . A . A myx, CalifStClAnt 1 (1968) , 14 , A nm. 3, 27-28; D. v.
Bothmer, Calif StClAnt 3 (1970) , 42.
2. Z . B . , A. R umpf, Malerei und Zeichnung der klassischen Antike.
Handbuch der Archologie, B d . 4 (Miinchen , 1953) , Taf. 14,2; A. Hus, Les
sicles d'or de l'histoire trusque (Briissel , 1976) , Taf. 45,b.
3. A . B l akewayJRS 25 (1935) , 145 .
4. W . L. B rown, The Etruscan Lion (Oxford, 1960), 52.
5. De r erste, verdienstvolle Versuch einer vollstndige n Klassifizie -
archol ogi schen un d kunstgeschichtliche n Met hode n ei n -
zelne Produkti onszentren, Werkstatten , Schule n und M e i-
st er h nde z u i sol i eren , u m di e C hr onol ogi e un d di e
Stilgeschichte de r etrusko-korinthische n Kerami k rekon -
struieren z u konnen : " a tas k whi c h woul d b e bi g and no t
very attractive , bu t on e whi c h i t i s t o b e hope d wi l l b e
accomplished b y degrees"wi e e s 196 0 ei n hervorragende r
englischer Etruskolog e ausdriickte.
4
Der I mpor t vo n korinthischen bemalten Vase n i n E t r u -
rien geh t au f da s 8 . Jh. , da s Jahrhunder t de r Gebur t de r
eigentlichen etruskische n Kul t ur , zuri i ck . Spatesten s u m
700 gab e s einheimische N achahmunge n di e ser Geffie , di e
aber i n de r protokorinthische n P ri ode , d . h . bi s u m 625 ,
ber wi egend mi t einfache n ornamentale n Mot i ve n ver -
ziert ware n un d einstweile n fii r ein e kunstgeschichtlich e
Kl assifizierung wenig e Anhal tspunkt e bieten . I n diese r
P ri ode ha t di e etruskisch e Keramikebens o wi e ander e
Bereiche de r etruskische n Kulturverschieden e Einfliiss e
der orientalische n sowi e der grofien griechischen Kunstzen-
tren aufgenomme n un d mi t italische n Tradi ti one n ver -
schmolzen. I m letzte n Vi ert e l de s 7 . Jhs . vernder t sic h
dieses B i l d gan z radika l un d unerwartet : i n de r etrus -
kischen figurale n Vasenmalere i wi r d fii r etw a dre i Gene -
rati onen da s Kor i nt hi si er en , di e N achahmun g kor i n -
thischer Vorbi l der , vorherrschend . Di e Ursache n diese s
P h nomens k nne n wi r ni ch t gena u angeben , e s ha t abe r
zur A usbi l dun g ei ner et rusko-kori nt hi sche n fi gural e n
Vasenmalerei gefuhrt , dere n Geschicht e un d Bedeutun g
uns i n grofie n Zi i ge n bekann t ist.
5
Ei ni g e der wichtigste n
Moment e diese r Geschicht e konne n auc h durc h di e Vase n
des Gett y Museums beleuchte t werden .
A m Anfan g de r etrusko-korinthische n figurale n P r o -
dukt i on stehe n noc h zwe i Techni ke n al s gleichberechtig t
nebeneinander: di e pol ychrom e un d di e schwarzfigurige .
Gegen 625-620 erscheinen , ungefh r gl eichzeiti g in beiden
rung de r etrusko-korinthische n figurale n Vasenmalere i von G. Kuble r
("Some Etrusca n Version s of Cori nthi an Ceramics, " Marsyas 2 [1942] ,
1-15) is t leide r unbeachte t geblieben . Vgl . zuletzt J . G. Szil gyi ,
"E nt wurf de r Geschicht e de r etrusko-korinthische n figiirliche n Vasen -
malerei, " i n Romische Frhgeschichte, von A. Alfldi (Heidelberg , 1976) ;
J. G. S zi l gyi , E t ruszko-kori nt hosi vazafest szet [E t rusko-kori nt hi sche
Vasenmalerei] (Budapest , 1975) , ungarisch.
2 Szilgyi
Abb. la. E t r usko- kor i nt hi sch e O l pe . S ei t enansi cht . H :
29 c m. M a l i b u , T h e J . P au l Get t y M u s e u m
86. A E . 393.
Techni ken, di e erste n Vertrete r de s ausgeprgt e n Kor i n -
thisierens: de r C astel l ani -Mal e r und de r Mal e r der brt i ge n
Sphingen. De r erster e ha t Vasen , di e ausschliefilic h kor i n-
thische F orme n aufweiseniiberwiegen d klein e A r ybal -
l oi mit ei ngeri t zt e n Zei chnunge n un d aufgesetzte n
Farben verziert . E r hat i n einer einstweile n ni ch t nhe r l o -
kalisierbaren Werkstat t Siidetrurien s i m letzte n Vi ert e l de s
7. Jhs. gearbeitet , scheint abe r keine grofi e Wi r kung auf di e
zeitgenossischen Mei ste r ausgeiib t z u haben . Gan z ander s
verhl t e s sic h mi t de m Mal e r de r brt i ge n Sphi ngen.
6
A nhand seine r libe r hunder t bekannte n Werk e lfi t sic h
ni cht nu r sei n personliche r un d ktinstlerische r Lebenslauf ,
6. be r di e kiinstlerische Laufbahn de s Maler s der brtige n Sphi n-
gen zusammenfassend, s . Szilgyi , i n La civilt arcaica di Vulci. Atti delX
Convegnodi Studi Etruschi e talici (Florenz , 1977) , 51-54 ; fur ei n Ver-
zeichnis seine r Werke , s . Szilgyi , Etruszko-korinthosi (oben , A nm . 5) ,
31-38.
7. D . A . A myx, i n Studi in onore di L. Banti (R om, 1965) , 2 un d
Taf. 4, a-b ; Mari on True and Ji r Frel , Greek Vases. The Mollyand Walter
Bareiss Collection, Th e J. Pau l Gett y Museu m (Mal i bu , 1983) , 83, N r .
197 (86.AE.393) . Aufier diese r Vas e befinden sic h nur zwe i Olpenfrag -
mente an der Westkiiste, beide i m Lowie Museum in Berkeley und beid e
Abb. lb. Vorderansi ch t de r O l pe , A bb. l a.
sondern auc h di e ganz e F riihperiod e de r etrusko-kori n -
thischen Vasenmalere i rekonstruieren . Diese r bedeutend e
und ufiers t produkti v e Knst l e r hat , nac h unsere m heu -
tigen Wi ssen , gege n 62 5 i n Vul c i sein e erste n Vase n mi t
schwarzfi guri gen T i erfri ese n dekori ert . T r ot z de s v or -
herrschenden Einflusse s der korinthische n Vasenmalere i de r
spt prot okori nt hi schen un d de r sogenannte n ber gangs -
periode ( u m 640-620 ) weise n dies e Vase n auch ostgriech -
ische un d ei nhei mi sch e Zi i g e auf . N i cht sdest oweni ge r
spiegelt sic h i n seinen Werke n eine unverkennba r originell e
S t i l - un d F ormenwel t wi der , besonder s i n seine r frhe n
Gl anzperi ode (gege n 625-605) . Di e Besuche r de s Gett y
aus Bler a (I nv . N r . 8-5759 un d 8-5764) . I c h kenn e nu r zwe i weiter e
Werke des Maler s i n Museen der Vereinigte n Staaten: aus seine r frhe n
Priode eine Ol pe in Boston (Museu m of Fine Arts 13.71; A. Fairbanks,
Museumof Fine Artst Boston. Catalogue of Greek and Etruscan Vases, vol. 1
[Cambridge, Mass. , 1928] , N r . 494, Taf . 48) ; un d au s seine r mittlere n
Priode ein e Oinocho e i n Philadelphi a aus Pitigliano , in der Nah e vo n
Vul ci (Universit y Museum MS 642; E. H. Dohan, Italic Tomb-Groups in
the University Museum[Philadelphia , 1942] , Taf. 51, 5) .
8. E s gibt noc h acht weitere Exemplar e i n den Vereinigte n Staaten:
zwei i n Washington, D. C . (The Nationa l Museum of Natural Histor y
Etrusko-korinthische Vasen 3
Abb. le. Seitenansich t de r Olpe, Abb. la.
Museums konnen ein e O l pedi e L i ebl i ngsform des Malers
i n diese r P r i od e bewundern ( A bb . l a - c ) . Di e Vas e
wur de vo r et w a z we i Jahrzehnt en v o n Professo r D . A.
A my x verof entl i ch t un d de m Mal e r zugewiesen.
7
Der Mal e r de r brt i ge n Sphinge n ha t mi t seine r T t i g -
keit erreicht , daf i de r damai s einsetzend e korinthisierend e
Geschmack i n de r etruskische n figuralen Vasenmalere i fu r
etwa dre i Generationen vorherrschen d wurde , un d daf i de r
Vorrang i n dieser P rodukt i o n dem i m letzten Vi ert e l de s 7 .
Jhs. neu aufbliihende n Vul c i zukam. Sei n personlicher We g
war aber ni cht s o erfolgreich. Gegen Ende des Jahrhunderts
kamen neu e Tendenze n i n de r Kuns t Vul ci s auf ; di e Wel t
der protokorinthisierende n Tierfries e de s Maler s de r b r -
tigen Sphinge n wa r altmodisc h geworden . Sein e Versuch e
mi t neue n Vasenformen , Mal techni ken und Mal wei sen , di e
seine mittlere Priode gegen die Jahrhundertwende be-
zeichnen, wurden z u m Tei l von der neue n Generatio n auf -
genommen un d weitergefiihrt , e r selbs t abe r wurd e woh l
beiseite geschobe n un d ha t sic h schliefilic h entschlossen ,
nach Caere , de m andere n grofie n Zent r u m Siidetruriens ,
umzusiedeln.
I n C aer e ha t di e et rusko-kori nt hi sch e Vasenmal ere i
etwas spte r eingesetz t al s i n Vul c i un d ha t sic h scheinba r
auf ein e einzig e Werkstat t beschrnkt , w o iiberwiegen d
grofie Vorratsamphore n geform t un d verzier t wurden . Si e
werden Schuppenamphore n (italienisch : anforoni squamati)
genannt, da di e ganzen Geffi korper , aufie r de n ei n bi s drei
Tierfriesen, mi t eingeritzte n Schuppe n bedeck t sind . Aus
dieser Werkstat t sin d zu r Zei t 12 5 A mphore n un d sech s
Geffie verschiedene r andere r F orme n mi t figuraler Ver -
zi erung bekannt . Ei n e dieser A mphor e n ist aus dem Kunst -
handel in s J. P aul Gett y Museu m gelangt.
8
Das Geffi , da s hie r z u m erste n M a l gezeigt wi r d (Abb .
2a- f ) 9 i s t 59, 5 cm hoch und vol l s t ndi g er hal t en. Das
System de r B emal un g is t da s bl i che : Di e M ndung , de r
Hal s und di e Henkel sind mi t dunkelbraune m F irni s ber -
zogen; di e Schulterzon e un d de r groer e unter e Tei l de s
Korpers sin d mi t de n eponyme n Schuppe n bedeckt . Si e
haben eingeritzt e doppelt e Konturen , die mi t ei ne m Zi rke l
gezogen sind ; di e Zirkelspitz e hat i n der Mi t t e de r S chup -
pen ihr e Spu r hinterlassen . I nmi tte n jede r Schupp e is t ei n
abwechselnd mi t rote r un d gelbe r Deckfarb e gemalte r
F l eck z u erkennen. Da s unter e S chuppenfl d is t durch ein e
dnne, ausgespart e L i ni e geteilt . Di e Korperornamenti k
wi r d unte n durc h ei n sich auf dem konische n F uf i fortset -
zendes, ei ngeri tzte s Zungenmust e r abgeschlossen ; jed e
zweite Zung e is t mi t rote r Deckfarb e bernait . U nt e r de r
Schulterzone, a n de r grofi te n Ausdehnun g de s Geffi kor -
pers, l uf t ei n vo n zwe i F l e c ht b nde r n
1 0
gerahmte r
rechtsl ufi ger Tierfrie s herum . E s handel t sic h i i berwi e -
gend u m di e gewohnl i che n Teilnehme r solche r Prozes -
sionen: L owen , Panther , Hi rsch , H i ndi n (?) , Eber , Hasen .
Di e Hauptansich t de r Vas e wi r d i n de r Mi t t e de r eine n
Seite zwi sche n zwe i Hase n un d de r H i ndi n durc h ein e
391982-3), zwe i i n Sant a Moni c a (Privatsammlung) , un d j e ein s i n
B l oomi ngton (Indian a Universit y A rt Museum 73.59.2; W. G. Moon ,
Greek Vase Painting in Midwestern Collections [Chicago , 1979] , 10-11) ;
Boston (Museu m of Fine Arts, Leihgabe L-37-1970; Hesperia Art, Bul-
letin 4 7 [1969] , A.22) ; Kansa s C i t y (Nelso n Galler y o f Art , Atkin s
Museum of Fine Arts 47-43, from Cerveteri ; Wi l l i am R ockhi l l Nelson
Gallery of A rt and Mar y Atkin s Museum of Fine Arts, Handbook of the
Collection, 4th ed. [1959], 270); und South Hadley, Mass. (Privat-
sammlung; Szilgyi , i n La civilt arcaica di Vulci, oben , A nm . 6, Taf .
16, b-c).
9. I nv . N r . 71.AE.289 . F ii r di e bereitwilli g erteilte Publikations -
erlaubnis, fu r Foto s un d weiter e Auskiinft e gilt mei n herzliche r Dan k
Dr. Ji r Fre l und de r Di rekti on des J. Pau l Getty Museums .
10. Di e eingeritzte n Konturlinie n des Flechtbande s sin d mi t de m
Zi rkel gezeichnet; e s gibt eine Spur der Zirkelspitze in der Mi tte, di e mi t
einem gelbe n Flec k bedeck t ist . Da s Flechtban d selbs t is t mi t rote r
Deckfarbe gekennzeichnet .
4 Szilgyi
Abb. 2a. E trusko-kori nthi sch e A mphor a . H : 60, 5 cm . M al i bu , T h e J . P au l Get t y
M us eum 71.AE .289 .
Abb. 2b. Ausschni t t de r A mphor a , A bb. 2a.
Etrusko-korinthische Vasen 5
Abb. 2c. Ausschnit t de r Amphora , Abb. 2a.
Abb. 2d. Ausschnit t de r Amphora , Abb. 2a.
Abb. 2e. Ausschnit t de r Amphora , Abb. 2a.
Abb. 2f. Ausschnit t de r Amphora , Abb. 2a.
6 Szilgyi
Abb. 3c. Seitenansich t de r Oinochoe, Abb. 3a. Abb. 3d. Seitenansich t de r Oinochoe, Abb. 3a.
Abb. 3a-b. Etrusko-korinthisch e Oinochoe . Links: Vorderansicht ; redits: Rckansicht . H : 27, 9 cm. Mal i bu, Th e J. Paul Gett y
Museum 86.AE.394.
Etrusko-korinthische Vasen 7
ungewhnl i che Grupp e vo n vie r Vogelfiguren , wohl dre i
Wi l dent en un d ei n Gei er , gekennzeichnet . E i n weitere r
Vogel erscheint l i nk s von dieser Gruppe, zwi schen den zwe i
Hasen un d de m si e folgenden Panther . A i s F l l ornament e
erscheinen ausschliefilic h Punktrosetten . Di e eingeritzt e
I nnenzei chnung de r Ti erfi gure n wi r d durc h aufgesetzt e
rote B emal ung bereichert (I nnenkonture n au f den Vogel n ,
Kreuz au f dem Hinterschenke l der Vi erfi i fi l er , usw.) .
A u f Gr un d de r Grabfund e di i rft e di e Werkstat t de r
Schuppenamphoren etw a vo n 620/61 0 bi s u m 58 0 tati g
gewesen sein . Wi l l ma n innerhal b diese r P ri od e di e rela -
tive C hronol ogi e der einzelnen Vasen besti mmen, s o biete n
si ch zwe i Ausgangspunkt e an : di e S t i l ent wi ckl un g der
Tierfriese un d di e Wandl un g der Vasenform . Was di e er -
stere betrifft , konnt e ma n au f de n Friese n de r Schuppen -
amphoren dre i Stilgruppe n unterscheide n (mi t einige n
bergangserschei nungen) : de n Mi ni atursti l ; eine n Stil , fu r
den langgestreckt e Tierkorpe r bezeichnend sin d (italienisch:
stile allungato) ; und eine n verwilderte n Sptsti l mi t gro b ge -
zeichneten, kau m gegliederten , pl umpe n Tierfigure n [stile
pesante).
n
I m Anschluf i a n diese stilgeschichtlichen Beobach-
tungen is t de r unl ngs t allz u frii h verstorben e hol l ndi sch e
Archol oge R onal d Di k durc h di e Untersuchun g de r
F ormen de r Schuppenamphore n zu r Unterscheidun g eine r
friihen, eine r spaten und eine r dritte n Gruppe gelangt , di e er
"Bearded Sphinx Amphorae" nannte.
12
Das Wi cht i ge ist, dafi di e Ergebnisse der Formanalys e i m
grofien un d ganze n mi t dene n de r Stiluntersuchun g ber -
ei nst i mmen. Di e fri i heste n S chuppenamphoren , dere n
charakteristische Zi i g e "th e slightl y conve x semiconica l
foot, pear-shape d o r somewha t ova l body , concav e neck ,
echi nus- mout h an d vert i ca l strap handl es " si n d ( Di k ,
S. 30), wurden i i berwi egend mi t Tierfriese n i m Mi ni at ur -
stil dekoriert . Gege n di e Jahrhundertwende erschein t ein e
Wei terentwi ckl ung dieser F orm, di e Friese im stile allungato
trgt. M i t R echt wurden di e Vasen dieser Grupp e von Dik
"Bearded S phi n x A mphorae " genannt . U m di e Zei t , al s
diese F ormvariant e aufkam , diirft e de r Mal e r de r bartige n
Sphingen au s Vul c i nac h C erveter i iibersiedel t sein , u m
dort i n de r ei nzi ge n etrusko-korinthische n Werkstat t de r
Stadt sein e T t i gkei t fortzusetzen : et w a 2 0 vo n de n
bekannten A mphor e n dieser F ormgrupp e zeuge n i n ihre n
Tierfriesen vo n seine r H and . E s is t gu t erkennbar , wel c h
grofien Ei nfl uf i sei n Erscheinen auf di e anderen Mei ste r der
mi ttl eren P ri od e der Werkstatt , i n den Jahrzehnten u m di e
Jahrhundertwende ausiibte . Di e Gruppe de r spte n S chup -
penamphoren wurd e hingege n vo n Mal er n de s "pl umpe n
Stils" bemalt , un d zwa r meistens ni ch t meh r mi t T i erfri e -
sen, sonder n nu r mi t je zwe i Ti erfi gure n i n de r Schulter -
zone au f beiden Seite n der Vase.
Da ei n bedeutender T ei l de r Schuppenamphore n i n de m
Vi l l a Gi ul i a Museu m i n R om erst nach de r Restaurierung ,
die jetzt endl i c h i n A ngr i f f genomme n worde n ist , nhe r
untersucht werde n kann , war e e s verfrht , de n Versuc h zu
unternehmen, di e neue A mphor a in M al i b u innerhal b de r
Gruppe eine r besti mmte n Mei sterhan d zuzuweisen. Sovie l
steht abe r nac h de n obe n Gesagte n fest , daf i si e auf Gr und
ihrer Formeigenschafte n sowi e de s Mi ni atursti l s ihres vo n
der spatprotokorinthische n T radi t i o n beeinflufite n T i er -
frieses i n di e friihe P ri ode de r P rodukt i o n der Schuppen -
amphoren gehort . Di e doppel t e n Kont ur l i ni e n de r
Schuppen un d einig e Zi i g e de s Tierfrieses , vo r alle m di e
Vogel fi guren, deute n au f di e E ndphas e diese r P r i ode ,
gegen 610-60 0 v . C hr., hi n.
Di e Werkstat t de r Schuppenamphore n diirft e nu r zu r
Befriedigung lokale n Bedarf s gearbeite t haben ; al s si e ihr e
T t i gkei t gege n 58 0 au s unbekannte n Gri i nde n einstellte ,
brach di e etrusko-korinthisch e Vasenprodukti o n i n Caer e
ab. Ander s i n Vul ci . H i e r wurd e da s Wer k de s Maler s de r
bartigen Sphinge n u m di e Jahrhundertwend e vo n eine r
R ei he talentvolle r un d eigenstandige r Mei ste r fortgesetzt .
U nt er i hne n rag t besonder s de r Pesci a R omana-Mal e r
hervor, ei n "zweisprachiger " Mei ster , de r sein e friihe n
Vasen mi t pol ychrome r Techni k ausfiihrte , spte r aber ,
gegen Anfan g de s 6 . Jhs., ei n fruchtbare r un d wi rkungs -
vol l er Dekorato r vo n schwarzfigurige n Gefafie n wurde.
1 3
Zu seine m engere n Krei s ha t unte r andere n auc h de r vo n
Professor A my x erkannt e un d benannt e Vol unteer-Mal er
gehr t .
1 4
Vo n seinen insgesam t sech s bekannte n Vase n is t
eine O i nocho e mi t de n Lieblingsfigure n (Ziegen , Eber ,
Panther, Vogel ) de s Maler s im Tierfries, ebenfalls i m Gett y
Museum (Abb . 3a- d) .
1 5
Si e wurd e vo r fiinfzeh n Jahre n
11. Vgl . Szilgyi , i n La civilt arcaica di Vulci, oben, A nm. 6, 53.
12. R onal d Di k , i n Classical Antiquities in Utrecht 1 , Archaeologia
Traiectina, 1 3 (Groningen , 1978) , 30-37. Seine absoluten Datierunge n
sind etwas zu hoch gegriffen, da sie sich mitunter au f die al testen F und-
stiicke der Graber griinden.
13. be r de n Pesci a Romana-Maler s. A myx, oben , A nm. 7, 9-10 ;
Szilgyi, Wissenschajtliche Zeitschrift der Universitt Rostock 1 6 (1967) ,
549, und derselbe , i n Studies in Honour of D. A. Amyx, i m Druck. Vgl .
die wichtigen Bemerkungen von M. Martelli, in Prima Italia, Katalog
(Museo Pigorini , R om, 1981), 104.
14. Oben , A nm. 7, 10-11 . Der Male r ha t seine n Name n vom Vol -
unteer Par k i n Seattl e erhalten , wo sein e ander e Oinochoe aufbewahr t
wi rd (Seattl e A r t Museu m Cs.20.14 ; A myx, oben , A nm . 7, Taf . I I I ) .
A myx selbs t ha t i h m noch ein e weiter e Oinocho e i m schweizerischen
Kunsthandel zugeschrieben (oben , A nm. 7, Taf I , c-d) , und G. Col onna
schreibt i h m (brieflich ) eine n Telle r au s Vul c i z u (Vul ci , Antiquario,
64234; G. R i cci oni un d M . T . Falconi Amorel l i , La Tomba della Panate-
naica di Vulci [R om, 1968] , 44, N r . 27) . Ein e weiter e Oinocho e von
seiner Han d befand sic h i m amerikanische n Kunsthande l (J . M. Eisen -
berg, Art of the Ancient World 2, Katalog [New York, 1966] , N r. 2, mi t
Abbi l dung), un d e s gib t eine n unveroffentlichte n Telle r de s Maler s in
Edinburgh (Roya l Scottis h Museum 1956.456) .
15. I nv . N r. 86.AE.394. S . Greek Vases. The Molly and Walter Bareiss
Collection, oben, A nm. 7 , 83, N r. 198.
Abb. 4a. E t rusko-kori nt hi sche r Teller . O b r e Seite . Di am : 25, 7 cm . M al i bu , T h e J. P au l
Get t y M useu m 71.AE .237 .
Abb. 4b. U nt er e Seit e de s Tellers , A bb . 4a .
8 Szilgyi
Etrusko-korinthische Vasen 9
von A my x beschriebe n un d de m Mal e r zugewi esen,
1 6
wa s
hier ein e ausfhrl i cher e B ehandl un g des Geffie s berfl s -
sig macht .
Der Ubergan g de s Pesci a R omana-Mal ers zur schwarz -
figurigen Techni k und zugl ei c h die T t i gkei t einige r wei -
terer interessante r Mal erpersonl i chkei t e n eroffnen di e
zweite P ri od e de r etrusko-korinthische n Vasenmalere i
(etwa 590-560) . Dies e P ri od e is t einerseit s durc h de n
absoluten Vorran g der Vul cente r Werkstatten, andererseit s
durch di e sich schnel l uniformisierende Massenprodukti o n
gekennzeichnet. Unsere s Wissen s gib t e s i n dieser P ri od e
aufier Vu l c i nu r ei n e ei nzi g e etruski sch e Stadt , i n de r
etrusko-korinthische Vasen mit fi grl i cher Verzi erun g her-
gestellt wurden : Tarquinia , wo u m 590-58 0 gan z unver -
sehens ein e neu e S chul e i n E r schei nun g trat.
1 7
I hr e
A bhngi gkei t vo n Vul c i offenbar t sic h ni ch t nu r i n de r
E ntl ehnung vo n Vasenforme n un d Stilelementen , sonder n
es lfi t sic h auc h vermuten , daf i di e Begriinde r der Wer k -
stattoder de r Werkstattenihr e Kuns t i n Vul c i selbs t
erlernt haben . Jedenfall s is t di e sekundr e Bedeutun g de r
tarquiniensischen Werkstatte n gegenbe r Vul c i i n ki i nst -
lerischer wi e auch i n kommerzi el l er Hi nsi cht unbestreitbar .
Das gil t f r ail e drei Hauptgruppen de r lokale n Schule, di e
sich gan z deutl i c h voneinande r unterscheide n un d de n
ber wi egenden T ei l de r tarqui ni ensi sche n P r odukt i o n
bi l den. E s gibt doch einige E i nzel gnger , di e sichi n enge r
oder lose r Verbi ndun g mit eine r de r dre i Hauptgruppen
durch bemerkenswer t i ndi vi duel l e Zi i ge auszeichnen, dere n
knstl eri sches P rofi l abe r mangel s gengende n B ewei s -
materials nu r langsa m erkennba r wi r d . I n dies e R ei h e
gehort de r Mal e r de s Tellers , de r unl ngs t f r da s Gett y
Museum erworbe n wurd e un d hie r vorgeleg t werde n dar f
(Abb. 4a- d) .
1 8
Di e F or m is t ni cht griechisch , sondern ha t sic h au s ei n -
16. A myx , oben, A nm. 7, 10, mit Taf . l , a-b .
17. Zusammenfassen d be r di e Schul e vo n Tarquinia , s . Szilgyi ,
StEtr 40 (1972) , 19-73.
18. I nv . N r. 71.AE.237; Durchmesser: 26 cm; Hohe: 6, 2 cm.
Abb. 4c. Seitenansich t de s Tellers, Abb. 4a .
Abb. 4d. Ausschnit t des Tellers, Abb. 4a .
10 Szilgyi
Abb. 5. Etrusko-korinthisch e Olpe . Rckansicht . Tarqui -
nia, Museo Nazional e RC 1638.
heimischen Tradi ti one n gege n End e de s 7 . Jhs . i n Vul c i
entwickelt. Si e erschein t mi t figurale r Verzi erun g zu m
ersten Mal bei dem Pescia Romana-Maler19 und wird fast
unv e r nde r t ei n e de r t ypi sche n F or me n de r et rusko -
korinthischen Vasenmalere i i n de n Vul cente r Werkstatten .
I hre einfacheren , mi t geometrische n Mot i ve n verzierte n
Exemplare berleben sogar die orientalisierende Priode.20
A uch di e Vas e i n M al i b u zeig t ihr e gel ufi ge n Zge : de r
flache Telle r ha t eine n F dngfufi , unterhal b de s Rande s
befmdet sic h eine P i l l e , i n di e sic h di e zwe i eng anliegen -








19. CVA, Paris , B i bl i othque National e 1 , Taf. 19, N r. 1, 4, 6 und 8 .
20. Ei n e systematische Untersuchun g de r F or m steht noc h aus .
Dohan, oben , A nm. 7, 95-96, nah m an , daf i di e Anfng e de r F or m bi s
um di e Mi t t e des 7. Jhs. zurckgegange n sei n drften. Si e grndete ihr e
frhe Datierun g auf Graber, i n denen Teller dieser F or m zusammen mi t
protokorinthischen ode r frhkorinthische n Vase n zutag e kamen ; di e
letzteren sin d aber wenigstens zu m Tei l etruskische Nachahmunge n vo n
den hori zontal e n R undhenke l ei nfge n un d i n ihrer Mi t t e
zwei diametra l entgegengesetzt e Ose n bi l den . Da s Syste m
der gemalte n Dekorati o n is t ebenfall s da s gewohnliche :
i nnen i n der M i t t e drei konzentrische Kreise , auf dem mi t t -
leren ei n aufgesetzter , roter Streifen; der Tierfrie s wi r d vo n
zwei rote n L i ni e n umrahmt . I m Frie s fnf grasend e Tiere :
drei Zi egen , ei n H i rsc h un d ein e H i ndi n nac h l i nks . F l l -
ornamente sin d Fleckrosetten , meisten s mi t ei ngeri tzte m
Kreuz. Di e i m Vergleic h zu de n gleichzeitige n Vul cente r
Darstellungen pl umpe n Ti er e verraten au f den ersten B l i ck ,
dafi wi r e s mi t eine r provi nzi el l e n Werkstatt z u t u n haben ,
deren E rzeugni ss e meisten s zu r B efri edi gun g l okal e n
Bedarfs dienten ; i h r Verbreitungsgebie t berschri t t auc h
innerhalb Etrurien s nu r seh r se l ten di e Grenze n de s T erri -
tori ums de r Stadt.
2 1
N i cht anmutige r al s di e Tiergestalte n sin d di e geritzte n
I nnenzeichnungen un d di e purpurn e Deckfarbe , di e daz u
di enen, de m hi nt ere n O berschenkel , de m B u g und de r
Brustpartie Vol ume n z u gebe n un d zugl ei c h di e Muskel n
anzudeut en. Di es e I nnenzei chnunge n si n d auc h sons t
zi eml i ch wei t vo n de r N aturwahrhei t entfernt , abe r ihr e
recht folgerichti g abstrakt e Stilisierun g hat hie r besonder s
i ndi vi duel l e Zge , di e e s ermgl i chen , de n Tierfrie s ei ne m
der weni g bekannte n tarquiniensische n Vasenmaler , de m
Ki t hara-Mal er, zuzuwei sen . F rhe r beschrnkt e sic h sei n
O euvre au f zwei O l pen, mi t dene n drei stilverwandt e T el -
ler verbunden wurde n (Abb . 5, 6a- b) .
2 2
E s gengt, nur di e
Hi rsche i m vi erte n Frie s de r O l pe n i n R o m un d i n Tar -
qui ni a mi t de m H i rsc h au f de m Telle r i n M al i b u z u ver -
gleichen, um sic h davon z u berzeugen, daf i ali e drei Vasen
derselben H an d entstammen. I n Kenntni s des neue n Teller s
kann abe r dasselb e mi t Sicherhei t auc h vo n ei ne m unver -
offentl i chten T el l e r i n T ar qui ni a (I nv . N r . R C 8556 )
behauptet werden , de r frhe r unte r de n stilverwandte n
S tcken stand . Sei n l i nksl ufi ge r Tierfrie s besteh t au s vie r
grasenden Zi egen und ei ne m Vogel ; di e Mafi e de r Vas e sind
mi t dene n de s Teller s i n M al i b u identisch .
Aus gute m Grund e wurd e frhe r vermieden , de n Telle r
i n Tarqui ni a de m Mal e r de r zwe i O l pe n zuzuweisen . Di e
O l pen rage n nml i c h au s de r Meng e de r P rodukt e de r tar -
quiniensischen Schul e wei t hervor , un d zwa r ni ch t durc h
ihre knstl eri sche n Qual i taten , sonder n durc h di e i kono -
graphische B edeutun g ihre r Darstellungen . Menschen -
fi guren si n d au f de n et rusko-kori nt hi sche n Vase n de r
mittlerenebenso wi e de r spt enP ri od e ufiers t selten ,
korinthischen Vorbildern (z.B. , O. Montelius, La Civilisation primitive en
Italie 2 [Stockholm , 1904] , Taf . 209, 3 un d 21) . Dohan s F rhdati er ung
dieses Tellertypus wurde allgemei n akzeptiert , auc h i n Fallen, in denen
der Grabzusammenhan g gan z eindeuti g dagege n spricht (vgl . z.B. R i c -
cioni und Falcon i Amorel l i, oben, A nm. 14, 43).
21. Ums o bemerkenswerter is t es, dafi drei tarquiniensische Telle r des
hier behandelte n Typu s i n Karthag o un d da s Fragmen t eine s weitere n
Etrusko-korinthische Vasen 11
Abb. 6a. E trusko-kori nthi sch e O l pe . Seitenansicht . R o m ,
Museo d i Vi l l a Gi ul i a 81799 .
vi el meh r noc h ganz e S zene n mi t menschl i che n T e i l -
nehmern: di e meisten Vasenbilde r sind monotone Wi eder -
hol ungen von einigen weni gen T i ert ypen und heraldische n
Schemen. U ms o auffallende r sin d einig e Gruppe n au f de n
O l pen de s Ki thara-Mal ers . B ei de O l pe n sin d au s viele n
Scherben zusammengesetzt , mi t erhebliche n E r gnzunge n
besonders a n de r O l p e i n Tarquinia . I hre r ausfiihrliche n
P ubl i kati on soi l hie r ni ch t vorgegri ff n werden . Wi r be -
schrnken un s daru m au f di e R eprodukt i o n de r beide n
Geffie23 ( Abb. 5, 6a-b). Unsere sehr unvollkommenen
Geffies i n Sain t Biais e bei Marsei l l e zutage kamen . Vgl . Szi l gyi,
"Entwurf, " oben, A nm. 5, 189 . Neuerdings hat R . Zueca, in // commercio
etrusco arcaico ( R om, 1985), 267, Abb. 3 , das Fragment eine s i n Sardinien
gefundenen tarquiniensische n Teller s verffentlicht .
22. be r de n Maler , s. Szilgyi , oben, A nm. 17, 62-63.
23. Abb . 5 ( = Tarquinia , Museo Nazional e R C 1638 ) nac h Gabi -
netto F otogrfi c o N azi onal e , Negat . 92420 ; Abb . 6, a- b ( = R om ,

Abb. 6b. Seitenansich t de r O l pe , A bb. 6a.
N achzei chnungen ei ni ge r T ei l e der F ri ese , di e hi e r f r
weitere Di skussi o n vorgelegt sind , konnen daz u helfen, da s
Werk de s Maler s u m weiter e S tck e z u bereicher n (Abb .
6c-e, 7a- b) . I m zwei te n Frie s de r O l p e de s Vi l l a Gi ul i a
Museums erschei n t ei n J ge r i m Kni el au f mi t ei ne m
Krummst ab (lagobolon) i n de r erhobene n rechte n H and ;
mi t de r andere n pack t e r eine sitzende S phi n x am Schwan z
(Abb. 6c) . I m dri tte n Frie s sieht ma n zwi sche n zwe i gra -
senden T i er e n ei ne n bewaffnete n Kr i eger , wor auf ein e
zweifigurige Szen e folgt : ei n F uf kmpfe r ha t eine n au s
Museo di Vi l l a Gi ul i a 81799) dan k de r freundliche n Bemiihunge n von
Mari a Antoniett a R i zz o nac h Foto s de r Soprintendenz a ail e Anti chi t
dell' Etruria Mridionale, Negat . N r. 90007-8. Ai l e drei diirfen hier dank
der grofiziigigen Erlaubnis der Soprintendente, Professo r Paol a Pelagatti,
verffentlicht werden .
12 Szilgyi
Abb. 6e. Zeichnun g de r Olpe , Abb. 6b.
Abb. 6c. Zeichnun g de r Olpe , Abb. 6a.
Abb. 6d. Zeichnun g de r Olpe , Abb. 6b.
Etrusko-korinthische Vasen 13
Abb. la. Zeichnung . Tarquinia RC 1638, Abb. 5.
seinem Zwei radwage n zuriicksinkende n M ann angegriffe n
und is t i m BegrifF , i h m mi t de m Schwer t (? ) i n seine r
erhobenen R echte n de n Todesstof i z u versetzen . Vo r de m
Einzelpferd de s Gespanne s lieg t auf ei nem Kl appstuh l eine
riesengrofie, of nba r tot e Gestalt ; be i seine m Kni e is t ei n
der griechische n Ki t har a hnl i che r Gegenstand , de r de m
Mal er seine n N ame n gegebe n ha t (Abb . 6e). Wei te r recht s
ist ein e Grupp e vo n T i ere n (Abb . 6d) : ei n Panthe r mi t
ei nem Hase n au f de m R i i cke n un d ei n L owe ; libe r de m
S chwanz de s L owe n steh t ei n Vogel , un d i i be r sei ne m
R i i cken fliegt ei n anderer .
Di e O l p e i n Tarqui ni a zeigt nu r i n i hre m dritte n Frie s
menschliche Gestalten : eine n au f ei ne m Kl appstuh l sit
zenden M an n (?) , a n desse n F uf i ei n Ti erchen , viel l eicht
eine Maus , hinaufklettert, un d vo r i h m ein e star k besch -
digte Darstel l un g mi t eine r Menschenfigur . U ms o reiche r
sind di e Fries e a n verschiedenen , mi tunte r gan z unge -
wohnl i chen Tiergestalten : Seemonster , Schreckgestalten ,
usw. H i e r se i nur ei n Ausschnit t aus de m vierte n Frie s ge -
zeigt (Abb . 7a) mi t ei ne m Kamp f von reale n und phantas -
tischen Gestalten , dere n Korpe r miteinande r verwachse n
sind. E s is t kau m z u entscheiden , u m wieviel e Schreck -
wesen e s sic h ber haup t handelt . U nmi t t el ba r vo r diese r
Szene steh t i m B i l dfel d ei n isolierter , de r "Ki t hara " de r
anderen O l p e hnl i che r Gegenstand , de r abe r hi e r vi e l
weiter vo n dem griechische n Musi ki nstrument entfernt is t
als dort (Abb . 7b) .
I n Kenntni s de r Arbeitsweis e un d de r knstl eri sche n
Stellung de r antike n Vasenmale r is t esvornehml ic h i n
Etruri enni cht besonders auffallend, daf i ein Mal er Vasen-
bilder mi t s o unterschiedliche m I nhal t fertigt e wi e de r
Mei ster de r zwe i O l pe n un d de r zwe i Teller . E s is t hie r








Abb. lb. Zeichnung . Tarquinia RC 1638, Abb. 5.
ni cht der O r t f r eine ausfhrl i che Untersuchun g de r Dar -
stellungen. Ei ni g e P robl me biete n sic h aber scho n be i de r
ersten Betrachtun g de r B i l de r z u m Weiterdenke n an . Da s
erste bezieht sic h auf di e etruskische Myt hol ogi e.
I n de n letzte n Jahrzehnte n wurd e vi e l darbe r di sku -
tiert, i nwi ewei t be i de n etruskische n Mei ster n archaische r
Zei t ein e Kenntni s der griechische n Myt hol ogi e angenom-
men werden kann.24 E i n T ei l der F orscher i st genei gt, di e
vermutl i ch mythische n Darstellunge n i n de r etruskische n
Kunst, di e i n der griechische n Uberl i eferun g ni cht bezeug t
sind, ai s Zeugen grndl i che r Kenntniss e von uns verlorene n
griechischen Mythenfassunge n seiten s de r etruskische n
Knst l er zu bet racht en. 25 Grundst zl i ch kann man nat r-
l i ch dies e Mogl i chkei t ni ch t ausschliefien , auc h wen n ein e
solche Annahme wenig fr sich hat.26 Viel berzeugender
erscheint abe r auc h di e polar e Gegenthes e nicht , nac h de r
es sich in der archaische n Kuns t der Etruske r meistens (ode r
weni gstens oft ) u m mi fi verstandene , soga r si nnl os e
24. Di e Literatur iibe r di e Diskussio n etwa be i R . Hamp e un d
Simon, JbZMusMainz 1 4 (1967) , 79-82 ; T . Dohrn , RomMitt 73-7
(1966/1967), 15-16; K. Schauenburg, in Stele N. Kontoleon (Athe
1980), 101, A nm. 53; vgl. auch G. Colonna, in "P yrgi , " NSc 2 4 (1970
II supplemento, 62 .
E .
4
n,
) ,
25. Vo r alle m R . Hamp e un d E . Simon, Griechische Sagen in der
frhen etruskischen Kunst (Mai nz , 1964 ) un d ihr e Schule.
26. S . etwaj. Boardman , JHS 8 5 (1965) , 241; J. Heurgon, Gnomon
37 (1965) , 838.
14 Szilgyi
Wi edergaben ode r u m ein e rei n optische ber nahm e gri e -
chischer M y then ode r griechische r ikonographische r Sche -
men handel t .
2 7
I n ei ne m P unk t si n d si c h j edoc h di e
Verfechter von beiden Thesen ei ni g : nml i ch dan e s sich bei
diesen etruskische n Darstellunge n umsi nnvol l e ode r
sinnloseWiedergaben griechischer M yt he n handelt .
E i ne Deut un g au s de r etruskische n Myt hol ogi e wurd e
i n den l et zt en Jahr zehnt en kaum ver sucht . 28 E s wur de den
E t r usker n mi t unt e r soga r di e noti g e P hantasi e abge -
sprochen, " u m sic h selbst eine n Myt ho s zu schaffen."
29
A uf
die religionsgeschichtliche n Schwierigkeite n einer solche n
Auffassung sowi e auf di e Gegenargumente , di e sic h aus de r
drft i gen epigraphische n un d de r ber wi egen d spte n l i-
terarischen T radi ti o n ergeben, sol hie r ni ch t eingegange n
werden. F r uns steht fest , daf i di e Denkwei se der Etruske r
am Anfang ihrer Geschicht e i m wesentlichen mythi sc h war
und daf i si e auc h ein e eigen e Myt hol ogi e haben mufiten ,
deren anfngl i ch e episch e F orme n un d Stof e un s freilic h
mangels gengende n frhe n schriftliche n Beweismaterial s
meistens unbekann t ode r bestenfall s verschwomme n sind .
Anderseits kan n kei n Zwei fe l darbe r bestehen , daf i di e
unmittelbare B er hr un g mi t de r griechische n Kul t u r sei t
dem 8 . Jh . auc h au f diese m Gebie t tiefgreifend e F olge n
hatte, und zwa r i n zweifacher Weise : zum einen di e A nei g -
nung de r epische n Stoff e de r griechische n Myt hol ogi e, zu m
anderen de n Zwang , auch di e einheimische Myt hol ogi e in
Wor t un d B i l d nac h griechische r A r t darzustellen .
Di e unleugbare n Zeugniss e de r Verbrei tun g de r gri e -
chischen M yt he n i n E t ruri e n spreche n ni ch t gege n di e
Exi stenz eine r etruskische n Myt hol ogi e . Di e Vermutun g
liegt abe r nahe , daf i di e epische n F orme n dermeisten s
wohl mndl i chenet ruski sche n M yt hener z hl unge n i n
ihrer neue n (ode r i n einige n F alle n i n ihre r ersten ) A us -
pr gung star k vo n de r Ausdrucksweis e de r griechische n
M yt hol ogi e beei nfl ufi t wor de n sei n dr f t en . A hnl i c h
mssen wi r uns auc h da s Verhl tni s de r bi l dl i che n Fassun-
gen etruskische r M yt he n zu i hre n griechische n B i l dvor l a -
gen vorstellen . Vi el e vo n diese n wurde n scheinba r einfac h
ber nommen ode r nachgeahmt . Doc h dar f ma n hie r di e
gr unds t z l i che Mehr deut i gkei t de r S agenmoti ve , noc h
mehr abe r diejenig e de r ikonographische n Mot i v e ni ch t
aufier A ch t lassen . Dadurc h wi r d di e Berechti gun g eine r
rein griechische n Deut un g auc h i n solchen F alle n i n Frag e
gestellt, i n dene n di e etruskisch e Darstel l un g de r gri e -
chi schen Versi o n gena u entspri cht . Vi e l meh r noc h i n
F al l en, be i dene n wi r meh r ode r weni ge r bedeutend e
Abwei chungen feststellen konnen . Si e mssen be i wei t e m
nicht unbeding t un d i n jede m F al l di e Unkennt ni s de s
etruskischen Meister s ode r sein e Gl ei chgul ti gkei t gegen -
ber de m I nhal t de r Darstel l un g widerspiegeln . E s sollt e
i mmer sorgfl ti g erwoge n werden , o b de n Abwei chunge n
ni cht ein e B edeutun g zukommt , o b e s sic h ni cht u m ein e
interpretado Etrusca de s dargestellte n griechische n M yt hos
3 0
oder soga r u m di e Wiedergab e eine s etruskische n Myt ho s
i n griechische m Kost m handelt . Vol l i g berechtig t schein t
der Versuc h einer solche n Deut ung i n F allen, bei denen ei n
bedeutungsvoll scheinende s etruskische s B i l dmot i v ber -
haupt kein e griechische n Vorbi l de r hat . Di e mythisch e
I nterpretation solche r B i l dmot i v e sol i jedoch gar ni cht ver -
absolutiert werde n un d di e mythologische noc h weniger .
Kehrt ma n mi t solche n Gedanke n z u de n B i l der n de s
Ki thara-Mal ers zurck , s o ma g einerseit s ni ch t verkann t
werden, daf i di e auffal l enden , ei nzi gart i ge n i kono -
graphischen Mot i v e i nmi t t e n de r gel ufi ge n Tiergestalte n
der et rusko-kori nt hi sche n F ri es e erschei nen . I hr e i n
gewissem Mafi e dekorativ e ode r bestenfall s nu r al l gemei n -
myt hi sche B edeut un g is t ni ch t z u l eugnen . Andersei t s
drfen wi r annehmen, daf i die ungewohnl i chen Szene n de r
beiden O l pe n ni ch t rein e Phantasiespiel e ode r gehaltlos e
I mprovisationen sindauc h di e seh r mi t t el mfi i g e Qual i -
t t de r A usfhrun g sprich t ehe r dagegensonder n weni g -
stens t ei l wei s e au f Ges chi cht e n un d Gest al t e n de r
etruskischen Myt hol ogi e hindeuten, di e freilich ni ch t ohn e
B e n t z ung de s gri echi sche n i konographi sche n T ypen -
schatzes ihr e bi l dl i ch e F ormul i erung erhielten . P ri nzi pi el l
ist di e Mgl i chkei t ni ch t vo n der H an d z u weisen, daf i di e
Mi schwesen de r tarquiniensische n O l p e (Abb . 7a), de r sit -
zende M an n i m dritte n Frie s desselben Geffie s (mi t de m
Muschen, ei ne m typisc h etruskische n Episodis t figurale r
Darstellungen31) oder der Sphingenjger der anderen Olpe
(Abb. 6c ) di e zeitgenossische n etruskische n Betrachte r de r
Vasen a n bekannt e Persone n un d Episode n ihre r M y t ho -
27. Vgl . L . Banti, StEtr 24 (1955/56) , 15 0 mit A nm. 19, und danac h
besonders die Aufsatze von G. Camporeale und T . Dohrn.
28. Ein e der wenigen , bedeutenden Ausnahmen ist das B uc h vo n A.
Al fol di , Die Struktur des voretruskischen Romerstaates (Heidelberg , 1974)
mi t seine n zu m Tei l ufiers t problematischen , abe r nichtdestowenige r
anregenden Gesichtspunkten un d Ausfuhrungen. S . unter andere n auc h
noch E . Simo n Jdl 8 8 (1973) , 37-42 ; E . H i l l Richardson , JWalt 3 7
(1977), 91-101, weiterhin unten, A nm. 30.
29. Dohrn , oben, A nm. 24, 26.
30. Wi e da s auc h i n de r neuere n Literatu r of t erwoge n un d aner -
kannt wi rd . Vgl . unte r anderen M . Schmidt , ZAeS 97 (1971) , 122-125 ;
I. Krauskopf , Der thebanische Sagenkreis und anderegriechische Sagen in der
etruskischen Kunst (Mai nz , 1974) ; J. P . Oleson, AJA 79 (1975) , 189-200 ;
H . Prayon, RomMitt 84 ( 1977), 181-196; derselbe, i n Die Aufnahmefrem-
der Kultureinjlsse in Etrurien (Mannhei m , 1981), 107-109; J. Christian-
sen, Analecta Romana Instituti Danici 13 (1984), 11 und Abb . 5 (zur Abb.
7a). Vgl . O . J . Brendel, Etruscan Art (Harmondsworth , 1978) , 84, 442,
A nm 3 .
31. E s genge , nu r au f di e Freske n de r Tomb a dell e O l i mpi ad i i n
Tarquinia hinzuweisen: M. Moretti , Nuovi monumenti della pittura etrusca
(Mailand, 1966) , 118.
32. J . Wiesner , "Fahre n un d Reiten, " ArchHom1, Kapite l F ( Gt -
tingen, 1968) , 65; P. A. L. Greenhalgh, Early Greek Warfare (Cambridge,
1973), 34, 175, A nm. 25 (unte r Berufung auf Bronson).
Etrusko-korinthische Vasen 15
logie erinnerten. U n d wer wei fi , o b hinter de n Darstel l un -
gen de r A bbi l dun g 6 e ni ch t ein e etruskisch e Versio n de s
Myt hol ogems de r gottl iche n Zwi l l i ng e gegenstzl i che r
N at ur , et w a de s kri egeri sche n Zet ho s un d de s S nger s
A mphi on de r griechische n Myt hol ogi e , steckt?
Es l ohnt sic h aber, einige B i l der de s Ki thara-Mal er s auch
unabh ngi g v o n i hr e m eventuel l e n Gehal t al s rei n e
B i l dschemen z u untersuchen . F r da s Gespan n i n A b b i l -
dung 6 e gil t vol l i g , wa s i m Zusammenhang mi t griechisc h
geometrischen Vasenbilder n beobachtet wurde : "Di e Dar -
stellung eines Einzelpferdes vor de m Wage n is t al s formel -
hafte Wiedergab e eine s Zweigespanns z u verstehen, ebens o
wi e di e Angabe ei nes ei nzi gen Wagenrades."32 Das P ferd
selbst ha t unverkennba r korinthisierend e Zge . N u r setz t
der Pafi gan g mi t abgewi nkel t e m Vor der bei n i n de r
korinthischen Vasenmalere i ers t au f Pferdedarstellunge n
der mittelkorinthischen Priode ein, 33 was aber fr die
O l pe de s Ki thara-Mal er s keinen zwi ngende n Dati erungs -
wert hat , d a de r Pafigan g de r Pferd e i n de r etruskische n
Kunst, woh l i n A nl ehnung an orientalisch e Vorbi l der , vi e l
frher, sptesten s i m letzte n Vi ert e l de s 7 . Jhs., erscheint.
34
Beachtenswert is t hingegen di e Tatsache, daf i ni cht nu r di e
Wagendarstellung, sonder n auc h di e ganze Kampfszene di e
F ortsetzung eine r B i l dt radi t i o n ist, deren Anfng e mi nde -
stens i n di e gri echi sc h sp t geomet r i sch e Vasenmal ere i
zurckrei chen: dor t erschein t au f ei ne m attische n Krate r
z um erste n M a l i n de r griechische n Kuns t da s vo n de m
Ki t hara-Mal er wiede r aufgegriffn e Schem a de s U nt er -
liegens eines Wagenfahrers gegenber einem Fufikmpfer.3!
Deutet dieserga r ni ch t typischeFal l au f di e gri e -
chisch geometrische n Wur zel n der I konographi e de r spt -
orientalisierenden B i l dkuns t Etrurien s hi n , s o sin d un s
freilich di e Weg e de r Vermi t t l un g verborgen geblieben . I n
eine ander e Pdchtung , i n di e Zukunf t weis t di e B etrach -
tung de r Jagdszene A bbi l dun g 6c . Di e Jagd au f ei n R aub -
tier mit lagobolon, der typischen Waffe bei der Hasenjagd, 36
ist a n sic h ei n U nsi nn . Da abe r da s T hem a i n de r etrus -
kischen Kunst des 6. Jhs. ofters vorkommt, 37 mochte man
33. H . Payne, Necrocorinthia (Oxford , 1931), 73.
34. Z . B ., F. Hi l l er, Marburger Winckelmann-Programm, 1963 , 42-4 3
und Taf . 14 ; M . Bonamici , I buccheri con jigurazioni graffite (Florenz ,
1974), Taf. 16a, 19b, 23b, 28b, usw. ber da s vorherrschende Schem a der
orientalisierenden Pferdedarstellunge n vgl . jetzt E . Rystedt, Acquarossa,
vol . 4 (Stockholm, 1983), 126.
35. CVA, Louvr e 11, III H b , Taf. 5,11 mi t Tex t von F . Vi l l ard. Zu r
Deutung vgl . G. Ahlberg, Fighting on Land and Sea in Greek Geometric
Art (Stockholm , 1971) , 16 . De r Wagenlenke r de s Kithara-Maler s hat
keine WafFen, doch nicht s deutet darauf hi n, daf i es sich um eine n E i n-
zelkmpfer handelt , de r Kriege r und Wagenlenke r zugleic h war (vgl .
Wiesner, oben, A nm. 32, 73). O b wi r in solchen Fallen, wo der Wage n
mi t einem einzigen unbewehrten Lenke r dargestellt ist , wi rkl i ch imme r
an Wettkampfszene n denke n msse n (s o Greenhalgh , oben , A nm . 32,
26-39), scheint ufiers t fraglich.
36. Zuletz t K. Schauenburg, Jagddarstellungen auf griechischen Vasen
(Hamburg und Berlin , 1969) , 21 mit A nm. 110 und 111.
37. Einig e Beispiele bei R . - M. Becker , in Praestant Interna. Festschrift
fr Ulrich Hausmann, herausgegeben von B . v. Freytag gen. LringhofF ,
D. Mannsperge r un d F . Prayon (Tubingen , 1982) , 203-204. Vgl . jetz t
G. Camporeale , La caccia in Etruria ( R om , 1984) , 111-114 , 134 , 139.
Abb. 8. "Pontisches " L ydi on . Zeichnung . Tubi ngen, Archologische s Institut 67.5809.
16 Szilgyi
lieber a n ein e sinnvoll e Deutung, al s a n ei n rei n opti sch -
dekoratives M ot i v denken . Da s sol hier inde s dahingestell t
bleiben. I mmerhi n is t e s abe r bedeutsam , daf i da s i n de r
spatorientalisierenden Kuns t Etrurien s verbreitet e M ot i v
auch i n de r folgenden , "ionisierenden " P ri od e de r etrus -
kischen Kul t u r au f ei ne m L ydi o n de r sogenannte n pon -
t i schen Gr upp e er schei nt
3 8
( A bb . 8) . Di e z ei t l i ch e
Entfernung de r zwe i Vase n is t ni ch t grofi : di e O l p e de s
Ki thara-Mal ers is t gege n 570-56 0 v . C hr. entstanden, da s
L ydi on kan n i n di e Jahr e u m 550-54 0 datier t werden .
Zwi schen de n beide n Zei t punkt e n lieg t abe r di e Grenze ,
die di e spt - un d suborientalisierend e etrusko-korinthisch e
Epoche de r etruskische n Vasenmalere i von dem folgenden ,
vol l i g erneuerte n monumental e n F igurensti l de r zwei te n
Hl ft e de s 6 . Jhs . trennt . I n ihre r letzte n P ri od e (etw a
gegen 560-540 ) besteh t di e etrusko-korinthische P roduk -
ti on au s eine r Meng e vo n kl ei ne n Salbgefafien , ber wi e -
gend mi t monot one n Wi eder hol unge n vo n ei n - ode r
zwei fi guri gen A u s z gen au s f r her e n T i er bi l der n . Die
Ori ental i si erung al s knstl eri sch e Ausdrucksweis e hat ihr e
Aktual i tat verloren . E s schein t au f de n erste n B l i ck , daf i
von de n etrusko-korinthische n Vasenwerkstatten kei n Weg
z um P ari s-Mal e r und z u de n bri ge n Mei ster n der "pon -
tischen" Vasenbilde r fhrt . De r ga r ni ch t isoliert e F al l de r
Jagdszene de s Ki thara-Mal er s beweist aber , daf i di e T ren -
nung doc h ni ch t s o stren g war , daf i e s i n de r etruskische n
Kunst ein e zah e ikonographisch e T radi ti o n gab, di e fhi g
war, auc h ohn e griechisch e Hi l f e di e Kl uf t zwi sche n de n
zwei Wel te n des knstl eri sche n Ausdrucks zu berbrcken .
H t t e si e nu r sinnlos e dekorativ e B i l dscheme n bewahrt ,
ware dies e T radi ti o n kaum s o l ebenskrfti g gewesen .
Museum o f F ine Art s
Budapest
38. Becker , oben, A nm. 37, 201, Abb. 2 (danac h unser e Abb. 8) un d
Taf. 42,5.
Some Plastics in Malibu
William R. Biers
T he J. P au l Gett y Museu m has i n it s collections a small
group o f plastic vases and vas e fragment s o f the si xt h cen-
tury B . C . , reportedl y foun d i n souther n I taly.
1
A l t houg h
fragmentary i n th e extrem e wi t h onl y thre e compl et e
examples, thi s col l ecti o n of plastic s provide s a glimps e o f
the i mpor t trad e i n Magna Graeci a duri ng thi s peri od . An
interesting fac t i s that th e materia l ca n b e broadl y di vi de d
between t w o of the period' s major producti o n centers, Eas t
Greece (mai nl y Pdiodes ) an d C or i nt h . I n th e fol l owi n g
pages th e object s fro m thes e t wo area s o f producti on ar e
discussed, and representativ e example s ar e presented i n cat -
alogue form . Thos e object s considere d t o b e relate d t o th e
major producti o n centers but no t mad e ther e are presente d
along wi t h th e actua l i mport s a s an i ndi cati on of the i nfl u -
ence tha t these i mports ha d o n loca l manufactures .
T he subjec t o f loca l copie s o f adaptation s o f i mporte d
vases i s a n interestin g probl em , on e bese t wi t h man y di f -
ficulties o f interpretation a s wel l a s wi t h a simpl e lac k o f
knowl edge. I n many cases , the specifi c attri buti on o f a par -
ticular objec t t o a producti o n cente r mus t b e tentativ e a t
best, du e t o th e fragmentar y natur e o f th e material , th e
difficulties o f attri buti on on the basi s o f fabric, and the lack
of clea r understandin g o f the producti o n an d di stri buti o n
patterns of each center . Despit e thes e inherent weaknesses ,
it was decided t o publ i sh these fragments a s a representativ e
col l ecti on. A conservativ e approac h ha s bee n taken , group -
i ng th e materia l i nt o t w o broa d categorie s representin g
i mports fro m th e t w o majo r center s an d loca l copie s o r
adaptations dependen t upon them .
T he stud y o f plastic vases of the sevent h an d sixt h cen -
turies B . C . ha s attempte d i n recen t year s t o delineat e th e
producti on o f particular centers , somewha t i n reactio n t o
the "C or i nt hi ani z at i on " of th e materi a l tha t fol l owe d
Payne's pioneering work in Necrocorinthia.2 Many types
ori gi nal l y assigne d t o C or i nt h hav e now found home s else -
where, an d ne w i nformati o n and bette r chronologie s con -
tinue t o appear i n the cours e o f excavation. T he smal l Getty
col l ecti on i s a sampl e o f the expor t producti o n o f t wo o f
the pri nci pa l centers and, i n some cases , th e influenc e tha t
these object s ha d o n th e loca l potter y industry . T h e fac t
that the attribution s ar e often no t completel y positive i ndi -
cates how muc h wor k has ye t t o b e done i n thi s fascinatin g
corner o f Greek art.
3
B y fa r th e greates t percentage o f fragments ca n b e clas -
sified a s East Greek or derived from East Greek prototypes .
T he larges t numbe r o f thes e fragment s belon g t o figure s
wi t h femal e heads, whethe r fro m familia r standin g korai ,
alabastra, o r sirens . These figure s wer e ver y common i n th e
latter par t of the si xt h century, an d mos t ar e generall y con-
sidered t o hav e bee n mad e o n Pdiodes . A mon g th e Gett y
plastics, femal e head s predominate , al thoug h no t enoug h
remains o f th e res t o f th e figur e t o determin e whethe r a
kore or siren is indicated. A l l o f the fragment s ar e decorate d
wi t h pol ychrom e matt e pain t i n Ducat' s "techniqu e terr e
cuite." I n th e Gett y col l ecti on, plastic vases painted i n thi s
technique ar e foun d alon g wi t h thos e decorate d i n vase -
pai nti ng technique.
4
A l t houg h th e surfac e colo r o f th e
fragments varie s fro m re d t o yel l o w t o tan , ther e i s n o
Abbreviations:
Higgins 1: R. A. Higgins, Catalogue of the Terracottas in the Department of
Greek and Roman Antiquities, British Museum, vol . 1 (London,
1954).
Higgins 2: R. A . Higgins, Catalogue of the Terracottas in the Department of
Greek and Roman Antiquities, British Museum, vol . 2 (London,
1959).
VPGJ. Ducat , "Les vases plastiques corinthiens, " BCHK1 (1963) , 431-
458.
VPR:J. Ducat , Les vases plastiques rhodiens archaques en terre cuite. B i bl .
des Ecole s Franaise s d' Athne s e t d e R ome , fasc . 20 9 (Paris ,
1966).
1. Thes e plastics , once i n a private collection in Switzerland, were
part of the content s o f an ancient favissa sai d to hav e been discovered in
Lucania. The Getty Museum's portion of the deposi t reportedl y includes
all th e plasti c vases an d vas e fragments , an d i t i s wi t h the m tha t thi s


short pape r i s concerned.
I mus t than k Ji r Fre l fo r permissio n t o publis h thi s collectio n and
the staf f of the J. Paul Gett y Museum for makin g my visit s there bot h
useful an d delightful . Thi s articl e i s the firs t o n th e object s fro m th e
favissa i n the Gett y Museum.
2. H . Payne, Necrocorinthia (Oxford , 1931) , 170-180. This work and
the earlie r M . I . Maximova , Les vases plastiques dans VAntiquit [poque
archaque), M . Carsow, trans. (Paris , 1927) ar e the basic, original studie s
of Greek plasti c vases of the Archai c period.
3. Thank s mus t als o b e expresse d t o D. A. A myx an d t o Ji r Fre l
for encouraging me to proceed wi t h the publication of these plastics even
though ou r knowledg e i n thi s area i s perhaps not ye t complet e enoug h
to make many definitiv e attributions .
4. Fo r a n explanatio n o f the difference s i n techniqu e o f Pdiodian
plastic vases, see Higgins 1, 19-20.
18 Biers
obvious differenc e i n the i nteri o r fabrics, nor d o an y of the
heads see m simila r i n fabri c t o thos e piece s tha t mi gh t b e
considered of local ori gi n .
There i s one fragmen t tha t ca n b e definitel y attribute d
to th e typ e o f alabastron whos e to p i s formed i n the shap e
of a woman' s bus t ( N o . 1 , fig . 1) . T h e lac k o f tresses o n
either side of the face coupl ed wi th th e absenc e o f any i ndi -
cations o f hai r down the bac k woul d indicat e that the hea d
does no t belon g t o eithe r a standing kor e o r a siren. T wo
fragmentary siren s and th e tail s of t wo other s are , however ,
preserved. T h e mor e complet e exampl e of the t wo i s i l l us -
trated her e ( N o . 2, fig . 2). T hi s i s a typi ca l representativ e
of th e type , thoug h rathe r worn , whi c h ma y b e date d
around th e en d o f the si xt h century . T h e remaining femal e
heads, generall y thought t o come from Pdiodes , most l i kel y
belong t o th e commo n vases i n the for m o f a standing kor e
hol di ng a dove. Made in two-pi ece mol ds, these vases usu -
ally bor e a simple , spreading vase-mout h perche d i ncon -
gruousl y o n th e to p o f th e figure' s head . I n th e onl y
fragment t o preserv e anythi n g of the body o f the vas e (N o .
3, fig . 3) , th e vase-mout h i s unfortunatel y broke n away .
T hi s type o f vase has been extensivel y studied, especiall y by
Ducat, wh o produce d a rathe r detaile d classificatio n based
on facia l features . O u r material , however, doe s no t permi t
such a mi nut e classification . Moreover, i n a situatio n i n
whi ch camer a angl e and l i ghti n g can make a critical differ -
ence i n classification, it i s perhaps bes t t o confin e ourselve s
to th e i l l ustrati o n of representative pieces . A representativ e
group o f heads i s shown i n figures 4 through 7 .
I n addi ti o n t o th e man y commo n kor e vases fro m Eas t
Greece, there ar e als o a number o f plastic vases i n the shap e
of males , standing , seated , o r kneeling . T he smal l hea d i n
figure 8 i s par t o f thi s group . It s bloate d feature s indicat e
that i t belongs t o a type o f dwarf-figure vas e attribute d b y
Hi ggi ns t o R hodes . A second mal e head, thi s time bearded ,
also belongs t o a vase ( N o . 9, fig. 9). T h e feature s fi n d n o
exact parallel s amon g R hodi a n or C ori nt hi a n terracottas ,
and thi s head ma y wel l b e a local product .
C l earl y o f P di odi a n ori gi n i s a fragmentar y hel meted -
head vas e ( N o . 10 , fig. 10) , whi c h wa s fire d t o a reddis h
sheen rathe r tha n th e usua l black . L i t t l e vase s o f thi s typ e
are ver y commo n an d mus t hav e bee n hi ghl y pri ze d i n
ant i qui t y. A l t houg h o f a different fabri c , th e excel l en t
horse's hea d (N o . 11 , fig . 11 ) als o find s parallel s amon g
examples assigne d t o Rhodeson e of the bes t pieces i n th e
col l ecti on, th e qual i t y of its pai nti ng is quite hi gh . A spou t
5. Som e "komast" figure s ar e illustrated in VPC, figs . 7, 11, 15, 16,
17 and i n Higgins 2, pis. 26, 27. I woul d lik e t o than k Mari o n True for
examining no . 23 t o confir m th e absenc e o f an eyebal l on th e panthe r
skin.
6. Th e presen t catalogu e i s designe d t o amplif y an d explai n th e
hole behi n d th e ear s clearl y indicates tha t thi s wa s th e to p
of a plastic vase, perhaps i n the for m o f a horse protome .
T he smal l port i o n of the to p o f a foot vas e mus t als o b e
considered Eas t Greek ( N o . 12, fig. 12). T his fragment pre -
serves onl y the vase-mout h an d a small port i on of the plas -
tic thong s o f th e sandal . Thes e foo t vase s ar e a probl em,
and thei r exac t provenienc e i s a s ye t unsettled . T h e foo t
vase i s relate d t o a n extraordinar y vas e tha t i s bi rdl i k e i n
character ( N o . 13 , figs . 13a, b) . T h e fabri c o f thi s vas e i s
almost identica l t o tha t o f th e foo t fragment ; thu s i t i s
probably correc t t o assig n i t a s wel l t o Eas t Greece . T h e
hole at the wi d e end o f the vas e mus t hav e been for a vase-
mout h, fo r th e eye s o n th e rounde d fron t en d mus t stan d
for th e creature' s face , much l ike the strange owl in B oston,
whose hea d merge s i nt o it s body . Anot her bi rd , perhap s a
dove, ori gi nal l y matt e painted , ca n als o b e attribute d t o
East Greece , probabl y Pdiodes , o n th e basi s o f fabri c an d
other paralle l features ( N o . 14, fig. 14). T he bi r d i s missing
its hea d a s wel l a s th e vase-mouth , whi c h ori gi nal l y ros e
from it s back.
T he smal l bull' s hea d ( N o . 15 , fig. 15 ) ma y als o b e a t
least derive d fro m Eas t Gree k type s i f not actuall y pro -
duced there . Perhap s thi s i s a wester n versio n of a popula r
East Gree k shape .
T he secon d an d smalle r grou p o f fragment s i s C or i n -
thian or C ori nt hi an derived. I ncluded i n thi s group ar e th e
wel l - known restin g hare s that ar e s o commonl y found i n
Archai c context s throughou t th e Mediterranea n ( N o . 16,
fig. 16) . Severa l fragment s ar e preserve d o f th e si mi l arl y
crude bu t commo n seated ram s (N os . 17, 18; figs. 17 , 18) .
A ver y interesting offshoo t i s a complete, squarel y bui l t
standing ram , mos t probabl y a loca l produc t inspire d b y
the C ori nt hi a n i mports ( N o . 19, fig. 19). A finished hole in
the to p o f the hea d indicate s tha t th e figur e wa s indee d a
vase an d thu s fulfille d th e sam e functi o n a s th e i mporte d
plastic vasesthoug h probabl y a t a l owe r pricefo r th e
local consumers . C opi e s of resting C ori nt hi an rams ar e no t
unknown, bu t a standin g ra m i s unusual . A ste p furthe r
away from C ori nt hi a n plastic vases ar e fragment s o f plastic
adjuncts tha t perhap s onc e adorne d pots . Her e the C or i n -
thi an typ e o f ram' s hea d i s strangel y cappe d b y a plasti c
snake, whi ch drape s itsel f over the head o f the anima l (N os.
20, 21 ; figs . 20 , 21) . Unfortunatel y , onl y thes e fragment s
remain t o us, and no obvious , close parallels spring to mi nd ,
al though i t i s tempti n g t o speculat e wha t ki n d o f objec t
these once adorned . Al s o probabl y a western i mi tati o n of a
photographs tha t illustrat e ever y catalogue d piece . Basi c informatio n
about ever y piece i s given, and parallel s or speculations ar e added a t th e
end. Measurement s ar e always maxi mum preserved dimensions . When
recognizable fragments o f mica appear i n the fabri c of a particular piece,
it is so indicated. In an attempt to document fabri c colors, Munsell C ol o r
Some Plastic Vases 19
i mi tati on o f a C ori nt hi an form i s a fragment o f an ai doi on
vase ( N o . 22) , illustrate d i n figure s 22a,b . I t find s a ver y
close parallel in a complete exampl e found a t Syracuse .
A larg e wheel -made fragmen t o f a squatting mal e figur e
( N o. 23, fig. 23) i s one of the mos t interesting pieces i n thi s
small col l ecti on. As the catalogue entr y indicates , it is prob-
ably par t of a figure similar t o th e wel l - known C ori nt hi an
"komast" figures , though i t i s wheel -made an d large r tha n
the C ori nt hi a n figures , whi c h averag e a tota l heigh t o f
onl y slightl y mor e tha n th e heigh t o f th e Getty' s singl e
fragment.
5
C A T A L O GU E
6
1. H E A D F R O M A N A L A B A S T R ON (fig . 1)
Fabric 7. 5Y R 7/ 8 (reddis h yel l ow) , hi ghl y micaceous ;
break 10Y R 7/ 2 (ligh t gray); preserved height :
6.4 cm, diameter (mout h) : 3. 0 c m
78. A E . 271. il
Single fragment preservin g worn head an d vase-mouth .
B roken a t a n angl e bel ow the chi n .
F or th e type , se e VPR, pi . 11,1; Hi ggi ns 1 , 44-45, nos .
47, 48. T his type i s also known in alabaster, an d an exampl e
is in the Gett y col l ecti on. See S . K. Morgan, " A n Alabaster
Scent B ottl e i n th e J . P au l Gett y Museum, " Getty Mus]
6-7 (1978-1979) , 199-202 .
2. F R A GM E N T O F A S I R E N (fig . 2)
Fabric 5 Y R 5 / 6- 6/ 6 (yel l owi s h red-reddi s h yel l ow) ,
hi ghl y micaceous ; preserved height : 12. 5 cm
79. AE .103
F ront port i on of siren preserved, formi ng part of profile
bi rd bod y wi t h fronta l head turne d t o right ; unpierced l ug
on back . B roke n awa y just behi n d feet ; vase-mout h pre -
served onl y i n broken stub on to p o f head. F igur e made i n
two mol ds , front an d back ; sea m visibl e o n inside . F inger
marks ca n b e see n insid e front half . Trace s o f red o n ches t
and aroun d broke n stu b o f vase-mouth. H ai r tresse s ren -
dered plastically, three on each side of head an d down back.
H ai r rendere d i n squares, endi n g i n points. O va l fac e wi t h
almond-shaped eye s and smi l i n g mout h .
F or th e type , se e VPR, pi . 10, 1-2 , 11, 7 ; H i ggi n s 1 ,
52-54, nos . 75-78, especiall y no. 75, pi. 16.
Chart reference s ar e included, although the autho r i s full y awar e of the
problems involve d wi t h th e us e o f such charts . Color s var y wi t h th e
viewer, the light source, and various other factors , as wel l as , of course,
wi t h firin g conditions. The readings were made under artificial , fluores-
cent light .
Figure L No . 1. Head from an alabastron. Malibu , The J.
Paul Gett y Museum 78.AE.271.il.
Figure 2. No . 2. Fragment o f a siren. Mal ibu, Th e J. Paul
Getty Museum 79.AE.103.
20 Biers
Figure 3. N o . 3. F ragment o f a standing kore . M al i bu, T h e
J. P au l Get t y M us eu m 78.AE.271.8.
Figure 4. N o . 4. H ead of a kore. M al i bu, T h e J. P au l Get t y
M us eum 78.AE.271.9 .
3. F R A GM E N T O F A S T A N DI N G KO R E (fig . 3)
Fabric 5 Y R 6 / 8 (reddis h yel l ow) , micaceous ;
preserved height : 9. 3 c m
78.AE.271.8
Single fragment broke n just abov e waist and a t right side
of head . Mol d-made , wor n, chip s missin g from fac e an d
right hand . T wo strands o f hai r i n squares hang dow n o n
either sid e of chest; hai r scalloped over forehead .
F or th e type s an d problem s associate d wi t h thei r classi -
fication, see VPR, 61-89 . T hi s exampl e belongs t o korai "e n
vt ement rhodien, " VPR, 63-65 ; Hi ggi n s 1 , 48 , no . 57 ,
wi t h dov e i n left hand .
4. H E A D O F A KO R E (fig . 4)
Fabric 7. 5Y R 7/ 4 (pi nk) , micaceous; preserve d
height: 6. 4 c m
78.AE.271.9
Single fragmen t o f fron t hal f o f mol de d head , broke n
bel ow chi n ; vase-mout h broke n away . Severe mout h, wi d e
eyes wi t h distinc t lids . Surfac e blemishe s o n fac e perhap s
indicate reworke d mol d. Wear s headband; trace s of a plas-
tically rendere d hai r stran d o n right . R e d o n vase-nec k
bel ow missin g mout h.
5. H E A D O F A KO R E (fig . 5)
Same fabri c as N o. 4, but badl y discolored by burni ng;
preserved height : 6. 1 cm; diameter (l i p) : 3. 0 c m
78.AE.271.17
Single fragmen t broke n bel o w chi n ; chi p missin g fro m
vase-mouth. Trace s o f whi t e sli p o n face . Feature s simila r
to N o . 4 bu t eye s thinner , uppe r l i p mor e hi ghl y arched .
Al so wear s headband; parin g evident o n bac k o f head.
6. H E A D O F A KO R E (fig . 6)
Fabric 7. 5Y R 7/ 8 (reddis h yel l ow) ; preserved height :
5.7 cm; diameter (l i p) : 3. 0 c m
78.AE.271.16
Single fragment , broke n bel o w mout h . Feature s simila r
to N o . 5, but uppe r l i p makes mor e definit e V-shape.
7. H E A D O F A KO R E (fig . 7)
Same fabri c as N o. 4, but whi ter ; preserved height :
6.7 c m
78.AE.271.15
Mended fro m tw o fragments . B roke n awa y bel ow chi n ;
vase-mouth missing , nose chipped . A s above , excep t hai r
indicated down back wi t h wor n incised lines. Al so bel ong-
i ng t o thi s grou p o f heads of korai i n the Gett y col l ecti o n
are: 78.AE.271.10 , 12-14 , 18, 80.AE.81.18 , 21 (rea r port i on
of head) .
Some Plastic Vases 21
Figure 7. N o . 7. H ead o f a kore. M al i bu , T h e J. P au l Get t y
M us eum 78.AE.271.15 .
8. H E A D O F A D WA R F (fi g . 8)
Fabric 5 Y R 6 / 6 (reddis h yel l ow) ; preserved height :
3.25 cm ; preserve d wi dt h (bac k t o front) : 3. 0 cm
80.AE.81.17
Single fragment , mende d fro m t wo pieces, broken bel o w
chi n an d at to p of head wher e onl y hol e fo r vase-mout h
remains. T he fat fac e an d somewhat protrudi n g eye s sug -
gest tha t a dwar f i s represented. I n technique , i t belong s
wi t h th e korai .
See Hi ggi n s 1 , 56-57, nos . 86-93, pl . 18.
Figure 5. N o . 5. H ead o f a kore. M al i bu , T h e J. P au l Get t y
M us eum 78.AE.271.17 .
Figure 6. N o . 6. H ead o f a kore. M al i bu , T h e J. P au l Get t y
M us eum 78.AE.271.16 .
Figure 8. N o . 8. H ea d o f a dwarf . M al i bu , T h e J. P au l
Get t y M us eu m 80.AE.81.17 .
22 Biers
Figure 9. N o . 9. Mal e head . Mal ibu , Th e J. Pau l Gett y
Museum 78.AE.271.19.
Figure 10. N o . 10 . Helmeted-hea d vase . Mal i bu , Th e J.
Paul Gett y Museum 79.AE.92.
9. M A L E H E A D (fig . 9)
Fabric 7. 5Y R 7/ 6 (reddis h yel l ow) , slightl y
micaceous; preserved height : 5. 0 c m
78.AE.271.19
Single fragment , broke n a t neck . F inished , circula r hol e
for vase-mout h o n to p o f head. B l ac k preserve d o n hair ,
beard, and trace s on l i p for a mustache. H ai r scallope d over
forehead. N ar r o w face endi n g i n poi nted beard . O va l eye s
set unde r arche d brows and betwee n wi d e lids, pupil s out -
l i ned b y i nci si on ; sever e mout h ; larg e poi nte d nose . F r o m
wor n mol d ?
T he l on g fac e an d narrow, poi nte d bear d d o no t fi n d a
good paralle l among eithe r R hodi a n or C ori nt hi a n exam-
ples. F o r th e usua l bearde d mal e i n R hodi a n plasti c vases ,
see VPR, 61-8 9 an d passim , especiall y pi. 11, 2-3; for C o-
ri nthi an heads , se e K. Wal l enstein, Korinthische Plastik des
7. und 6. Jahrhunderts vor Christus (B onn , 1971) , especially
pis. 10 , 15 , 22, 30, 31. A loca l ori gi n ma y b e th e bes t con -
cl usi on fo r thi s piece , perhap s base d o n a Peloponnesia n
prototype ( I am indebte d t o Ji r F re l for thi s suggestion) .
10. H E L M E T E D- H E A D VAS E (fig . 10)
Fabric 2. 5Y R 5/ 8- 4/ 8 (red) ; preserve d height : 5. 0 c m
79.AE .92
S i ngl e fragmen t preservi n g fron t o f head. Ghos t o f
twelve-petaled rosette s o n chee k piec e an d a ten-petale d
rosette o n forehea d guard . Fac e fire d reddish ; eyebrows ,
eyes, and mustache outl i ne d in black. O val eyes wi t h pupil s
touchi ng bot h lids .
Typi cal si xth-centur y helmeted-hea d vase ; VPR, 7-29 .
11. H O R S E ' S H E A D (fig . 11)
Fabric 10Y R 8/ 2 (whi t e) , nonmicaceous; preserve d
height: 4. 4 cm; preserved length : 6. 5 c m
78.AE.271.21
Single fragment , broke n a t animal' s neck . Jagge d hol e
behi nd ear s indicates wher e vase-mout h woul d hav e been .
Details o f harness, eyes , an d man e painte d i n black; teet h
colored red .
T he placemen t o f the spout , behi n d th e ear s rather tha n
between them, the stripe d mane, and the dotte d harnes s ar e
paralleled i ndi vi dual l y i n differen t example s o f Ducat' s
Type G ( VPR, 110) . T he harness is particularly close to that
on a n exampl e i n Vi enna ; A . O l i ver , Jr. , "Horse-Hea d
A rybal l oi , " AK 7 (1964) , pi . 17,4.
12. T O P OF A F O O T VAS E (fig . 12)
Fabric 5 Y R 7 / 6- 7 / 8 (reddis h yel l ow) , slightl y
micaceous; maxi mum preserved height : 4. 9 cm
78.AE.271.20
Single fragmen t preservin g vase-mouth , neck , an d a
port i on o f the vas e proper . Fla t stra p handle . Ray s on to p
of mout h, hori zontal strokes on edge. N ec k decorate d wi t h
red an d blac k dot-rosettes and eight-petaled , incise d black
rosettes.
T he preserve d plasti c lace s indicat e tha t thi s fragmen t
belongs t o a group o f foot vase s belonging to Ducat' s Type
B (" rseau") , VPR, 182-185 . Ducat consider s thes e foo t
vases t o b e R hodi an ; others prefe r t o plac e them si mpl y i n
East Greece .
F or a n exampl e wi t h similar , hori zonta l strokes o n th e
edge o f the mout h bu t wi t h th e mor e commo n tongue s
above the laces, see VPR, 183, no. 9 = MuM Auktion 16
(1956), 20 and pi . 13,67.
Some Plastic Vases 23
Figure 11. No . 11. Horse's head. Malibu, The J. Paul Getty
Museum 78.AE.271.21.
Figure 13a. N o . 13. B i rd vase . Malibu , Th e J. Paul Gett
Museum 78.AE.271.23.
y Figure 13b. To p of bird vase, figure 13a. Max. W: 4.6 cm.
13. B I R D VAS E (figs . 13a,b )
Fabric 5 Y R 7 / 6- 7 / 8 (reddis h yel l ow) , slightl y
micaceous; preserved length : 7.7 cm; preserved
height: 4. 8 c m
78.AE.271.23
Single fragmen t wi t h hol e fo r vase-mout h a t rounde d
end. O va l shap e taperin g t o a squared-of f end , simila r t o
the genera l shape of floating waterfowl . T he uppe r surfac e
Figure 12. No . 12. Top of a foot vase. Mal ibu, The J. Pau l
Getty Museum 78.AE.271.20.
is ornamente d wi t h roughl y incised , bl ack-gl aze d sec -
t i onsl ong stroke s i ndi cat i n g wi ngs or , a t least , fl i gh t
feathers. Between these wi ngs and i mmedi atel y behi nd th e
vase's mout h i s a n irregularl y cross-hatche d area , agai n
probably representin g feathers . T h e front , o r rounde d en d
of the vas e i s ornamented wi t h mor e control l e d feathering,
appearing t o indicat e overlapping feathers. Abov e thi s are a
are t w o crudel y incise d eyes i n blac k circle s of glaze. T h e
tapering en d o f th e vas e i s als o painte d black , lik e a tail .
24 Biers
Figure 14. N o . 14 . Dove . M al i bu , T h e J. P au l Get t y
Museum 78.AE.271.5 .
T he bod y i s si mpl y rounde d o n th e bot t om ; n o fee t ar e
indicated.
T he shape i s a more elongate d an d footles s versio n of the
seventh-century bi r d typ e fro m Pdiode s i n th e B ri t i s h
Museum ( B . M . C . 60.4-4.30 , Hi ggi n s 2, no . 1602 , pi . 2) .
T he form , wi t h th e sam e squared-of f tai l bu t muc h mor e
globular, i s common fo r C ori nt hi a n sirens ( VPC, figs . 22 ,
23). O ne mi gh t expect , then , a head t o ac t a s a fi l l i ng hole ,
but th e existenc e o f what appea r t o b e eye s o n th e fron t
above th e incise d feathering present s a probl em. C oul d th e
object b e considere d a n owl , whose apparen t lac k of a di s-
cernible nec k ofte n cause s its hea d t o merg e wi t h it s bod y
i n ancien t plasti c representations ? F o r example s o f plasti c
vases so constructed, se e F . Johansen, "De r er Ugl en, " Med-
delelser fra Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek 3 2 (1975) , 99-118 , figs .
11 and 1 5 ( a standing Eas t Gree k owl i n B oston, Museum
of F in e Art s 80.599) . T he vas e woul d the n b e cappe d b y a
simple fi l l i n g hole , perhap s a n aryballo s mout h , whi c h
woul d accor d bette r wi t h th e shap e o f the presen t break .
T he crud e natur e o f the decoratio n an d th e libertie s take n
wi t h th e natura l for m remi n d one o f some Etrusca n plasti c
vases. However , the fabri c of the Gett y piece appear s i den-
tical t o tha t of N o. 12 , and pecul iarl y shaped bi r d vase s ar e
by n o mean s unknown i n Eas t Greec e (cf . Hi ggi n s 2, no .
1604, pi . 2).
14. DO V E (fig . 14)
Fabric 7. 5Y R 8/ 4- 8/ 6 (pi nk-reddi sh yel l ow) ,
micaceous; preserved height : 4. 1 cm; preserve d
length: 7. 0 c m
78.AE.271.5
Single fragment missin g head, vase-mouth , an d port i o n
Figure 15. No . 15. Fragment o f a bull's head. Mal ibu , The
J. Paul Gett y Museum 79.AE.96.
of forked tail . Mol d-made, traces of whi t e slip . B i r d show n
sitting; fee t attache d separatel y a s woul d hav e bee n hea d
and vase-mouth .
Thi s belong s t o Ducat' s "oiseau x d e techniqu e terr e
cuite" ( VPR, 153-154) . F or an almos t exac t parallel , see C .
B l i nkenberg, Lindos, fouilles de Y acropole, 1902-1914, vol . 1,
Les petits objets (B erl i n, 1931) , 586, no. 2426, pl . 113.
15. F R A GM E N T O F A B U L L ' S H E A D (fig . 15)
Fabric 5 Y R 6/ 8- 7 / 8 (reddis h yel l ow) ; preserve d
height: 5. 1 c m
79.AE.96
Single fragment , broke n at neck, lef t ea r missing . T i ps of
horns broke n away . A suspensi o n (? ) hol e i s preserve d
between th e righ t ea r an d th e righ t horn . A hol e i n th e
neck behi n d th e horn s indicate s th e posi ti o n of the vase -
mout h. T h e hea d i s covere d wi t h blac k glaze , an d detail s
are rendere d b y i nci si on .
T he hea d vaguel y resemble s othe r bul l protome s
assigned t o Pdiode s bu t ha s n o exac t parallels . Se e VPR,
102-106, especiall y Type D, pi . 14,4 . T h e suspensio n hol e
seems t o b e a n unusua l feature . T hi s bul l ma y b e a loca l
rendi ti on o f the Eas t Gree k type .
Al so perhaps bel onging to thi s general Eas t Greek grou p
is a fragment i n th e Gett y col l ecti o n of a mol de d haunc h
of a n animal , 81.AE.1 5 ( 5 Y R 7 / 6 , reddis h yellow , mi ca -
ceous; preserved height : 5. 3 cm) .
16. C O R I N T H I A N H A R E (fig . 16)
Fabric 10 Y R 8/ 4 - 7 / 4 (ver y pal e br own) ; preserve d
height: 5. 0 cm; preserved length : 8. 3 c m
78.AE.271.6
Some Plastic Vases 25
Figure 16. No . 16. Corinthian hare. Mal ibu , Th e J. Pau l
Getty Museum 78.AE.271.6.
C ompl ete. F inishe d vertica l hol e throug h to p o f head ,
suspension hol e throug h bas e o f ear s behi n d head . B od y
wheel-made; head, tail , and legs handmade. Trace s of blac k
glaze o n fee t an d tail . T h e bod y wa s onc e covere d wi t h
black dots , representin g th e creature' s coat , an d a few ca n
stil l b e seen .
See VPC, fig . 28, for thi s type . Anot he r exampl e i n th e
Getty col l ecti on , 78.AE.271.7 , display s the same fabri c an d
t echni que. P reserve d hei ght : 4. 6 cm, preserve d l engt h :
7.7 cm. C ompl ete, but ear s broken away behi nd suspensio n
hole.
17. H E A D O F A C O R I N T H I A N R A M (fig . 17)
Fabric 10 Y R 8/ 2 - 8/ 3 (whi t e t o ver y pal e brown) ;
preserved height : 4.15 cm; preserved length : 5. 5 c m
79.AE.81.4
Single fragmen t o f restin g ra m preservin g handmad e
head an d horn s an d port i o n of wheel -made body . O ri fi c e
i n to p o f head; suspensio n hol e throug h cente r o f horns ,
whi ch ar e si mpl y t hi n coil s of clay. Traces of red on muzzl e.
See VPC, fig . 27, fo r th e type . Anot he r simila r Get t y
fragment i s 79.AE.81.1.
18. H E A D O F A C O R I N T H I A N R A M (fig . 18)
Same fabri c and techniqu e a s N o. 17; preserved
height: 3. 6 c m
79.AE.81.2
S i ngl e fragment , a s above , bu t muzzl e broke n away .
However, port i o n o f bod y preserve d wi t h brow n spots ;
traces of black glaze also on horns .
Anot her simila r Gett y fragment i s 79.AE.81.3.
Figure 17. N o . 17. H ead of a C or i nt hi an ram. M al i bu, T h e
J. P au l Get t y M us eum 79.AE.81.4 .
Figure 18. N o . 18. H ead of a C or i nt hi an ram. M al i bu, T h e
J. P au l Get t y M useu m 79.AE .81.2 .
19. S T A N D I N G R A M (fig . 19 )
Fabric 7. 5Y R 8/ 4- 8/ 6 (pi n k t o reddis h yel l ow) ,
slightly micaceous ; preserved height : 6. 5 cm;
preserved length : 8. 8 cm; diameter (hol e) : 0. 8 c m
79.AE.99
C ompl ete. B l ockl i k e shap e on short , squar e legs . Horn s
made o f coil s o f clay an d unpierced ; tai l separatel y added .
Probably mol d-made , bu t n o j oi ni ng line s visible . Surfac e
pared; trace s o f blac k o n muzzl e , horns , an d chest . Ver y
26 Biers
Figure 19. N o . 19 . Standin g ram . Mal i bu , Th e J. Pau l
Getty Museum 79.AE.99.
faint trace s of a concentri c circl e on lef t shoulder .
L ocal versio n o f a C ori nt hi an ram bu t standing , unl i k e
the restin g pos e commo n fo r C ori nt hi a n and othe r exam -
ples. A numbe r o f local imitation s of common C ori nt hi an
hares and rams ar e known; often th e determinatio n appear s
to hav e bee n mad e solel y on th e basi s of fabric color ; see E .
Li ssi , "La col l ezi one S cagl i one a Locri , " Atti MGreci a, n.s. 4
(1961), 118-119 , nos . 202-206, pl . 57. Etruscan imitation s
have als o been identified ; P. Mi ngazzi ni, Vasi della collezione
Castellani (R ome , 1930) , 159-160 , no . 402 , pi . 31, 1 ( Vi l l a
Gi ul i a 51981) , VPR, 10 1 n . 1 ( a ram) . T h e genera l shap e
and treatment o f the horns indicat e that al l these rams wer e
derived fro m C ori nt hi a n prototypes rathe r tha n fro m Eas t
Greek types . There , complet e ram s ar e differentl y con -
structed; se e VPR, 100-101 .
20. R A M ' S H E A D WI T H A S N A KE (fig . 20)
Fabric 7. 5Y R 8/ 4 (pi nk) , slightl y micaceous;
preserved length : 4. 8 c m
79.AE.98.1
Single sol i d fragment , broke n a t neck . R am' s muzzl e
missing. Snak e attache d t o ram' s hea d i n antiquity . R am' s
horns preserve d a s coil e d strip s o f clay, a s o n N o . 19. R ed
and br own stripes on neck, horns, and down back o f snake .
I ncised circle s for snake' s eyes , X incise d on head , an d t w o
incised line s run down lengt h o f head.
Wi t h n o fi l l i n g hole , the ram s di d not functi o n a s vases
but perhap s as decoration for vases. O ne i s remi nded o f the
elaborate seventh-centur y vase s fro m Athen s wi t h plasti c
adjuncts o f ani mal , human, an d floral shapes . Perhaps ou r
rams decorate d similar , loca l vases . F o r on e o f th e mor e
elaborate example s fro m Athen s wi t h plasti c snakes, se e K.
Ki i bl er, Die Nekropole des sptern 8. bis frhen6. Jahrhunderts.
Kerameikos, Ergebniss e de r Ausgrabungen , vol . 6, par t 2
(B erl i n, 1970) , Kerameikos 149, pis. 38-40.
21. R A M ' S H E A D WI T H A S N A KE (fig . 21)
Fabric 7. 5Y R 7/ 4 (pi nk) ; preserved length : 4. 7 c m
79.AE.98.2 an d 79.AE.98. 3 (snake )
L i ke N o . 20 i n technique, excep t snak e restore d i n posi-
ti on. Stripe s blacker on snake , an d eye s hol l owe d out .
22. F R A GM E N T O F AN A I DO I ON VAS E (figs . 22a, b )
Fabric 10 Y R 8/ 4 - 8/ 6 (ver y pal e br own t o yel l ow) ;
preserved height : 6. 0 c m
78. AE.271.22
Single fragment , mos t o f testes broke n away ; peni s an d
pubes handmade . Pube s squared-off , bu t slightl y gabled ;
suspension hole s throug h to p an d outsid e o n eithe r side .
F inished hol e o n to p fo r vase-mouth . Decorati o n i n fade d
black o n pubes , checkerboar d o n back , zigzag s o n sides .
F ront o f pubes and testes decorated wi t h dots . Peni s pared ;
faded blac k dot a t end .
I n technique, fabric , and decoration our fragment i s very
close t o a n exampl e i n Syracus e ( Muse o A r cheol ogi co
3049), whi ch , however , ha s a single , square d maeande r
painted o n th e revers e an d straigh t blac k lines on th e side s
of th e mor e strongl y gable d pubes . T h e fabri c o f the t w o
vases i s ver y similar , and whe n th e Syracusa n exampl e i s
examined togethe r wi t h undoubtedl y C ori nt hi a n plastics,
its fabri c look s ver y different , havi n g a mor e distinctl y
yel l ow appearance . Johanse n consider s th e vas e i n Syracus e
a Si ci l i a n i mi tati o n o f a C ori nt hi a n type , an d th e Gett y
example woul d appea r t o b e i n a simila r category . Se e F .
Johansen, " E n 0stgraesk Parfumeflask e fr a 6 . A r h. f. Kr . ,"
Meddelelserfra Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek 3 3 (1976) , 96, fig. 25.
23. F R A GM E N T O F A M A L E F I GU R E (fig . 23)
Fabric 7. 5Y R 8/ 4- 7/ 4 (pi nk); preserved height :
8.85 c m
79. A E . 82
S i ngl e fragmen t o f a seate d mal e fi gure , broke n al l
around; whee l marks o n i nteri or . Preserved i s a port i on of
the figure' s rounde d bell y an d on e thi gh , whi c h extend s
outward beyon d th e curv e of the body . A break a t the t hi n
end o f thi s uppe r le g indicate s tha t th e l owe r le g woul d
have extended dow n from th e kne e a t almos t a right angle .
A panthe r ski n wa s drape d ove r th e body . T he lef t sid e o f
the ski n , i ncl udi n g approximatel y hal f th e hea d an d le g
endi ng i n a paw, i s preserved o n thi s fragment , extendin g
over the uppe r thi gh . T he outlines o f the pel t and th e claws
Some Plastic Vases 27
Figure 20. No . 20. Ram' s hea d wi t h a snake. Malibu, Th e
J. Paul Getty Museu m 79.AE.98.1.
Figure 22a. N o . 22. Fragment of an aidoio n vase. Mal ibu ,
The J. Paul Getty Museu m 78.AE.271.22.

are incised ; wi t hi n th e pel t outl i n e th e ski n i s rendere d i n
purple; outside , a t hi n lin e of black glaz e provide s a border .
T he uppe r thi g h i s decorated wi t h a n obl on g groupi n g o f
ten vaguel y lozenge-shape d blobs , a semicircula r line , an d
di mpl e line s a t th e knee .
T he pos e o f the figur e mus t hav e resemble d tha t o f th e
common squattin g C ori nt hi an komasts, i n whi ch the thi g h
Figure 21. No . 21. Ram' s hea d wi t h a snake. Mal ibu, Th e
J. P au l Get t y Museu m 79.AE .98. 2 an d
79.AE.98.3 (snake) .
Figure 22b. Fron t o f aidoion vase, figure 22a .
and l owe r le g ar e place d i n th e sam e genera l relationshi p
( VPC, passim ; a shor t discussio n o f thes e vase s wi l l b e
i ncl uded i n D . A . A myx , Corinthian Vase-Paintings of the
Archaic Period, vol . 2 (i n press) . E ven close r i s the posi ti o n
of th e famou s C ori nt hi a n seate d mal e figur e hol di n g a cu p
i n th e L ouvre , illustrated i n figures 24a, b (E . Pottier, CVA
L ouvre 8, pis . 3- 4 [France , pis . 500-501] ; i dem , "L e satyr

28 Biers
Figure 23. No . 23. Fragment of a male figure. Mal ibu, The
J. Pau l Getty Museum 79.AE.82.
boveur, " BCH 1 9 [1895] , 225-235) . T hi s figure als o wear s
a panther ski n , whi ch hangs down hi s back, but i t is spotted
and hang s symmetri cal l y ove r th e buttock s rathe r tha n
being drape d partiall y ove r th e uppe r thi gh , a s o n ou r
example (i bi d. , 230, fig. 2). T he lozenge design on the thi g h
appears t o b e a cl ums y cop y o f a commo n Archai c bod y
ornament, whi c h i s foun d i n a mor e organize d for m o n
human figure s i n Archai c vase-paintin g a s wel l a s on C o -
ri nthi an komast s (B . F el l mann , " Zur Deut un g fri i hgri e -
chischer Korperornamente, " JdJ 93 [1978] , 1-29. T hi s type
of desig n i s illustrate d i n figs. 1 1 [no . 15] , 15 , 16 , an d i s
discussed o n pp . 14-18 . F o r th e desig n i n a group o f nin e
elements o n a komast i n B onn, se e fig. 16) .
T he si mi l ari t y o f our fragmen t t o th e L ouvr e figur e i s
stri ki ng. Ther e i s n o certainty , however , tha t th e Gett y
fragment i n fact belonge d t o a plastic vase, al though i t ma y
have. I t woul d hav e been considerabl y larger tha n th e aver -
age mol de d C ori nt hi a n komast, whi c h generall y measure s
9-10 c m i n total height . T h e col or and composi ti o n of th e
fabric of the Gett y fragment ar e wel l wi t hi n th e parameter s
of C ori nt hi an clays , al though th e renderin g o f the second -
ary desig n an d th e panthe r ski n d o no t see m u p t o th e
qual i ty one mi ght expec t o n a C ori nt hi an terracotta o f thi s
size. O n e pecul i ari t y i s the lac k of an eyebal l on th e hea d
of the panthe r ski n . T wo curvi ng lines seem rathe r t o i ndi -
cate a close d eye . Agai n , perhap s "C or i nt hi a n deri ved" i s
the bes t description.
Uni versi t y o f Mi ssouri , C ol umbi a
Figure 24a. Komas t figur e wi t h vase . Paris , Mus e d u
Louvre C A 454. Photo : Courtes y Mus e d u
Louvre.
Figure 24b. Bac k view of figure 24a showing panther skin .
Photo: Courtesy Muse du Louvre .
A Kyli x and Fragments by the Boread Painter
Cynthia Hoyt-Grimes
small fragmen t i n th e Gett y Museu m (fig . 4a) , whi c h
belongs t o th e same hand, als o displays thi s palmett e type.
4
It to o belong s t o a kyl i x , whi c h wa s thi cker-wal l e d tha n
the Gett y cup . It s petal s tota l twenty-thre e an d ar e draw n
likewise outwar d fro m th e centra l heart . T h e fragmen t o f
the Samo s cu p tha t survive s preserve s a n entir e palmett e
from th e sam e zon e (fig . 2b). I t differ s fro m th e previou s
type onl y in its inner detail . Of the eigh t type s o f palmette s
attributed t o th e Borea d Painter , onl y thes e t wo type s ar e
identically proporti oned.
5
B el ow th e handle-frieze , th e thre e cup s ar e markedl y
si mi l ar. P ur pl e band s an d hor i zont a l line s alternat e
between decorativ e friezes . T h e friez e o f rays tha t stretc h
up from bel ow are the same thi n type.6 Tongues, a type
unconnected a t th e top , alternat e purpl e an d black.
7
T h e
Boread Painte r mad e goo d us e o f a pomegranat e wi t h a n
angled base-ste m an d crosse d top , whi c h h e preferre d o n
the outsid e o f hi s cups , whi l e using a different sor t wi t h a
simple top-stem aroun d th e insid e of the tondo . T he Gett y
and Vi l l a Gi ul i a cup s an d th e Gett y fragmen t al l share thi s
ki nd o f pomegranat e i n thei r tondo s (figs , l a , 4b) , whi l e
the Samos cup differs again (fig. 2a).8 On the outside, con-
centric circle s continue th e painte d decoratio n t o th e ste m
of al l thre e cups : ther e ar e a total o f thirteen circle s on th e
Getty kyl i x an d eigh t o n th e Samo s fragments , whi l e eight
of unequa l spacin g remai n o n th e Vi l l a Gi ul i a kyl i x . T h e
Pottery Foun d i n Cyprus, " Acta Institua Atheniensis Regni Sueciae 2 6
(1977), 81, pi. 18,9-10.
3. Th e Borea d Painte r introduce d thi s shape ; se e Stibbe , 21-22 ,
Formgruppe V, fig. 6. The restore d heigh t o f the Gett y kyl i x i s 12 cm;
restored diamete r a t it s widest poin t 19. 2 cm; restored diamete r o f the
foot 8. 9 cm; height of the bowl 6. 6 cm; height of stem 5. 4 cm; thickness
of wal l at the bowl' s base 0.5 cm, 0.2 cm at its l ip. The kyl i x was restore d
by Patrici a Tuttle i n the Gett y Museum.
4. Mal i bu , Th e J. Paul Gett y Museu m 82.AE.39.19; 3. 3 x 1. 9 cm.
This fragment ca n also be dated circ a 550-540 B . C .
5. Se e B . B. Shefton, "Thre e Laconi a n Vase Painters " BSA 4 9
(1954), 300. Shefton use d the handle-palmett e a s hi s criteria for dating:
"This order i s based upo n the putativ e development o f the handl e orna -
ment." Fo r those palmette type s attribute d t o th e painte r b y Stibbe, see
his pag e 92, particularly types 1 2 and 13.
6. Se e Stibbe, 92, type 1 .
7. Se e Stibbe, 92, type 8.
8. Se e Stibbe, 91, types 1 and 3. On the Vi l l a Gi ul i a cup, the pome -
granates on the outsid e wer e i n part restored incorrectl y (Stibbe, 231).
Hesiod, Theogony, 265-269
A Laconi a n kyl ix i n the J. P aul Gett y Museu m presents
the thi r d extant cop y of the subjec t fro m whi c h it s painte r
derives hi s namethe Boreads' pursui t o f the Harpie s (figs .
l a- c ) .
1
T h e kyl i x ca n b e date d circ a 550-54 0 B .C ., no t
much late r tha n th e earlies t exampl e i n Samos (figs . 2a-b )
or th e Borea d Painter' s nam e piec e i n th e Muse o di Vi l l a
Gi ul i a (fig . 3) .
2
Thes e thre e cups , whi c h undoubt edl y
reflect th e us e of a workshop prototype, provid e an oppor -
tuni ty t o examin e th e way s i n whi c h th e Borea d Painte r
altered hi s composi ti on.
T he potti n g o f th e Gett y kyl i x duplicate s tha t o f th e
Vi l l a Gi ul i a cup , an d th e outsid e decoratio n fro m l i p t o
handle-zone is comparable.3 Above the palmette frieze, the
Getty cu p i s offset b y t wo nea t line s (fig . l b) , whereas th e
Vi l l a Gi ul i a cup' s friez e i s marked by three lines, irregularly
thi ck an d carelessl y drawn . T h e hori zonta l palmettes tha t
extend fro m th e handle s o n bot h cup s ar e o f a standar d
type, differin g onl y i n the numbe r o f petals: th e Gett y cu p
had twenty-si x , whi l e the Vi l l a Gi ul i a cu p ha s twenty . A
Abbreviation:
Stibbe: C . M. Stibbe, Lakonische Vasenmaler des sechstenJahrhunderts v
Chr. (Amsterdam, 1972) .
1. Th e J. Paul Gett y Museum, 85.AE.461. See J. Fre l and M . Tru
Greek Vases: Molly and Walter Bareiss Collection (Malibu, 1983), 68, n
16. I woul d lik e t o than k Ji r i Fre l an d Mari o n Tru e for invitin g me t
study thi s kyl i x during my internship at the Getty Museum and for thei
ki nd assistanc e an d man y suggestion s whil e I was wri ti ng thi s article.
am als o grateful t o Al an Griffiths o f University College, London, for hi
keen observations an d t o Marianina Olcott, Californi a Stat e Universit
San Jose , fo r he r helpfu l suggestions . Th e attributio n o f the kyl i x wa
made b y Di etri ch von Bothmer.
2. Samos , Archaeological Museum K1540, from th e Heraio n (fou
fragments remain) ; R ome , Museo di Vi l l a Gi ul i a , fro m Cerveteri . F
a recen t bibliography , see Stibbe, no. 119 , pis. 37,1; 38, 1-2; 39, 1-2; an
no. 122 , pi. 41, 1-3. Stibbe dates these cups t o 575-570 B . C .
I am most grateful t o C . M. Stibb e for suggesting a fourth cup by th
Boread Painte r i n some fragment s fro m Amathous (Cyprus ) tha t sho
the exergu e feline' s hindquarters ; i t ma y wel l b e a sphinx, but equall
may b e a l i on . Se e E . Gjerstad e t al. , "Greek Geometri c an d Archai
.
e,
o.
o
r
I
s
y,
s
r
or
d
e
w
y
c
30 Hoy t-Grimes
Figure la. Tond o o f kyli x b y th e Borea d Painter . Restore d diam : 19. 2 cm . Th e J . Pau l Gett y
Museum 86.AE.461.
Figure lb. Profil e of kylix, figur e l a . Restored H : 12 cm.
A Kylix and Fragments by the Boread Painter 31
Figure lc. Undersid e o f kylix, figur e l a .
Getty kyl i x an d th e Samo s fragment s hav e survi vi ng stems,
but onl y th e Gett y cu p ha s an y par t o f the foot , whi c h ha s
been painte d blac k bot h insid e an d ou t wi t h a reserve d
base.
T he tond o scenes i n the thre e cups ar e stri ki ngl y similar.
T he son s o f Boreas , Zete s an d Kalais , gra b th e throat s o f
their victimsth e Harpies , wh o wer e sent b y Zeus t o tor -
ment th e bl i n d Phineus . T hi s aeria l chase i s wi del y known
from th e Argonautica o f Apol l oni us R hodi us.
9
I n tha t ver -
sion, the Boread s rushe d nea r thei r vi cti ms , but graspe d fo r
them i n vai n . Iri s the n intervene d an d turne d th e Boread s
back. A scholias t o n thi s passage testifies t o a Hesi odi c ver -
sion i n whi ch Herme s stop s the pursui t.
1 0
Apol l odoro s re -
cords anothe r versi o n i n whi c h th e B oread s sla y th e
Harpies. O n e fall s i nt o a rive r i n th e P l oponnse , whi l e
the othe r fall s a t th e Strophade s I slands.
11
T h e Borea d
Painter's composi ti o n o f thi s pursui t adequatel y indicate s
certain deat h for th e Harpies , sinc e the Boread s cl utc h thei r
vi cti ms' necks . Therefore , a variant myt h mus t have existe d
i n th e P l oponns e in whi ch th e Harpie s wer e slain, either
unknown t o o r ignore d b y Hesi od . T h e Borea d Painter' s
understanding of the myt h mus t b e relate d t o th e tradi ti o n
found i n Apol l odoros' Library.
T hi s subjec t i s first foun d i n vase-painting a t th e en d o f
the sevent h centur y i n a similar composi ti on, whi c h B eaz -
ley called "the earlies t representatio n of the legend. " I t sur -
9. Apolloniu s Rhodius, Araonautica, ii.282-287.
10. Scholias t on Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica, ii.296-297 (p . 15
Wendel) = Hesio d frag. 15 6 M . - W.
0
11. Apollodoros , i.9.21.6; (Hesio d frag. 15 5 M . - W. )
He mistakes th e spellin g of Hesiod' s see Theogony 267.
32 Hoyt-Grimes
Figures 2a-b. F ragmen t o f kyl ix b y the B oread Painter . Left: the lef t fee t o f the Harpi es ; right: pal mett e on exteri or . Samo s A r chaeo -
l ogi cal M us eu m K1540 . P hotos : C ourt es y Samo s Archaeol ogi ca l M useum.
Figure 3. T ond o o f kyl ix b y the B oread Painter . R ome , Muse o d i Vi l l a Gi ul i a .
P hot o: C ourt es y Muse o di Vi l l a Gi ul i a .
Figure 4a. E xt er i o r o f ky l i x fragmen t b y th e B or ea d
Pai nter. L : 3.3 cm. M al i bu, T h e J. P au l Get t y
M us eum 82.AE .39.19.
Figure 4b. I nteri o r o f kyl ix fragment , figur e 4a.
A Kylix and Fragments by the BoxeadPainter 33
vives o n a fragmentar y bow l b y th e Nesso s Painter , wi t h
the preserved inscription APEIITIA.12 The same scene
appears again, thi s time wi t h Phineu s stil l a t hi s table, i n an
ornamental ivory group from Delphi.13 Pausanias describes
the grea t thron e a t A mykl ai , whi c h als o presente d th e
myt h: "Kala s an d Zete s ar e dri vi n g of f the Harpie s fro m
P hi neus. "
1 4
T hi s monumen t wa s surel y know n t o ou r
vase-painter, bu t unfortunately , th e composition s canno t
be compared .
I n thi s aeria l pursuit , th e Borea d Painte r relieve s th e
usual rectangul a r structur e o f L aconi a n t ond o c om -
posi ti ons t hr oug h swi r l i n g wi ng s an d outstretche d
limbs, maki n g th e exergue , s o commo n i n L aconi an vase-
painting, almos t cumbersome.
1 5
O n th e Gett y cu p (fig .
l a) , th e B orea d Painter ha s centere d hi s composi ti on wel l ,
so tha t th e spac e behi n d th e elbow s o f the Boread s woul d
not hav e bee n a s star k a s th e sam e area i n th e Vi l l a Gi ul i a
tondo (fig . 3) . I n th e exergu e a l i o n o n th e Gett y kyl i x
replaces a sphinx i n the Vi l l a Gi ul i a , whi ch , wi t h it s pro -
trudi ng tongue, seems humorousl y appropri ate.16
T he huma n figures , worke d i n doubl e outline , provid e
many anatomica l comparisons . T h e mos t characteristi c
features o f the Borea d Painter' s style , accordin g t o Stibbe ,
are found i n his rendering of eyes, ears, abdomi nal muscles ,
hipbones, and knees.17 On the Getty cup, the eyes, ears,
and knee s alon e suppor t a n attri buti o n t o hi m . U nf or t u-
nately, the abdomi na l muscles ar e missing on each cup, an d
the hi p (al thoug h rendere d o n th e Vi l l a Gi ul i a cup ) wa s
omi tted o n th e Gett y cup . T h e almond-shape d eye s ar e
heightened wi t h eyebrows tha t fol l o w th e shap e of the eye .
O nl y on e ea r survive s o n th e Gett y cup , tha t o f a female ,
but i t i s more l ik e the standar d Borea d Painter ea r observe d
by Stibb e tha n eithe r th e mal e o r femal e ear s that surviv e
on th e Vi l l a Gi ul i a cup . T h e knee s provid e a slight chang e
i n rendi ti on , whi ch ca n b e attribute d t o th e us e o f outl ine
12. J . D. Beazley, The Development of Attic Black-Figure. Sather Cl as -
sical Lectures, 24 (Berkeley , 1951), 15.
13. Del ph i Museum 1355, of Cori nthi an workmanship. I t i s thought
to be close to what woul d hav e been found on the "Ches t of Kypselos":
"Etwa u m dieselb e Zei t wi e di e beide n lakonische n Schale n entstan d
eine aus ungezhl ten Fragmente n wiedergewonnene Elfenbeingrupp e i n
Del phi , di e ein e gut e Vorstellun g gibt, wi e wi r uns di e Relief s an de r
verlorenen Kypseloslad e zu denke n haben. " (P . Blome, "Da s Gestort e
M ahl de s Phineu s au f einer Lekytho s des Sapphomalers, " AntK2 1
[1978], 72). The "Chest o f Kypselos " was dedicated at O l ympi a accord-
ing t o Paus . v . 17.11 :
The parallel in Del phi testifie s t o the popularit y of the composition.
14. Paus . iii.18.15:
O n th e architec t Bathykle s th e Magnesia n se e Paus . iii.18. 9 an d H .
technique fo r the female s an d i nci si o n for the males . I n an y
case, the Harpi es ' knees ar e rendered alik e on the Gett y an d
Vi l l a Gi ul i a cups, and knee s ar e consistentl y likewise drawn
on al l pairs o f Boreads, wi t h mal e knee s survi vi n g on al l
three cups.
1 8
A compari so n o f the thre e fragmentar y version s o f th e
nearer Harpie s suggest s a possibl e reconstructio n o f th e
missing hands on the Gett y cup. T he angular doubl e wing s
of th e Gett y Harpie s ar e mor e lik e the wi ng s on th e Samo s
cup, differin g onl y i n th e alternatin g purpl e an d blac k
feathers (however , thi s colo r scheme i s als o foun d o n th e
Vi l l a Gi ul i a cup) . O n the Gett y cup, the posi ti oni n g of the
right ar m o f the neare r Harpy and th e placemen t an d angl e
of he r el bo w paralle l the treatmen t o f the remainin g righ t
forearm an d el bo w o f the Harp y o n th e Samo s fragment .
Therefore, th e Gett y Harpy , lik e th e Samo s Harpy , ma y
have held her skirt with a clawed hand.19 This sort of
cupped han d i s reminiscent o f one o f the Nesso s Painter' s
Harpies, yet interestingl y enough, the clawed Nessos Harpy
does not hol d he r skirt . I t ca n be certai n that on th e Gett y
tondo, th e neare r Harpy' s lef t forear m appeare d a t wais t
level, sinc e bot h th e Samo s fragmen t an d th e Vi l l a Gi ul i a
cup show the lef t forear m appearin g there . T he Harpy' s lef t
shoul der i s hi dde n o n al l three exampl e s o f thi s scene .
Whet her th e Gett y Harpy' s lef t han d hold s her skir t or a n
amphora i s uncertai n.20
M any othe r detail s on the Getty , Samos, and Vi l l a Gi ul i a
vases ar e comparabl e wher e the y survive : the Boread s eac h
have l on g hai r wi t h adde d purpl e wreaths ; th e thumbnai l
is indicate d o n th e neare r Boreads ' lef t hand ; th e neare r
Harpies hav e fiv e division s in thei r bang s (fringe) ; purpl e
is adde d t o th e eyeball s o f the Boreads , an d adde d purpl e
alternates wi t h i nci si o n o n th e hindquarter s o f the exergu e
animals.
There ca n be n o doub t tha t al l three cups wer e execute d
Stuart-Jones: "Bathykle s was employed to utilize the present of gol d sent
by Croesu s to Sparta on the decoration of the templ e o f Apol l o at A myk -
lai, " Select Passages fromAncient Writers Illustrative of the History of Greek
Sculpture (Chicago , 1966), 27.
15. Th e absenc e of a groundline i s due t o flight. Fo r a groundline
indicating the sea , see Stibbe, no. 222. The use i s not whol l y consistent .
16. Th e Samos cup also has a sphinx, Stibbe, 230.
17. Stibbe , 89.
18. Th e divisiona l line s radiatin g fro m th e kneeca p o f th e neare r
Boread on the Vi l l a Gi ul i a cup were omitted .
19. Th e neare r Vi l l a Gi ul i a Harpy' s righ t elbo w woul d b e slightly
higher, makin g th e ar m itsel f mor e acutel y angled , a positio n mor e
appropriate fo r carrying an object . Stibb e also noticed the cuppe d han d
of a komas t b y th e Borea d Painte r (no . 141) , bu t scale , subject , an d
technique mak e i t exceptional.
20. I t i s less likely that the Gett y Harpy should hold an amphora and
dish as does the Vi l l a Gi ul i a Harpy; the similarit y of the angula r doubl e
wings t o thos e of the Samo s Harpy , as wel l a s the similarl y positione d
right arms, make i t likel y that the Gett y Harpy hel d her skir t wi th bot h
hands.
34 Hoyt-Grimes
Figure 5a. Exteri o r o f kyl i x fragmen t b y th e Borea d
Painter. L : 4.9 cm. Mal ibu, Th e J. Pau l Gett y
Museum 82.AE.39.15 .
at nearl y the same time . Stibbe placed the Samo s cup earlier
than th e Vi l l a Gi ul i a cup , an d i f this i s correct , th e Gett y
cup ma y b e onl y slightl y later . I t ha s evolve d beyond th e
Vi l l a Gi ul i a cu p i n thre e i mportan t respects : th e outsid e
decoration i s mor e careful ; th e figure s fi t th e tond o mor e
evenly; an d th e substitutio n o f the l i o n fo r th e sphin x i n
the exergu e relieve s the abundanc e o f wi ngs. I t remain s t o
be see n ho w man y example s o f thi s composi ti o n stil l sur -
vi ve an d whethe r th e Borea d Painter hi msel f designed th e
prototype.
T he Get t y M us e u m has ye t anothe r smal l fragmen t
(82.AE.39.15) measurin g 4. 9 x 3. 2 cm, whi ch als o belong s
to th e Borea d Painte r (figs . 5a-b) . Agains t a dar k back -
ground, a complete handl e palmett e survives . Added purpl e
is use d fo r th e palmette' s heart , whi c h ha s bee n outl i ne d
Figure 5b. Interio r of kylix, figur e 5a.
wi t h a n incise d line. T h e petal s radiatin g fro m th e cente r
have bee n distinguishe d wi t h i nci si o n agains t th e blac k
glaze that appear s above an d below. T he palmette' s nec k i s
marked a t to p an d bot t o m wi t h t w o incise d lines , an d
purple ha s bee n adde d a s a triangula r fi l l i n th e stem . A n
incised lin e i s used t o emphasiz e th e base-lin e of the adde d
purple. A trac e o f the offse t l i p survives o n th e fragment ,
whi l e a thi c k ban d o f blac k remain s bel o w th e palmett e
frieze. T h e survi vi n g tond o decoratio n i s a serie s o f t hi n
concentric circles . A kyl i x i n th e L ouvr e b y th e Borea d
P ai nter
2 1
offer s a stri ki ng comparison ; it has th e sam e typ e
of palmette , wi t h th e sam e repeate d patter n o f concentri c
circles i n th e tondo . T h e Gett y fragmen t mus t therefor e
belong t o anothe r kyl i x o f thi s typ e an d mus t hav e bee n
decorated b y the Borea d Painter .
Uni versi t y Col l eg e
Uni versi t y o f L ondon
21. Louvr e S 4373; see Stibbe, 143.
Booners
Donna Carol Kurtz, John Boardman
T he whi t e-groun d kyathos i n the J. P au l Gett y Museum
(figs, l a - d , 11 ) i s a n earl y an d fin e exampl e o f a typ e o f
vase that was produced i n Athens for a relatively short time .
T he styl e o f decoration suggest s tha t i t wa s painte d b y a
contemporary o f Psiax in the las t decades of the si xt h cen -
tury B . C . T he pri nci pal figur e i s a reveler wearing a costume
associated wi t h th e I onia n poe t Anakreon , who cam e t o
Athens about th e tim e th e vas e was painted .
Part on e o f this article , by Donna C arol Kurt z , discusse s
the shape, technique, an d styl e of decoration of the kyathos .
Part two , by John B oardman , i s devoted t o representation s
of Anakreon and hi s boon companions on Atheni an black -
and red-figur e vases.
1
P A R T O N E : T H E KY A T H O S
Kyathos i s the nam e conventional l y given t o t w o type s
of dippe r o r ladle , whi ch wer e mad e i n a variet y of mate -
rials.
2
T h e footles s kyathos , wi t h l on g t hi n handle , wa s
produced fo r som e tim e i n Athens , probabl y i n metal an d
wood mor e ofte n tha n clay . T hi s typ e o f kyathos ca n b e
seen o n bl ack - an d red-figur e vases , usuall y i n representa -
tions of dri nki ng parties.
3
T h e footed kyathos , wi t h whi c h
we shal l b e concerned , wa s apparentl y mad e i n cla y i n
Athens for less than fifty years.4 The workshop of Nikos-
thenes i s th e firs t know n t o hav e specialize d i n i t fro m
around 53 0 B . C . Som e kyatho i wer e decorate d i n the red -
figure technique, but i t was essentiall y a black-figure shape.
N i kost henes
5
suppl i e d Etruscan s a s wel l a s th e hom e
market. H i s special neck-amphora wa s modeled on a shape
already wel l establishe d i n the nativ e bucchero fabri c wher e
a foote d kyatho s wa s als o known.
6
Shap e an d decoratio n
of the Etrusca n kyathos, however , admi t considerabl e vari -
ety,
7
an d th e for m whi c h mos t closel y resemble s th e A t t i c
figured vas e may be later tha n th e earlies t made i n Athens.
8
Bucchero kyatho i ca n hav e patterne d rim s an d mol de d
attachments o n th e bow l an d handle . T h e kyatho i whi c h
Abbreviations:
I n additio n t o standar d abbreviation s th e followin g ar e use d i n thi s
article:
ABFH:]. Boardman , Athenian Black Figure Vases, a Handbook(London,
1974) .
ARFH: J . Boardman, Athenian Red Figure Vases, a Handbook(London ,
1975) .
BAdd: L. B urn and R . Gl ynn, comps. , Beazley Addenda (Oxford , 1982) .
Brandenburg: H . Brandenburg, Studien zur Mitra (Munster, 1966) .
C B : L . D. Caskey and J. Beazley, Attic Vase Paintings in the Museumof
Fine Arts, Boston 2 (Oxford, 1954) , 55-61.
Cohen: B . Cohen, Attic Bilingual Vases (N e w York, 1978) .
Eisman: M . Eisman, "Atti c Kyatho s Painters" (Ph.D . diss. , University
of Pennsylvania, 1970 . A nn Arbor, Universit y Mi crofi l ms) .
Hoppi n: J. C . Hoppi n, A Handbook of Greek B l ack-fi gured Vases (P ari s,
1924).
Kurtz: D. C. Kurtz, Athenian White Lekythoi (Oxford , 1975) .
LIMC: Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae 1 (Zurich, 1981).
Mertens: J. R . Mertens, Attic White-Ground: Its Development on Shapes
Other than Lekythoi (NewYork, 1977).
MuM: Mi i nze n und Medaillen, Basel (catalogues of sales).
Pfuhl, MuZ: E. Pfuhl , Malerei und Zeichnungen der Griechen (Muni ch ,
1923; reprint ed. , R ome, 1969) .
1. Thi s articl e coul d have been title d " A Whi t e-Ground Kyathos
i n Mal i b u an d Observations o n Representations of Anakreon and Hi s
B oon Companions. " We preferred th e more economical nickname use d
i n the course of wri ti ng it . Its formation may puzzl e some. The -er/-er s
suffix ha s long bee n affecte d i n OxfordPragger Wagge r (Princ e of
Wales), th e Gile r (St . Giles), th e wagger-pagger-bagger (wastepape r
basket) although i t is now falling out of use. Beazley was not immune;
"the Swinger " and "the Affecter" are related formation s tha t have read-
i l y been accepted. In his published works, however, he tended not to use
some forms whi ch he had adopted i n his notesDrooper (Droo p C up),
Lipper (Li p C up), Pigger (the P ig Painter). "Booners" seemed a subject
fit for such familiarity.
-er, suffix
6
. Al so -ers . I ntroduced fro m R ugb y Schoo l i nt o
QxforclUniversity slang, orig. at University College, in Mi chael -
mas Term , 1875 ; use d t o mak e jocular formation s o n sbs., b y
clipping or curtailing them and adding -er to the remaining part,
whi ch i s sometimes itsel f distorted.
Oxford English Dictionary, Suppl . I (1972) , 967, s.v.
2. B . Sparkes and L. Talcott, Agora, vol . 12 (Princeton, 1970) , 143;
Sparkes, JHS 82 (1962) , 13 1 n. 90; Eisman, AJA 77 (1973) , 71-73 ;
Eisman, passim.
3. Fo r example, on the black-figure jug made by Xenokles for Kl ei -
sophos (Athen s 1045 ; ABV, 186; Hoppi n, 145) and Paseas' squat red-
figure lekythos (Berli n 1960.32 ; ARV, 163.12 bi s and 1630; JbBerlMus3
[1961], 118-119) .
4. Eisman , 11-12, 43-50, 825-828 .
5. ABV, 216-237 and 690; Para, 104-109 ; BAdd, 26-27.
6. Gi roux , RA1966, 13-32 ; Bothmer, RA1969 , 7; Verzr, AntK16
(1973), 45 - 56; Eisman, GettyMusJ 1 (1974) , 43-54 .
7. Canciani , AntK21 (1978) , 1 8 n. 4 (wi t h bibliography); T. R as-
mussen, Bucchero Pottery (Cambridge , 1979) , 110-116; Ramage, BSR 38
(1970), 30.
8. J . Beazley and F. Magi, La Raccolta Benedetto Guglielmi nel Museo
Gregoriano Etrusco, vol . 1 (1939), 128-130 ; Rasmussen (supra , note 7),
113-114 give s reasons for thinking that Atti c potter s wer e inspire d by
Etruscan shapes and not vice versa.
36 Kurtz and Boardman
Figure lc. Sid e of kyathos, figur e l a .
Figure la. Whi te-groun d kyathos . Malibu , Th e J . Pau l
Getty Museu m 77.AE.102 and 78.AE.5 .
Figure lb. Sid e of kyathos, figur e l a .
Figure Id. Bac k of kyathos, figur e la .
Booners 37
have bee n preserve d wi t h Nikosthenes ' signatur e a s maker
9
have angula r profiles : th e straigh t wall s o f th e bow l tape r
wi t hout curvatur e t o a substantia l dis c foot . Ther e ar e n o
patterns aroun d th e outsid e o f the r i m , and th e figure s ar e
set ou t i n a fri eze , a s the y ar e o n N i kost heni c neck -
amphorae. T h e stra p handl e i s black an d i t ha s n o decora -
tive additions.10
Psiax i s the fines t painte r o f A t t i c kyatho i and th e artis t
who ha d th e greates t influence ove r younge r me n decorat -
i ng t hem.11 T he shape of t wo kyat hoi i n Wrzburg and
M i l an (figs . 2a-b , 3) , th e onl y example s tha t hav e bee n
fi rml y attribute d t o hi m , i s diffrent fro m tha t o f the kya -
thoi si gned by N i kosthenes.12 T he ri ms of P si ax' s kyathoi
9. ABV, 223 , nos. 60-66; Hoppi n, 189, 192, 209. The kyathoi of th e
Harrow Clas s (Para, 304) als o have very angular profile s but loo k quit e
different fro m thos e signed by Nikosthenes .
10. Th e anima l head attache d t o th e handl e o f Prague 16.5 2 (ABV,
223.63;J. Fre , Reck Vzy [Prague , 1956] , fig. 26) i s alien (Para, 304) .
Whol e animal s or anima l protomes coul d be attached t o the summi t o f
the handl e o f Etruscan buccher o kyathoi . Compare: Gli Etruschi e Cerv-
eteri, ex. cat. (Mi l an , 1980) , 185, no. 4 (bird) , and Galeri e fr alt e Kunst,
Fortuna, sal e cat . (Zurich , 1979) , no . 4 (bovin e head) . Se e als o supra ,
note 7.
11. ABV, 292-295 , 338, 609, 674, and 692; ARV, 1 , 6-8, 1617-1618 ;
Para, 127-128 , 305, 321; BAdd, 38, 72.
12. Mi l an , Muse o Pol di Pezzol i 482 (ABV, 293.15 ) an d Wr zbur g
436 (ABV, 294.16) .
Figure 3. Whi t e-groun d kyatho s attribute d t o Psiax .
Mi l an, Muse o Poldi Pezzol i 482 . Photo: C our -
tesy Museo Poldi Pezzoli .
Figures 2a-b. White-groun d kyatho s attribute d t o Psiax . Wrzburg, Marti n vo n Wagner Museu m (Universit y of Wrzburg )
436. Photo: Courtesy Marti n von Wagner Museum.
38 Kurtz and Boardman
are patterned , an d thei r handle s ar e elaboratel y decorated .
A l t hough the y fol l o w Nikosthenes ' chronologically , the y
O ther than L ekythoi (N ew York, 1977).
T hey are al so whi t e-ground. 14 A l t hough t hi s t echni que
was not new to the Athenian Kerameikos, 15 it was only
now establishin g itsel f fi rml y , possibl y predomi nantl y i n
the workshop of Nikosthenes, 16 who made and signed two
whi t e-ground oi nochoa i wi t h mol de d head s attache d t o
their necks.
1 7
T he Get t y kyatho s i s whi t e-ground , an d lik e Psiax' s
kyathoi , i t ha s a pattern aroun d th e outsid e o f th e r i m an d
a mol de d hea d a t th e j oi n o f th e handl e t o th e mout h . T h e
technical qual i t y i s hi gh , th e shap e i s wel l fashioned , an d
the whi t e sli p wa s expertl y applied . T h e i nci si o n o n th e
black silhouett e i s even , an d th e color s hav e been carefull y
and tastefull y adde d bot h t o th e figur e decoratio n an d t o
the mol de d femal e head . Qual i t y an d pol ychrom y attrac t
our at t ent i o n an d wi n ou r appreci at i on . T h e kyatho s
mi ght hav e belonge d t o a symposias t wh o l i ke d t o hav e a
pretty gi r l t o accompan y hi s dri nki ng .
A l t hough th e foot , muc h o f th e handle , an d part s of th e

bowl ar e missing , th e shap e ca n b e reconstructe d o n th e
basis of th e profil e o f th e l o w broa d bowl whos e t hi n wall s
have only a slight curvature.18 They are not straight like
those o f th e kyatho i signe d b y Nikosthenes , no r ar e the y
si nuousl y cur vi n g l i k e thos e o f th e kyat ho i pai nt e d b y
Psiax. T h e shap e of th e bow l i s mos t l ik e tha t o f a numbe r
of kyatho i tha t ar e her e calle d ' early ' t o distinguis h the m
from th e earliest , mad e an d signe d b y Nikosthenes , an d
from th e mos t commo n late r forms , whi c h see m t o hav e
been influenced b y Psiax .
Most o f th e "earl y " kyatho i hav e blac k figure s o n re d
ground.
1 9
Ther e are , however , some that ar e whol l y black ,
apart fro m a ban d aroun d th e outsid e o f th e mout h r i m ,
whi ch i s either reserved wi t h th e patter n painted i n bl ack
2 0
or blac k wi t h decoratio n i n adde d col ors.
2 1
Ther e i s als o a t
least one example decorated in Six's technique22 an
unusual an d neve r ver y popula r technique , whi c h wa s
exploited a t thi s tim e b y som e member s o f Nikosthenes '
workshop23 and by P si ax. 24 T he foot of some of t hese
"earl y" kyathoi i s a n inverte d echinu s lik e th e on e restore d
for ou r vase . T h e handl e i s entirel y black , bu t i t i s embel -
13. Shape s of Attic kyathoi have been extensivel y studied by Eisman
(Eisman, 18-2 1 an d ibid. , Archaeology 28 [1975] , 78).
14. I n Mis s Richter' s publicatio n o f th e Mi l a n kyatho s (AJA 4 5
[1941], 587-589) sh e records that the light in the galler y had been poo r
and that she had been unabl e t o examine the vase personally. Some tech-
nical feature s ha d mad e m e wonde r i f it wa s i n fac t a white-groun d
kyathos an d no t a red-ground. I shoul d lik e t o than k Drs . A. Mol fi n o
and G . A r r i goni fo r confi rmi n g that th e kyatho s i s indeed whi t e -
ground.
15. Th e earliest attested use of the technique i n Attica is the pattern -
band surroundin g th e exterio r o f the mout h ri m of Nearchos' signe d
kantharos foun d on the Akropolis: Athens, National Museum, Akropolis
Col l ecti on 611; ABV, 82.1 ; ABFH, fig . 49.
16. Merten s (33-35 ) favor s the worksho p i n whi ch Andokide s was
active, as do C ohe n (45-53 , 120 , 153-157) an d Dietric h vo n Bothmer
(BMMA[Februar y 1966] , 207). Dyfr i Wi l l i ams , howeve r (JbBerlMus
24 [1982 ] , 26), support s th e clai m of Nikosthenes. See also Kurtz, 12 .
17. Louvr e F 11 7 and 116 ; ABV, 230 , nos . 1-2 ; Hoppi n , 254-255 ;
Mertens, 31-33; Wi l l i ams (supra , not e 16) , 26-27.
18. Heigh t t o ri m (a s restored) : 6.8 8 cm. Height t o handl e (a s pre -
served): 9.6 3 cm . Maxi mu m diamete r o f bowl : 9. 5 cm . Sixtee n frag -
ments (77.AE.102 ) comprise th e bod y an d handl e portion s wi t h th e
molded femal e head . Thre e fragment s tha t wer e acquire d subsequentl y
(78.AE.5) giv e additional portions o f the handl e an d th e bod y of cock
L . Herber t C ah n had alread y determine d tha t the coc k fragment (the n
i n hi s possession ) di d no t belon g t o th e fragmentar y kyatho s no w i n
Heidelberg (an d previousl y in Amsterdam) illustrate d here i n figure 5.
See infra, not e 36.
19. Beazle y attributed thre e to the Painter of Vatican 480 (ABV, 609 ;
Para, 304) . The mout h rims of these kyathoi are undecorated, an d ther e
are fine lines encircling the bowl beneat h th e friez e of figures. The han -
dles ar e surmounte d b y a knob an d embellishe d wi t h a raise d centra l
ridge that terminate s i n a rounded i v y leaf, whi c h ha s two tin y "rive t
holes" above . Th e kyatho s onc e i n Castl e Ashb y (no w owne d b y M r.
Kallimanopoulos) ca n serv e a s a n example : CVA Castl e Ashby , pi . 24.
1-3. Beazle y compared thes e three kyathoi wi th two whi c h ar e painte d
black (se e infra, not e 20) an d anothe r decorate d i n Six' s technique (se e

infra, not e 22) . T o thes e ca n b e adde d a fragmentar y kyatho s i n th e
Vatican (2371a-d ; RendPontAcc 50 [1977/78] , 262 and 267, fig. 57).
Eisman (AJA 77 [1973] , 71) compare d two mor e kyathoi wi th thos e
assigned t o th e Painte r o f Vatican 480: Louvre F 163 and Muni c h 1961 .
Louvre F 163 features a centaur betwee n larg e eye s that ar e rimme d i n
white paint . The addition of the larg e eyes might place thi s vase better
wi t h othe r "early " kyathoi than wi t h thos e b y th e Painte r o f Vatica n
480. The shap e of Muni ch 196 1 (se e infra , not e 22 ) suggest s that i t i s
later.
A mong unassigne d "early " kyathoi wi t h figure s i n friezes lik e thos e
kyathoi by the Painter of Vatican 480 are several whi ch introduce a band
of i vy around th e exterior of the mout h rimfor example, a kyathos i n
the Vi l l a Gi ul i a (n o number ) o n whi c h th e nam e "Lydos " appear s
(Canciani, AntK 21 [1978] , 17-22 ) an d another , wi t h a frieze o f ath-
letes, recentl y on the German market (Hamburg , Termer).
Other kyathoi of "early" shape replace the conical knob on the handl e
wi t h a twiste d spu r an d introduc e larg e eye s whi c h ar e sometime s
rimmed i n white paint . The examples cited here do not hav e a pattern -
band aroun d th e mout h ri m : once Castl e Ashby (38 . CVA, pi . 25.1-2)
now M r . Kallimanopoulos; Swis s privat e collectio n (woma n runnin g
between larg e eyes , lions at th e handles) , b y the same hand a s the last ;
Maplewood, M r . Noble (Dionysia c procession between larg e eyes tha t
are painted whit e and picked out i n black paint). Louvr e Cp 11054 may
belong here , althoug h Eisma n (609-61 0 an d AJA 77 [1973] , 71) wa s
inclined t o place it near Psiax owi ng to the application of white ground.
Kyathoi assigne d t o th e Hanfman n Painte r (se e infra , not e 31) ar e near
the "early" shape and combine the twisted spur and rounded i v y leaf on
the handle. They also have no patterns around th e mout h ri m.
20. Beazle y (ABV, 609 ) compare d two kyathoi in Muni ch (inv . nos.
1964 and 1963) wi t h thos e by the Painter of Vatican 480 (se e supra, not e
19). Their simple scheme o f decoration was attractive and probabl y pro-
duced i n greater quantity tha n present published evidence suggests. Th e
calyx-shaped bowl o f Muni ch 196 2 (ABV, 609.5 ) an d th e twiste d spu r
and palmett e o n the handle, i n the manne r o f later kyathoi , also suggest
production over a period of time.
Atti c kyatho i decorated i n thi s wa y can resembl e Etrusca n buccher o
kyathoi wi t h incise d patterns o n th e ri m . Compare , fo r example : E .
Booners 39
lished wi t h a knob o r twiste d spu r a t th e summi t , a raised
central ridge , an d a singl e pendent , rounde d i v y leaf. T h e
most popula r patter n fo r th e mout h r i m i s i vy , whi ch i s
sacred t o Di onysos , god of wi ne, an d therefor e appropriat e
to decoratio n of dri nki ng vessels.
25
Shape an d genera l schem e o f decoration l i n k th e Gett y
kyathos t o the "earl y" kyathoi, but th e whi t e-ground tech -
nique an d mol de d hea d attache d t o th e handl e remi n d u s
of Psiax , whos e kyatho i have a caly x shape . T he t hi n wal l
of th e Gett y bow l taper s towar d th e bas e wi t h a gentl e
curve no t unl i k e th e caly x o f a flower. T h e kyatho s i n
Wi i r zbur g (figs . 2a-b ) i s more typi ca l o f finer lat e si xt h -
and earl y fifth-century kyatho i than i s his kyathos i n M i l a n
(fig. 3) , whose elaborat e tool i n g and patternin g ar e excep -
tional an d wi t hou t exac t parallel . T h e latte r look s lik e a
special piece by an imaginative potter and painter.26 The
handles o f both kyatho i are surmounte d b y a twisted spur .
T he spur , th e raise d centra l ridg e t o whi c h i t i s attached ,
and th e ornamen t i n whi c h i t termi nate s ar e reserve d
against th e blac k ground . T h e penden t ornamen t o n th e
Wi i r zbur g vas e i s a palmette , whi c h i s standar d o n late r
kyathoi wi t h embellishe d handles . T h e angula r i v y leaf i n
this posi ti o n o n th e M i l a n vas e i s wi t hou t exac t parallel .
Reservation o f decorativ e feature s i s ne w o n kyat hoi .
2 7
I t
focuses attentio n o n contour s o f th e handl e tha t woul d
show u p mor e promi nentl y o n a meta l vase . Reservatio n
requires additiona l time an d troubl e an d occur s onl y o n a
small number of finer kyathoi, 28 which also have molded
heads like Psiax's. The satyr head29 on the kyathos in Milan
is fine r tha n th e femal e hea d o n th e Wi i r zbur g kyathos .
That femal e head resemble s th e on e o n th e Gett y kyathos ,
whose handl e coul d als o have had reserve d embellishments .
F i nel y incise d line s on bot h side s of the fron t surfac e o f the
Getty kyatho s ru n paralle l t o th e edg e abou t t w o m m
bel ow i ta feature of some Etruscan bucchero kyathoi .30
A l t hough Beazle y attributed kyatho i t o painters , h e lef t
many i n stylisti c groups o r unassigned. Mi chae l Ei sma n ha s
endeavored t o distinguis h new painters,
31
an d on e o f these
is th e Hanfman n Painter . O n e o f the kyatho i assigne d t o
the Hanfman n Painte r (infra , figs . 6a-c) , hi s name piece ,
is whi t e-ground. T he shape of this painter' s kyatho i is si m-
ilar t o tha t of the Gett y vase (althoug h non e ha s been pre -
Simon, The Kurashiki Ninagawa Museum (Mainz, 1982), 181, no. 114. See
also Rasmussen (supra , not e 7).
The scheme of decoration was, however, popular i n Athens for vessels
of other shapes . Amon g drinking vessels, compare black cups wi th ivie d
rims (e.g. R i chmond 62.1.9; Tara, 99; Ancient Art in the Virginia Museum
[R i chmond, 1973] , 84, no. 100); mastoi (e.g . Philadelphia, University
Museum S 4862; Athens, Agor a P 24556; Heidelberg, University S 23;
CJ^4 4, pi. 165); and mastoids (e.g . Orvieto , Faina Collection 15 1 and
Florence V 27, whi ch belon g t o the Pistias Clas s [ABV, 627.i i .l -2 ]
discussed infra, not e 68) .
21. Merten s (87 ) mentions two fragments fro m th e Agor a ( A - P
1513 and 1656) tha t coul d hav e come from simila r black kyathoi.
22. Beazle y (ABV, 609) compared L ondo n B 696 wi th kyatho i by
the Painte r of Vatican 480 (supra, not e 19) . Eisman (102-104 ) com -
pared Muni c h 196 1 wi t h kyatho i by that painter principall y becaus e of
the unusua l technique . I t has the calyx-shaped bowl an d handle wi t h
twisted spu r and palmette o f later kyatho i (see supra, not e 20) , whi c h
suggest continue d production in the technique. Eisman (608) liste d one
other kyatho s in genuine Six' s technique: Leningrad E4474.
23. Kurtz , 12, 116-120.
24. Londo n 1900.6-11.1 ; ABV, 294.25; Kurtz, pi . 1.3.
25. To m Carpenter draws my attention t o Plut. Mor. 648E and At h.
xv, 675d.
26. Mertens , AntK22 (1979) , 27-28.
27. Reservatio n was selectively applied earlier , i n Attica an d else-
where, to parts of the handles. The j ug painted by Kleisophos (se e supra,
note 3 ) i s an example, althoug h i t has clay snake s instea d o f molded
heads. O n metal prototypes see H . Payne , Necrocorinthia (Oxford , 1931) ,
214 and n. 1. Some of the oinochoai decorated by the Painter of L ondo n
B 62 0 (see infra, not e 36) hav e partl y reserved handles and some do not,
but al l have molded female heads attached t o the upper and lower ends,
whi ch suggest s tha t reservatio n an d molded heads nee d no t be com -
bined. These oinochoai are roughly contemporary wi t h Psiax' s kyathoi ,
as i s an unusual , high-stemme d kantharo s wi t h molde d female head s
attached t o the j oi n of handle t o mouth ri m (interior) . The kantharos
was previousl y in the collection of C ount Lagunillas and is now i n the
State Museum , Havana. R . Olmo s i s preparing a publication of the
Lagunillas vases.
28. Th e kyathoi i n Mi l a n an d Wi i rzbur g see m t o b e model s for
examples known to me that belong near the Group of Vatican G 57 (see
infra, not e 49) . Kyathoi wi t h molde d heads in this Grou p have black
handles wi t h twiste d spur , median ridge, and pendent palmette . Thos e
wi t h reserved handle-decoration also have molded heads, and thei r stan-
dard o f figure-drawing i s above th e average fo r the Group. Berkeley
8-2 (CVA California 1 , pi. 173a-c) i s unassigned, and the handle wi t h
partly reserve d decoratio n doe s not belong to the kyathos t o whi ch i t
was added (ibid. , 26 and Eisman, 437). A white-ground kyathos in the
Vatican (20721. RendPontAcc 50 [1977/78], 261-262 and 266, figs.
55-56) ha s a partly reserved handl e and molded female head, ivied ri m,
and doves at the handle i n a style reminiscent of Psiax. Thi s fragmentar y
kyathos may be compared wi t h another , als o white-ground wi t h ivie d
ri m, i n a private collectio n i n Lugano (Para, 305 ; MuM22 [1961] , pi .
45, no. 144) whi ch Beazley placed near the Group of Vatican G 57 (Para,
305). Eisman (AJA 77 [1973] , 71) placed it near thi s Group and Psiax.
Beazley had also compared th e ivied ri m of the Lugano kyathos wi t h
another red-groun d exampl e i n Orvieto (293 ; ABV, 613.2) whi c h i s
near th e Group of Vatican G 57. The Orvieto kyathos' handl e i s not
preserved abov e the fine molded female head. The handl e of the Lugano
kyathos i s said t o hav e bee n restore d (MuM 22 [1961] , 76), and one
wonders i f i t was not similarly decorated. Beazley compared the Orvieto
head wi t h th e one on Psiax's kyathos i n Wi i rzburg and wi th thos e on
two kyatho i in the Group of Vatican G 57 (ABV, 611, nos. 2 and 5) ,
whose handle s hav e n o reservation. Th e Orvieto hea d als o resemble s
another o n a red-ground kyatho s i n the Louvr e ( C A 3309; AJA 11
[1973], 71; Revuedes Arts4 [1954] , 234, no. 21 and fig. 11) wi th partl y
reserved handle , ivie d ri m, and lively styl e of drawing not unrelated t o
that of our Mal i b u kyathos .
29. Eisman , 146 . Satyr protome s o n metal vase s ar e discussed mos t
recently by T. Weber, Bronzekannen (Frankfurt , 1983) , 130-137 (wi t h
bibliography).
30. Compar e Galerie fr alte Kunst, Fortuna, sal e cat. (Zurich , 1979) ,
no. 4; Rasmussen (supra , not e 7) , 112-116.
31. AJA 11 (1973) , 71-73. Hanfman n Painter : AJA 11 (1973) , 71
and Eisman, 105-124 .
40 Kurtz and Boardman
Figure 4. M o l d e d femal e hea d f r o m a kyat hos . P rague ,
N a t i o n a l Ga l l e r y 16/ 52 . P h o t o : C our t e s y
N at i onal Gal l ery .
served wi t h a mol ded head) , an d cocks almost alway s stan d
at the handles . I t i s not, therefore , surprisin g that the Gett y
kyathos ha s bee n associate d wi t h hi m . We shal l now l oo k
closely a t th e vas e an d tr y t o determin e whethe r i t wa s
painted b y Psiax , th e Hanfman n Painter , o r b y anothe r
artist.
T he outsid e o f th e r i m o f th e Gett y kyatho s ha s a n
unusual pattern: a n embattlement wi t h fiv e ti ny dots i n th e
intervals, painte d i n blac k o n th e whi t e groun d betwee n
fine blac k lines . T hi s patter n i s not foun d o n th e "earl y "
black-figure kyathoi32 or, in this form, on Psiax' s. The pat-
tern o n hi s kyatho i i n M i l a n an d W r z b ur g i s a simpler ,
visually bolde r embattlemen t i n whi c h area s o f l i ght an d
dark ar e bal anced . T h e dot t e d embattl emen t an d th e
crossed embattlement , whi c h differ s fro m th e precedin g i n
the substitutio n o f crosse s fo r dot s i n th e intervals , wer e
possibly mor e commo n amon g painte d architectura l an d
woven textil e patterns than preserved evidenc e suggests. O n
Figure 5. F ragment s o f a whi t e- gr oun d kyathos . H ei del -
berg, Archaeol ogi ca l I nstitut e (U ni versi t y o f
H ei del ber g) 26 3 ( i ncor por at i n g A ms t er da m
2162). P hot o: C ourt esy Archaeol ogi cal I nstitute ,
Hei del berg.
A t t i c black-figur e vase s th e dotte d an d crosse d embattle -
ments appea r o n articl e s o f dres s mor e ofte n t ha n i n
pattern-bands framing figure scenes.33 They also appear on
the costume s o f the marbl e statues of maidens (korai ) fro m
the Athenian Akropolis.34 An extremely fine clay female
head in Prague (fig. 4)35 was once attached to the handle
of a kyathos . T h e woma n wear s a di adem, l ik e th e A kr o -
polis maidens , decorate d wi t h a wel l -drawn embattlemen t
wi t h thre e dot s i n the intervals . A n embattlement patter n
wi t h fou r dot s i n th e interval s wa s carefull y execute d a t
about thi s time by the Painte r o f L ondon B 620 on a whi t e-
ground oi nochoe.
3 6
Thes e oi nochoa i may hav e bee n mad e
i n th e worksho p o f Nikosthenes, and lik e hi s signe d oi no -
choai, the y ar e whi t e-groun d wi t h mol de d cla y heads.
37
T he painter' s embattlemen t ha s i nvi te d compari so n wi t h
the on e o n th e Gett y kyathos , bu t it s executio n i s muc h
finer. T h e figur e styl e of the painte r als o looks diffrent : h e
likes ani mal studies, whi c h h e render s ver y sensitively , and
1. Cambridge , Mass., Fogg A rt Museum, 1969.15 (figs . 6a-c) .
2. Heidelberg , University S 50; CVA 1 , pi. 41.4.
3. America n privat e collection; Eisman, pis. 7-8.
4. Toled o (Ohi o) Museum of A rt 66.110 ; C1^4 1, pi. 30.
5. Muni c h 1943 ; Archaeology 28 (1975) , 76 (part) .
6. L ondo n B 465.
32. The y usuall y have a band of i vy (se e supra, not e 19) .
33. C ostume s o n th e F ranoi s Vas e (F lorenc e 4209; ABV, 76.1;
ABFH, fig . 46) indicat e that the patterns were wel l established i n textiles
before the middl e of the sixt h century. See P. Cecchetti, StMisc 19 ( 1971/
72), pis . 11-19. The patter n ca n als o be foun d o n vases contemporar y
wi t h th e Gett y kyathos, e.g. , the dres s of an unusual winged Athena on
a skyphos in Orvieto (Faina Col l ection; RomMitt 12 [1897] , pi. 12) . The
style o f drawin g invite s comparison s wi t h B erl i n 209 2 (ABV, 610.1 ;
Eisman, pi . 13).
The patterns ca n borde r red-groun d blac k figures (a s o n Akropoli s
plaque 2526 ; O . Graef , Die antiken Vasen von der Akropolis zu Athen
[Berlin, 1925] , 246 and pi . 104), but i n the period of the Gett y kyatho s

they ar e mor e commo n o n whit e ground ; cf . an alabastron i n London
(see infra, not e 69) an d a kyathos i n Leningrad (see infra, not e 36). See
also Mertens, 81.
I n addition to these embattlements wi t h dot s or dotted crosse s (usu -
ally saltire) , ther e ar e example s wi t h crosse s an d square s alternating i n
the intervals; cf. Agora 1656a- b (se e supra, note 21). Others have squares
i n th e interval s whi ch ar e crosse d (Sain t George cross) an d dotted . Cf .
a white-ground diadem of a female head vase from the Akropoli s ( 1062;
E . L angl otz, Di e anti ken Vasen von der Akropol i s zu Athen [B erl i n, 1933],
96 and pi . 83). The established traditio n of the patter n i s attested from,
for example , dress-patterns on a "Mel i an" amphor a (G . Richter, Korai
[London, 1968] , pi. x-d).
34. Richte r (supra , note 33), 100-101, no. 181 and 102 , no. 183. The
simple embattlement als o occurs: cf. ibid., 74-75, nos. 116-117 .
35. Prague , National Gallery, 16/52;J. Frel (supra , note 10) , figs. 27-
28.
36. Lei pzi g T 428 , frags. ABV, 434.5 ; CVA 2 , pi . 39.1-2. Painter of
London B 620: ABV, 43 4 and 697; Para, 187 ; BAdd, 54; Mertens, 85-87.
Booners 41
his huma n figures hav e high-set , rathe r smal l eyes, whi c h
i mpart a somewha t sa d expression . T h e Gett y patter n is ,
however, closel y paralleled on fragment s o f a whi t e-ground
kyathos in Heidelberg38 (fig. 5), which must have been
painted b y the same artist .
Large eyes frame th e centra l figure o n th e Gett y kyatho s
and se t hi m apar t fro m th e subsidiar y figures a t th e han -
dles. Large eyes d o no t appea r on th e ver y earlies t kyathoi ,
nor ar e the y commo n o n th e "earl y " examples , whi c h
seemed t o prefe r figure s i n friezes. Psiax' s kyathos i n M i l a n
(fig. 3 ) preserve s th e friez e style , wherea s th e kyatho s i n
Wi i r zbur g (figs . 2a-b ) display s figure s betwee n eye s an d
figures a t th e handle s i n the manne r o f later kyathoi . Large
eyes ha d bee n popula r o n dri nki n g vessels fo r som e time .
T hei r shap e an d coloratio n change d bot h ove r th e year s
and fro m workshop t o workshop. T he eyes themselves can ,
therefore, help to place a vase stylistically.39
T he eye s o n th e Gett y kyatho s ar e i ncompl etel y pre -
served. We canno t b e certai n ho w man y ring s ther e were ,
nor ho w the y wer e colored , but thei r shap e can b e recon -
structed. T h e eye s ar e relativel y smal l and elongated . T h e
outer corner s poi n t upward , an d th e l achryma l duct s ar e
l ong and curvi ng. T he outlines ar e strongl y curved, and th e
eyes ar e r i mme d i n whi t e pai nt . T h e appl i cat i o n o f a
"second whi t e " t o th e whi t e groun d i s unusual .
4 0
T h e
outer ri n g of the ey e i s painted red . T he next ring , of equal
size, i s painted whi te . Judgi ng fro m th e shap e and col ora -
t i on o f the eye s (a s preserved) , w e ma y assum e that ther e
was a larg e centra l blac k are a wi t h a ti n y red-do t pupi l .
T hi s type of eye i s not uncommon i n Atti c bl ack-fi gure.41
C ompare thos e on th e Wi i r z bur g kyatho s (whi c h are not ,
however, r i mme d i n whi t e ; "secon d whi t e " i s a s ye t
unknown i n P si ax' s wor k42) and t hose on P si ax' s r ed-
figure cups in Cleveland43 and Munich.44 Then contrast
the shap e and col oratio n of the eye s o n th e bi l i ngua l cup s
that bear Psiax's name without a verb45 and on his black -
Beazley (ABV, 697 ) compare d the pattern-wor k o n kyathoi in L en -
ingrad (B4473 , ex B otki n ; Mertens , 8 2 an d pi . 12.1 ) an d Heidelber g
(University 263; our fig. 5) wi t h tha t of the Leipzi g oinochoe. Mertens
(82 an d vi ) tentativel y retaine d th e associatio n o f the vase s wi t h th e
painter. Th e attributio n o f the Heidelber g (an d joi ni ng Amsterdam)
fragment t o the Painter of L ondon B 620 (BABesch 50 [1975] , 164, 176,
fig. 20 ) i s based o n a misunderstanding o f Beazley' s comments o n th e
pattern-work. Th e bes t comparison for th e Gett y komas t i n the wor k
of the Painte r o f L ondon B 620 i s Peleus on the nam e vas e i n London:
ABV, 434.1 ; LIMC1 , pi. 59 (Achilleu s 27) .
37. R . V. Ni chol l s ha s ki ndl y draw n m y attentio n t o th e relatio n
between the molded heads on these oinochoai and those on a large group
of archai c terracott a statuettes . Broadl y speakin g the head s on the oi n -
ochoai have less detail than those on the kyathoi and give the appearance
of veiled faces . See infra, notes 71 and 78.
38. Se e supra, not e 36.
39. Cohen , 240-522 ("ey e cups") .
40. C . H. E. Haspels, Attic Black-figured Lekythoi (Paris, 1936), 88-89,
figure mask-amphora in Copenhagen:46 those are much
rounder an d hav e a larg e re d pupi l . N o t al l vases wi t h a
t i ny- pupi l ey e ar e earlie r tha n thos e wi t h a l arge-pupi l
eye,
4 7
bu t th e latte r typ e i s prevalent o n kyatho i associate d
wi t h th e follower s of Psiax.
T he Hanfmann Painte r uses the black-figur e type o f ey e
and sometimes rims it with white on red ground.48 The
tendency t o r i m th e ey e o n whi t e o r re d groun d ca n als o
be observed in the Group of Vatican G 57,49 whose artists
seemed t o l i k e adde d whi t e fo r a vari et y o f details .
A l t hough littl e remain s o f th e whi t e-groun d kyatho s i n
Hei del berg (fig . 5), ther e i s enough t o determin e tha t th e
large eye s wer e ri mme d i n whi t e an d tha t the y turne d
upwar d a t th e oute r corner s l i k e thos e o n th e Get t y
kyathos.
T he cock s a t th e handle s o f th e Gett y kyatho s (figs ,
l b - d) ar e rendere d i n as much detai l as the dresse d komas t
who i s frame d b y th e larg e eyes . T he y too , therefore , ca n
provide good material for comparisons and possible attri-
buti on. C ocks50 were popul ar on dri nki ng vessel s, possi bl y
because the y wer e favore d gift s betwee n me n an d boys . A
cock i s bei ng exchanged o n a kyathos tha t Ei sman assigned
to th e Hanfman n Painter : th e lover s stan d betwee n larg e
eyes, and large cocks stand at the handles.51 Winged fig-
uresbirds o f various specie s an d composit e wi nge d crea -
tures, suc h a s sirens , sphi nxes , pegasoi , an d hi ppal ek -
tryons were ver y popul a r handl e-fi gure s o n kyat hoi ,
probably because wi ngs are excellent space fillers, an d pl um-
age ca n b e ver y col orful . T h e cock s o n th e Gett y kyatho s
are amon g th e mos t detaile d an d col orfu l o n A t t i c bl ack -
figure vases . T h e whi t e groun d ha s give n th e painte r a n
extra di mensi on , and h e ha s bee n generou s i n hi s applica-
t i on o f whi te and re d paint . T he long, t hi n tendri l that rises
behi nd th e cock , loops gracefully, and terminate s i n a pen-
dent blosso m (her e wi t h incise d petals) ca n b e considere d
part of the cock motif.52 I t is included by Attic and non-
173; Mertens, 59; Mertens, MMAJ 9 (1974) , 93; Kurtz, 28-29, 44-54.
41. Cohen , 247, 250, 275.
42. Mertens , 35-40; Kurtz, 9-12 .
43. Clevelan d (Ohi o) 76.89; ARV, 7.7 ; W. Moon and L . Berge, Greek
Vase Painting in MidwesternCollections (Chicago , 1979), 104-105 .
44. Muni c h 2587; ARV, 7.8 ; Jb10 (1895) , pi . 4.
45. N e w Yor k 14.146.2 ; ARV, 9.1 ; G. M . A. Richter , Red-figured
Athenian Vases in the Metropolitan Museum of Art (N e w Haven, 1936) ,
pis. 2. 2 and 8.2 . Muni c h 2603 ; ARV, 9.2 ; AJA1 0 (1895) , 487-488 an d
pi. 22.
46. Copenhage n 4759; ABV, 293.6 ; CVA 3, pl. 107.1.
47. Cohen , 294, 307, 317, 329, 342, 371, 388 (ey e types on red-figur e
cups).
48. Se e supra, not e 31, nos. 4 (Toled o 66.110) an d 5 (Muni c h 1943) .
49. ABV, 610-613 , 711; Para, 305; BAdd, 68; Mertens, 82-83.
50. MuM34 (1969), 35-36 (with bibliography).
51. Toled o 66.110. See supra, not e 31.
52. BSR 1 1 (1929) , 14 (Beazley).
42 Kurtz and Boardman
Figure 6a-b. Whi te-groun d kyatho s attribute d t o th e Hanfman n Painter . Cambridg e (Mass.) , Fogg Ar t Museum 1969.15 . A
supporter o f Sardis in recognition of Mrs. lise Hanfmann and eleven seasons of hospitality. Photos: Courtesy Fogg Art
Museum.
A t t i c painter s an d was probabl y inspired by the cock' s long,
t hi n sickl e feathers , whi c h ris e abov e hi s bac k i n gentl e
curves.
T he Gett y cock s (figs , l b - d ) an d thei r accompanyi n g
florals ar e i ncompl etel y preserved. T h e coc k t o th e lef t o f
the handl e (coc k L ) wa s mad e nearl y complet e b y th e
i ncorporati on o f a fragment previousl y in the possessio n of
Herbert C ahn.
5 3
O nl y th e for m o f th e feet i s uncertain .
T he ey e an d bea k ar e define d b y i nci si on . T h e com b an d
wattle ar e picke d ou t i n red , an d th e point s an d blad e o f
the com b ar e rendere d wi t h considerabl e care . T h e nec k i s
wel l -proporti oned, an d th e throa t ha s a strong , conve x
curve. T he hackl e i s dotted whi te , and it s feathers ar e i ndi -
cated bel o w i n incise d (pendent ) points . Thre e layer s o f
short wi n g feathers compris e th e covert . Eac h feather i s
outl i ned wi t h i nci si o n an d picke d ou t wi t h a do t o f re d
pai nt. T her e wer e apparentl y t w o layer s o f l ong flight
feathers, an d thes e were se t apar t from th e cover t by a scal -
loped lin e o f i nci si on , whi c h wa s als o embellishe d wi t h
whi te paint . Ther e wer e fou r o r fiv e l on g saddl e feathers ,
and eac h wa s ful l y outl i ne d wi t h i nci si on . T h e t w o l on g
sickle feather s wer e painte d i n black . T h e tai l feather s ar e
i n t w o layers , set apar t b y a scalloped line o f i nci si on. T h e
tail feather s o f cock L wer e alternatel y painte d red , those o f
53. Se e supra, note 18.
54. Cambridge , Mass., Fogg A rt Museum 1969.15; AJA77 (1973) , 71.
55. Eisma n (AJA 77 [1973] , 71) assign s four kyathoi to th e painte r
that seem t o b e mor e closel y related t o eac h othe r tha n the y ar e t o th e


cock R whi te . B ot h fac e th e handl e an d direc t thei r col -
orful tai l plumage towar d th e fron t o f the vase .
C ocks als o face d th e handl e o n th e whi t e-groun d kya -
thos i n Hei del ber g (fig . 5) , whos e dotte d embattlemen t
and whi t e- r i mme d eyes hav e alread y bee n compare d wi t h
those o n ou r kyathos . O nl y on e coc k (R ) ha s bee n pre -
served. H e ha s a larg e roun d eye , wi t h a secon d ri n g o f
i nci si on definin g the pupi l an d a n additiona l line o f i nci -
sion a t th e oute r corner . H i s beak i s incised. H is comb an d
wattle ar e red, and hi s hackl e is dotted whi te . H i s plumage,
as preserved , i s ver y lik e th e Gett y cocks' , apart fro m th e
defi ni ti on o f the saddl e feather s i n whi t e paint . T h e cock s
were certainl y painte d b y th e sam e han d a s thos e o n th e
Getty kyathos , and the y ar e among the earlies t example s of
a type o f handle-figure tha t i s popular on later kyathoi .
T he Hanfmann Painter' s cocks (figs . 6a, c) ar e also early.
Perhaps h e o r th e painte r o f the Gett y kyatho s i ntroduce d
them t o th e shape , an d perhap s h e i s th e painte r o f th e
Getty kyathos . I f he is , the cock s on hi s kyatho i ought t o
l ook lik e those o n the Gett y vase. Superficiall y the y do, bu t
close inspection of the F og g kyathos reveal s distinctive st yl-
izations that d o no t appea r o n th e kyatho i in M al i bu (figs ,
l b - d) o r i n Hei del ber g (fig . 5) . F o r example , th e oute r
ri ng of i nci si on definin g the ey e has a n el l iptica l line adde d
two kyatho i that he assign s t o th e painte r a s lat e works : Toledo 66.110
and Londo n B 465. A l l o f the kyatho i have twiste d spur an d rounde d
i vy lea f on th e handle , excep t L ondo n B 465 whos e handle , a s wel l a s
molded head , ma y b e alien . Th e larg e eye s o n Toled o 66.110 an d o n
Booners 43
Figure 6c. Sid e o f kyathos, figure s 6a-b .
to the outer corner . The Hanfmann Painte r mus t hav e l i ked
this detail , for he gave it t o Dionysos on hi s name vase (fig.
6b) i n the Fog g Museum.
5 4
T h e hackle s o f the Fog g cock s
are shor t an d fringe d bot h abov e and below, i n contrast t o
the mor e naturalisti c rendering o n the Mal i b u an d Hei del -
berg kyathoi .
Another distinctiv e feature i s the elliptica l wi n g wi t h a
chevronlike formati o n (Fog g coc k L ) settin g of f the shor t
feathers o f th e cover t fro m th e l on g flight feathers. Thi s
seems t o hav e bee n th e Hanfman n Painter' s favorit e typ e
of wi ng, bu t h e knows othe r types , too , and on e o f them i s
also Psiax' s favorite : Fog g coc k R' s wi n g cover t ha s t i n y
arcs o f incision, whi ch giv e a feather y effect . A scallope d
line of incision set s these feathers apar t fro m th e l ong fl i gh t
feathers, an d th e outl i n e o f th e wi n g posteriorl y i s scal -
loped. The saddl e feathers of the Hanfman n Painter' s cock s
tend no t t o b e shown i ndi vi dual l y bu t i n a mass, whi ch i s
fringed bel o w wi t h incision . The tai l feathers ar e usuall y
layered an d colored . T h e leg s ar e j oi nt e d an d th e shank s
have l ong spurs. U nl i k e th e Mal i b u an d Heidelber g cocks ,
they regul arl y fac e f or war d , di r ect i n g t hei r pl umag e
toward th e handle . A l t houg h the rendering of the cocks o n
the kyatho i assigne d t o th e Hanfman n Painte r varies , a
coherent styl e seem s t o emergeon e whi c h stand s apar t
Muni ch 194 3 are ri mmed in whi te paint. Earlier Eisman (678-679 ) ha d
left th e London kyathos unassigne d an d ha d compare d i t wi th vase s by
the Theseus Painter .
56. Madri d 11.008 . ARV, 7.2 .
Figure 7. Det ai l f r o m th e red-fi gur e pane l o f a bi l i ngua l
amphora at t ri but e d t o Psiax . Madr i d , Muse o
Ar que ol gi c o N aci ona l 11.008 . P hoto : C ourtes y
Museo Ar que ol gi c o N aci onal .
from tha t o f the Mal i b u an d Heidelber g kyat hoi .
5 5
Psiax painte d a t leas t on e coc k an d severa l type s o f
wi nged creatures . The coc k (fig . 7) i s mi ni ature work. H e
appears as Ares ' shiel d blazon , execute d i n black-figur e i n
the red-figur e pane l o f the bi l i ngua l amphor a i n Madri d ,
whi ch was made and si gned by A ndoki des. 56 A l t hough t he
cock i s i l l preserved, w e ca n b e certai n tha t h e wa s ver y
carefully drawn . H e i s delicatel y bui l t , lik e Psiax' s figure s
generally, an d di fferent l y feathere d f r o m th e cock s
described s o far . Hi s hackl e wa s apparentl y l i ght l y stipple d
wi t h incisio n and no t fringe d below. There ar e t i n y arc s of
incision o n hi s wi n g cover t an d a scalloped lin e of incision
between th e cover t an d th e flight feathers . T h e saddl e
feathers ar e outl i ne d wi t h incision . Since thi s figure i s small
and i l l preserved , w e need t o l ook at Psiax' s other bird s an d
bi rdl i ke creatures t o have a better ide a about hi s style.
There i s a n ow l on th e black-figur e amphor a i n Bres -
ci a.
5 7
I t , too, i s a shiel d device , bu t rendere d i n Six' s tech -
nique. The shape and formati o n of the wi ng i s like the l i ttl e
cock's. I n the black-figur e pane l o f the bi l i ngua l amphor a
i n M uni c h, 58 t he r e a r e a l s o wi ngs on H e r me s ' b oot s .
U nl i ke th e wi ng s describe d s o far , thes e ar e sprea d an d
present a doubly curved profile. T hei r coverts have t i ny arcs
of incision . Th e flight feather s ar e graduate d i n size . Th e
57. Brescia , Museo Civico ; ABV, 292.1 ; P . Arias, M. Hi rmer, and B .
Shefton, A History of Greek Vase Painting (London , 1963) , pis. 68 an d
xx.
58. Muni c h 2302; ARV, 6.1 ; CVA 4 , pi. 153.
44 Kurtz and Board m an
Figure 8. Det ai l o f a red-groun d kyatho s "near " Psiax . C ompi gne , Mus e Vi vene l 1073 . P hoto :
C ourtesy Mus e Vi venel .
wi ngs of the sphinxes on the W r z b ur g kyatho s (fig . 2b )
5 9
must hav e looke d lik e this , a s d o thos e o f Pegasos on th e
exterior o f the bi l i ngua l cu p i n N e w Y or k,
6 0
whi c h bear s
Psiax's nam e wi t hou t a verb . T h e raven s i n th e tond o o f
this cu p hav e wi n g formation s lik e th e Bresci a owl' s an d
like th e phallu s bi r d o n a whi t e-ground kyathos i n B erl i n ,
whi ch i s the name vas e of the Group of B erl in 2095
61
one
of the groups tha t Beazle y placed near Psiax. The body an d
tail feather s o f the phallus bi r d ar e like the siren' s o n a kya-
thos i n Leni ngrad that Beazle y als o placed near Psiax.
62
Anot her composit e creatur e i s the hi ppal ektryon. H e ha s
the forepar t o f a horse an d th e bod y o f a cock.
6 3
Th e hi p -
pal ektryon on a kyathos i n C ompi gne tha t i s "near" Psia x
(fig. 8)
6 4
probabl y give s a fairl y accurat e pictur e o f ho w
Psiax's cock s woul d l oo k whe n painte d o n a large r scale .
Many mor e example s coul d b e given , and the y coul d b e
taken from othe r shapes too, but they woul d probabl y onl y
confi rm th e widespread influenc e of Psiax and the different
source o n whi c h th e painter o f the Gett y kyathos seems t o
have drawn.
6 5
T he cock s o n th e Gett y kyatho s hav e provide d goo d
material fo r comparison . Eve n i f they hav e no t reveale d
who painte d th e kyathos , the y hav e decrease d th e l i kel i -
hood o f thi s being eithe r th e Hanfman n Painte r o r Psiax .
We must now t ur n t o the dressed komast. H e wi l l b e some -
what les s helpfu l tha n th e cock s fo r t w o reasons : (1 ) hi s
costume i s unusual , an d i t cover s a significant part o f th e
body; an d (2 ) tha t par t o f his body whi c h i s exposed ha s
59. Se e supra, not e 12 . Some of the figures on the vase are restored :
E. Langlotz, Griechische Vasen inWrzburg (Muni ch , 1932) , 82.
60. Se e supra, not e 45.
61. Berli n 2095; ABV, 610.1 ; H. Licht, Sittengeschichte Griechenlands,
vol .3 (Dresden , 1928) , 76.
62. Leningra d B415; ABV, 295.2 .
63. Schauenburg , AA 1981 , 338 n. 17.
64. C ompi gn e 1073 . ABV, 295.2 . This type of hippalektryon coul d
have inspired the artis t of an unusual bilingua l cup i n M r. Noble's col -
lection (Maplewood ) : ARV, 159-16 0 and 1621; Cohen, 263-272 and pi.
53.3-5. Epiktetos ' red-figur e hippalektryo n on a plat e onc e i n Castl e
Ashby (ARV, 77.92 ; CVA, pi . 41.3) an d no w i n the Met ropol i t a n
Booners 45
l i ttl e anatomica l detail . H e seems to hav e a head tha t i s too
large fo r hi s body . Thi s i s partl y du e t o th e headdress , a
mi t ra tha t i s wrapped aroun d i t , and partl y t o th e abun -
dance of hai r that project s from i t at the crown. The hai r is
painted red , and th e renderin g of the strand s at the crow n
recalls the cocks ' combs. Hi s beard i s also red and ver y ful l ;
komasts dresse d i n this costume regularl y have heav y bear d
growths, perhaps a s an over t sign of mascul i ni ty t o counte r
any ide a th e unsophisticate d Atheni a n mi gh t hav e ha d
about hi s Easter n dres s being effeminate . Hi s ey e i s large,
low-set, an d carefull y incised , i mpart i ng a l i vel y an d aler t
expression. Hi s nose is straight and slender. Hi s short chi t o n
has shor t sleeve s i n whi c h th e but t onhol e s hav e bee n
drawn, al though the buttons themselve s wer e never added .
The "col l ar " o f the chi t o n i s whi t e, an d th e he m i s dotted
whi t e. Th e fold s i n the skir t ar e incise d i n broadl y spaced ,
wi ggl y lines . H e wear s soft , re d boot s lace d aroun d th e
ankles an d supplie d wi t h l on g tongues . Ther e ar e n o ana -
tomi cal detail s i n hi s uppe r limb s an d fe w i n th e lower ,
al though th e latera l and media l aspects of the shank s hav e
been di st i ngui shed , an d i n th e medi a l th e kneeca p i s
defined b y a n ope n loo p o f incision. H e carrie s a specia l
type o f lyr e wi t h swan-hea d terminals . The lyr e and detail s
of hi s dress are discussed i n part t wo of this article .
Beazley's st udy
6 6
o f the dresse d komast s liste d onl y on e
black-figure examplea whi t e-groun d plate i n Basel (fig.
9) b y Psiax.
67
Thi s komast wear s exceptionall y ri ch cl ot h -
i ng an d carrie s a wonderful l y elaborat e lyr e wi t h long ,
Museum, N ew York (1981.11.10) , may also be compared.
65. Fo r example, a red-ground kyathos once i n Mr. Hattatt's collec-
ti on (N e w Mi l t on, Hampshire) on whi ch Psiax' s wi ng type is used both
for the cock that stands between the large eyes and for the doves that fly
toward the handle. A kyathos i n Fiesole (Costantin i collection; CVA 1 ,
pi. 35.1 ) ma y hav e bee n painte d b y th e same hand. Th e dove s a t th e
handle of a fragmentary whi te-ground kyathos in the Vatican and thos e
on anothe r white-groun d kyathos i n Lugano (se e supra , not e 28) als o
reproduce Psiax' s wi n g types .
66. C B , 58 .
67. Basel , Antikenmuseum 421 (ex K ppel i ); ABV, 294.21 .
Figure 9. White-groun d plat e attributed to Psiax. Basel, Antikenmuseum 421. Photo: Courtesy Antikenmuseum.
46 Kurtz and Boardman
gracefully curve d arm s mad e o f horn an d termi nati n g i n
wel l -defi ned swans ' heads . H e dance s t o th e musi c o f th e
double pipe s playe d by a woman. Hi s short-sleeved chi t o n
reaches mi d-cal f , unl i k e th e Gett y komast's . Hi s mi t r a i s
wreathed wi t h i vy . His sof t boot s hav e no tongues , an d h e
wears a shor t mantl e lik e a shawl . I n severa l respect s th e
plate i s unusual . I t was probabl y painted at th e ti m e whe n
the I oni a n poe t Anakreo n wa s i n Athens . C ontemporar y
representations o f famous morta l men ar e exceedingl y rar e
i n Atheni a n vase-painting , bu t i t i s t empt i n g t o se e thi s
plate as one o f those rar e examples .
T he techniqu e an d iconograph y o f the Base l plat e mak e
us t hi n k agai n abou t Psiax , ye t th e figur e styl e o f th e
Mal i bu kyatho s doe s not see m t o b e hi s any mor e tha n th e
shape of the kyathos, it s pattern-work, or it s general scheme
of decoration . T h e painte r wa s surel y influence d b y Psiax ,
however, an d ma y eve n hav e worke d wi t h hi m at som e
ti me, jus t a s h e ma y hav e worke d wi t h th e Painte r o f
L ondon B 62 0 an d th e Hanfman n Painter . L i k e Psiax , h e
too ma y hav e been attracte d t o small , whi t e-ground vases
of unusua l shapes , suc h a s th e masto s (o r mastoid ) an d
alabastron. A mastoi d o f th e Pistia s Class
68
i n L ondon
6 9
seems to have si mi l arl y stocky figures and some comparabl e
renderings, secon d whi t e , an d incisio n tha t ca n be scratchy .
A n alabastron , als o i n L ondon,
7 0
has dotte d embattlement ,
ri ch pol ychromy, and l i vel y maenads, who encircl e the vase
i n pairs , weari n g mi t ra i tha t ar e twi c e rendere d lik e ou r
komast's wi t h l uxuri an t locks of hai r projectin g from th e
crown. A clos e examination of vases like these mi ght reveal
more cl earl y th e i dent i t y o f th e pai nte r o f th e Get t y
kyathos.
The Molded Female Head
R . V. N i chol ls i s preparin g a comprehensiv e stud y o f
A t t i c terracotta s tha t wi l l als o tak e accoun t o f the mol de d
clay head s attache d t o vases.
71
H e ha s suggeste d tha t th e
68. ABV, 627-628 ; Para, 309; BAdd, 68-69; Mertens, 89-95; Karydi ,
AM 11 (1962) , 105-110; Mertens, AntK22 (1979) , 28-30.
69. Londo n B 681; Para, 309; Mertens, 91-95 an d pi . 13.2.
70. Londo n B 669; Mertens, 99 and pi . 14.5.
71. Nicholl s has mentione d the heads in previous publications: BSA
47 (1952) , 217-226 an d i n The Eye of Greece, D. Kurtz an d B . Sparkes,
eds. (Cambridge , 1983) , 93. Ji ri Fre l discussed th e heads on kyathoi in
Sbornk Ndrodnho musea v Praze, vol . 13 , no. 5 (1959) , 235-236. Haspel s
(supra, not e 40) , 10 5 has compare d th e heads on some of the kyathoi
wi t h thos e o n ono i fro m th e Golono s Grou p (ABV, 481 ; Para, 220 ;
BAdd, 59 ) whi c h wer e probabl y mostly decorated b y followers of Psiax.
The head s o n th e ono i ar e not , however , closel y relate d t o thos e
described her e in connection wi t h th e Gett y kyathos. Eisman (27 , 153)
lists and describes all the heads known to hi m.
R . V. Nicholl s (persona l communication , December 13 , 1982 ) sug -
gested the following tentativ e arrangement :
Prague Group
A. Prague 16/5 2
Mal i bu hea d belong s t o th e "Pragu e Group, " whi c h h e
names after th e exceptionall y fine hea d i n Prague (fig . 4).
I n thi s Group he also includes the femal e heads on t wo red-
ground cal ycifor m kyatho i i n Brussel s an d R ome . Th e
Brussels kyathos
7 2
belong s t o th e Grou p o f Vatican G 57 ,
of whi c h i t ma y b e a lat e member.
7 3
Th e kyatho s i n th e
Vi l l a Gi ul i a
7 4
i s unassigne d bu t i s probabl y als o t o b e
counted amon g th e late r member s o f this Gr oup.
7 5
T he Mal i b u lady' s fac e i s painte d whi t e . He r nec k ha s
been painted whi t e too, and sh e ma y have worn a necklace .
Her long , reddis h br own hai r i s kept of f her fac e b y a re d
band wi t h whi t e dots. Thre e long , wav y tresses hang fro m
behi nd eac h ea r an d ove r he r imagine d shoulders . Curl s
over he r forehea d ar e indicate d b y a singl e ro w o f raise d
"dots." Her eyes and brows are picked out i n the same color
of pain t a s he r hair . He r lip s ar e no t defined . Sh e i s a less
elaborate versio n o f the Pragu e lady , who ha s a tri pl e ro w
of curl s over he r forehea d (lik e the saty r o n Psiax' s kyatho s
i n M i l a n [fi g . 3] ), a fancy diadem, earrings , an d eye s wi t h
bot h th e iri s and pupi l painte d i n.
A definitiv e stud y o f the Mal i b u hea d an d it s relation t o
others o n A t t i c vase s and terracott a statuette s mus t awai t
N i chol l s' publ i cati on . Here onl y genera l comment s ca n b e
made. Th e qual i t y of the hea d i s nearl y a s goo d a s tha t o f
the fines t exampl e known , the hea d i n Prague (fig . 4) . Th e
shape of the kyathos , it s technique, an d element s o f it s dec -
oration al l suggest that the vase was made at about th e same
ti me as Psiax's. I f the handl e had been preserved mor e com-
pletely, th e relatio n o f th e kyatho s t o thos e wi t h partl y
reserved handle-decoration76 would be clearer. The latter
bel ong "near " th e Gr ou p o f Vati ca n G 57 . T he y hav e
mol ded female head s qui t e lik e th e on e o n ou r vase
77
an d
testify t o the ver y considerabl e influenc e of Psiax.
Clay heads , and occasionall y ful l figures , had l on g been
selectively applie d t o vase s i n Atti c a an d elsewhere , bu t
mol ded head s (predomi nantl y female) becam e popular o n
B. Brussel s R26 7
Vi l l a Giulia, Castellani 582
C. (o r parallel variant ofB?) Gett y (figs , l a- d )
Kanellopoulos Group
A. Kanellopoulos Mus. 546
Muni ch 2422 (red-figur e hydria by Phintias)
Satyrs and Ladies Group
A . San Francisco L74.46. 2
C ompi gne 107 1
Mi l an, Poldi Pezzol i 482 (fig . 3)
B. Wr zbur g 437
Muni ch 198 6 (an d restored o n 1987 )
C. Berkele y 8- 2
D. Cambridge GR.9.1937
Probably near thi s Group, the followin g series:
Wr zbur g 436 (figs . 2a-b )
Orvieto 293
Oxford 1939.11 3
Nicholls provisionall y list s Louvre F 164 as Kanellopoulos Group and
Booners 47
some A t t ic vases duri ng the last decades of the si xt h centur y
when terracott a statuette s o f a certai n typ e bega n t o b e
produced i n quant i t y.
7 8
Thes e statuette s ar e mos t ofte n
female. Th e mol de d facia l features an d hairstyle s o f some
of th e earlies t example s ar e broadl y comparabl e t o th e
smaller head s attache d t o th e handle s o f kyat hoi .
7 9
Th e
exceptionally fin e model i n g o f the Pragu e hea d make s u s
t hi nk o f the marbl e kora i an d o f the serie s o f head vase s
whi ch als o begin s i n Atti ca at about thi s t i me.
8 0
The addi -
t i on o f smal l mol de d head s t o shape s tha t ar e know n t o
have bee n pri ze d i n meta l an d t o hav e bee n embellishe d
wi t h protomes,
8 1
remind s u s tha t potters , coroplasts , an d
painters
8 2
coul d dra w inspiratio n fro m contemporarie s
practicing other art s and craft s i n Athens.
PART T WO : T HE B O ON C O MP AN I O N S
The classi c study o f the dressed komasts, commonl y now
associated wi t h th e sta y i n Athens of the I oni a n poet A na -
kreon, wa s mad e b y Beazle y i n hi s publ i cat i o n of th e
Boston vase s i n 1954 . H e declare d th e komast s t o b e me n
disguised a s wome n an d believe d tha t wher e a figure plays
a lyr e o r i s alone , h e i s mean t fo r Anakreo n hi msel f an d
that wher e ther e ar e mor e tha n one , the y ma y b e regarde d
as hi s "boo n companions. " Th e subjec t ha s bee n take n u p
since by various scholars.83 I return to it, partly prompted
by the Mal i b u kyatho s and partl y because a close inspection
of the possibl y relevant figure s suggest s that th e associatio n
wi t h Anakreo n an d hi s arriva l i n Athen s ma y no t b e s o
straightforward an d tha t ther e ar e othe r feature s tha t i ndi -
cate a change i n Atheni an komast an d symposias t behavio r
that i s perhaps mor e i mportan t tha n th e effec t o f a singl e
I oni an i mmi grant . The representationa l evidenc e i s ful l an d
best considered firs t wi t hou t specia l reference t o Anakreon.
I ndeed, referenc e t o line s of Anakreon wi l l b e seen t o hav e
confused th e issue no l i ttl e . Th e startin g poi nt i s Beazley' s
list (pp . 58-60) . I t was repeated , wi t h additions , by B ran-
Louvre C A 3309 (se e supra, not e 28) a s near Satyrs and Ladie s Group.
72. Brussel s R267 ; ABV, 612.29 ; CVA 1 , pi. 4.3a-c.
73. Eisman , 368.
74. Rome , Vi l l a Giuli a 582; P. Mingazzini, Vasi della Collezione Cas
tellani (Rome , 1930) , 306 and pi . 89.8-9.
75. Eisman , 631-632.
76. Se e supra, not e 28.
77. Nicholl s places them i n or near his Satyrs and Ladie s Group; se
supra, not e 71.
78. R . A . Higgins, Greek Terracottas (London, 1967), 72.
79. The Eye of Greece (se e supra, not e 71) , 93.
80. ARV, 1529-1552 ; Para, 501-505; Beazley,JHS49 ( 1929), 38-7
81. Se e supra , note s 17 (oinochoai) , 27 (oinochoa i and kantharos)
28 (kyathoi) , 29 (meta l vases), 37 (oinochoai) , 71 (kyathoi , onoi , an
hydria). Th e heads cited here ar e usuall y female an d onl y rarel y male
There ar e also animal heads on Atti c vases contemporary wi t h the Gett
kyathos. Cf . a n exceptionall y fin e lion' s hea d o n a n unusua l whi t e
ground hydri a in the Peti t Palai s (310 ; ABV, 668 , s.v. "Karystios"; CV

-
e
8.
,
d
.
y
-
A,
denburg.
8 4
Th e lis t whi c h follow s her e i s slightl y longe r
and i s given, as muc h a s anythi ng , for ease of reference i n
the discussion whi c h follows an d i s probably sti l l not com -
plete. T h e mai n cri teri o n ha s bee n t o pi c k ou t th e dresse d
komasts (or , rarely , symposiasts ) wearin g th e ful l -l engt h
chi t on ( a short on e on N o. 2: fig. 11 ) wi t h hi mati o n (non e
on Nos . 1, 2: figs. 10b , 11) . I do not giv e ful l description s o r
references, bu t relevan t extra s ar e signale d (wher e veri fi -
able) b y the fol l owi ng key , and ther e i s fuller discussio n an d
description of some pieces later .
H = headdres s (turba n or relate d type )
E = earring s
P = paraso l
B = boot s
L = lyr e (barbiton, unles s otherwise stated )
The number s o n Beazley' s lis t ar e give n i n parenthesis f ol -
l owi ng the i t em numbers . Th e order i s only roughl y chron-
ological. I n th e keys , colon s di vi d e figures, doubl e colon s
the t wo sides of a vase.
1. Rhode s 12.200 , black-figur e amphor a (figs . l O a-b) .
ABV, 115 , 3, Lydan; CVA 1 , pi. 19.2 (infra , not e 93) . ( H B,
sleeveless chi ton : t wo youths) .
2. Mal i bu , Th e J. Pau l Gett y Museu m 77.AE.10 2 an d
78.AE.5, black-figur e kyatho s (figs , l a- d , 11) . ( H B L ,
short chi t on) .
3. (1) Basel , Anti kenmuseum, K ppel i 421, black-figure
plate (fig . 9). ABV, 294 , 21, and Para, 128 , Psiax ; Kunst-
werke der An tike, ex . cat . o f collection of Rober t Kappel i
(Basel, n.d.), D 3 . ( H B L : gi rl pi per) .
4. Kassel , Hessische s L andesmuseu m A L g 57, red -
pi. 11 ) whos e qualit y i s equal t o tha t o f the Pragu e lady (her e fig . 4)
and vastl y superior t o that of the lions of the Class of the One-Handle d
Kantharoi (ABV, 346; ABFH, fig. 217).
82. Bothme r (RA 1972 , 83-92), publishing a unique pai r of stands
of about 520 B . C . that are decorated i n mixed techniques an d embellished
wi t h molde d femal e heads broadly comparabl e t o those on some of the
kyathoi, discusses the wor k o f potters, painters, and coroplasts .
83. Notably : J. Frel , Revue des Arts 8 (1958) , 202-208; H . Branden-
burg, Studien zur Mitra (Munster , 1966) ; H. Kenner, Das Ph nomen der
verkehrten Welt in der Griechisch-Romischen Antike (Bonn , 1970) , 113 -
116; T . B. L. Webster , Potter and Patron in Classical Athens (London ,
1972), 54-55, 110 , 116-117; A. Greifenhagen, Alte Zeichnungen nach un-
bekanntengriechischen Vasen (Muni ch, 1976) , 23 -24; H. A. Shapiro, AJA
85 (1981) , 138-140.
84. Brandenburg , 77-81 .
48 Kurtz and Boardman
Figure 10a. No . 1. Black-figure amphora, Lydan . Rhodes,
Archaeological Museum 12.200. Photo: Cour -
tesy Archaeological Museum of Rhodes.
figure kalpi s (fig . 12) . MuM Auktion 5 1 (1975) , no . 152 ,
pi . 35 , attri bute d t o Nikoxeno s Painter ; Kassel , Staatlich e
Kunstsammlungen, Anti kenabtei l ung , Funde aus der An tike
(Kassel, 1981) , no. 56. ( H symposiast : yout h).
5. (2) Copenhagen , Nati ona l Museum 13365 , red-figur e
calyx-krater fragment s (figs . 13a-b ; t w o fragment s onl y) .
ARV2, 185, 32, and Para, 340, Kleophrades Painter; CVA 8,
259, pls. 331-333; ARFH, fig. 131. (HPL, also symposiast).
6. (3) Florenc e 3987 , red-figure pelike. CVA 2 , pi. 33. 1-
2. ( H L , shoes : : Dionysos?) .
7. M uni c h 2317 , red-figur e neck-amphor a (fig . 14) .
ARV
2
, 226 , 3, Eucharides Painter ; C i ^ 4 5, pis. 211.9, 212.2.
( H L : : si mi l arl y dresse d gi r l wi t h barbiton).
8. (5) Munich 2326, red-figure neck-amphora. ARV2,
273, 18 , H ar r ow Painter ; CVA 2 , pis. 55.1, 56.5. ( H P ) .
9. (4) Pari s G 220 , red-figur e amphor a (figs . 1 5 a- b) .
ARV
2
, 280 , 1 1 and Para, 354 , F l yi ng-Ange l Painter ; CJ^ 4
6, pi . 42.3-4; Revue des Arts 8 ( 1958), 202, 207-208, figs . 1,

Figure 10b. Detai l of amphora, figur e 10a. Photo: author .
5, 6; ARFH, fig . 178. ( L , tied headclot h : : H P B ).
10. (6) Madr i d 11.009 , red-figur e stamno s (fig . 16) .
CVA 2 , pis. 6-8. (Ei gh t fi gures-P , tie d headclot h : H PL :
H P : P, ti ed headclot h : : HP : HP : HP : H ).
11. R ome , Conservatori , red-figur e pelike . ARV
2
, 283 ,
4, Painte r o f L ouvre G 238 ; CVA Muse i C api tol i ni , 2 , pi .
22.1-2. ( H B L : t wo gi rl s) .
12. ( 7 = 28? ) F ormerl y R ome , C i ppi co , red-fi gur e
stamnos. ARV2, 291, 25, Tyszkiewicz Painter; AA 1977,
209-210, fig . 12 . (T i e d headcloth , P [t wi ce ] : gi r l wi t h
barbiton : : P : man : gi rl wi t h kithara).
13. (8) Paris , Peti t Palai s 336 , whi t e-groun d lekythos .
ARV2, 305, 1, Painter of Petit Palais 336; C^4, pi. 33.3 (the
woman o n 335, pi . 33.2 i s si mi l arl y dressed) . ( H B ?) .
14. (9) Pari s G 286, red-figure cup (fig . 17). ARV
2
, 443 ,
229, Douri s. ( H ) .
15. (10) M uni c h 2647 , red-figur e cu p (fig . 18). ARV
2
,
Booners 49
438, 132 , Dour i s ;Jdl 31 (1916) , pi . 3. ( H : man) .
16. (11) Brussel s R 332, red-figur e cu p (fig . 19). ARV
2
,
380, 169 , Brygos Painter ; CVA 1 , pi. 1.2. (T i e d headcloth ,
B ) .
17. (12) Pari s G 285 , red-figur e cu p (fig . 20). ARV
2
,
380, 170 , Brygos Painter ; C . Lenorman t an d J. d e Wi t t e ,
Elite des monuments cramo graphiques (Paris , 1844-1861) ,
vol . 4 , pi . 93; E. Pottier , Vases antiques du Louvre (Paris ,
1897-1922), pi . 134; M. Wegner, Der Brygosmaler (B erl i n ,
1973) , pl. 37b. ( H P B ).
18. Pari s C 10813 , red-figur e skypho s (figs . 21a-b) .
ARV
2
, 381 , 175, Brygos Painte r (ver y late) . (T i e d head -
cl oth, L : gi r l ) .
19. Basel, Cahn 60, red-figure cup. ARV2, 414, 30 and
Para, 372 , Doki masia Painter ; Arch ol ogi sches I nsti tu t der
Uni versi tat Zuri ch , Das Tier in der Antike, ex . cat. (Zuri ch ,
1974) , no. 259; Dionysos, Griechische Antiken, ex. cat.
(I ngel hei m a m R hei n, 1965) , no. 71, pi. 7. ( H E , l yre) .
20. Mal i bu , the J. Paul Gett y Museu m 86.AE.293 , red-
figure cu p (figs . 22a-b) . Para, 372 , 8 bis, Brisis Painter ;
H el mut May , ed., Weltkunst aus Privatbesitz, ex . cat. ( C o-
logne, 1968) , A 33, pis. 14-15; Wegne r (supra , N o . 17), pi.
26d. (Thre e time s H , shoes : gi rl pipe r : gi rl wi t h P : gi rl : :
three times H , shoes : gi rl pipe r : gi rl wi t h P ) .
21. Adolphseck , Schlos s Fasanerie , 56, red-figure l eky -
thos. C ^ 4 1 , pi. 40.4. ( H L ) .
22. Switzerland , privat e col l ection , red-figur e pelike .
ARV2, 184, 26, Kleophrades Painter (late). (HB : girl
pi per).
23. (13) C hi us i C 1836 , red-figure cup . ARV
2
, 815 , top
2, Painte r o f Philadelphia 2449 ; C i ^ 4 2, pi . 23. ( H P and
krotala : P : H : : man : HP : gi r l ) .
24. Mal i bu , th e J. Paul Gett y Museu m 86.AE.386 , red-
figure cup fragment (fig . 23). "F ol l ower of Douri s" (Beaz -
l ey). ( H : gi rl wi t h barbiton).
25. (14) B er l i n 2351 , red-fi gure neck-amphora . A .
Grei fenhagen, Al te Zei chnungen nach unbekannten gri e-
chischen Vasen ( Muni ch , 1976) , no. 12, figs. 19-20 . ( P B L ) .
26. (15) Mykonos, red-figure neck-amphora. ARV2,
508, mi d 4, Aegisthus Painte r manner ; C . Dugas, Les Vases
attiques figures rouges. E xpl or at i o n Ar c ho l o g i q u e d e


Dl os, vol . 21 (Paris , 1952) , pis. 22, 24, no. 27. ( H P : gi r l
pi per).
27. Zuri ch , Hi rschman n G 56. H. Bloesch, d., Greek
Vases from the Hirschmann Collection (Zuri ch , 1982) , no. 36,
Pan Painte r (I sl er) . ( H L ).
28. Mal i bu , T h e J. Pau l Gett y Museu m 76.AE . 102.7,
red-figure pelik e fragments , Pa n Painte r (B ot hmer ) (fig.
24). ( H : H ). See M. Robertson article , p. 71.
29. ( 16) Adri a B 497, red-figur e col umn-krater . CJ^ 4 1,
pl . 5.5 ; G. Fogolari and B. M. Scarfi, Adria Antica (Venice ,
1970), pi . 8.1. ( H P : yout h).
30. (16 bi s ) A t hens , f r o m P erachora , r ed- f i gur e
col umn-krater. ( H :: H ) .
31. Tarquini a 682, red-figure col umn-krate r fragment .
ARV
2
, 583 , bel ow 1, undetermi ned earl y Mannerist . ( L ).
32. ( 17) Bosto n 13.199 , red-figur e lekythos . ARV
2
, 588 ,
73 an d Para, 393 , undetermined earl y Mannerist ; C B , pi .
51.99; ARFH, fig. 334. (HL).
33. (21) Clevelan d 26.549 , red-figur e col umn-krate r
(fig. 25) . ARV
2
, 563 , 9, Pig Painter; CVA 1 , pis. 25.1, 26.
(H E P : H EL : H ) .
34. (20) Rhode s 13.129 , red-figur e pelik e (figs . 26a-b) .
ARV
2
, 564 , 28, Pig Painter; CVA 1 , pi. 3. ( H L : gi rl : : H :
H ) .
35. (18) C ambri dge , Mass. , F og g Museu m o f A rt
1959.125, red-figure column-krater. ARV2, 566, 3, Pig
Painter manner ; CVA R obi nso n 2 , pis. 28, 28a. ( H L ).
36. (19) Athens , Agor a P 7242 , red-fi gur e c ol umn -
krater fragment. ARV2, 566, 4, Pig Painter manner. (L).
37. Adria B 248, red-figure amphora. ARV2, 571, 71,
Painter o f Leningrad; C I ^4 1, pi. 32. (H : H L ) .
38. C or i nt h C P 998, red-figure fragment . ARV
2
, 573 ,
14, Painter o f Leni ngrad manner . ( H ).
39. (22) Vi enn a 770 , red-figur e col umn-krate r (fig .
27). AR V2, 576, 33, Agri gent o P ai nt er; C VA 2, pi . 92.3.
( H P : gi r l wi t h lyr e : H ).
40. (23) Bologna 239, red-figure column-krater. ARV2,
532, 50, Al ki machos Painter; G. Pellegrini, Catalogo dei vasi
50 Kurtz and Boardman
Figure . N o . 2. Black-figur e kyathos. Mal i bu , Th e J .
Paul Gett y Museu m 77.AE.10 2 an d 78.AE.5 .
Diam. of ri m: 9. 5 cm.
greci dette necropoli felsinee (Bologna , 1912) , 96. ( H P : t wo
men an d gi r l wi t h barbiton).
41. (24) Bologn a 234 , red-figur e col umn-krate r (fig .
28). ARV
2
, 524 , 20, Orchar d Painter ; L . Deubner, Attische
Feste (B erl i n , 1932) , pi . 21.3. ( H P : H : gi rl pipe r : H P ).
42. Naple s 3176 , red-figur e neck-amphora . ARV
2
, 638 ,
49, Providence Painter . ( H L ) .
43. Dresden 323, red-figure pelike. ARV2, 665, 4, Ethiop
Painter; AZ, 1865 , pi . 194. ( H , but no t a komast?) .
44. (25) L ondo n E 308 , red-figur e neck-amphora .
ARV
2
, 673 , 7, Zannoni Painter ; CVA 5 , pi . 55.2. ( H L ).
45. (26) B ari , red-figur e col umn-krater . (Si x time s H ,
one wi t h l yre) .
46. (27) Palazzol o Acreide , red-figur e column-krater ?
85. I n RA 1977 , 23-36.
86. M . Roaf, Cahiers de la Dlgation Archologique Franaise en Iran
4 (1974) , 126-127, pl . 34.3 for the Lydian; and cf. K. de Vries, Expedition
15.4 (1973) , 32-39; G . Walser , Die Volkerschaften auf den Reliefs von
Persepolis (Berlin, 1966) , 63, figs. 6.6, 8, pis. 45-47, 49; M . W fler, Nicht-
AssyrerneuassyrischerDarstellungen (Kevelaer , 1975), 65, 67, 117, 189, 195 ,
and 231 for relevant illustrations.
87. G . M. A. Richter, Handbook of Greek Art (London , 1959), 263,
fig. 384 .

Lenormant an d d e Wi t t e (supra , N o . 17) , vol . 4, pi . 92.
( H P : gi r l pipe r : H P ).
The pri nci pa l element s o f th e dres s an d equipmen t o f
these komasts can now b e studied, one b y one, befor e con -
si deri ng th e ensembl e i n term s o f komas t behavi o r i n
Athens an d o f the possibl e rol e of Anakreon.
Headdress
The headdress of the komast s is perhaps their singl e mos t
stri ki ng feature. I t looks to us utterl y feminine an d has don e
much t o sustai n th e argumen t tha t al l thes e figure s ar e
deliberately transvestite . Th e t r ut h , a s usual , i s a l i ttl e mor e
complex, an d i n it s way , i t bring s u s close r t o a prope r
understanding o f these figures . Th e headdresse s have bee n
studied i n some detai l b y Brandenbur g i n hi s Studien zur
Mitra ( Mnst er , 1966) , an d I generall y concu r wi t h hi s
conclusions, bu t a slightl y different t hough mor e summar y
presentation o f the evidenc e i s called for .
Since Brandenburg' s identificatio n of the mi t r a has bee n
challenged by Tolle-Kastenbein, 85 it is probably safer to
defer discussio n o f wha t wor d o r word s wer e use d t o
describe th e headdres s tha t concern s us an d t o concentrat e
on th e representations . W e ar e dealing wi t h a headdress tha t
is wrapped an d knot t e d aroun d th e hairno t a one-piece
cap lik e th e sakko s o r kekryphalos . I n th e peri o d o f ou r
illustrations, th e mi d- si xt h t o th e mi d- f i f t h century , an d
on th e figure s we ar e studying , i t i s a l ong stri p of material
commonl y wor n a s a turban, passe d around th e hea d sev -
eral times . Brandenburg' s di sti ncti o n between representa -
tions showi ng i t tied i n hori zontal, parallel bands and thos e
where th e fold s overla p an d mee t at a n angl e (hi s type s b
and a , respectively ) seem s of no ver y grea t importance . I n
these forms l on g bac k hai r ma y escap e between th e over -
lapping fold s a t th e bac k o r crown of the head . The head -
dress can als o be wor n wi t h a broad, foldles s stri p hol di ng
the back hai r and th e res t ti ed over the forehea d an d crown
( commonl y see n o n wome n i n th e Classica l peri od )
Brandenburg' s typ e c . A nd i t may b e wor n wi t hou t com-
pletely coverin g the hai r bu t boun d lik e a fillet ( whi c h w e
may regar d a s nor mal l y narrower , ofte n pl umpe r o r
padded, an d shorter ) an d ti e d toward the back o r side wi t h
the l on g ends fal l ing o n or towar d the shouldersth e t yp -

88. J . Boardman , Greek Emporio (London , 1967) , 161 , fig. 108, no.
748, pi. 59 and for the date, p. 158. For the simpler form cf . J. Boardma n
and J. Hayes, Tocra, vol. 2 (London, 1973), pi. 14, no. 807. F rom I oni a it
reaches Etruria: e.g., wi t h barbiton too, on Louvr e CA 6046 (J . G. Szil -
agyi, Prospettiva 24 [1981] , 3, fig. 1 and p. 20 n. 24; komast-satyrs). A n d
on Ponti c vases, as London 1926. 6-28. 1 (L . Hannestad, The Followers
of the Paris Painter [Copenhagen , 1976] , pi . 47; komast s wi t h perizo -
mata). F ro m Athen s o r I oni a i t reache s Chalcidia n black-figur e a s
Reggio 116 9 (A . Rumpf, Chalkidische Vasen [Berli n and Leipzig , 1927] ,
Booners 51
Figure 12. No . 4. Red-figure kalpi s by the Nikoxenos Painter. Kassel , Hessisches Landesmuseum A L g 57. Photo: Courtes y Hessisches
Landesmuseum.

i cal headdres s fo r Di onyso s f r o m th e f i f t h cent ur y o n
(Brandenburg, 133-148) . I cal l thi s a ti ed headcloth t o dis -
tinguish i t fro m th e hair-concealin g turba n tha t concern s
us mos t closely , but th e basi c material i s probably the same.
Examples fro m ou r catalogu e ar e shown i n figure 29.
As a n easter n headdress the turba n i s wel l atteste d fro m
I ndi a t o L ydi a (fig . 30) , an d i n th e peri o d tha t w e ar e
studying, i t i s best shown o n th e Achaemeni d monument s
showi ng subjec t peoples.
86
Easter n monument s sho w i t
exclusively a s a headdress for men, but i n Anatol i a a si xt h -
cent ury fresc o f r o m Gor di o n shows a woman weari n g
one.
8 7
I t i s the man' s turba n tha t i s firs t depicte d i n Greek art .
O n th e C hi a n komas t chalices , whi c h ar e probabl y t o b e
dated fro m th e 570' s t o abou t 550 , th e figure s commonl y
wear poi nte d caps, and a n exceptionall y wel l -drawn exam-
ple (an d on e o f the earliest ) make s i t clear tha t thes e caps
were, o r o n occasio n coul d be, turbans
8 8
(fig . 31.1).
I n mai nl an d Greec e we mee t th e ca p wi t h paralle l fold s
wor n b y a gi r l pipe r o n a Sparta n cu p (bu t foun d i n
Samos
89
) (fig . 31.2) an d o n a n A t t i c komas t (fig . 31.3),
bot h befor e abou t 560.
9 0
(Mos t A t t i c komast s ar e bare -
headed.) A similar , finer cap i s worn b y a bearded head o n
a mi d-cent ur y Droo p cup.
9 1
Ther e ar e som e od d At t i c
komasts on anothe r cu p o f about thi s date
92
wh o danc e i n
chitons an d wea r caps , t o whom we shal l return, but thei r
caps are one-piece, poi nte d or wi t h lappetsprobabl y east -
ern bu t not hi n g t o d o wi t h ou r turbans . N ex t come s a
pi . 3 6 below: Polyxena) . A n d a t Veli a th e turba n i s seen on a n ivor y
plaque (Archaeological Reports for 1976-1977, 48 , fig. 4). I n East Greece
i t i s shown o n coins of Knidos: H . A. Cahn, Knidos (Berlin , 1970) , pis.
12.7-9, 16 (probabl y folded and not the cap of the type listed infra, not e
97), 13.31 , 33; 16.67. An early coi n of Phocaea: E. Langlotz, Studien zur
nordostgriechischen Kunst (Mainz , 1975), pi. 2.4. There i s a turban on a n
East Greek (? ) asko s from Tarquinia : Szilgyi (supra) , 2 , figs. 1-2 . Fo r
Laconia see next note .
89. Samos/Berlin : AA 1964 , 563, fig. 31a; C . M. Stibbe, Lakonische


Vasenmaler (Amsterdam, 1972) , pi. 58, Arkesilas Painter .
90. J . Boardma n an d J. Hayes , Tocra, vol. 1 (London, 1966) , pi . 75,
no. 1038.
91. Athens , private collection; ABV, 203 , 2 Kallis Painter; E . Vander-
pool , 4 4 4 9 (1945) , 438.
92. Amsterda m 3356; ABV, 66 , 57, Heidelberg Painter; A . D. Tren-
dall and T . B. L. Webster, Illustrations of Greek Drama (London , 1971) ,
20-21, 1.8.
52 Kurtz and Boardman
Figure 13a. N o . 5 . R ed-fi gur e cal yx-krate r fragment s b y
t he Kl eophr ade s P ai nt er . C openhagen ,
N at i onal M us eu m 13365 . P hot o : C our t es y
N at i onal Museum .
Figure 13b. F ragmen t o f th e Copenhage n cal yx-krater ,
fi gure 13a .
figure (ou r N o. 1, fig. 10b ) o n an amphora o f unusual shape
i n R hodes,
9 3
whi c h i s take n fo r At t i c , thoug h i t woul d
perhaps repa y th e inspectio n o f a cla y analyst.
94
O n on e
side t wo naked youths , one wi t h aphorminx, th e othe r wi t h
a dri nki n g horn , ar e accompanie d b y a ma n wearin g a
sleeveless chi ton , th e skir t o f whi c h h e raise s slightl y t o
reveal boot s (figs . l O a- b) . H e i s weari n g a t urba n o f
narrow fold s bound clos e t o hi s scalp. T h e vas e i s of abou t
540-530 an d h e ma y fairl y b e regarde d a s th e firs t o f ou r
dressed komasts , bu t i t i s ti m e t o conside r th e relevan t
women' s headdresse s down t o thi s date.
The cap s wor n b y wome n o n Eas t Gree k vase s ar e no t
suffi ci entl y detai l e d t o revea l whet he r turban s ar e i n -
tended.
9 5
T h e evidenc e fro m Athen s i s very slight unt i l th e
520's. Th e bes t example , showi n g th e paralle l folds clearly,
is o n a "hea d l i p-cup " i n M uni c h o f th e mi ddl e o f th e
century.
9 6
Ther e is , however, a type o f cap wor n exclusivel y
by wome n an d show n o n vase s of the mi ddl e o f the cen -
t ury o r just afte r whi c h i s clos e fi t t i n g lik e a kekryphalo s
(hairnet) an d ofte n supplie d wi t h a smal l loop a t th e crown
(like some mal e pilot) (se e figs . 31.4-8) . I t may b e decorate d
wi t h all-ove r cross-hatching, bu t a vertical strip rising fro m
ear t o crow n o n som e example s suggest s tha t i t coul d b e
stitched fro m segments.
97
Langl ot z ha s suggeste d tha t th e
cap i s of L ydi an ori gi n , whi c h i s possible. Somethin g si mi -
lar, but wi t h a br i m, appear s on coins o f Phocaea, but thes e
are n o earlie r tha n th e Atheni a n vase s (fig . 31.10).
9 8
I t i s
not a turba n an d i s no t wor n b y men ; indeed , o n a cu p
wi t h severa l suc h caps for girls , a mal e head i s turbaned .
F rom th e 520' s o n th e turba n become s reall y popular .
Taki ng firs t it s use b y women, we see i t worn i n symposia c
93. Rhode s 12.200; ABV, 115 , 3, Lydan; Clara Rhodos, vol . 4, 75, figs.
51-52; CVA 1 , pi. 19.1-2. I follow Beazle y (CB , pp. 9, 60) i n denying
this the titl e "psykter, " rather tha n Bothmer (ArtB 5 7 [1975] , 122) . We
use th e wor d conventionally , and i n antiquit y i t probabl y applie d t o a
variety of vessels whi ch served a s coolers, whether made for the purpose
or not . "P sykter " i s best reserve d fo r th e mushroom-shape d vase ,
"eared" or "earless"; for whi ch se e now S . Drougou, Der attische Psykter
( Wr zbur g, 1975) , wi t h 35-3 6 o n the Rhode s vase. The Taleide s oi n-
ochoe (Berli n 31131; ABV, 176 , 2 and 670; Para, 73) has a similar profil e
to the lower wall . I f , as seems likely, the profil e indicates us e for cooling,
the fac t tha t thes e vases are basicall y designed fo r the handlin g of wine
may be an argument i n favor of the similarl y profiled psykte r being used
for win e rather tha n for the coolant (whi c h Drougou prefers) .
94. It s underfoot graffit o i s uninformative about origin : A. W John -
ston, BSA 7 0 (1975) , 152 , no. 36 and idem, Trademarks on Greek Vases
(Warminster, 1979) , 36.
95. Bu t cf. the Phocaean coin cited supra, note 88.
96. Muni c h 2167; ABV, 677 ; Pfuhl, MuZ, fig . 252.
97. Example s are : Hea d lip-cup s b y Sakonide s (Berli n 3152 ; ABV,
171, 13 ; A. Rumpf, Sakonides [Leipzig , 1937 ; Mainz, 1976] , pl. 28e, f )
and the Epitimos Painter (N e w York 25.78.4; ABV, 119,9 ; Para, 48; Ci^4
2, pi. 10; M. Tiverios, Ho Lydos kai to ergon tou [Athens , 1976], pi. 60b).
The Amazon on a Lydan fragment (Athens , Ker.; ABV, 107 , 2; Tiverios
[supra], pi . 75a) an d a maenad on the N ew York Lydos krater (31.11.11;
Booners 53
or Dionysia c setting s a s wel l a s (thoug h les s frequently )
more sobe r occasions . A t partie s i t ma y b e wor n b y gi r l
pipers or hetaira i i n various stages of undress, an d i t is seen
on nake d girl s of uncertain status , dressin g o r a t an altar . I t
is also wor n b y maenads. I t may be wor n b y goddesses, and
by mor t a l wome n fet chi n g wate r a t At hens ' fount ai n
houses."
I t i s i n these years too tha t we begi n t o see th e sakkos , a
somewhat loose r headdres s tha n th e cap s on mi d-cent ur y
black-figure representation s jus t discussed , an d ofte n wi t h
a tai l o r poi n t behi nd. Li k e th e turban , i t can b e wor n b y
heroines, maenads , hetairai , an d housewi ves.
1 0 0
T h e mal e
use o f the turba n fro m th e 520' s o n bring s us t o th e mai n
group of the dresse d komasts , bu t no t exclusivel y to them ,
and ther e ar e othe r occurrences , i ndi vi dua l an d general , t o
be considered first. O n a cup by Epiktetos of about 510 one
of the sons of Eurytos, terrified b y Herakles, is seen wearing
a t urban.
1 0 1
Hi s brothers ar e bareheaded and unkempt , an d
they al l wea r knee-l engt h chi ton s wi t h ani ma l skins .
O l mos take s thi s exoti c dres s a s ori ent al , but O i chal i a ,
where Euryto s ruled , i s n o farthe r eas t tha n Euboea , an d
the turba n si mpl y recall s th e symposio n settin g i n whi c h
the challeng e an d disput e brok e out , an d whi c h i s pr omi -
nent i n vase representations o f the event .
Then, o n a Nikosthenes Painte r kantharo s o f about 500 ,
a recl i ni ng Dionysos is shown wearing a turban and hi mat -
i on only , an d thi s i s matched b y a possibl e Dionyso s on a
black-figure skyphos.
1 0 2
Perhap s the onl y remarkabl e t hi n g
is that th e di vi n e patron of the symposion i s not seen mor e
often wi t h th e turban . I n later ar t he commonl y wears th e
ti ed fillet o r headcl oth.
1 0 3

























Figure 14. No . 7. Detai l o f red-figure neck-amphor a b y
the Eucharide s Painter . Muni ch , Ant i ken -
sammlungen 2317 . Photo : Courtes y A nt i -
kensammlungen.
A mong komast s an d symposiast s a wi de variety of dress
and undres s i s combined wi t h th e wearin g of the turban ,
especially down t o th e earl y fifth century . Thereafter , th e
turban i s mai nl y reserve d fo r the dressed komast , an d afte r
the mi ddl e of the centur y th e stri p o f cl ot h i s n o longe r
shown wor n a s a hai r-coveri ng by men, but as a tied head -
cl oth. I cite representative example s only , unt i l we reach th e
dressed komasts .
A n earl y exampl e o f the turba n a t a symposion i s on a
cup i n the manner o f the Lysippides Painter o f about 520,
1 0 4
where thre e me n ar e turbane d ( t w o other s wreathed , an d
the si xth , a piper, bare-headed; al l recline). There ar e othe r
ABV, 108 , 5 ; R ump f [supra] , pi . 21) . Maenad s o n th e Kalli s Painte r
cups, Naples Stg . 17 2 (ABV, 203 , 1 ; CVA 1 , pi. 21) an d Athens , privat e
collection (supra , not e 91; wi th th e turbane d mal e head) . A woman a t
the l oom on the N ew Yor k lekythos by Amasi s (31.11.10 ; ABV, 154 , 57;
BSA 3 7 [ 1936/37], pi. 6; MonPiot 60 [ 1976], 43, fig. 8). On a Tyrrhenian
amphora, Bolligen , privat e collection ( R . Blatter , AW 11A [1980] , 13,
fig. 1 ; attending a wedding). Ne w York , Bothme r (ABV, 685 , Painte r
of Vatican 309, 21 bis; a naked dancer) . Eileithyi a before Zeu s on a belly
amphora wi t h th e B i rt h o f Athena i n Basel (Tessi n loan) attribute d t o
Group E (K . Schefold, Goiter una Heroen [Muni ch , 1978] , 17 , fig. 4).
Hetairai a t work : Akr . 1639 , pi . 85, cu p frag . (ABV, 198 , belo w 2) ;
Muni ch 1432 , Tyrrhenian (ABV, 102 , 98; CVA 7 , pi. 318.1). O n the Si x
phiale (MuM Auktion 2 6 [1963] , no. 122 , pi . 41) hai r escapes , so i t i s
probably not a closed cap .
98. E . Langlotz, v4M77 (1962) , 115; idem (supra , not e 88), pis. 2.14-
16, cf . 1 3 (Knidos) , 3.1; idem, Die kulturelle un ku'nstlerische Helle-
nisierung der Ksten des Mittelmeers durai die Stadt Phokaia (Cologne ,
1966), 24-25 , figs . 12-14 , 16 ; figs. 18 , 21, of Massilia, ar e close r t o th e
Atti c type. For the Knidia n coins see supra, note 88.
99. I cite illustrations that give a good sample: ARFH (red-figure of
circa 530-500 B . c. ) , figs . 2 3 (nymph) , 2 7 (hetaira) , 34. 2 (companio n
of Helen), 38.1 (hetaira) , 55. 2 (Aphrodite) , 71 (hetaira) , 75. 2 (dancin g
gi rl ), 10 7 (maenad?) , I l l (maenads), 11 3 (maenad) , 12 2 (nake d gi r l a t
altar). ABFH (for black-figure down to the early fifth century), figs.

181 (maenad) , 18 2 (gir l piper) , 235. 1 (Ariadne) , 271 (Eos) . The y ar e
particularly common on Krokotan vases; ci.JHS 7 5 (1955) , pis. 4.1, 5.1,
8.3, 15.8 . A t th e fountai n house , e.g. , CVA Londo n 6 , pis . 88.4 , 90. 2
(B332, 334; ABV, 333 , 27, Priam Painter an d 365, 72, Leagran = better ,
BSA 3 6 [1935/36] , pi. 22b). B ot h also i n G. M. A. Richter, Perspective
(London, 1970) , figs. 122 , 123, wi th fig . 12 0 (Boston 61.195; Para, 147 , 5
bis, Priam Painter) .
100. A sample in ARFH to the end of the century: figs. 5.3 (maenad),
9.1 (amazon) , 5 6 an d 61. 1 (nereids) , 6 2 (Atalanta) , 10 9 (nake d gi rl ) .
One wi t h a loop behin d a s o n th e earlie r caps , on Toled o 61.2 3 (Para,
147, 5 ter, Priam Painter ; CVA 1 , pi. 23.2).
101. R . Olmos-Romera , MadrMitt 1 8 (1977) , 14 5 on th e dress ; for
the cup, pi . 35b (Palerm o V 653; ARV
2
, 73 , 30; CVA 1 , pi. 5.1). I do not
thi nk eithe r Herakle s o r Euryto s appea r o n th e black-figur e lekythos ,
ibid., pi . 34c, wher e two archers wi t h pointe d caps draw o n each other .
Cf. als o on th e Euryto s cup , Brandenburg , 121-122 . O n a stamnos of
about 48 0 (C . I sler-Kerenyi , Stamnoi [Lugano , 1977] , 36-42) th e sons
wear longer , girde d chitons an d easter n caps.
102. Bosto n 00.334; ARV
2
, 126 , 27; Pfuhl , MuZ, fig . 320; CB , 11-12 ,
pi . 68. Laon 371001; C ^4 1 , pi. 24.7, 9.
103. Brandenburg , 133-148 .
104. Th e Bomfor d cup , Oxfor d 1974.344 ; J. Boardma n A 4 (1976) ,
285, figs. 6-8 .
54 Kurtz and Boardman
Figure 15a. N o . 9 . R ed-fi gur e amphor a b y th e F l yi ng -
A ngel Painter . Sid e A . Paris , L ouvr e G 220 .
P hoto: C ourtes y Mus e d u L ouvre .
instances towar d th e en d o f the century , a s o n a Leagra n
stamnos i n th e Vat i can.
1 0 5
O the r dres s i s tha t customar y
for th e occasionhimation only. T he turban was preferred
for th e representatio n o f th e mor e vigorous , o r at leas t
upri ght, acti vi t y o f the komast . O n th e Kleisopho s oi no -
choe
1 0 6
th e l i vel y komast s ar e star k nake d bu t fo r turban s
and boot s (fo r t wo of the five). N o hi n t o f the transsexua l
or feminin e here , a t an y rate , an d th e naked , turbane d
komasts remai n qui t e common. The Krokota n vase s favor
naked men i n turbans, wal ki ng or dri nki ng i n a vi neyard.
1 0 7
There ar e komast s o n th e Perizom a Grou p vase s weari ng
105. Vatica n 415; ABV, 388 , 3, Group of Louvre F 314; C. Albizatti
Vasi antichi dipinti del Vaticano (Rome, 1925-1939), pi. 62. A nd, e.g. , th
Oltos cup, Berli n 4221; ARV
2
, 61 , 73; CVA 2 , pi . 54.2, 3.
106. Athen s 1045; ABV, 186 ; Pfuhl, MuZ, fig . 254; CJ^4 1 , pi. 2.1-3.
107. E.g. , ABV, 206 , 8 and below 2 = Muni c h 2050 (JHS 7 5 [1955]
pi . 11.4) ; and Heidelber g 277 (ibid. , pis. 4.1, 15.8 ; ABFH, fig . 182). Cf
Brandenburg, 81-82.
108. A specialty of the Beaune Painter: ABV, 344, 2- 3 (Orvieto , Fain
,
e

,
.
a
Figure 15b. Det ai l o f amphora, figur e 15a . Side B.
onl y turban s an d thei r customar y l oi ncl ot hs.
1 0 8
Mos t t ur -
baned komasts , however , wea r onl y a shor t cloa k aroun d
their shoulders , leaving the body bare
1 0 9
an d the y ar e ofte n
booted.
We come now to the komast s dressed in chitons. We met
a forerunne r o n th e unusua l Rhode s vas e o f about 540 -
530 ( N o . 1, fig. 10b) . Some t went y year s later come s th e
figure o n the Mal i bu kyathos (N o . 2, fig. 11) wi t h hi s short,
ti ght chi ton . A n d at abou t th e same ti me we have th e fine
komast o n Psiax' s whi t e-groun d plate i n Basel (N o . 3, fig.
9), accompanie d b y a si mi l arl y turbane d gi r l piper . Neare r
58 and Oxford 1919.46 ; B. Philippaki , The Attic Stamnos [Oxford , 1967] ,
pi . 10.1 , 2) an d 5 (Tarquini a 1749; L. Campus, Cermica attica a figure
nere [1981] , no. 8, pi. 59).
109. Som e examples: the black-figure tondo t o Epiktetos' cup, Berli n
2100 (ARV
2
, 71 , 7; Pfuhl, MuZ, fig . 175 ; CVA 2 , pi. 54.4); on the Ni kos -
thenes Painter's cup, Paris G 4 bis (ARV
2
, 125 , 16; CVA 19 , pi. 74.1); the
red-figure cup, Vienna 1777 (CVA 1 , pi. 3.1); the Hegesiboulos Painter' s
name vase , N ew Yor k 07.286.4 7 (sid e B ; ARV, 175 ; G. M. A. Richter
Booners 55
the en d o f the centur y ther e i s an exceptiona l example, i n
red-figure, o f a dressed (chi t o n and hi mati on) komast wh o
has j oi ne d a symposio n ( N o . 4 , fig . 12) . N o w th e mai n
series begins wi t h th e Kleophrade s Painte r fragment s ( N o .
5) o n whi c h we se e agai n the ful l dres s assumed at a sym-
posion and, on the other sid e of the vase, for a komos wi t h
song. Thes e see m th e onl y example s o f th e turba n an d
chi t on fo r recl i ni n g symposiasts , an d o n N o . 4 th e associ -
ation wi t h th e komos i s immediate. T he firs t quarte r o f the
fi ft h centur y brings over a dozen furthe r examples . I dra w
attention onl y t o N o . 7 (fig . 14 ) fo r th e fine headdres s
arranged mos t l i k e tha t wor n b y women ; t o N o . 9 (figs .
15a-b) fo r it s association wi t h th e tie d headcloth ; an d t o
N o. 1 0 (figs . 16 , 29) fo r th e variet y of ways i n whi ch th e
l ong, mul t i - wr appe d t ur ban coul d b e wor n . Wi t h th e
dressed komast weari ng a tied fillet o n N o. 9 we may com-
pare th e Brygo s Painter' s Al caeus
1 1 0
o r th e figur e wi t h a
broad, ti e d fillet (N o . 16 , fig. 19 ) o n a cu p b y th e sam e
artist. On the H ar r ow Painter amphor a (N o . 8) th e komas t
wi t h a paraso l i s bareheaded . A l l are ot herwi s e f ul l y
dressed.
I n th e secon d quarte r o f th e centur y ther e ar e rathe r
more examples , nearl y hal f o f the m o n Manneris t vases .
The headdres s i s generall y no t s o elaboratel y draw n (a n
exception i s N o . 38) , bu t i t i s als o possibl e tha t o n som e
examples th e turba n ha s bee n replace d b y th e one-piec e
sakkos. Thi s i s not al l that eas y t o distinguis h from a mor e
si mpl y draw n turban , t houg h th e sakko s i s mor e com -
monl y patterne d wi t h dots . I t mi gh t b e a sakko s tha t
appears i n the 470' s fo r dressed komast s b y Douri s and th e
Brygos Painte r (Nos . 14 , 15 , 17 , figs. 17 , 18, 20), but the y
do no t closel y match thos e the y giv e thei r women . Later ,
the Pi g Painter' s sakko i seem mor e plausibl e (Nos . 33, 34,
figs. 25 , 26a-b) , t houg h agai n the y d o no t closel y matc h
the headdres s he give s wome n o n hi s vases . O n th e othe r
hand, th e Agri gent o Painter's mal e an d female headdresse s
do resembl e eac h othe r (N o . 39, fig. 27) . Thi s i s the first
ti me tha t we ma y eve n suspec t tha t thi s whol l y feminine
headgear has bee n wor n b y mal e komasts .
To summariz e th e representationa l evidence : the turban ,
an easter n headdress worn pri nci pal l y b y men, comes t o b e
wor n duri n g th e si xt h centur y i n Eas t Greec e an d th e
Greek mai nl an d by women and b y menbut the n onl y a s
symposiasts o r komasts. B y the end o f the century its special
and L . F. Hal l, Red-Figured Athenian Vases in the Metropolitan Museum
Art [N e w Haven, 1936] , pi . 10) ; the black-figure fragment fro m Selin
(Palermo; ABV, 676 ; MonAnt 3 2 [1927] , pi . 92.9) ; the black-figure Pi
tias Clas s cup , onc e Hop e 83 (ABV, 627 , 6; Ti l l yard , The Hope Vas
[N ew York , 1923] , pi . 6), and another , Elvehje m Museum, Madiso
Warren Moon , Greek Vase-Fainting in Midwestern Collections (Chicag
1980), no. 70. O n th e Hai mon Painter's lekythos , N ew Yor k 41.162.1
of
us
s-
es
n,
o ,
3
(ABV, 538 , 1; CVA Gallati n 1, pi. 7.8) full-lengt h himati a are worn. A
Figure 16. No . 10 . Red-figur e stamnos . Madrid , Muse o
Arqueolgico Naciona l 11.009 . Photo : Cour -
tesy Museo Arqueolgico Nacional.
male association i s wi th dresse d komasts, who exhi bi t othe r
exoti c feature s ye t t o b e discussed , an d thi s conti nue s
t hrough th e first hal f o f the fifth century , whe n some of
the dressed komast s apparentl y come t o exchange i t for th e
feminine sakkos .
We ma y now consider the name o f thi s turban headdress.
Brandenburg identifie d i t a s a mi tra , an d it s earl y recor d
i n text s certainl y matches closel y the representationa l evi -
dence. Fo r easterners Herodotus names it as worn b y Baby-
lonians ( i 195.1) an d Kissio i (nea r Susa , v ii 62.2), and th e
wor d itsel f may be of eastern ori gin (Brandenburg , 9 - 10) .
1 1 1
I n Gree k text s i t is often described as L ydi an (i bi d. , 53, 57).
We hav e see n L ydi a n me n an d a L ydi an-peri od woman at
Gordi on weari n g a turban, an d bot h A l kma n (frag . 1.67 -
68 Page) an d Sappho (frag . 98.10-12 Lobel-Page: itrppa)
have th e mi t r a a s a headdress for L ydi a n women . B ut i t i s
also name d a s wor n b y men , notabl y athletes , oriental s
(especially priests) , symposiast s an d Dionyso s himself ,
poets (e.g. , Aristophane s name s Anakreon , Alcaeus , an d
I bycus [Thesm. 160-163 ] ), and by Herakles and Achille s in
thei r feminin e moment s wi t h Omphal e an d th e daughter s
good naked , turbane d komas t shoulderin g a barbiton on Muni c h 870 3
(ARV
2
, 1582 , 1; F. Hauser,JdI 10 [1895] , figure on p. 161).
110. Muni c h 2416; ARV
2
, 385 , 228; ARFH, fig . 261 ; E . Simon and M.
and A . Hi rmer, Diegriechischen Vasen (Muni ch, 1976) , pi. 150.
111. A ful l recor d of the turban i n the east in Brandenburg, 111-12 7
and see supra, note 86. In Hesiod (frag. 1. 4 West) i t is already a woman' s
belt, but i n Homer a piece of male protective dress (Brandenburg, part
O-
56 Kurtz and Boardman
Figure 17. N o . 14 . Red-figur e cu p b y Douris . Paris ,
Louvre G 286 . Photo : Courtes y Muse d u
Louvre.
of Lykomedes . Representationa l evidenc e make s clea r tha t
these figure s di d no t al l wear th e mi t r a a s a turban . Th e
Dionysiac certainl y wea r i t mor e ofte n a s a ti e d fille t o r
headcloth. Tel l e-Kastenbei n , wh o object s t o B randen -
burg's defi ni ti o n o f the mi t ra , believe s tha t i t applies onl y
to a Kopfbinde wor n eithe r as a knot t ed fille t o r as a shorter ,
ornate, an d ofte n shaped (apparentl y stiffened ) bi ndi n g for
the hair . That the l ong strip mi ght be wor n i n this manner ,
as a ti e d headcloth , we hav e observe d already : e.g . o n ou r
Nos. 9, 10 , 12, 16, 18, or th e Brygo s Painter' s Al caeus.
1 1 2
A possibl e explanatio n i s that th e mi t r a wa s at firs t th e
eastern headdres s consistin g o f a stri p o f cl ot h wor n a s a
turban. A s such i t was borrowe d b y th e Greek s an d wor n
not onl y a s a turba n bu t als o a s a loose r hai r bi ndi n g
(Brandenburg' s typ e c) o r si mpl y as a ti ed headclot h (a s i t
mi ght als o b e i n the east , fig. 30). Ther e wa s n o di ffi cul t y
i n transferrin g th e t er m t o th e ordi nar y ti e d fi l l et , eve n
when made of a shorter, narrower , even padded strip , espe-
cially onc e th e fashio n fo r th e ful l turba n wa s goin g out ,
i n th e firs t hal f of the fi ft h century . I t woul d b e wr on g t o
112. Supra , not e 110 . Other uses of the word, a s for a belt (se e supra ,
note 111) , suggest something longer tha n a short hairban d o r fille t an d
Figure 18. No . 15 . Red-figur e cu p b y Douris . Munich ,
Antikensammlungen 2647 . Photo : Courtes y
Antikensammlungen.
t hi nk tha t the wor d applie d at al l periods t o a piece o f cl ot h
of the same shape and proporti ons or tha t i t coul d be wor n
i n onl y on e way . B ot h th e cont i nui t y and th e man y vari -
ations i n practice i n t yi ng th e hai r ca n b e readil y observe d
i n art , an d ther e i s no nee d t o fi n d a new wor d fo r ever y
such variation . Consider th e varietie s o f f or m whi c h th e
wor d kylix mus t hav e served, or the wor d amphoreus wher e
there wa s als o variet y of use. O u r Gree k mitrephoros wore a
turban i n th e si xt h century , preferre d a tie d headclot h o r
fillet i n the fi fthl i k e a Dionysoswhil e his female com -
pani on use d he r mi t r a sti l l t o cover mor e of her hair . Thus ,
the shap e o f th e mi t r a certainl y change d ove r ti me . Th e
more w e lear n abou t Gree k us e o f "techni cal " word s fo r
dress, utensil s , o r i mpl ement s , th e les s precis e tha t us e
proves t o hav e been , an d i t woul d b e a pi t y t o exclud e
associations o f words an d representation s t hroug h insisting
on over-precis e identifications .
Dress
Wi t h on e o r t w o excepti ons , t o b e remarke d i n a
support identificatio n wi t h somethin g loosel y tie d an d wi t h lon g ends
when wor n a s a fillet .
Figure 19. No . 16. Red-figure cu p b y the Brygo s Painter . Brussels , Muses
Royaux R332. Photo: Courtesy Muses Royaux.
Figure 20. No . 17 . Red-figure cu p b y the Brygo s Painter . Paris , Louvr e
G 285 . Photo: Courtesy Muse du Louvre.
Booners 57
58 Kurtz and Boardman
Figure 21a. N o . 18 . Red-figur e skypho s b y th e Brygo s
Painter. Paris , Louvre C 10813. Photos: Cour -
tesy Muse du Louvre.
moment, th e cri teri o n fo r identificatio n o f ou r dresse d
komasts ha s bee n th e weari n g o f ful l -l engt h chi to n an d
hi mati on. Mos t komast s o f our peri o d ar e nake d o r wea r
onl y a shor t cloa k roun d thei r shoulders . Th e ful l chi t o n
and hi mat i o n i s wor n otherwis e b y women , b y Dionysos ,
and b y senio r male s o f my t h o r cont emporar y societ y
(where generally , t o j udg e fro m th e vases , th e hi mat i o n
alone sufficed) . Earlier , i n th e si xt h century , chiton s ar e
shown commonl y wor n b y men , no t onl y i n Athens , bu t
also fo r instanc e o n C ori nt hi a n vases. Thucydide s ( i 6.3)
considered th e chi t o n male dress of the recen t pas t i n I onia
and Athens .
Early i n the si xt h centur y the komast dancer s of C or i nt h
and Athens , i f dressed a t al l , wore a close-fitting , short -
sleeved tuni c whi c h wa s probabl y mad e u p a s a typ e o f
short chi t on.
1 1 3
Nearer th e mi ddl e of the centur y ther e ar e
some unusual studie s o f dancers in longer dress, though th e
short komas t chi t o n is sti l l seen wel l i nt o the second hal f o















f
113. A . Greifenhagen, Fine attische schwarzfigurige Vasengattung
(Knigsberg, 1929) ; A. Seeberg, Corinthian komos vases (London, 1971).
114. Above , p. 51, wi th not e 92.
115. MuM Auktion 3 4 (1967) , no. 121 , pi. 31.1 do not know what t o
make o f the me n i n chitons wi t h pointe d caps and carryin g snakes, on
the strang e an d poo r lat e black-figur e skyphos , Pari s F 410, but the y

Figure 21b. Sid e B of skyphos, Louvre C 10813.
the century . O n a cup b y the Heidelber g Painter, t o whi c h
reference ha s alread y bee n made
1 1 4
fo r th e od d headdresses
of th e dancers , th e dres s i s shown t o knee - an d t o ankl e -
length. A nd on a hydria of about th e same date (circ a 560),
four me n i n l ong chitons danc e t o th e piper , who wear s a
mi ni - c hi t on.
1 1 5
A comparabl e t houg h t i ght er - f i t t i n g
chi t on i s worn o n the Mal i b u kyatho s (N o . 2, fig. 11) . The
male komast s i n the chi to n ar e generall y describe d a s me n
dressed a s women,
1 1 6
bu t al l that i s reall y odd abou t the m
is that the y ar e dresse d at all , since th e chi t o n i s as prope r
dress for me n a s i t i s for women , an d thi s i s mor e tru e o f
representations fro m th e first hal f of the si xt h centur y tha n
of thos e fro m th e en d o f the centur y whe n Dionyso s an d
the elderl y are mor e ofte n s o favored. I f there ha d bee n an y
serious attemp t t o show th e men a s women, the exclusively
feminine dress, the peplos , woul d surel y have been chosen .
I t wa s easie r t o dance i n, being open alon g one side , and i n
representations th e artist' s i nt ent i on would hav e been made
seem irrelevant here: A . Greifenhagen, AA 1978 , 538, figs. 61-62 .
116. E.g. , T. B. L. Webster, The Greek Chorus (London , 1970), 14-15;
Trendall and Webste r (supra , not e 92) , 20. A later , chitoned chorus o n
a cup by the SabourofFPainter (ARV
2
, 837, 10 ; MuM Auktion 5 6 [1980] ,
no. 103; now Mal i bu, the J. Paul Gett y Museum, 86.AE.296).



Booners 59
Figures 22a-h No . 20. Red-figur e cu p b y th e Brisis Painter . Above: side A ; below: side B . D: 30. 2 cm. Malibu, The J. Paul Gett y
Museum 86.AE.293.
60 Kurtz and Boar aman
Figure 24. No . 28. Red-figure pelike fragments b y the Pan Painter . Fragmen t a , L: 6.85 cm; fragment b , L: 4.1 cm. Malibu, The J. Paul
Getty Museum 76.AE . 102.29 and 76.AE . 102.30.
Figure 23. No . 24. Red-figur e cu p b y a follower o f Douris. Estimated D a t shoulder : 21. 6 cm. Malibu, Th e J. Pau l Gett y Museu m
86.AE.386.
Booners 61
more clear . Tha t i n one o f the earlies t example s of the l on g
dress for komast s (th e Heidelber g Painte r cup ) th e head -
dresses may b e o f eastern ori gi n ma y no t b e wi t hou t sig -
nificance. I n East Greece the chi t o n was eve n mor e favore d
for men , a s witnesse d b y man y vas e paintings an d th e fac t
that th e dresse d kouro s is , i n sculpture, a n Eas t Gree k spe -
ciality an d no t a mai nl and one . I t was wor n i n Lydi a too ,
and wi t h th e boots , a s par t o f the "eas y l i vi ng " dres s rec -
ommended b y Kroiso s ( H dt . i 155.5) .
The onl y rea l poi n t o f differenc e betwee n ou r dresse d
komasts an d thei r predecessor s i s th e fac t tha t th e earlie r
dressed dancer s ar e performi n g i n unison , o r wi t h recog -
nizable and repeate d steps or postures, to the musi c o f pipes .
They ar e maki ng thei r cont ri but i on, no doubt , t o the earl y
hi st ory o f th e Gree k theate r an d chorus . O u r dresse d
komasts may danc e but no t i n unison, an d thei r interes t i s
rather i n song an d th e barbiton, thoug h pipe s are played to o
i n man y scenes . At any rate , b y thei r ti m e and i n our onl y
source o f evidenc e vase-painting s th e semi forma l
komast dance s hav e disappeared , an d th e artist s devot e
themselves rather t o th e conduc t o f the symposio n an d th e
reveling whi ch accompanies i t.
To summarize , w e ma y sa y tha t ou r dresse d komast s
wear clothe s whi ch , in the fi ft h century , wer e mor e appro -
priate t o women , senio r citizen s o f life o r myt h , and Di o -
nysos, but tha t the y ca n be seen to be conti nui ng a tradi ti on
i n whi c h the dress , especiall y favore d b y Eas t Gree k male s
and familia r too for men i n mai nl and Greece, had als o been
wor n b y mal e dancers , an d at a ti me when , i f impersona -
t i on o f women ha d bee n intended , th e peplo s woul d hav e
been the obviou s choice . N on e wor e a peplos .
Boots
Before th e 520' s komast s normal l y g o barefoot . Onc e
they ar e shod , th e boot s ar e rarel y o f the familiar , t i ght -
fi t t i ng typ e wi t h tongue s t o pul l the m on , bu t ar e soft ,
sometimes comi n g hi g h u p th e cal f wi t h th e top s ofte n
turned dow n o r rol l ed . There ar e goo d example s of black-
figure komast s i n the t ond i of cups by Ol tos and Epiktetos ,
the latte r als o being t urbaned.
1 1 7
O n work s b y th e Dikaio s
Painter and , later , th e A nt i pho n Painter , w e ca n observ e
117. Basel , Antikenmuseum, ex-Ludwig (ARV
2
, 55, 2 0 and Para, 326
Oltos; Antike Kunstwerke aus derSammlung Ludwig, vol . 1 [Basel , 1979]
91, no . 33) . Berli n 210 0 (supra , not e 109) . Cf . th e skypho s nea r th
Theseus Painter, Tarquini a 637 (Para, 259 ; Cl^4 1, pi. 18).
118. Londo n E 767, red-figur e psykter ; ARV
2
, 31 , 6 Dikaios Painter
CJ>^4 6, pi . 104, la, c. N e w York , Schimmel , red-figur e cup ; Para, 362
Anti phon Painter ; O . W. Muscarella , ed. , Ancient Art in the Norber
Schimmel Collection (Mainz, 1974), no. 61.
119. Muni c h 3050, black-figur e cup; ABV, 206 , 8, Krokotan; JHS 7
(1955), pi . 11.4 . A s wor n b y wome n o n Leningra d 284 , black-figur
neck-amphora (ABV, 335 , mi d 1 ; H. Licht , Sittengeschichte Griechen
lands, vol. 2 [Dresde n an d Zuri ch, 1925] , 187).
,
,
e
;
,
t
5
e
-
them wi t h th e top s o f thei r boot s bot h turne d dow n an d
left upri gh t o n th e sam e vase.
118
Example s ca n easil y b e
mul t i pl i ed, an d othe r varietie s o f boo t observedshor t
ones o n th e Kl ei sopho s oi nocho e (supra , p . 54) , wi t h
tongues o n black-figur e vases,
119
o r ti ghte r f i t t i ng
1 2 0

these all for turbaned komasts . T he y ar e wor n by girls, too ,
but onl y hetairaiotherwise naked.
1 2 1
A hi g h proport i o n o f ou r dresse d komasts , especiall y
early, wea r boots , an d man y ar e o f the nove l variet y wi t h
rolled o r downt urne d tops . Ther e i s l i ttl e doub t tha t thi s i s
the kothornos, an d severa l source s declar e i t o f L ydi an
or i gi n.
1 2 2
I n Herodotos ' stor y ( i 155.5 ) Kroiso s recom -
mends i t , wi t h th e chi ton , a s appropriatel y relaxe d an d
degenerate costume fo r Cyru s t o insis t tha t Lydian s wear ,
to deflec t the m fro m mor e warl i k e activity. A nd i t was th e
soft, capaciou s kothornos tha t A l kmai o n wor e an d wa s abl e
to stuf f wi t h gol d dus t i n Herodotos ' accoun t ( v i 125) o f
Kroisos' generosit y t o hi m . Thes e sof t boot s hav e a l on g
hi story i n Anatolia.
I t ma y b e tha t th e wor d kothornos wa s applie d als o t o
some o f th e othe r varietie s o f sof t boo t observe d o n ou r
komasts, an d th e specia l variet y created for th e stage i n th e
fi ft h cent ury
1 2 3
bear s onl y superficia l resemblanc e t o it s
si xth-century predecessor .
Earrings
O n Nos . 1 9 an d 3 3 (fig . 25) th e dresse d komast s wea r
earrings. I n mai nl an d Greec e onl y wome n wor e earrings ,
and pierce d ear s identifie d th e easter n male ; a Lydi a n i n
Xenophon, Anab. i i i 1.31. T he wearin g o f earrings b y me n
i n th e non-Gree k eas t i s readil y attested , neares t home i n
L ydi a an d C yprus,
1 2 4
bu t L ydi a ha s prove d th e sourc e o f
other element s i n our komasts ' dress , and al thoug h b y th e
ti me th e earring s appea r o n ou r vases , i t ma y hav e bee n
di ffi cul t t o tak e the m a s othe r tha n feminine ; sti l l , havin g
been misle d i denti fyi n g th e "purel y femi ni ne " i n othe r
items, w e shoul d conside r whethe r thes e to o mi gh t no t
have been par t o f the ori gi na l mal e appare l o f our dresse d
komast. Ar e they atteste d on me n i n those areas of the Eas t
Greek wor l d whi c h see m t o hav e transmi tte d th e mi t r a -
turban? For a start, Anakreon' s butt , A rt emon, wore them ,
120. Pari s G 4 bis, red-figure cu p (supra , not e 109) .
121. E.g. , pulling o n he r boot s on th e K ppeli cup , Para, 325 , 49 bis;
Kunstwerke der Antike, ex . cat . o f collection of Robert Kappel i (Basel ,
n. d.) , D 5 ; and th e Boot Painter' s girls, as ARFH, fig . 382.
122. K . Erbacher, Griechisches Schuhwerk ( Wr zbur g, 1914) , 58-62 ;
M . Bieber , RE, s.v . "Kothurn, " 1.
123. Ther e ar e n o goo d ground s fo r regarding th e kothornos as essen-
tially feminine (se e E . Simon, The Ancient Theatre [London , 1982], 13-
14; A. Kossatz-Deissmann,JdI 9 7 [1982] , 71-72).
124. R . D . Barnett , JHS 6 8 (1948) , 9 (Phrygian) , 18 . Greek refer -
ences to easterners in RE, s.v . "Inaures " an d Di o Chrys. 32.3.
62 Kurtz and Boardman
graduating fro m woode n stud s t o gol d (abou t th e differ -
ence betwee n ou r N o . 1 9 an d N o . 33) , bu t h e ma y b e a
special case, as we shal l see. Seventh-centur y mal e cla y fig-
ures fro m Rhodes , Chios , an d Samo s have pierce d ears.
125
A t th e en d o f th e centur y th e i vor y bo y fro m Samos , a
fi t t i ng fo r a lyre, ha s i nl ai d ear-discs;
12 6
stylisticall y h e ha s
A nat ol i an, probabl y L ydi an , connecti ons . Gor gonei o n
Group bust-vase s and a n I oni a n face-kantharos offe r mal e
heads wi th decorate d lobes , but possibl y borrowed from th e
mol ded o r painte d decoratio n o f thei r femal e counter -
parts.
1 2 7
Ther e ar e dotte d mal e lobe s shown o n C hi a n an d
Caeretan si xth-centur y vases
128
an d som e interesting -
l ooki ng kouro s ears.
129
I t seem s more tha n possibl e tha t i n part s of East Greec e
125. J . B oardman , Greek Emporio (L ondon , 1967) , 19 1 ci t i ng fo r
Samos, . 4M66 (1941) , pi. 15.1244 ; for Rhodes, R. A . Higgins, Catalogue
of the Terracottas in the Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities, vol . 1
(new ed. , London, 1954-) , pi . 2.7.
126. D . O hl y , AM 7 4 (1959) , 48-56, Beilag e 87-93 ; B . Freyer -
Schauenburg, Elfenheine aus dem samischen Heraion (Hamburg , 1966) ,
19-26, pi . 2; J. Boardman , Greek Sculpture, Archaic Period (London ,
earrings wer e a n acceptabl e elemen t o f stylish, i f foppish,
male dress at the ti me that th e komas t appare l we have been
studyi ng wa s bein g regularl y wor n .
Lyres
F rom abou t 52 0 o n a ne w typ e o f lyr e i s depicte d o n
A t heni an vase s the barbiton (o r barbitos). I t ha s l ong ,
straight arms , no t th e curvi n g goat-horn arm s of the or di -
nary lyre , nor th e heav y constructio n an d soundbo x o f the
kithara o r phorminx. I t s l ong strings an d l o w notes made i t
particularly valuabl e a s accompaniment fo r the mal e voice .
Wi t h on e exceptio n ( N o . 19) i t i s the onl y lyr e type han -
dled b y ou r dresse d komasts . On e o f the earlies t examples ,
on Psiax' s plat e (N o . 3, fig. 9) , has a n elaborat e f or m wi t h
1978), fig. 54 .
127. Higgins , vol . 2 (supra , not e 125) , pi . 7.1613 . Bosto n 98.925 ;
ARV
2
, 1529 , 1 and 1697 ; Samos v i . l , pi . 55. I n these and th e followin g
notes I am indebted t o Christopher Simo n for relevant observations .
128. T . B . L . Webster, JHS 4 8 (1928) , 198-19 9 citin g hi s pi . 11 and
E. R. Price , JHS 4 4 (1924) , 215, fig. 56; 219, fig. 63; pi . 6.6. Ther e ar e
several other example s o n males on Caeretan vases.
Figure 25. N o . 33 . R ed-fi gur e col umn-krat e r b y th e P i g Painter . Clevelan d Museu m o f A r t 26.549 , A . W. Ellenberge r Sr .
E ndowment F und . P hoto : C ourtes y Cl evel an d Museu m o f A r t .
Booners 63
Figures 26a-b. No . 34. Red-figure pelik e by the Pi g Painter. Left: side A; right: side B. Rhodes, Archaeological Museum 13.129 . Photos
Courtesy Archaeologica l Museum o f Rhodes.
:
t wi st i ng arms , whi c h appear s on a numbe r o f other vase
of th e lat e si xt h centur y an d mus t represen t it s earliest
most ornat e f or m.
1 3 0
T h e fol l owi n g i s a lis t o f represent
tions o f this type :
1. Basel , Antikenmuseum, K ppeli 421, black-figure plat e
by Psiax (fig . 9). Our No. 3.
2. Londo n B167 (part) , black-figure stand (fig . 32) . Para,
169.
3. Havana , Lagunilla s Collection , black-figur e pelike .
ABV, 340 , top 3, Painter of the Vogel l Pelike.
4. Paris , I nstitu t Nerlandais, Fondatio n Custodia , C ol -
lection F . Lugt 3650, black-figure pelike.
s
,
a-
5. Pari s F 314, black-figure stamnos . ABV, 388 , 1, Group
of Louvre F 314.
6. Brussel s A 1652 , black-figur e psykter . ABV, 387 , 19 ,
Acheloos Painte r manner ; CP^ 4 i i i , pl . 25.5; S . Drougou ,
Derattische Psykter (Wrzburg, 1975) , pl . 13.1.
7. Berli n 4029 , added-colo r stamnos . ABV, 672 ; Jdl 4 3
(1928), 339, fig. 6.
T he typ e seems to have originated i n East Greece,
131
an d
Pindar (frag . 12 5 Snell ; i n A t h. 635d) say s it was invente d
by Terpande r o f Lesbos t o answe r th e hi gh-pi tche d pektis
( A t h. 626a) . Athenaeu s 175 e ha s Anakreo n th e i nventor ,
and i t was menti one d b y bot h Sappho and Anakreo n ( A t h .
182f). Kri ti as , whose grandfathe r wa s Anakreon' s favorit e
129. Notabl y o n th e Leipzi g kouros, wi t h re d dot s o n th e lobes ;
R umpf i n Antike Plastik. Walter Amelung zum 60. Geburtstag (Berli
and Leipzig , 1928) , 218 ( = G . M. A. Richter, Kouroi [London , 1960
no. 58, not recorded) .
130. Th e elaborate d arms , though no t th e genera l proportions , see
anticipated i n the Bronz e Age . See C . A. Long, The Ayia Triadha Sarc
phagus (Gothenburg , 1974) , 38 and nn. 48-52; N . Platon i n Charisterio
A .
n
] ,
m
o-
n
Orlandou, vol . 3 (Athens , 1966) , 208 L;J. Tzedakis, AAA 3 (1970) , 111-
112; M. Wegner, Musik und Tanz. Archaeologi a Homri ca (Gottingen ,
1968), figs. I k, 2i.
131. Cf . M. Wegner, Das Musikleben der Griechen (Berlin , 1949) , 42 -
45, 198-200 . J. M . Snyder, C//67 (1972) , 331-340 an d eadem, AJA 8 0
(1976), 189-190 , o n the classica l barbiton.

i n Athens , call s th e poe t philobarbitos (frag . 3 Diels ; A t h.
600e). Th e sourc e and dat e of i nt roduct i on o f the barbiton
to Athens i s very clear .
Parasols
Many o f our dresse d komast s carr y parasol s and onl y o n
N o. 2 0 (figs . 22a-b ) d o a woma n an d a smal l gi r l carr y
their parasol s for them . I n fact ou r vase s provide th e vas t
majori ty o f al l Greek representation s o f parasols fro m th e
si xth centur y an d firs t hal f of the fi ft h . O the r known rep -
resentations ar e o n a lat e black-figur e fragmen t fro m th e
Akropol i s, whi c h show s a woma n wi t h one;
1 3 2
o n th e
Penelope Painte r skyphos , wher e a fine lad y (Basilinna , it
may be ) i s protected b y one carrie d for her b y a satyr; an d
on th e Partheno n frieze , wher e Ero s support s on e fo r hi s
mot her.
1 3 3
T he y wer e carrie d fo r girl s i n th e panathenai c
procession, an d i t i s no t surprisin g t o discove r i n Gree k
literature that the y ar e regarded a s utterl y feminine, t o pro-
tect fai r ski ns,
1 3 4
an d the y ar e frequentl y show n handle d
by wome n i n the fourt h century , especiall y o n Sout h I t al -
ian vases. B ut was thi s so always , everywhere? I n the east a
parasol wa s n o woman' s to y but a mark o f status, fi t to b e
held ove r th e Grea t Ki n g himself , symbol i zi ng the wa y h e
cast the shadow o f hi s protecti on over hi s people. Tha t thi s
remains tru e wel l i nt o th e Classica l peri o d i n Anatol i a i s
apparent o n th e "N er ei d M onume nt " a t Xant ho s i n
L yci a.
1 3 5
A mon g the ri c h gift s o f Artaxerxes t o hi s Creta n
guest, Enti mos, was a gilded parasol ( A t h . 49f) , but we ar e
not t ol d wha t h e di d wi t h i t when he too k i t home .
I n Atheni a n ar t ou r firs t parasol-holde r i s a man . H e
appears o n eithe r sid e o f a n eye-cu p o f abou t 530-520 ,
wearing hi mat i o n and chi t o n and o n hi s hea d wha t look s
like a ca p i n th e f or m o f a woman' s head.
1 3 6
H e i s no t
certainly a komast, but the onl y other figure s wi t h th e same
odd headdres s ar e onl y a l i ttl e late r i n datenake d youth s
dancing t o a pipe r an d youth s i n shor t chiton s dancin g
wi t h draw n swords.
1 3 7
Th e headgea r remain s mysteriou s
but seems to have festive associations .
I t seem s ver y likely , then , tha t th e paraso l wa s know n
first t o Greek s a s th e orienta l insigne o f a mal e dignitary,
whi ch i n the exoti c society o f Archai c L ydi a or East Greece
fell i nt o women' s hand s too, and tha t al thoug h thi s was t o
132. Akr . 682, Graef, vol . 1 , pi. 46.
133. Berli n 2589; ARV
2
, 1301 , 7; L . Deubner, Attische Feste (Berlin ,
1932), pi . 18.2. E Brommer , The Sculptures of the Parthenon (London ,
1979), pi. 105. I n the hands of a maenad o n ARV
2
, 621 , 34 and 42, Vi l l a
Giulia Painter .
134. RE, s.v . "Schirm"; Deubner (supra , not e 133) , 31 n. 14 (Panath -
enaea), 49 (not at Skira).
135. C . Picard, La Sculpture, vol. 2, part 2 (Paris , 1939) , 871, fig. 353.
A nd cf . E. W. Klimowsky, SchwMhll 13/1 4 (1964) , 121-134.
136. Naple s 2729; well discussed b y F . Brommer in "Kopf iiber Kopf, "
Antike und Abendland 4 (1954) , 42-44 wi t h fig . 1; CB, 57, n. 1 ; CVA
Figure 27. N o . 39 . R ed- f i gur e col umn- kr at e r b y th
Agri gent o Painter . Vi enna , Kunsthistorische
M us e um 770 . P hot o : C our t es y Kunst hi st o
risches Museum .
e
s
-
Figure 28. N o . 41 . R ed- f i gur e col umn- kr at e r b y t h e
O rchard Painter . B ol ogna , Muse o C i vi c o 234 .
P hoto: C ourtes y Muse o C i vi co .


64
Kurtz and Boardman
Booners 65
be it s Classical Greek functi on , it s appearance i n mainl and
Greece was at firs t i n men' s hands onl y an d i n the contex t
of the komos .
A t thi s poi nt a summary o f the representational evidenc e
for ou r dresse d komast s an d t hei r antecedent s ma y b e
attempted. T o many scholar s the y have seemed t o be del i b -
erately i mpersonat i n g women . B u t th e or i gi n o f ever y
detail o f thei r dres s i s foun d t o b e male , especiall y i n th e
East Gree k wor l d an d i n the mor e overtl y orienta l society
of thei r wealth y an d i nfl uenti a l neighbors , th e Lydians .
T hough th e mai n series begins onl y i n the 520's , element s
of thei r dres s ar e see n earlie r i n Greeceth e wearin g o f
the chi ton , th e od d headdress . Th e wearin g o f earring s
and the origins of the distinctive barbiton lyr e can be trace d
i n th e Eas t Gree k wor l d , an d i n Lydi a an d th e barbaria n
east the distinctiv e boots an d parasols .
The representations o n Atheni an vases from th e 520' s o n
bri ng al l these element s togethe r an d demonstrat e the m i n
a komo s settin g i n whi c h th e turbaned , chitone d figures ,
wi t h th e barbiton, boots , parasol , an d sometime s eve n ear -
rings, strike a distinctive and indee d discordant not e besid e
the tradi ti onal near-naked male s of the dri nki ng party. The
origins o f thi s specia l komas t behavio r mus t b e sought ,
wi t h thei r dress and appurtenances , i n an East Greek wor l d
heavily influence d by th e behavio r o f their easter n nei gh -
bors. A t n o poi n t i n th e earl y hi stor y o f thei r dres s an d
behavior i s ther e an y seriou s reaso n t o believ e that i mper -
sonation o f women wa s deliberatel y intended. Thi s is mad e
especially clea r b y th e wa y i n whi ch th e me n d o not wea r
dress that we know t o be exclusivel y femininethe cap s of
the mi d-cent ur y black-figur e vases, the sakko s (excep t a t
the end o f our series) , the peploswhil e any of these woul d
have serve d a s a n instan t i ndi cati o n o f at leas t partia l bu t
deliberate transvestism . N o r d o the y shave . N o r d o the y
wear th e basi c equipmen t o f drag artist s everywherefals e
breasts. A l l othe r element s share d wi t h wome n ar e proved,
by evidenc e othe r tha n vas e representations , t o hav e ha d
male association s also . ( T hi n k o f th e appallin g mistake s
that mi gh t b e made b y the uni nforme d t ryi ng t o interpre t
pictures of bearded Scotsme n weari n g ki l t s . )
1 3 8
S t i l l , the y l oo k l i k e woment o o readi l y perhaps t o
Adolphseck 1, pis. 14.1, 4; 16.3-4.
137. Bromme r (supra , not e 136) , figs. 2-4 .
138. Cf . letter to the London Times of December 24,1980 from Janetta
Hutchinson:
"Sir, Whi l e i n a shop i n Hampstead th e othe r da y th e assistant
turned t o me and said:
'Can I helo you, Sir?'
T m a gi rl, I replied.
' Oh, ' she sai d i n all honesty. ' I t was the earring that made m e
thi nk tha t you were a boy.' "
139. J . N . Snyder, Hermes 102 (1974) , 244-246.
modern scholars , wh o reac t instinctivel y t o th e combi na -
t i on o f funny hats, l ong dresses, parasols, an d earrings . A nd
they woul d hav e looke d rathe r lik e wome n eve n t o thei r
contemporaries i n Athens , wh o wer e nevertheles s mor e
naturally awar e tha t some men wor e l ong dresse s and hats ,
had wor n an d n o doub t sti l l di d wea r earrings , an d tha t
the Grea t Ki n g sa t unde r a parasol . Gi ve n th e settin g o f
wi ne and son g and th e effeminacy attri buted to those areas
from whi c h thi s dres s an d behavio r derived , i t i s l ikel y
enough tha t th e feminine aspec t becam e emphasize d o r
even sough t after , especiall y onc e th e sakko s wa s adopted .
B ut thi s wa s no t tru e transvestis m an d ma y neve r hav e
become so .
The serie s ends befor e th e mi ddl e of the fi ft h century ,
and th e lat e examples, man y o n Manneris t vases, may eve n
be throwback s t o Archai c behavior rathe r tha n portrayal s
of the contemporary. B ut comparabl y exoti c dress, wi t h it s
feminine connotations , was sti l l t o be seen in artists' quarte r
parties. Aristophanes ' pictur e o f Agathon i n th e Thesmo-
phoriazusae ha s ri ght l y bee n understoo d a s i n the tradi ti o n
of ou r dresse d komasts , wi t h th e hat , chi ton , hi mati on ,
girdle, shoes, and barbiton.139 And the wearing of women' s
clothes a t a part y coul d com e t o b e a somewha t tasteles s
display tha t ha d not hi n g necessaril y t o d o wi t h transves -
ti sm practice d for sexual , fertility, o r cul t purposes.
14 0
Most o f the element s o f our dresse d komast s begi n t o
appear i n some profusio n o n Atheni a n vases i n the 520's ,
and from abou t 52 0 on the full-dress versions ar e seen. This
suggests a gradua l i nfi l trati o n o f Eas t Gree k habit s i nt o
Atheni an komas t life , cul mi nati n g around 52 0 i n a special
addi cti on o n th e par t o f some reveler s t o a wholehearte d
display o f thi s exoti c behavi or . T h e genera l t ren d i s
answered i n Atheni a n arti n sculpture , vase-painting ,
architectureby increasing awareness of East Greek, I oni a n
styles, some of whi ch mak e a profound and lasting impres-
si on.
1 4 1
I n th e cas e o f behavio r i n th e komos , s o ampl y
demonstrated b y the vases, we can t ur n t o literar y evidenc e
to illustrate , if not necessaril y explain , the change ; an d thi s
brings us t o Anakreon.
Anakreon wa s bor n i n Teos , a ci t y o f I onia , i n abou t
572.
1 4 2
I n the fac e of the advancin g Persians, hi s townsme n
left Teo s t o settl e i n Abdera , o n th e nort h coas t o f th e
140. S o Philostratos, Imagines 1.2, admit s changes of dress, either way,
i n th e komos . Th e stor y o f the boy s dresse d a s women , dancin g fo r
Demeter, t o deceive the Megarians (Plut . Solon 8) possibly, but not nec -
essarily, conceals cul t transvestism. They wore mi trai, "dresses, " and san-
dals. On transvestism i n general see Kenner (supra , not e 83), section XI .
141. N otabl y i n sculpture , th e korai . Les s emphaticall y i n vase-
painting; cf. D. A.Jackson, East Greek I nfluence on Attic Vases (London,
1976) and architecture .
142. C . M. Bowra, Greek Lyric Poetry (Oxford, 1961) , chapter 7 gives
a good survey of his life and works, and for dates cf. J. P . Barron, CQ 14
(1964), 219-222, 228-229 (an d M. L. West, C Q 20 [1970] , 206-208).
66 Kurtz and Boardman
Figure 29. Example s of mitrai on catalogued pieces. Drawing by the author .
Figure 30. Example s of eastern headdresses, after W fler (se e not e 86) , figs. 13 8 ( = 1: men
of Carchemis h a t N i mrud) ; 47 , 51 ( = 2, 3: Phoenicians a t N i mrud , Nineveh,
etc.); 10 3 ( =4 : N ort h Syria n neo-Hittites at Khorsabad) ; 113 ( = 5: Phrygians
at Khorsabad) ; 14 ( = 6: Judaeans at Nineveh); 136 ( = 7: men of Carchemish at
N i mrud). Compar e the Greek krobylos wi th th e last .
Booners 67
Figure 31. Example s o f other Gree k headdresses . Dr awi ng by th e author .
Aegean, i n about 525 ; and some of his poems reflec t a sta y
i n Thrace . A t some stage he wa s sai d t o hav e been retaine d
by Polykrates , tyrant of Samos, to b e fami l y music-master .
He was a t the Samian cour t for the last years of the tyrant' s
life. Wha t Anakreon' s specia l cont ri but i o n to th e wa y o f
life a t Polykrates ' cour t ma y hav e been i s not eas y to judge,
but i t wa s a styl e whi c h enjoye d a reputatio n late r fo r it s
extravagance an d sensuality ; an d Klearchos , the Hellenisti c
moralist, attri buted the rui n o f Polykrates t o hi s emul ation
of sof t Lydi a n way s (fnwaa s r Avv /xaa/ca , A t h .
540f). I n suc h a context , perhaps , Anakreo n coine d th e
wor d \voo7ra0ds (frag . 13 6 Page; frag. 15 8 Gent i l i ) .
1 4 3
Polykrates wa s ki l l e d i n 522, an d Anakreo n sought th e
hospitality o f anothe r tyrant' s court , i n Athens . I ndee d
"Pl ato" (Hipparchos 228b ) say s that Hipparchos sent a pen-
tekonter t o fetc h hi m. Either at the murde r o f Hipparchos
i n 514 or at the expulsion of Hippias i n 510, Anakreon mus t
have lef t Athens , perhap s fo r Thessaly , bu t h e certainl y
returned an d di e d ther e i n the 480's , ful l o f years and wi ne.
Hi s poetr y epitomize s tha t lif e of I onia whi ch we have seen
to li e behi nd th e appearanc e and dres s of our komasts ; an d
Anakreon' s arriva l i n Athen s coincide s closel y wi t h th e
mai n serie s of representations, o r a t leas t the firs t commo n
appearance of most o f the relevan t details . Tha t hi s arriva l
i n Athen s i s t o b e associate d i n some wa y wi t h thi s ne w
behavior i s clear . Tha t h e alon e wa s responsibl e fo r i t , i s
another matter . Afte r all , we hav e see n severa l element s
i nt roduced t o Athen s befor e hi s arri va l (th e t urban ,
chi ton-weari ng komasts , probabl y th e boots) , an d Spart a
may hav e known some sooner s t i l l .
1 4 4
I t i s far mor e prob -
able tha t h e i s a sympt om o f this i oni ci zi n g trend , and w e
need t o l ook mor e closel y at our evidenc e fo r hi s life, i nter -
ests, eve n appearance . Fo r on e thi ng , hi s poetr y i s no t a n
expression o f wi l d, effeminat e abandon .
He love d pleasur e an d san g unaffectedl y abou t i t . He ha d
l i t t l e interes t i n war o r pol i ti cs . Ye t he i s unusual l y di gni -
fi ed an d decor ous. . . eve n a t hi s mos t rel axe d an d
unabashed Anacreo n ha s a reserve of strength an d detach -
ment whi c h serve s his character an d hi s art . Ther e i s always
a hi n t tha t h e doe s not trea t hi s amusement s to o seriously ,
that h e know s thei r tru e wor t h . A n d whe n thi s reserv e i s
present, ther e i s no questi o n o f his poetr y bei n g degrade d
or degrading . (B owra , Greek Lyric Poetry [ O xf or d , 1967] ,
307).
T hough interes t i n the barbiton was obviousl y not excl u-
sively Anakreon' s , hi s association wi t h i t was sufficien t for
a later wri t er t o t hi nk tha t he invented i t (se e supra , p. 64).
Wi t h Alcaeu s an d I bycu s h e i s name d b y Aristophane s
(Thesm. 160-163 ) a s on e o f the ol d poet s wh o wor e th e
mi t r a
1 4 5
an d dance d extravagantly . Ther e i s not hi n g spe -
143. Anecdote s abou t Lydia n softness i n Athenaeus 515d-516c .
144. On e o f the earlies t turban s i n mainland Greek ar t i s worn b y a
Spartan (se e supra , not e 89) . I n the late r par t o f the previou s centur y
Al kman ha d com e t o Spart a fro m Sardi s an d kne w th e Lydia n mitr a
(frag. 1.67-6 8 Page) . I n Spartan symposi a we als o mee t th e sof t boot s
early (Louvr e E 672; BSA 4 9 [1954] , pi . 52b). Artemi s Orthi a had a
procession o f Lydians (Plut . Aristides 17) . We need not dwel l upon Spar-
ta's special relations wi t h Samos from th e end of the sevent h centur y on
(on whi ch no w P . Cartledge, C Q 32 [1982] , 243-265) .
145. Frag . 37 Gentil i (no t Page) , i f really his, give s floral mi tra i t o
Eros.
68 Kurtz and Boardman
Figure 32. B l ack-fi gur e stand. L ondon , B ri t i sh Museu m B 167 . P hoto: C ourtes y th e Trustee s of the B ri t i s h Museum .
cific i n thes e records t o sugges t hi s responsibilit y fo r a rev -
ol ut i on i n th e Atheni a n komos , bu t w e ca n reac h hi m o n
vases too , an d thes e hav e bee n ou r sol e evidenc e fo r th e
behavior wi t h whi c h h e i s no w regularl y associated .
Hi s nam e appears on thre e vases i n th e las t t went y year s



146. Thes e vases have bee n muc h discussed . Cf . CB , 57, 60-61; K.
Schefold, Die Bildnisse der antiken Dichter, Denker und Redner (Basel ,
1943), 50-51; idem, Griechische Dichterbildnisse (Zuri ch , 1965) , 4-6, pis.
2a, 3a ; H . Brandenburg 86-87 , pis . 1, 2; G. M. A. Richter, Portraits of
the Greeks (London , 1965), 77, figs. 291-292 .
147. J . D. Beazley, The Kleophrades Painter (Mainz , 1974) , 15-16; H.
I mmerwahr, AJA 6 9 (1965) , 152-154.
148. Londo n E 44; ARV
2
, 318 , 2; Pfuhl , MuZ, % 401 ; see Di od . i v
12.2 an d A pol l od . i i 5.1. Compare Enkelados ' nam e on hi s helme t
(Copenhagen 13966 ; Para, 48 , Epitimo s Painter ; CVA 8 , pi . 325.1) ;
Athena's on her alta r (Akr . 1220; Graef, vol . 1 , pi. 67); and Essen A 176;
Para, 166 , 108; H. Froning, Katalog der griechischen und italischen Vasen
of th e si xt h century ; o n t w o i t clearl y identifie s a figure ,
and o n th e t hi r d i t ma y d o so . Thes e shoul d tel l u s some -
t hi ng abou t popula r view s o f Anakreon' s behavio r an d
dress.
146
O n a cu p b y Ol to s o f abou t 520-51 0 h e wear s
hi mati on an d wreat h only , playin g a barbiton, wi t h n o
[Museum Folkwang , Essen, 1982] , no. 57; Kyknos' on hi s shiel d (Akr.
2555, Graef, vol . 1 , pi. 105); Ajax's on the hyacint h that sprang fro m hi s
blood (o n an Etrusca n red-figur e stamnos , Cabine t de s Mdailles 947 ;
J. D. Beazley, Etruscan Vase Painting [Oxford , 1947] , 53-54, pi . 11.4,
Settecamini Painter ; J. M. Moret, RA 1979 , 27, fig. 19). Architectural
sculpture behave s otherwise. O n th e Eretri a pediment th e ese is mor e
likely t o be part of a discreet signatur e than (illegibl e from below, on the
chariot rail ) o f Theseus' name . O n th e Siphnia n Treasur y friez e th e
names ar e o n th e backgroun d an d lowe r border , th e signatur e o n th e
shield. A t Tegea and on the Pergamon Alta r (cf . M. Robertson, History
of Greek Art [Cambridge , 1975] , 164) th e inscribe d names ar e outsid e
the relief s altogether .
Booners 69
exotic features whatever . Unles s Ol to s adde d th e nam e a s
an afterthought , h e ha d n o stron g views about Anakreon' s
appearance. O n a lekytho s b y th e Gale s Painte r o f abou t
510-500 h e wear s chi t o n an d hi mati o n and play s th e bar-
biton. Hi s hea d i s badl y damaged , an d eithe r a sakko s o r
ti ed headclot h (th e mor e likely , I t hi nk) ha s bee n restored .
Thi s i s closer t o the figure s of the dressed komasts. A n d on
our N o . 5, of about 500 , where ther e ar e ful l y dressed , t ur -
baned figures , a fragment shows par t of a dressed (presum -
ably turbaned , bu t w e canno t b e sure ) figur e hol di n g a
barbiton, o n one (th e onl y on e preserved ) ar m o f whi ch i s
the name Anakr e [on (fig. 13b). A wor d o r name beginning
A . . . befor e th e figure , i f it names hi m, is perhaps unl i kel y
to b e A[nakreo n again . O the r figure s o n th e vas e wer e
named, on e sing s "I O O O , " an d ther e wer e dri nki n g mot -
toes o r di t t i es.
1 4 7
The barbiton playe r mi gh t b e mean t fo r
Anakreon himself , bu t thi s i s no t absolutel y certain . I t i s
unusual fo r a figur e t o b e name d o n a n adjacen t objec t o r
on on e tha t h e i s hol di ng. I t coul d see m appropriat e t o d o
so i f the objec t i s especiall y associate d wi t h hi m , whi c h
mi ght see m t o b e th e cas e here. So , when Onesimo s label s
Eurystheus o n the pithos in whi ch he has take n refuge fro m
Herakles, we ar e reminde d tha t h e ha d speciall y prepare d
this bunker for such an eventuality.148
T he f i f t h- cent ur y statu e o f A nakreon recogni ze d i n
copies shows hi m naked bu t fo r a cloak over hi s shoulder s
and wearin g a plai n f i l l et .
1 4 9
N on e o f thi s suggest s tha t
there was i n the mi nds o f hi s contemporarie s an y ver y spe-
cific associatio n o f Anakreon wi t h th e komas t behavio r we
have bee n studying , beyon d it s genera l suitabilit y t o hi s
background; an d o n N o . 5 hi s nam e coul d hav e bee n
prompted mor e b y th e barbiton o n whi c h i t appear s ( a
mocki ng kalos , perhaps) tha n by the (assumed ) dres s of its
player or eve n hi s i denti ty .
F inally ther e i s one poe m o f Anakreon' s whi c h allude s
to earrings , a headdress , a parasol , an d effeminacy , an d
whi ch ha s considerabl y bedevile d previous enquiries (frag .
43 Page; frag. 8 2 Gent i l i ) . Sinc e the allusion s appear i n th e
course o f an attac k o n on e A rt emon , i t has bee n though t
that Anakreo n hi msel f disapprove d o f th e ver y element s
whi ch moder n scholarship , o n th e evidenc e o f the vases ,
149. Richte r (supra , not e 146) , 76-77 , figs . 271-290 , th e origina l
dated "circ a 440"; J . Frel , Revue des Arts 8 (1958) , 203-206.
150. W. J . Slater, Phoenix 32 (1978) , 185-194. Cf. also CB , 56; Bowra
(supra, not e 142) , 297-300. Slater' s case is wel l answere d b y M. Davies
i n Mnemosyne 3 4 (1981) , 288-299 , defendin g Anakreo n agains t
transvestism. Se e also, i n thi s vein, H . A. Shapiro, AJA 8 5 (1981) , 138-
140, an d C . B rown , Phoenix 3 7 (1983) , 1-1 5 (i n not e 5 4 h e see s an
earring on Myson' s Kroisos, but ther e i s none).
151. Alread y so used i n Iliad 17.52 .
152. I n the sixt h centur y a Lydian gi r l wen t t o her grav e wi t h gol d
earrings an d tw o stylize d gol d astragal s (A . Greifenhagen , AntK 8
[1965], 13-19 , pi . 6.4-5). I wonde r whethe r the y wer e i n some way
has wishe d t o associat e wi t h hi s name . Th e remar k abou t
women ha s bee n use d t o support th e vi ew tha t the dress we
have considere d wa s deliberatel y transvestite. A n d a recen t
study allow s Anakreon' s disapprova l n o mor e o f the ma n
than o f his dress ( whi c h i s taken fo r transvestite ) an d sees
the poe m a s "good- humor e d abuse."
1 5 0
T h e line s ar e
quoted b y Chamaileon ( i n A t h. 533f ) a s a commentary o n
Artemon' s rise from povert y to l uxury, wi t hout allusio n to
effeminacy; an d w e are , at an y rate , t ryi n g t o l oo k at th e
ori gi nal context throug h the quotati on of a quotation.
A rt emon, Anakreon says, used t o wear a berberion (take n
for a shaggy garmen t o f some sort ) ; "wasped" wrapping s
( KOiXvtiixar o(j>r]Kiiva ) whi c h surel y refer s t o a turban,
bi ndi ng th e hai r t i ght
1 5 1
an d incidentall y l ooki ng ver y lik e
a wasp' s striped body, as on our N o . 5; wooden astragal s in
his ears,
152
whi c h mus t b e th e simples t f or m o f decorative
plugs for the ear lobes ; and a n ol d oxhide shield cover for a
cloak. H e mi xe d wi t h whores
1 5 3
an d wa s ofte n publ i c -
l y pi l l or i e d an d scourged . N o w h e ride s i n carriage s
(ooTivup) mule-carts , mor e probabl y bein g contraste d
here wi th hi s former reliance on hi s feet than wi t h th e mor e
vi ri l e chari ot; he wears gol d earri ngs (Ka0epfi ara, more
probably earring s tha n necklace) ; an d h e carrie s a l i ttl e
i vory parasol , lik e women (yvvai&v avrcos). Clearl y A r t e -
mon ha s progresse d i n weal t h an d indolence , rathe r tha n
effeminacy, sinc e h e ha d wor n earring s an d a headdres s
before, an d we ar e no t oblige d t o believ e such dres s eithe r
effeminate o r transvestite , especiall y since i t was combine d
wi t h a n ol d oxhide cover fo r hi s flanks. S o the words "l i k e
women" refe r t o th e specia l characte r o f his ne w gar b an d
perhaps specificall y and onl y t o the parasol whi c h th e poe t
makes a s t ri vi a l a s h e ca n wi t h a di mi nut i v e (oKLadioKr\v
k\.avTvr\v). Thi s reall y i s sof t l i vi n g an d mi gh t deserv e
the t aun t o f effeminacy . T h e whol e poe m show s tha t
Anakreon belongs t o a society i n whi ch suc h dress was t ol -
eratedif sometime s laughe d atan d A rt emo n i s bein g
described no t i n a komos but i n the streets. This is no mor e
than we mi ght expect , and we ar e not oblige d to t hi nk tha t
Anakreon disapproved (o r even wholeheartedl y approved )
of t he whol e ge t up. 154
"Anacreon's personalit y emerge s clearl y fro m hi s frag -
joined. Otherwise there i s something of an astragal patter n i n the ribbed
ear cover s shown i n C ypri ot an d Eas t Gree k art : J. M . Hemel ri j k ,
BABesch 3 8 (1963) , 28-51.
153. Fo r his association wi t h girls , as pimp or lover, see frag. 372 Page.
Anakreon i s attacking effeminacy i n frag. 79.
154. Fo r furthe r recor d o f effeminacy i n hi s wor k we hav e onl y hi s
desire t o behave as a very restrained o r not ver y restrained (dependin g
on th e reading) maena d (frag . 356.a. 6 Page) and a phrase for an effem-
inate step (frag . 113) .
70 Kurtz and Boardman
merits an d ha s l i ttl e resemblanc e t o th e senil e and bibulou s
rake who wa s create d i n hi s name by hi s i mi t at ors."
1 5 5
A nd
we shoul d perhap s no t b e to o read y t o la y a t hi s doo r th e
sole responsibilit y fo r al l th e Lydopathi c licens e o f lat e
Archaic Atheni a n komasts .
A DDE N DU M
R obert Gu y draw s m y attenti o n t o th e appearanc e o f
our komast s on a cup fragmen t (C ol ma r Painter ) i n a pr i -
vate col l ect i o n (C ent r e I sl and , N e w Y or k ) an d o n a
col umn-krater fro m th e 198 3 excavations at Gravina .
T he subjec t i s further discussed , i n it s socia l context , b y
F. F ront i si -Ducroux an d F . Lissarrague i n "De l ' ambi gui t
l'ambivalenc e sou s l e signe de Dionysos, " Annali del Sem-
inario di Stud i del Mondo Classico. Archeologia e Storia An tica
5 (1983) , 11-32 , wi t h severa l i l l ust rat i on s o f rel evan t
figures.
A not her physi ca l cont r i but i o n f r o m th e eas t t o th e
Greek symposio n wa s th e us e an d appearanc e of sieve an d
ladle, a s show n i n man y Gree k symposio n scenes . Th e
practice wa s a n ol d easter n on e (cf . P . R . S . Morey, I ra nica
An tiqua 1 5 [1980] , 181-197) , an d th e instrument s ar e no w
wel l illustrate d i n th e fin e silve r example s i n N e w York ,
whi ch ar e pur el y L ydi an- A chaemeni d ( B MMA , S ummer
1984, 41-43 ; th e articl e inexplicabl y describe s the m a s
Greek).
155. C . M . Bowra (supra , note 142) , 307.
Two Pelikai by the Pan Painte r
Martin Robertson
The Gett y Museum ha s fragment s o f t wo pelikai b y th e
Pan Painter . On e i s a very large and elaborat e vase , a mas -
terpiece o f great beaut y fro m th e artist' s earl y career . Thi s
pelike i s i mportant bot h for the connections i t shows wi t h
productions o f other craftsme n i n the Kerameiko s an d fo r
the subjec t matte r o f its exceptionall y interesting pictures .
The othe r pelik e belongs t o a special grou p o f small vases,
whose wi t t y an d charmi n g decoration was dashed of f wi t h
careless mastery b y the painte r i n his pri me.
I firs t sa w th e larg e pelik e (figs , l a - k ) i n fragments. I n
spite o f its sa d condi ti on , Ji ri Fre l had arrange d it s dona -
t i on t o th e Gett y Museum, for i t was o f splendid qual i ty.
1
Dr . Fre l had though t Myso n was th e artist , an d th e styl e
certai nl y resemble s tha t o f Myson' s bes t wor k . B u t i t
seemed t o m e tha t th e qual i t y wa s to o fin e an d tha t th e
hand wa s i n any cas e another'sthe Pa n Painter's . Late r I
found tha t t w o fragment s i n th e L ouvr e tha t ha d alread y
been ascribe d t o th e Pa n Painte r b y Beazley
2
belonge d t o
this vase , on e o f them eve n j oi ni ng. Thi s observatio n wa s
also mad e i ndependent l y b y H uber t Gi r oux . T he t w o
L ouvre fragment s an d furthe r piece s fro m th e mout h an d
neck ar e no w o n permanen t loa n t o th e Gett y Museu m
and ar e incorporated i n the restore d vase .
The survi vi n g remain s o f the pelik e compris e part s o f
mout h an d neck , on e handl e ( B / A ) , an d substantia l part s
of bot h figur e panels. Th e foo t an d l owe r part s o f the vase
are lost , an d ther e i s n o j oi n betwee n fragment s tha t giv e
parts o f the maeander bel ow the pictures ( wi t h part s o f th e
picture on side A ) an d th e mai n fragment s fro m highe r u p
on th e vase, so that th e height of the picture s i s conjectural
(see infra , p . 73) . The fragmen t gi vi n g th e j unct i on o f the
l eft-hand sid e an d bot t o m border s (fig . l e ) almos t cer -
Abbreviations:
I n additio n to the standar d abbreviation s and Beazley' s abbreviation s
i n ARV and ABV, th e following hav e been used :
Beazley, Panm.:]. D . Beazley, Der Pan-Maler (Berlin , 1931) .
Beazley, Pan P.:]. D. Beazley, The Pan Painter (Mainz , 1974) .
Becker: R . - M . Becker, Formen attischer Peliken von der Pionier-Gruppe
his zum Beginn der Friihklassik (Boblingen , 1977).
Follmann: A . -B . Follmann , Der Pan-Maler (Bonn , 1968).
Langlotz: Erns t Langlotz , Die antiken Vasen von der Akropolis zu Athen
(Berlin, 1933) .
Langlotz, Wr zbur g: Erns t Langlotz , Griechische Vasen in Wrzburg
(Muni ch, 1932) .
I hav e been interested i n this vase for some years and have held sem-

tainly belong s t o B . A loos e fragmen t wi t h part s o f figures
(fig. l g ) mus t com e fro m th e ri ght -han d par t o f A bu t
cannot b e exactl y placed (se e i nfra) .
The uppe r edg e of the uppe r borde r i s about leve l wi t h
the to p o f the handl e-root . O n th e lowe r par t o f the sur -
vi vi ng handl e i s a red-figur e palmett e (fig . l c; trace s ar e
preserved o f the l owe r par t o f the correspondin g palmett e
at the othe r handle , fig . I d ). The enclosing line hangs fro m
volutes, an d a second pai r o f volutes han g fro m th e lowe r
part o f the lin e o n eithe r sid e of the narrow, poi nted, cen -
tral , ribbe d leaf , whi c h i s extended ove r th e enclosure . Th e
survi vi ng palmett e i s lopsidedly drawn, wi t h fiv e rounded ,
unri bbed leave s on one sid e and fou r on th e other .
Above each panel i s a band o f black silhouett e palmette s
on thei r sides, enclosed i n a runni ng line wi t h volute s abov e
and below. At the sides is a t wo-l i ne net , and a t the bot t om
is a maeander. Upper and lower borders exten d t o the oute r
edges of the side border s bu t d o not circl e the vase.
Side A containe d mor e figure s tha n sid e B , and I there -
fore trea t i t as the fron t o f the vase; but ther e i s no di sti nc -
t i on i n care or qual i t y between th e t wo sides.
Side A. Dionysia c (figs , l a , e-f , h - i ) . In the cente r i s a
bearded figur e t o ri ght . H e wear s a wreat h o f narrow ,
poi nted leaves , probabl y myrtl e , drawn i n red-figure; l ong
hair extend s dow n hi s neck , on e l oc k loos e behind , t w o
more brough t forward ; l on g chi to n an d ove r i t a short ,
ri chl y patterne d garment , whi c h hang s i n heav y fold s t o
his waist ; and o n to p a hi mat i on across both shoulder s a s a
shawl. B ehi nd hi s back appear s the r ump o f an animal , and
he bends, both arms stretched forwar d an d down, evidently
busy wi t h it s head . Hi s knee s mus t hav e bee n ben t (se e
infra, p . 73) . I mmedi atel y i n fron t o f hi m (figs , l a , h ) i s
inars on i t , and I have learnt muc h fro m student s and othe r scholar s i n
many places . Som e particula r debt s ar e acknowledge d i n the notes . A t
the XI I . I nternationa l Congress of Classical Archaeolog y i n Athens i n
September 198 3 I gave a paper on i t , "C orn and Vin e on a Vase by th e
Pan Painter, " whi ch i s appearing i n the Acta of that congress. The present
article is a much fulle r publicatio n wi th some changes.
1. Th e J. Paul Gett y Museum 81.AE.62. Height as restored: 30 cm.
Height from to p of handle t o bottom of palmette: circa 15 cm. Diameter
of mouth : circa 17. 5 cm. The interio r of the po t i s black, shiny insid e
the neck, matt e and rough under th e shoulder, becoming smoother an d
darker lower down.
2. Louvr e C 10833 ; ARV
2
, 558 , no. 130 ; Jdl 8 7 (1972) , 83, fig. 16.
N ow Mal i bu , The J. Paul Getty Museum L.81.AE.45,
12 Robertson
Figure la. Pelik e by the Pan Painter (sid e A ) . Reconst . H :
approx. 3 0 cm . Mal i bu , Th e J . Pau l Gett y
Museum 81.AE.62.
the raised ri gh t han d o f another figure , grasping a sacrificial
knife wi t h a patter n o f stud s o n th e handle . T h e blad e
( whi ch i s washe d wi t h thi nne d blac k an d edge d wi t h a
doubl e l i ne
3
) i s l yi n g dow n al on g th e al mos t vert i ca l
forearm. A vin e loaded wi t h grap e clusters , whi c h spread s
over the whol e background, appears to spring from th e to p
of the knif e handle , and on e mi ght suppose that i t , too, wa s
held i n thi s hand, bu t somethin g j ut t i ng diagonall y down
to th e ri gh t fro m th e wri s t ca n onl y b e the vinestock pass-
i ng behi nd th e hand. T he stoc k mus t eithe r hav e been hel d
i n anothe r han d o r bee n growi ng from th e ground . A t th e
extreme r i gh t ar e remain s o f a fi gur e faci n g lef t (figs ,
l a, d) : th e bac k o f the hea d survive s wi t h jus t trace s of a
red-figure wreath ; end s o f l ong hai r ar e l yi n g dow n th e
back; trac e o f hi mat i on (?); betwee n th e bac k o f the hea d
and th e end s o f the hai r th e contou r i s lost , bu t acros s i t
3. I t is possible that two overlapping knives are meant . Th e patter n
of studs on the handl e (s) i s just lik e the patter n on the knif e handles in
the cas e carried b y a n Egyptia n on th e Busiri s pelike (infra , not e 26 ;
knife case, Beazley, Panm., pi . 8). Those ar e small knives, for flaying an d
di vi di ng a carcass ; th e instrumen t (s) her e ar e fo r th e slaughter . Th e
corresponding weapon on the Busiri s vase, dropped and not clearl y vis-
ible i n th e illustrations , has a differen t ki n d o f handle . Knif e cases :
Kraiker, Gnomon 9 (1933) , 644-645; Fuhrmann, Jh 39 (1952) , 27-30;
Beazley, Pan P. (1974) , 3 n. 17 . Four example s an d a possible fift h on e
Figure lb. Sid e B of pelike, figure la.
slants up a n almos t vertical shaft wi t h a big palmette fmi al .
Al most th e whol e surfac e o f th e adjoinin g fragmen t ha s
flaked away , bu t ther e remain s alon g th e l eft-han d edg e a
wavy l oc k o f hair.
T he diagona l line s an d dot s o n th e shaf t ar e typica l o f
scepters (spiraling , barber pol e decoration) ; bu t th e fi ni al ,
though no t unique , woul d b e unusua l (th e regula r scepte r
head i s a lotus o n a rather smalle r scale ) an d th e relie f lin e
edging th e shaf t o n th e ri gh t suggest s that i t mi ght rathe r
be the back o f a throne. Such a seat back on a slightly earlier
fragment fro m th e Akropol i s make s a good paralle l t o th e
angle an d t o th e larg e palmett e fi ni al , bu t th e shaf t ther e i s
undecorated.
4
T h e loos e fragmen t (fig . l g) ha s t o belon g
i n thi s area, but it s interpretation is uncertain. The straigh t
edge is almost hori zontal and shoul d probabl y be at the to p
(as i t i s placed i n the i l l ustrati on) . Th e feature o n th e lef t
are cited; for another certai n one, see infra , not e 65.
4. Langlotz , pi. 42, no. 562; ARV
2
, 22 , no. 3. Typical lotus-toppe d
scepters, e.g. on the painter' s Ferrar a pelike, infra, not e 36. He sometime s
makes the lotus unusually big: Zeus' on the Marpessa psykter , infra, not e
20 ( R . Lullie s and M . Hi rmer, Griechische Vasen der reifarchaischen Zeit
[Muni ch, 1953] , pi. 79) an d o n the Ganymede Nola n (Bosto n 10.184 ;
ARV
2
, 553 , no. 39; Beazley, Panm., pi . 18, 1). Palmette fmials : Triptol e -
mos' on the Triptolemos Painter's name vase (infra, not e 77; EncPhotTel,
vol . 3, 21) ; Hera' s i n Makron' s Judgment o f Paris (Berli n 2291; ARV
2
,
Two Pelikai by the Pan Painter 73
Figure lc. Handl e pal mett e o f pelike, figur e l a .
woul d the n giv e part o f the breast and throa t o f the animal .
T he narro w objec t wi t h centra l relie f line i s perhaps part o f
the vinestock ; and th e othe r trace s (i ncl udi n g a t i ny ar c of
relief line on th e extrem e ri ght ) mus t belon g t o th e figur e
hol di ng, o r associate d wi t h , th e vi ne.
5
Th e reconstructio n
of thi s side o f the picture , however , remain s conjectural . I t
is discusse d furthe r i n connectio n wi t h th e meanin g o f
the scene.
B ehi nd th e centra l figur e grow s a n ivy-covere d tre e
(figs, l a , f , h , i ) i n whi c h a l i ttl e maena d an d saty r ar e
taki ng a grea t interest . Th e maenad , a t hi n fille t o n he r
loose hair , a spotted anima l ski n over he r chi ton , stands on
the lef t sid e o f the tree , he r ski r t disappearin g behi n d th e
t runk, whi l e o n th e othe r sid e th e satyr , wh o ha s not hi n g
on hi s head, looks straight ou t a t u s fro m behi n d th e tree .
B ot h reac h thei r ri gh t hand s hi gh up i t (th e satyr' s finger s
459, no. 4; CVA 2 , pi. 85); Attic heroes on the Syriskos Painter' s Athens
calyx-krater (Akr . 735; ARV
2
, 259 , no. 1 ; Langlotz, pi. 61); one nearl y
as larg e a s ours , Zeus ' o n a n amphor a b y th e Painte r o f the Muni c h
Amphora (Leningra d St . 1637; ARV
2
, 245 , no . 3 ; A . A . Peredolskaya ,
Krasnofigurnye atticheskie vazy v. Ermitazhe: katalog [Leningrad , 1967],
pi- >>)
5. Thi s ti ny relief-contoured arc mi ght possibly belong to a compass-
drawn circle, but i t cannot b e accommodated t o the wheel of Triptole-
mos' seat on side B . See infra , not e 72.
Figure id. Handl e A / B of pelike, figur e l a .
can b e see n abov e th e maenad' s face) , an d th e lef t foo t o f
one o f them i s brought roun d th e l owe r part a s i f cl i mbi n g
(figs, l a , f ) . I t coul d be l i nke d t o eithe r figur e but i s mos t
probably th e satyr's , a s otherwis e on e woul d expec t t o se e
his foot on the ground t o the ri ght . N o fragment wi t h par t
of the lowe r border actuall y joi ns any piec e fro m th e uppe r
part o f the picture , but th e approximat e positio n is assured
by th e curv e o f the vase . I t woul d no t b e possibl e t o dra w
out th e figure s o f saty r an d maena d an y further , an d i t
follows tha t th e knee s o f the bi g centra l figur e mus t hav e
been quit e sharpl y bent . Th e identificatio n of the figure s
and the interpretation of this extraordinary scene are dis
cussed infra.6
Side B. Departur e o f Triptolemos (figs , l b , j , k ) . I n th e
center Triptol emo s (figs , l b , j) sit s o n hi s wi nge d whee l
seat.
7
Hi s wreath , draw n i n red-figure , is , lik e tha t o f th e
6. Th e followin g relie f contour s ca n b e see n o n sid e A : centra l
figureall preserve d excep t hai r (relie f dots on forehead hair) ; animal' s
rump; right-han d figure(s)th e scepte r wi t h it s finial ; vin e branches
but not grape clusters (whi c h have relief dots); loose fragmental l pre -
served; satyral l preserved; maenadal l preserve d excep t hair ; most o f
tree. Di l ut e wash : line s o n animal' s rump ; knife-blade ; maenad' s hair .
Added red: vine leaves; narrow band o n maenad's hair.
7. I hav e formerl y committe d th e commo n erro r o f referring t o
Triptolemos' "car " an d a m grateful t o M . Metzger for showing me tha t
74 Robertson
Figures le-g. Thre e fragment s o f a pelik e b y th e Pa n Painter . F ragmen t e , L : 3. 2 cm ; fragmen t f , L : 7.15 cm ;
fragment g , L : 2. 3 cm . Fragment s e an d g ar e no t i ncl ude d i n th e reconstructi on . M al i bu , T h e J .
Paul Get t y Museu m L.81.AE.45.1-3.
central figur e o n sid e A , probabl y myrtl e , bu t her e th e
leaves have a ri b. His hai r lies loose i n a mass down hi s bac k
and i n separat e locks ove r hi s shoulders . H e wear s a belte d
chi t on an d a hi mati on wrapped roun d hi s knees and I sup -
pose roun d hi s bac k a t wais t level . I t doe s no t com e ove r
his lef t shoulde r an d ca n hardl y have been brought u p ove r
the ri ght . Ther e i s a trace of something behi n d hi s hair, bu t
i t coul d not b e a hi mat i on edge like Demeter's. Hi s legs ar e
bare bel ow th e t i ght l y wrappe d hi mati on , so th e chi to n i s
a shor t one . Th e larg e whee l i s eight-spoked; o r rather , a s
can b e see n i n less fragmentary pictures , th e fou r spoke s of
the fa r whee l ar e show n symmetri cal l y betwee n thos e o f
the nea r wheel .
8
T h e nea r wi n g mus t hav e reache d back -
ward, whi l e th e fa r on e come s forwar d behi nd th e arms of
Tri ptol emos an d th e goddes s who stand s befor e hi m (figs ,
l b, j , k ) . H e extend s hi s empt y lef t han d forward , whi l e
the finger s o f his ri ght han d clos e o n th e ends of the grai n -
stalks just release d from th e goddess ' hand .
I t i s often di ffi cul t o r impossibl e t o say , i n a picture lik e
this wi t hout inscriptions, whi ch figur e represent s Demete r
and whi c h Kore ; but th e actua l handin g ove r o f the grai n
this i s wrong. He has pointe d ou t ( H . Metzger, Les reprsentations dans
la cramique attique du IVe sicle [Paris , 1951] , 234 n. 6; idem, Revue des
tudes grecques 95 [1982] , 473) that , whether winge d or not , i t is a chair
or stool wi t h wheels . Th e point had bee n made before b y F urtwngl e r
(AG 2 , 208 n. 1 ; FR 2 , 24 n. 2), as Metzger notes , but neithe r schola r
has ha d muc h effect o n general usage . See infra , not e 71.
8. Thi s is not made perfectly clear on the Pan Painter' s Ferrara T ri p -
tolemos (infra , wi t h not e 36) , bu t see , e.g. , th e chario t o n th e Berli n
Painter's calyx-krater, Athens, Akr . 742 (ARV
2
, 205 , no. 117 ; Langlotz,
pi. 59) , wher e th e spoke s of the fa r whee l disappea r behin d th e whee l
seems th e mother' s province , an d th e characterizatio n o f
the name d figure s i n the closel y relate d pictur e by Makron
(discussed i nfra) , whi c h show s a slightl y late r moment ,
confirms this . So , perhaps , doe s th e goddess ' polos-lik e
headdress,
9
t houg h i n fac t i t i s no t a polo s bu t a turrete d
crown: th e contou r o f her bar e hea d show s abov e i t . He r
hair hangs like Triptol emos' , and sh e wear s earring, chi ton,
and hi mati on . He r lef t han d i s empt y lik e his . A l l four
hands ar e marvelousl y drawn . On e o f the t w o fragment s
formerl y i n the Louvre , whi ch Beazle y ascribe d t o the Pa n
Painter, i s tha t whi c h give s mos t o f the t w o ri gh t hands ,
Tri ptol emos' lef t ar m an d lap , sea t arm , an d wi ng . Th e
other forme r L ouvr e fragmen t i s th e loos e piec e wi t h th e
back o f th e whee l an d par t o f th e goddes s behin d (fig .
l b) : Kore, who stands in profile t o the ri ght , wearing a l ong
chi ton an d ove r i t a short , patterne d garmen t wi t h wi d e
folds, exactl y like that wor n b y the central figur e on side A .
She holds a j ug, surel y of metal, l ow in her ri gh t hand . Th e
sleeve shows tha t th e lef t ar m wa s l i fted , an d trace s in fron t
of th e sleev e an d behi n d Tri ptol emos ' hai r ma y b e fro m
something hel d i n her lef t hand.
1 0
seat and Athena' s skir t a s sh e mounts , an d th e binding s ar e shown o n
the near but not the far four (spok e bindings : AE 1978 , 93 wi t h n . 4).
9. See , however , infra , wi t h not e 17 .
10. Th e followin g relie f contour s ca n b e see n on sid e B : Triptol e -
mosall preserved excep t hair ; chair wheel; Demeterface, throat , mos t
of crown, ar m and hand, smal l parts of drapery (he r hair , from bro w t o
ear, i s drawn i n close-set relie f lines) ; Korear m and han d wi t h j ug;
garments s o fa r a s the y ar e preserved . N o dilut e wash . Adde d red :
grains talks.
Two Pelikai by the Pan Painter 75
Figure lh. Detai l of side A of pelike, figur e la . Figure li. Detai l of side A of pelike, figur e la .
Figure lj. Detai l of side B of pelike, figur e la . Figure lk. Detai l of side B of pelike, figur e la .
76 Robertson
The at t ri but i o n of the drawing s o n thi s vas e t o th e Pa n
Painter ca n qui ckl y b e justi fi ed. On e nee d onl y compar e
the bearde d head on side A wi t h those , si mi l arl y wreathed ,
of Poseido n o n a col umn-krate r i n B a n an d a N ol a n i n
S chweri n,
1 1
o r th e god' s head o n a vol ute-krater fragmen t
i n B ost on
1 2
; o r th e beardles s heads on sid e B wi t h tha t o f
Artemi s o n a vol ute-krater fro m th e A kropol i s,
1 3
or a ner -
eid's on a second N ol a n i n S chweri n.
1 4
T h e l i ttl e saty r ha s
much i n commo n wi t h th e Pa n Painter' s fronta l herms,
1 5
and th e maena d i s particularl y lik e th e bl on d Thracia n
woman o n a col umn-krater i n M uni ch.
1 6
A l l other detail s
confi rm th e ascription . Compare , fo r instance , th e half -
closed, empt y hand s of Demeter an d Triptol emo s wi t h th e
hand o f the Schweri n nereid , whos e headdres s i s adorne d
wi t h a n arcad e exactl y lik e tha t o n Demeter' s crow n bu t
the other way up.17 The painter is particularly fond of the
red-figure myrt l e wreath , ofte n addin g i n re d th e loope d
tie at the back omitted on our vase.18 Triptolemos' wreath
here i s the onl y one I know o n whi c h the painte r give s th e
narrow, poi nte d leave s a centra l ri b , but h e doe s thi s fo r
leaves of the same form, space d upri gh t alon g th e Stphane
of Artemi s o n th e Akropol i s vol ute-krater (whos e fron t
hair i s treated exactl y lik e Demeter' s on ou r vase ) an d o n a
whi t e-ground l ekyt hos i n L eni ngrad. 19
I n al l point s th e drawi n g o n th e Gett y pelik e seems t o
me t o go most closel y wi t h tha t o n the fragmentar y vol ut e -
kraters i n Athen s an d Boston , th e col umn-krate r i n B ari ,
and th e t w o Nolan s i n Schwerin , al l surel y work s fro m
early i n th e painter' s career . Beazle y i n ARV
2
applie s th e
wor d "earl y " onl y (amon g these ) t o th e firs t t wo ; but i n
Pan-Maler (p . 15 ) h e speak s of the Schweri n vases , an d a
related N ol a n i n Copenhage n wi t h Hermes , a s olde r tha n
some of the painter' s othe r vase s of this shape, and a s l i nk -
i ng bac k t o th e Marpess a psykter i n Muni ch, whi c h is uni -
versally recognize d a s amon g th e Pa n Painter' s earlies t
pieces.20 Beazley dates the painter's activity between about
480 an d 45 0 bu t remark s tha t th e datin g an d eve n th e rel -
11. Bar i 4402; ARV
2
, 550 , no. 4; Follmann, pi. 12, 1 (pis . 10-12 giv e
a ver y usefu l collectio n of heads). Schweri n 1295 ; ARV
2
, 553 , no . 37 ;
Beazley, Panm., pi . 20, 1; Follmann, pi. 12,2.
12. Bosto n 95.58; ARV
2
, 552 , no. 21; Beazley, Panm., pi . 13,3; CB 2
supplement, pi . 11,4. Further discussio n infra , wi t h not e 52.
13. Athens , Akr . 760; ARV
2
, 552 , no. 20; Follmann, pi. 10, 3 (photo -
graph o f Artemis' head) ; Beazley , Panm,, pi . 12,2; Langlotz, pi. 65.
14. Schweri n 1304 ; ARV
2
, 553 , no . 38; Beazley, Panm., pi . 20, 2;
Follmann, pi . 10,5.
15. O n two smal l pelikai: Louvre C 10793 ; ARV
2
, 555 , no. 92; E. B.
Harrison, Archaic and Archaistic Sculpture. The Athenia n Agora, vol . 11
(Princeton, 1965) , pl . 65a; E . Simon, Die Gotter der Griechen (Muni ch ,
1969), 308, fig. 295; and Berli n 1966.62 ; ARV
2
, 1659 , no. 91 bi s (Para,
386); Hesperia Art Bulletin 22 , no. 9. The large r an d grimme r character
on a column-krater i n Naple s (ARV
2
, 551 , no. 13 ; Beazley, Panm., pi .
30,1) i s less like our satyr . Compar e als o the fronta l Ni ke and Ero s o n
two earl y lekytho i i n Oxford, 31 2 an d 1920.5 8 (ARV
2
, 556 , nos . 102 ,
ative order o f this artist' s work s ar e di ffi cul t t o establish .
F ol l mann makes a more elaborat e attempt t o group mos t
of th e vase s i n a date d sequence.
21
I canno t alway s fol l o w
her, an d sh e seem s at time s to o subtle , a s whe n sh e place s
the t w o Schweri n Nolans , whi c h I shoul d gues s had gon e
i nt o th e ki l n togethe r an d neve r bee n parted , i n t wo suc -
cessive phases . B u t he r vi e w o f wha t i s earl y agree s i n a
general wa y wi t h mi ne , an d al l these five piece s come i nt o
her thre e earliest groupingsth e Bosto n fragmen t i nt o th e
first, th e Marpess a Group (490-480) ; th e Schweri n Posei -
don an d th e B ar i col umn-krate r i nt o th e secon d (abou t
480); an d th e Akropol i s vol ute-krater an d th e Schweri n
nereid i nt o the t hi r d (480-470) .
The Marpess a psykte r seems , i n it s extrem e an d man -
nered elaboration , t o stan d a l i ttl e apar t fro m an y othe r
wor k o f the painter . Th e drawi n g o n ou r pelike , thoug h
not muc h les s careful , seem s stronge r an d mor e sensitive ,
and I shoul d judge i t t o b e a l i ttl e later . I am no t sur e ho w
val i d ou r absolut e dating i n decades is, but o n th e conven -
ti onal reckoning , I shoul d pu t th e Gett y pelik e around 48 0
or no t l on g after . Thi s get s perhap s som e confi rmati o n
from consideratio n o f another elemen t i n the desig n o f the
vase, whi c h relate s i t t o th e wor k o f othe r painter s an d
potters.
I f the fi gure-wor k i s unmistakably th e Pa n Painter's , th e
same cannot b e sai d o f the ornament . Th e artis t decorate d
a numbe r o f large pelikai , but thi s ( whi c h i s amon g th e
largest) i s the onl y on e o n whi c h the picture s ar e framed ;
and ther e i s no othe r appearanc e i n the painter' s wor k of a
band o f black silhouett e palmettes . Seve n very large pelikai
wi t h picture s frame d jus t lik e thes e and wi t h simila r red -
figure palmette s at th e handle s wer e pu t togethe r b y Beaz -
ley a s th e Clas s o f Cabine t de s Mdai l l es 390.
2 2
Fou r o f
t hem ar e ascribe d t o th e Syleu s P ai nte r i n hi s yout h
("Painter o f th e W r z b u r g Athena, " Att. V.
y
112 ; recog -
nized a s th e firs t phas e o f the Syleu s Painter , ARV} 164) ;
the fi ft h i s sai d t o recal l hi m; the si xt h i s given t o th e Sire n
103; Beazley, Panm., pis . 14, 2 and 6, 1) .
16. Muni c h 2378; ARV
2
, 551 , no. 9; Beazley, Panm., pi . 26, 1.
17. Supra , not e 14 . I n a Triptolemos scene by a lat e Mannerist , th e
Duomo Painte r (column-krater , Wr z bur g 569 ; ARV
2
, 1117 , no . 5 ;
Langlotz, Wr zbur g, pl . 194) , the goddess in front of Triptolemos wears
a crown wi t h vertica l leaves and a hastil y drawn upside-down arcad e
like tha t o n th e Mal i b u pelike . She hold s a scepter an d a jug. Langlot z
calls her Kore , and th e goddess behind th e seat , who wear s a sakkos and
holds two torches, he call s Demeter. I should prefer t o reverse the names,
but i t is, as often, impossibl e t o be sure.
18. E.g. , Follmann , pi . 12, 1-2 . I t i s omitte d agai n o n th e Bosto n
fragment, supra , note 12. 1 speak for the sake of convenience o f "myrtle, "
but the identification, though very likely, is not certain. I t mi ght be olive
or laurel .
19. ARV
2
, 557 , no. 121; Beazley, Panm., pi . 14,1.
20. Nolan : Copenhagen 4978; ARV
2
, 553 , no. 36; CVA\ pi . 131a-c.
Psykter: Muni c h 2417; ARV
2
, 556 , no. 101; Beazley, Panm., pis . 12, 1 and
Two Pelikai by the Pan Painter 11
Painter; an d th e las t i s sai d t o recal l th e Argo s Painter .
B ecker
2 3
subsume d th e Clas s as the earlies t member s o f her
XI X, Worksho p of the Syleus Potter , a very large groupi ng
whi ch she sees as domi nati ng pelike producti on for a coupl e
of decades, taki ng over abou t 480 fro m he r I V, Class of the
Nikoxenos Painter' s Pelikai . Sh e note s som e divergence s
between differen t member s o f Beazley' s Class , bu t accept s
its overal l uni t y an d th e probabi l i t y that i t i s the produc t
of a single workshop. She associates t wo more vases wi th i t :
a fragmentar y piec e i n Leningra d b y th e F l yi ng-Ange l
Painter, whi c h ha s bee n wi l dl y restored , an d a complet e
and ver y fin e vas e i n C openhage n b y th e T ri pt ol emo s
Painter o f whi ch w e shal l have mor e t o say.
24
Becke r fur -
ther point s ou t tha t a smal l versio n o f th e sam e typ e i s
provided b y the vases assigned b y Beazley t o the Painte r o f
L ouvre G 23 8 an d describe d b y hi m a s "nea r th e F l yi ng -
Angel Painte r an d l i nke d b y th e maeande r wi t h th e Gera s
and Argo s Painters."
2 5
Th e las t t w o ar e closel y relate d t o
one another , an d thei r pelika i (apar t fro m a special Clas s
of smal l ones by the Geras Painter whi c h we shal l be not i c-
i ng later ) ar e incl ude d by Becke r i n XI X. Wi t h th e lates t
members o f X I X sh e associate s th e Pa n Painter' s grea t
Busiris pelike in Athens, 26 which she dates to the seventies
or sixties . Anothe r pelik e fragmen t wi t h border-pattern s
whi ch sugges t that the vase may have belonged t o the Clas s
of Cabinet de s Mdai l l es 390 i s Athens, A kr. 620, placed b y
Beazley near the Syleus Painter.27
The Mal i b u vas e surely goes i nto Becker' s XI X , bu t on e
should perhap s b e cautiou s o f actuall y assignin g i t t o th e
Class of Cabinet de s Mdai l l es 390. One hesitate s to at t ri b -
ute s o fragmentar y a vas e f i r ml y t o a Class . Besides , th e
incomparably finer drawi n g of the fi gure-wor k also sets the
Mal i bu vas e apart fro m othe r vases in the Class . I n this last
respect, however , th e T ri pt ol emo s Painter' s pel i k e i n
Copenhagen
2 8
goe s wi t h th e Mal i b u vase , fo r there , too ,
the pattern-work , whi c h i s typica l o f the Class , i s foreign
to th e painter' s usua l practice . Beazle y di d no t pu t th e
13,1; Lullies and Hi rmer (supra , not e 4) , pis. 70-79.
21. Follmann , 21-47 (date d groups , 36-43) .
22. ARV2,2SA.
23. Becker , vol . 1 , 48 and nos . 142-149 .
24. F lying-Ange l Painter : Leningra d 619; ARV
2
, 280 , no. 15 ; Pere-
dolskaya (supra, note 4), pi. 34, 3-4; Becker no. 146. Triptolemos Painter:
see infra , not e 28.
25. ARV
2
, 283 ; Becker, nos. 150-153, 157.
26. Athen s 9683; ARV
2
, 554 , no. 82; Beazley, Panm., pis . 7-10 an d
11,1; Becker, vol . 1 , 52 and no. 174. See supra, not e 3.
27. ARV
2
, ISA, near the top; Langlotz, pi. 48.
28. Copenhagen, Ny Carlsberg 2695; ARV2, 362, no. 19; Becker,
vol. 1 , 50 and no. 152; E. Knauer, 125 BWPr. (1973) , fig. 20; F. Poulsen,
Aus ein alter Etruskerstadt. De t kgl . danske Videnskabernes Selskab ,
Historisk-filologisk Raekke , 12 , 3 (Copenhagen , 1927) , pis. 12-13, 14 ,
fig. 25; LIMC 1 , pi. 591, Amphi tri te 78a (B ).
29. E . Knauer (supra , not e 28) , 26 n. 86.
Copenhagen pelik e i n the Class , bu t Becke r i s surel y ri gh t
i n associatin g i t closely ; an d th e idiosyncrasie s i n th e
pot t er-work tha t sh e point s ou t ar e hardl y greate r tha n
others sh e note s between vase s in Beazley' s list . Knauer ha s
not ed
2 9
tha t th e maeande r o n on e sid e i s just lik e one use d
on t wo member s o f the Class , L ouvr e G 22 3 an d 22 9 (on e
by th e Syleus , th e othe r b y the Sire n Pai nter). The for m o f
the maeande r i s one o f the point s i n whi ch a good dea l of
variety i s shown.
I t ha s bee n observe d tha t th e Triptolemo s Painte r o n
occasion collaborate d wi t h th e F l yi ng-Ange l Painte r an d
that h e als o ha d a worksho p connectio n wi t h th e Pa n
P ai nt er.
3 0
T h e evidenc e suggeste d t o Beazle y tha t th e
works i n question, though the Triptolemos Painter's draw -
i ng on them was sti l l i n purely archaic style, must dat e fro m
a ti m e whe n man y vase-painter s ha d alread y move d i nt o
an Earl y Classica l phase . Thi s seem s irrefutabl e fo r th e
rather sligh t pelik e fro m Rheneia,
3 1
th e revers e o f whi c h
was decorate d b y th e F l yi ng- A nge l P ai nte r i n hi s lat e
manner: th e painter , thoug h n o innovato r himself , show s
clear influenc e fro m th e ne w mood .
T he T ri pt ol emo s Painter' s connect i o n wi t h th e Pa n
Painter i s establishe d b y thre e ver y fragmentar y stamnoi ,
t wo o f whi ch bea r pictures b y th e former , th e t hi r d a pi c-
ture b y th e l atter.
3 2
Beazle y observe d tha t techniqu e an d
finish o f the pot t i n g i n on e o f the Triptolemo s Painter' s
pieces was just lik e that i n the Pa n Painter's , whi l e th e Pa n
Painter's vas e an d th e secon d Triptolemo s Painter' s vas e
had closel y simila r handle-ornament s and , unde r th e pi c -
tures, rathe r poo r maeander s apparentl y draw n b y neithe r
artist but fo r bot h by the same assistant.
The Pa n Painter' s caree r lies mai nl y in the Earl y Classi -
cal peri od. I f thi s stamnos picture belongs t o a mature phase
of hi s work , the n th e Triptolemo s Painter' s t w o stamnoi ,
for al l the archai c puri t y o f their drawi ng , must b e place d
there too . A s ha s bee n noted , however , th e Pa n Painte r
varies hi s styl e i n ways tha t qui t e often mak e i t di ffi cul t t o
30. Beazle y i n K. Schauenburg, d., Charits. Studie n zur Al tertums-
wissenschaft (Bonn , 1957), 138-139. Further links between th e T ri pto -
lemos Painte r an d th e F lying-Ange l Painte r hav e been observed b y R .
Guy (^4L 4 Abstracts 3 [1978] , 44) an d b y E. Knauer who i s preparing a
monograph on the Triptolemos Painter.
31. Mykonos ; ARV
2
, 362 , no. 21, and 280, no. 18; C. Dugas, Les vases
attiques figure rouges. Exploration Archologique d e Dlos, vol . 21
(Paris, 1952) , pl . 3,7; Becker , vol . 1, 43 and no . 133 . The furthe r link s
observed betwee n th e two artist s (las t note ) confir m th e lat e dat e for
their collaboration.
32. Fragment s o f al l thre e ar e i n the Louvre : Pan Painter , C 10822 ,
ARV2, 552, no. 22, part LIMC 1, pi. 123 Achilleus 657; Triptolemos
Painter 1 , C 10834 (als o Florence 19 B 41), ARV
2
, 361 , no. 3, (A ) Char-
its (supra, not e 30) , pi. 18; Triptolemos Painter 2 , C 10835 , ARV
2
, 361 ,
no. 5.
78 Robertson
be sur e how t o plac e a n i ndi vi dua l piec e i n chronological
relation t o the rest . T he styl e of drawi ng on the sparse frag -
ments o f this stamnos (showi n g Achilles a t feas t abov e th e
corpse of Hect or) i s unusual : hi ghl y elaborat e and , thoug h
unquestionably th e master's , not eas y t o paralle l exactl y i n
his work . I fi n d i t not inconceivabl e tha t i t i s early, of the
same ti m e a s ou r vas e thoug h i n a differen t manner , i n
some ways mor e reminiscen t o f the Marpess a psykte r (on e
o f th e t w o T ri pt ol emo s P ai nte r st amno i ha d th e no t
common subjec t o f Marpessa). I f this dating wer e correct ,
i t woul d sho w th e Tri ptol emo s Painter wor ki n g alongsid e
the Pa n Painte r at a n earl y stag e i n th e latter' s caree r an d
so probabl y not a late one i n his own.
O n balance , however , i t seems t o b e unl i kel y tha t th e
R ansom o f Hector fragment s ar e t o b e place d s o earl y i n
the Pa n Painter' s oeuvre . I n some detail s th e drawi ng ,
t hough mor e mannered an d less pleasing, recall s that on th e
lovely dino s fragment s i n the Vlast o col l ect i on,
3 3
whi ch i s
surely alread y matur e work , thoug h no t late . Thi s woul d
put th e Tri ptol emo s Painter' s collaboratio n wi t h th e Pa n
Painter i n approximatel y the same peri od a s hi s collabora -
t i on wi t h th e F l yi ng-Ange l Painter an d woul d confi r m th e
idea tha t h e preserve d a purel y archai c styl e i nt o a ti m e
when other s ha d abandone d i t .
T he Pa n an d Tri ptol emo s Painters hav e each a substan-
ti al bod y o f wor k attri bute d t o them , an d hi thert o ther e
has bee n n o sig n o f contac t betwee n the m excep t i n th e
case of these stamnoi . T he Mal i b u an d Copenhage n pelika i
seem now t o b e furthe r evidenc e fo r such contact , an d on e
mi ght therefor e expec t the m t o belong t o th e same ti me a s
the stamnos fragments . I f the stamno i ar e ri ght l y place d i n
the Earl y Classical peri od, then th e resemblanc e o f the t wo
pelikai t o th e Clas s of Cabinet de s Mdai l l e s 390 mus t b e a
deliberate reviva l o f a n ol d fashion , rathe r a s som e Lat e
Archaic painter s revive d the eye-cup.
3 4
I do not , however ,
t hi nk tha t thi s i s th e case . Becker' s chronol og y suggest s a
date of around 48 0 o r no t l on g after fo r th e Clas s of C ab -
inet de s Mdai l l e s 390 , an d w e hav e see n tha t just suc h a
ti me seems probable o n othe r ground s fo r the Gett y vase. I
should gues s tha t th e Pa n Painte r an d th e Triptol emo s
Painter wer e independentl y enliste d among the various art -
ists who , i n a situatio n whi c h escape s us , wer e brough t
33. ARV
2
, 552 , no. 38; Follmann, pis. 3 an d 11,5 . Beazley give s i t
neither a n absolut e no r a relative date. Follman n puts i t in her ver y lat e
Apollon-Artemis group (460-450) . I should suppose that bot h thi s and
the Pan krater itself, whi ch she dates about 460, come a bit earlier i n the
artist's career, close t o the Busiri s pelike (supra, not e 26, whi ch she dates
470-460), wi t h th e dino s fragment s perhap s bein g th e earlies t o f the
three.
34. ARV
2
, SI.
35. Se e supra, not e 30.
36. Ferrar a 1499 ; ARV, 554 , no . 83 ; CVA 1 , pi . 1,4-5; N . Alfieri ,
Spina (Bologna , 1979) , figs . 69-70 . Th e picture s ar e no t framed , bu t
together i n the decoration o f thi s Class of large pelikai soo n
after 480 , an d tha t the y cam e togethe r again , i n diffren t
circumstances, a t a later date .
O f cours e ther e ar e man y othe r possibl e scenarios . Th e
Mal i bu vas e mi gh t indee d belon g t o th e Class , bu t th e
Copenhagen on e mi gh t b e a late r revival ; o r th e stamno i
may reall y belon g t o th e sam e earl y phas e a s th e pelikai .
Nei ther o f these alternative s appear s t o m e probable , bu t
the questio n remain s wi d e open. We may hop e fo r furthe r
enlightenment fro m curren t studie s o f th e Triptolemo s
P ai nt er.
3 5
1 shoul d perhaps apologize for spending s o muc h
ti me o n suc h a n inconclusiv e investigation; but th e ques -
t i on o f relations between majo r artist s and workshops seems
to me o f central importance a t present i n the study o f A t t i c
red-fi gure. We shal l r et ur n bri efl y t o th e C openhage n
pelike i n connection wi t h subjec t matter .
O n a second larg e pelike, found at Spina, the Pan Painte r
treated th e subjec t o f Triptolemos again.
3 6
T h e drawi n g i s
much weake r an d i s surel y late r tha n th e Gett y pelike .
Beazley, when he first listed the vase (in Der Pan-Maler),
noted it s i nferi ori t y t o th e Busiri s vase (th e onl y othe r bi g
pot o f this shape then assigne d t o the pai nter) . He wa s no t
even quit e sur e that i t was fro m th e master' s hand, bu t h e
expressed no vi ew then or later on its dating. F ol l mann does
not lis t i t amon g th e piece s groupe d b y dating , bu t sh e
appears t o i mpl y tha t i t i s contemporar y wi t h th e Busiri s
vase, whi c h sh e place s 470-460 . Becke r associate s i t wi t h
her smal l section XI , whi c h seem s t o cove r some t i me.
3 7
I
woul d suppos e tha t i t come s nea r th e en d o f th e artist' s
career, t went y years or mor e afte r th e Gett y vase.
The t wo Triptolemos pictures shar e an overal l si mi l ari t y
of composi ti o n but revea l ver y diffren t approache s t o th e
theme. O n th e Spin a vas e Triptolemos agai n occupie s th e
center, seate d to the ri ght (th e normal di rect i on). H e wear s
a red-fi gur e myr t l e wreat h (th e leave s unr i bbed) , an d
again hi s mantl e i s wrapped t i ght l y roun d hi s knees, leav -
i ng th e l owe r legs bare . Onc e mor e eigh t spokes are shown
i n th e seat wheel, but thi s ti me both wings poi nt backward.
Hi s mantle , whi c h muffle s hi m t o th e nec k s o tha t w e
cannot tel l whethe r h e wear s a chi ton beneat h i t , conceals
his ri ght ar m an d hand , whi l e i n the lef t h e holds a scepter
whi ch rest s on th e footboard . Thre e goddesse s ar e shown ,
there i s muc h ornament : betwee n th e handle s abov e eac h picture ,
upright palmett e an d lotus ; al l aroun d th e vas e belo w th e pictures ,
maeander wi t h elaborat e an d unusua l pattern-squares ; unde r eac h
handle, palmett e an d lotu s complex. For the pictur e on th e othe r side ,
see infra, wi t h not e 75.
37. Follmann , 37; Becker, vol . 1 , 29-30, no. 94. Becker's XI is called
"Sptere Pelike n de s Berline r Malers, " but th e thre e sh e list s b y tha t
painter (nos . 92, 92a, 93) ar e from hi s early t o hi s middle period.
38. O n Makron' s skyphos eac h of the two named goddesse s holds a
torch i n one hand. O n the Altamur a Painter's Londo n volute-krater ( E
469; ARV
2
, 589 , no. 1; T. B. L. Webster, Niobidenmaler [Leipzig , 1935],
Two Pelikai by the Pan Painter 79
one behi n d Tri ptol emo s and t wo , close together , i n fron t
of hi m. A l l thre e wear chi ton and himation. The one i mme-
diately i n fron t o f Triptolemo s stands frontally , l ooki n g
toward hi m. Her hai r i s looped up, she wear s a fillet adorne d
wi t h upri gh t leaves , an d he r hi mati o n ha s a crenellate d
border along its upper edge. She holds a torch in either hand .
Beyond he r a goddess stands i n profil e t o the left , hai r down
her back , a crown wi t h upri gh t flowers o n he r head , ri gh t
arm an d hand conceale d i n the muffl i n g mantl e from whi c h
the lef t han d issue s t o hol d a scepter . Th e t hi r d goddess ,
behind th e seat , stands i n profil e t o right , similarl y muffle d
and likewise hol di ng a scepter; one cannot tel l i n whi ch han d
as i t i s hidden behin d th e wi ng . He r hair , too , i s down he r
back, and she wear s a leafless Stphane.
Three goddesse s appear i n thi s scene on Makron' s sky -
phos also, where al l figures ar e named. Ther e the t hi r d god -
dess is the loca l nymph, Eleusis, who stands at the extrem e
ri ght l i ft i n g he r ski r t wi t h on e hand , a flower i n the other ,
but wi t hou t distinguishin g attribute. Al fi eri an d Arias give
the sam e name t o th e t hi r d figure o n th e Spin a vase , th e
one behi n d T ri pt ol emos , and the y t hi n k tha t th e t w o
torches distinguis h Kor e i n th e cente r fro m he r mothe r
who hold s a scepter o n th e ri ght . I do no t t hi n k thi s i s a
safe assumpti on
3 8
an d prefe r t o interpre t th e thre e differ -
ently. O n a lekythos i n Leningrad of earlier and finer styl e
the Pa n Painte r dre w a goddess hol di n g a torc h i n eithe r
hand.
3 9
Ther e ar e sligh t difference s fro m th e torc h holde r
on th e Spina vase: on the lekythos the upri ght leaves of the
headdress ar e se t o n a patterne d crow n instea d o f a fillet,
the hai r i s loose, th e chi t o n dotted , an d th e borde r o f the
hi mati on run s alon g it s lower edge and i s not crenellated .
Also, the torches ar e hel d to the other side. The t wo figures,
however, ar e s o alik e i n conception an d pos e that I find i t
impossible t o believ e that th e artis t di d not i nten d t o rep -
resent the same person. The figure o n the lekythos was first
published a s Artemi s , bu t Beazle y questione d this , sug -
gesting that she mi ght b e Hekate, or possibl y the mother of
a mortal bride.40 This last suggestion, which Beazley
dropped i n ARV2 wher e he call s her "Hekate(?), " i s not i n
question fo r th e Spin a vase ; bu t I se e th e t w o sceptere d
figures at th e edge s ther e a s Demete r an d Kor e an d th e
t hi r d a s Hekate , wh o i s constantl y show n wi t h t w o
pl . 1) , three goddesses each hol d a torch in one hand. I n front o f T ri p-
tolemos stands Kore(?) wi t h a j ug i n the other; beyond her Demeter (?),
grain i n the other ; th e thi r d goddes s stands behind th e chair , wi t h th e
other hand empt y (Hekate?se e infra wi t h note s 41 and 42).
39. ARV
2
, 556 , no. I l l ; Beazley , Panm., pi . 17,2 (and see next note).
40. Beazley , Panm., 24 , no. 50 (Beazley , Pan P., 14, no. 61).
41. E.g. , on th e Persephon e Painter' s nam e vas e (bell-krater , N ew
York 28.57.23; ARV
2
,1012, no . 1; Pfuhl, MuZ, fig . 556) where she lights
the way for Kore to meet her mother who stands waiting wi t h a scepter;
the Peleus Painter's name vase (calyx-krater, Ferrara T.617; ARV
2
, 1038 ,
no. 1; Al fieri [supra , note 36] , fig. 148) , where she seems to act the par t
torches.
4 1
O n a vas e fro m late r i n th e centur y Demete r
pours wi n e i nt o a phial e hel d b y Triptolemos , and behi n d
her stand s a frontal figure wi t h a torch i n either han d an d
the name Hekat e wr i t t e n besid e her.
4 2
N o grai n is shown i n the Spina picture. Surprisingly, this
is the cas e i n a good man y picture s o f the scene ; but i n all
others I know wher e th e grai n i s omi t t ed, the l i bati o n fo r
departure i s taki ng place.
4 3
Th e whee l i n the Spin a pictur e
does not res t o n the ground , so the wi nge d seat i s thought
of a s airborn e o r taki n g off , bu t th e effec t o f th e quiet ,
muffled figures wi t h thei r scepters i s t o suggest less a scene
of action than a formal presentatio n o f cult figures. O n th e
Mal i bu vas e the articulation of the far wi ng and it s forwar d
reach hav e a restles s air , emphasi zi n g th e dramati c
momentthe actua l handi n g ove r o f the grai n t o b e f ol -
l owed swi ftl y b y departure .
M uch neare r i n feeling t o thi s tha n i s the Pa n Painter' s
own late r vase is the beautiful skyphos i n Londonalready
menti onedwhi ch Makron painted for the potter H i er on
4 4
(figs. 2a- d) . O n tha t vase the painte r present s a larger cast
and ha s chose n a s hi s mot i f th e actio n tha t follow s th e
handi ng ove r o f the grain . The figure s unde r th e handle s
and o n th e bac k o f the vas e (al l , like thos e o n th e front ,
wi t h thei r name s wr i t t e n besid e them ) ar e l i nke d t o th e
mai n scene . We shal l retur n t o them , but fo r th e momen t
we may conside r th e Mi ssi o n pictur e alone .
We hav e alread y notice d Eleusi s a t th e ri ght-han d end .
She wears a Stphane wi t h upri gh t leaves, and her hi mati on ,
wor n lik e a shawl over bot h shoulders , i s brought u p ove r
her hair . I n front o f her stands Kore (name d Pherophatta) ,
her hai r loope d u p unde r th e Stphane, whi c h agai n ha s
upri ght leave s and i s mor e elaboratel y decorate d tha n tha t
of Eleusis . Sh e ha s a necklace , an d he r hi mati on , wor n i n
the usua l wa y ove r th e lef t shoulde r bu t ki l t e d u p s o tha t
onl y the hanging corners reac h below the knees, ha s a cren-
ellated and dotted border along both upper an d lower edge.
She hold s a torch i n her lef t han d an d i n her ri gh t a metal
j ug, raise d t o pou r wi n e i nt o th e phial e that Tripptolemos
(sic) hold s i n hi s ri gh t hand . H e has a myrt l e wreat h wi t h
unri bbed leaves , loos e hai r an d a l i ght growt h o f whisker,
l ong chi t o n an d hi mati o n worn normal l y , an d i n hi s lef t
hand h e lift s th e grain . B oth wing s of the seat reach back -
of the bride' s mother ; her name i s wri tten next t o her on both vases.
42. Hydria , London E 183; ARV
2
, 1191 , no. 1; CVA, pi . 84,2. Hekate
is named als o in a Triptolemos scene on a calyx-krater in Duke Uni ver-
sity by Polygnotos: Para, 442, no. 27 bis.
43. I t has been questione d whethe r th e libation i s really for T ri pto -
lemos' departure, partl y because of the occasional omission of the grain.
See G . Schwartz , Jh 5 0 (1972/73) , Hauptblatt , p. 131 , wi th earlie r
references.
44. Londo n E 140; ARV
2
, 459 , no. 3.
80 Robertson
Figure 2c. Sid e B of skyphos, figure 2a. Photo: Courtesy the Trustees of the Britis
Museum.
h Figure 2d. Handl e A / B of skyphos, figur e 2a .
Photo: Courtesy the Trustees o f the
British Museum.
Figure 2a. Skypho s wi t h th e name of Hieron as potter, painted by Makron (Sid e
A ) . London , British Museum E 140. Photo: Courtesy the Trustees of
the British Museum.


Figure 2b. Handl e B / A of skyphos, figur e 2a .
Photo: Courtesy the Trustees o f the
British Museum.
Two Pelikai by the Pan Painter 81
ward, an d betwee n wi n g an d whee l i s tucke d a rearin g
snake. O nl y th e fou r spoke s of the nea r whee l ar e shown ,
but th e tai l o f the fa r snak e i s distinguished . B ehi n d hi m
stands Demetr e (sic), neare r th e spectato r tha n th e wi ng .
She wear s a patterne d crow n wi t h crenellations , an d he r
hi mati on, draped normal l y , is woven al l over wi t h band s of
figures separated by narrower strip s of ornament. Sh e hold s
bot h hand s forward , wi t h grai n i n th e left , torc h i n th e
ri ght.
O n th e Mal i b u vase the Pan Painte r showe d th e momen t
at whi c h Demete r hand s Tri ptol emo s th e grain , bu t th e
next mov e i s anticipated b y the l i bati on-ju g in the han d o f
Kore behi nd th e seat . One mi gh t have expected he r t o hol d
a phial e i n he r othe r hand , bu t th e wa y th e ar m i s raise d
makes thi s unlikely , an d th e trac e remaining behi nd T r i p -
tolemos' head cannot belon g t o a bowl . I f that i s reall y par t
of something hel d by Kore, it may have been a torch. M ak-
ron's pictur e shows th e scene a few moment s late r (fig . 2a).
The mother ha s retire d behi nd the seat, the daughter come s
forward, an d th e l i bati on , whi c h i mmedi atel y precede s
departure, i s in progress. The t wo pictures hav e in common
ri ch detai l and fin e drawi ng, and the y see m alik e i n spirit ,
too. We shal l fi n d a l i n k betwee n th e revers e of Makron' s
skyphos an d the other pictur e on the Gett y pelike, to whi c h
we mus t no w t urn .
The Mi ssi on of Triptol emos is a popular subjec t i n At t i c
vase-painting a t thi s peri od, and th e Pa n Painter' s render -
i ng here , t houg h wi t h it s own particularities , present s n o
serious problems o f interpretation. The situatio n i s wi del y
diffrent fo r th e pictur e o n th e othe r side . Tha t i t i s Di o-
nysiac i s not i n doubt . Th e presenc e of a satyr an d maena d
and o f the vin e whi c h spread s over th e backgroun d make s
that certain . On e mi gh t a t firs t b e tempte d t o tak e th e
figure i n the cente r fo r th e go d himself , bu t tha t wi l l no t
do. Th e fac t tha t th e wreat h i s probabl y myrtl e , certainl y
not i vy , is not conclusiv e agains t th e identification. Th e i vy
wreath i s the nor m fo r Dionysos (an d indee d fo r hi s com -
panions t oo) , but ther e ar e unquestionabl e example s o f the
god weari n g myrtl e , an d at leas t on e clos e i n ti m e an d
character t o thi s vase.
45
We shal l come bac k t o thi s ques -
t i on, bu t ther e ar e othe r reason s for t hi nki n g tha t th e cen -
tral figur e i n thi s pictur e canno t b e Dionysos . Firs t th e
45. Se e Beazley, AJA 4 3 (1939) , 631; CB 2 (1954) , 45, no. 93; AntK
1 (1958) , 6. Among certai n examples th e neares t i n time and characte r
to our s i s on a hydria by the Kleophrades Painte r (AntK 1 [1958] , 5- 8,
figs. 1- 8 o n pis . 2-5 ; ther e date d abou t 480) . Se e furthe r infra , wi t h
notes 50 and 51.
46. A pai r o f figures sid e b y sid e an d overlappin g i s found i n th e
painter's wor k o n a neck-amphora i n Naples: Stg. 225; ARV
2
, 553 , no.
32; Jb 7 6 (1961) , 68, fig. 24; Follmann, pi. 12, 6 (heads) . There , however ,
the pictur e i s of a pipe duet , an d th e two figures, standing i n the center
of the scene, are equal , not one subordinat e t o the other .
act i onst oopi ng wi t h ben t knee s t o lea d f or war d a n
animal i s surel y no t a god' s way. A secon d poi n t i s perhaps
even mor e significant . When a vine is shown i n a Dionysiac
context, i t i s normal l y hel d by , or at leas t se t clos e besid e
the god himself . I f that i s the case here, then Dionysos mus t
have appeare d i n th e lacun a o n th e ri ght , whi c h woul d
make sens e of the respectfu l approac h b y th e centra l figur e
wi t h hi s animal .
So fa r I t hi n k w e ca n b e sure , bu t I fee l n o certaint y
about th e reconstructio n i n th e lacuna . Th e mos t seriou s
question, perhaps , i s whethe r i t containe d on e figur e o r
t wo. I f there i s onl y one, the n th e go d hi msel f held u p th e
knife o r knives . Al ternati vel y one coul d t hi nk tha t th e rol e
of a compani on, a saty r o r maena d probably . I f there wa s
such a figure , i t mus t hav e stoo d beyon d th e god , over -
l apped b y hi m , whet he r h e hi msel f wer e standi n g o r
seated.
46
Th e bac k o f a head an d th e hai r l yi n g down th e
back belo w i t (fig . l a) mus t surel y b e Dionysos' . Ther e i s
not muc h r oo m t o accommodat e a secon d hea d betwee n
this and th e hand wi t h th e knife , bu t i t coul d be done. Th e
god's head i s considerably neare r the upper borde r tha n tha t
of the centra l figure, and (eve n though tha t figur e i s bend -
i ng) i f Dionysos were seated on a throne, i t must have stood
on some sort o f dais.
47
The artis t severa l time s draws hai r lik e th e god' s here: a
l ong han k i n soli d blac k l yi n g down the bac k an d splayin g
out i n separate strands at th e end . H e give s muc h th e same
coiffure t o Triptolemo s o n th e Spin a vas e an d ver y l i kel y
also o n ours , bu t her e combine d wi t h loos e lock s o n th e
shoulders.
4 8
A closel y simila r renderin g o f hai r fro m a
figure that , lik e ours , i s otherwise los t i s given on the beau -
t i ful vol ute-krate r fragmen t i n B ost on.
4 9
B y an odd chance
the bearde d an d myrtl e-wreathe d hea d whi c h survive s
intact o n tha t fragmen t i s on e o f the bes t parallel s i n th e
painter's wor k t o th e centra l figur e i n our picture .
The interpretatio n of the Bosto n fragmen t i s of interes t
to us . Agai n a vine spreads i n the background , an d on e o f
the t wo heads must b e Dionysos' . Beazle y at firs t assume d
that hi s wa s th e survi vi n g wreathed one , the n hesitated ,
i ncl i ni ng t o th e largel y los t on e o n th e ri gh t fo r th e wi n e
god, bu t finally , h e cam e t o t hi n k hi s firs t opi ni o n mor e
l i kel y.
5 0
I t seem s probabl e tha t i t wa s th e myrtl e wreat h
47. Fo r an alternative possibility, see infra , wi t h note s 70-72.
48. A variant scheme shows th e end s turned u p an d tie d i n a littl e
bag, e.g. , Artemis ' on th e name vase and o n a charming lat e lekythos ,
London E 57 9 (ARV
2
, 557 , no . 117 ; Beazley, Panm., pi . 25, 1) . Thi s
fashion was favored by the Pan Painter' s imitator, the Alkimachos Painter .
49. Supra , wi t h not e 12 ; and see next note .
50. J . D. Beazley, Attic Red-figured Vases in American Museums (C am -
bridge, Mass., 1918) , 116; Att. V. (1925) , 100, no. 4 (i n these he takes the
surviving wreathe d hea d t o b e Dionysos) ; Beazley , Panm., 21 , no. 1 5
(the othe r mor e probable) ; ARV (1942) , 362, no. 1 7 (non-committal :
82 Robertson
Figure 3. Pelik e by the Eucharide s Painte r (sid e A ) . For-
merl y Base l ar t marke t ( M u M . ) . P hoto
Widmer.
:
Figure 4. Chous . Athens, National Museum 19.390. Photo:
Courtesy Nationa l Museum.
that cause d hi m t o hesitat e ove r thi s identification ; an d
when he returne d t o i t , he poi nted out tha t thi s was not a n
insuperable bar . A t tha t ti m e h e di d no t kno w th e Kl eo -
phrades Painter's hydri a , and when he came to publish that ,
he di d not ment i o n thi s fragment,
5 1
bu t i t i s the stronges t
confi rmati on tha t th e myrtl e-wreathe d hea d o n th e frag -
ment ma y be Dionysos . That ide a i s now furthe r strength -
ened b y the appearance on the Mal i b u fragmen t o f a myrt le
wreath i n a certainl y Dionysiac context. The identificatio n
on th e Bosto n fragment , however , remain s open . L i k e a s
the hea d i s t o tha t o n th e Gett y pelike , it i s even neare r t o
(almost a replica of) Poseidon' s on the B ar i col umn-krater ,
and th e same god' s on th e Schweri n N ol an i s closel y si mi -
l ar.
5 2
I t evidentl y corresponde d t o th e youn g artist' s con -
cept o f the sea-god, and i t would no t surpris e me i f he wer e
the myrtl e-wreathe d go d o n th e B osto n fragment , too ,
back t o bac k wi t h Dionyso s i n some gatherin g o f deities.
The t wo are not ofte n particularl y associated, but on M ak-
ron's skypho s the y ar e nea r neighbors , separate d onl y b y
Poseidon's wi fe , A mphi t r i t e , an d the y d o appea r togethe r
on a few vases of this t i me.
5 3
To retur n t o th e Gett y picture : we can , I t hi nk, sa y tha t
i t showe d Dionyso s o n th e ri ght , standin g o r seated, alon e
or wi t h a compani on. H e (o r th e othe r figur e i f there wa s
one) hold s u p th e knif e o r knives , an d th e anima l whi c h
the centra l figur e i s bri ngi ng up mus t therefor e b e fo r sac-
rifice. I t hi nk tha t the way the weapon i s held, even i f ther e
is only one , cannot b e for the stroke, but si mpl y for display;
but whicheve r i s intended, I know not hi ng like i t . We ma y
also not e tha t i f the palmette-toppe d shaf t i s a scepter, tha t
is mos t unusua l fo r Dionysos . I kno w n o othe r cas e i n
whi ch hi s staf f i s other tha n a thyrsos o r a n i v y stick; an d
we ma y furthe r not e tha t i n wha t survive s o f thi s scen e
there i s n o thyrso s an d n o i v y wreath, unusua l omission s
from a Dionysiac picture. Before we conside r th e meanin g
of a scene whi c h ha s s o man y peculia r features , w e mus t
l ook at no t th e leas t o f these: what i s going on a t th e left ,
behi nd th e centra l figure .
T he tall , mushroom-shape d objec t covere d wi t h blac k
i vy leave s i s strange, bu t i t woul d b e har d t o se e i t as any -
t hi ng bu t a n ivy-covere d tree, an d ther e ar e a few parallel s
"gods"); C B 2 (1954) , 45, no. 92 (probabl y the surviving head; parallel s
cited for myrtle-wreath).
51. AntKl (1958), 6.
52. Supra , not e 11.
53. Makron' s skyphos: supra, wi t h not e 44, and further infra . Posei -
don appear s wi t h Dionyso s on two red-figur e stamno i o f around thi s
time: Louvre G 184 (ARV
2
, 296 , Troilos Painter no . 6; CJ^4, pi . 15, 7-8;
side A , Dionysos , Poseidon, Hermes , goddess ; side B , warrior' s depar -
ture); and Londo n E 455 (ARV
2
, 217 , top no. 1 , late manner o f Berli n
Painter; CVA, pi . 21,5; side A , Judgment o f Paris; side B , Ni ke pouring
wine for Poseidon, Dionysos standing behind her). There are also black-
figure examples, notabl y a late neck-amphora i n Wr z bur g ( Wi i rzburg
Two Pelikai by the Pan Painter 83
whi ch mak e th e i denti fi cati o n certain . On e w e shal l b e
considering later ; anothe r i s on a pelike of much th e same
date by the Eucharides P ai nter
5 4
(fig . 3) . Here the branches
issuing al l the wa y up leav e n o doub t tha t a tree i s meant .
What on e mi gh t a t firs t glanc e tak e a s simila r branche s
from th e sid e o f the Pa n Painter' s tree , i mmedi atel y abov e
the maenad' s head , ar e actuall y a n extensio n o f the vine ;
but abov e those a dead branc h i s in fact drawn, issuing fro m
the spreadin g to p o f the tre e (fig . l i ), an d anothe r o n th e
other side , above the vine over the central figure' s head (fig.
l h ) . Th e tree s on the t wo vases are of different kinds. The
Eucharides Painter' s tall , narro w one wi t h n o pronounce d
area of spread, mi gh t b e a cypress; the wi de top o f th e othe r
suggests a pine or a deciduous tree . The t wo plant s occup y
the sam e position on vase s of the same shape, thoug h th e
Eucharides Painter' s i s a muc h smalle r an d slighte r piece ,
but th e on e o n tha t vas e an d th e pilla r whi c h close s th e
picture o n th e othe r sid e ar e onl y topographica l adjunct s
( i f symboli c ones) t o the eroti c scene. On the Pan Painter' s
vase the tree i s certainly a significant feature o f great interes t
to t w o of the actors . I conclude that the Eucharides Painte r
very probabl y borrowed the mot i f from th e Pan Painte r o r
from som e related painting.
What i s the interest of the maenad an d satyr i n this tree?
Surely the i vy whi ch cover s i t ; and this, taken together wi t h
the absence of i v y wreath s an d thyrsoi , gives, I t hi nk, a key
to th e whol e scene . Thi s i s plainl y no t a n ordi nar y Di o-
nysiac revel , but al l the point s i n whi c h i t i s peculiar ca n
be explained i f we see i t as the beginning. O n th e other sid e
of th e vas e Demeter send s out he r chose n mortal , T r i pt o -
lemos, t o bri n g th e gif t o f grain t o manki nd . On thi s sid e
Dionysos offer s th e earth' s othe r grea t gift , th e vine , t o a
mortal pr ot g, wh o correspond s t o Demeter' s T ri pt ol e -
mos. Thi s , th e figur e i n the cente r o f the picture , i s mos t
probably t o be named I kari os.
5 5
Dionysos has brough t hi m
the vin e (whethe r i t i s shown sti l l hel d i n the god' s han d
or alread y planted) an d demands a sacrifice from hi m . I ka-
rios bring s u p th e vi ct i m , an d Dionyso s o r hi s mi ni o n
shows hi m th e knif e h e mus t use . Meanwhi l e t wo o f th e
god's trai n , foragin g around, hav e mad e a ne w an d won -
derful discovery : a mass of bri ght leave s festooning a dea d
194; no t i n ABV, Langlotz , Wr zbur g, pl . 58; E. Gerhard, Auserlesene
griechische Vasenhilder, vol. 1 [Berlin , 1840-1858] , pi . 47), an d a los t
neck-amphora (no t i n ABV; Gerhard , AV 1 , pi . 48) . O n th e first ,
Dionysos ri di ng a bull on one side i s paired wi t h Poseido n ridin g a bul l
on th e other ; o n th e second , Poseido n wi t h lowere d trident i s led by
Hermes t o Dionysos and Ariadn e wi th silen s (B , warriors' departure).
See T . Panofka, Poseidon und Dionysos (Berlin , 1845) .
54. Base l market (MuM Sonderliste R, Decembe r 7 , 1977, lot 50; not
i n Beazley ; Becker, vol . 1, 134 and no . 107a) . I am grateful t o R . Gu y
for bringin g thi s vas e t o m y attention , and t o Herber t Cah n fo r th e
photograph an d permissio n t o publis h i t (photo : Wi dmer ) . Fo r th e
other example, see infra, wi t h not e 56.
treeivy. Soo n the y wi l l mak e wreath s an d thyrso s head s
from i t , and i t wi l l becom e on e of the constant an d centra l
features o f Dionysia c worshi p and life .
B y a l uck y chanc e w e hav e a pictur e whi c h seem s t o
fol l ow i mmedi atel y on thi s l i ttl e scene. I t i s on a fragmen-
tary chou s i n Athens (fig . 4) ,
5 6
whi ch i s a generation late r
than ou r vas e though I suppose the Pan Painte r mi gh t sti l l
have bee n wor ki n g whe n i t was painted, sometime aroun d
mi d-century. Beazley must hav e known i t but does not lis t
i t . I n hi s admirabl e publ i cati on, Bezerra d e Meneses places
i t , surel y ri ghtl y, i n the circl e of th e Vi l l a Gi ul i a and Euaion
Painters, th e "academi c wi ng " o f Earl y Classica l vase -
painting. I t shows a n i vy-covere d tree wi t h a maenad o n
the lef t an d a satyr o n th e ri ght . Bezerr a d e Menese s ( f ol -
l owed b y Coch e d e L a Fert ) suggest s that wha t i s shown
is th e worshi p of Dionysos Dendrites, the god a s tree. Th e
tree show n i n thi s pictur e i s the natura l f or m i mi tate d i n
the stake wi t h a mask o f the god attached, whi c h i s shown
on th e so-calle d Lenea n vases . H e point s ou t tha t o n on e
of thes e th e stak e i s wreathed wi t h i vy.
5 7
Thi s wa s a rea -
sonable an d probabl e suggestion ; bu t th e pictur e o n ou r
vase, unknow n t o thes e scholars , make s i t necessar y t o
t hi nk again . I t does not seem possibl e t o me t o separat e the
t wo pictures . B ot h th e actio n of satyr an d maena d an d th e
context mak e i t implausibl e to interpre t th e Pa n Painter' s
picture a s i l l ustrati n g th e worshi p of Dionysos Dendrites .
I f my explanation of i t i s ri ght, the n the Empedokles chou s
gives the next moment . Wi t h bot h hands the maenad hold s
out a wreath: the firs t i v y wreath, whi ch sh e ha s just mad e
wi t h strand s plucke d fro m th e tree . Th e saty r bend s for -
ward, as though he hopes she wi l l put i t on hi s head ( whi c h
is alread y boun d wi t h a fi l l et ) ; bu t hi s hand to o i s raise d
toward th e wreath , an d perhap s the y wi l l rathe r tak e i t
together t o Dionysos, who wi l l wea r i t . Later they wi l l fi n d
a fennel stal k an d ti e a bunch o f i vy leaves t o that , an d i t
wi l l becom e th e god' s scepte r an d th e chi e f badg e o f hi s
followers.
T he storie s o f Triptolemos and I kario s make a natura l
pair. Teiresia s i n Euripides' Bacchae draw s a n explici t par -
allel between Demete r wi t h he r gif t o f bread an d Dionysos
wi t h hi s o f wi ne,
5 8
bu t h e doe s no t ment i o n th e morta l
55. Se e infra, wi t h not e 62.
56. Athens , N . M . 13.390 (Empedokl es) ; no t i n Beazley ; U . T.
Bezerra de Meneses, BCH 8 7 (1963) , 309-321, figs. 1-2 ; E . Coche de La
Fert in R. Bloch, Recherches sur les religions de l'antiquit classique (Paris,
1980), fig. vii wi th tex t t o i t . I am gratefu l t o R ut h Gl yn n an d Tom
Carpenter o f the Beazley Archive for bringing thi s vase to my attention,
and t o Dr . Alexandr i o f the Nationa l Museum i n Athens for the pho -
tograph and permission to publish i t.
57. Bezerr a d e Menese s (supra , not e 56) , 315-319 , figs . 5 (ivie d
stake) an d 6.
58. Line s 278-285. Dodds i n his Euripides Bacchae, (Oxford , 1944) ,
ad loc, quotes Euripides' contemporary, Prodikos, in a similar sense. Also,
84 Robertson
intermediaries throug h whom thes e blessings wer e spread .
Many centurie s late r N onnu s i n hi s Dionysiaka t ol d th e
story o f I karios a t l engt h an d expressl y parallele d i t wi t h
that o f Demeter' s emissar y Tri ptol emo s (cl ai mi ng the god' s
gift a s th e bette r one) . Thi s i s much th e fulles t version we
have o f the legen d o f Dionysos an d I karios ; the other s ar e
all lateApollodorus, Hygi nus, and a scholiast on H omer.
5 9
I t i s certain, however , tha t i t was th e subjec t o f a poem b y
Eratosthenes i n the t hi r d centur y B .C .,
6 0
an d i t i s just pos -
sible tha t i t wa s treate d i n th e fi ft h centur y i n los t play s
whi ch bor e the same name as the Hellenisti c poem, Erigone.
Erigone hanged herself , an d he r stor y wa s t ol d a s an aition
of th e swi ngi n g ri tual (aiora) at th e A t t i c festival Anthes -
teria. I n the story of I karios thi s Erigone is his daughter, bu t
there i s anothe r versio n i n whi c h sh e i s th e daughte r o f
Aigisthos, and i t is qui te uncertai n whi ch wa s the subject o f
plays recorde d b y Phrynichus , Sophocles , an d Kl eophon.
6 1
T he stor y o f I karios tells , wi t h mi no r variations , ho w
Dionysos came to hi m wi th th e gif t o f the vine and showe d
hi m ho w t o mak e wi n e fro m th e frui t ; how , at th e god' s
behest, he carrie d th e goo d news an d th e pot i on t o others ;
and ho w h e wa s ki l l e d b y peasant s who, after enjoyin g th e
early stages of drunkenness, conclude d i n the hangover tha t
they ha d bee n poisone d o r bewitched . T he y hi d I karios '
body unde r a tree , bu t i t was foun d b y hi s fai thfu l bi tch ,
Mai ra, who led hi s daughter Erigon e t o the spot , wher e sh e
hanged hersel f from a bough. T he A t t i c deme of I karia wa s
certainly fro m Archai c times a n i mportan t cente r fo r th e
worshi p o f Dionysos, an d i t i s a reasonabl e guess that thi s
is a n ol d loca l legend . O the r names , however , associate d
wi t h othe r localities , are menti oned b y lat e wri ters in con-
necti on wi t h th e receptio n o f th e go d i n Atti ca : Ki n g
A mphi kt yon, an d Pegaso s o f El eutherai .
6 2
I n th e absenc e
of earl y l iterar y sources we must kee p an open mi n d o n th e
actual nam e t o b e give n t o th e figur e o n ou r vas e and t o
others o n archai c vases to be discussed i n a moment. I karios
seems t o m e th e mos t likely , an d I therefor e us e that , bu t
wi t h thi s caution . Th e i mportan t poi n t i s tha t ou r vas e
shows Dionyso s endowi ng a mortal wi t h th e vine as a gif t
for manki nd , just a s Demete r endow s Triptol emo s wi t h
grain i n the othe r picture .
N onnus describe s I karios as a rustic cl own, something of
nearer the time of our vase, see Pindar , Isthm., 7 , 3-5, wher e the poet
speaks of Dionysos as seated by Demeter.
59. Nonnus , Dion., 47 , 34-425 (comparison , 45-55) . Apollodorus ,
i i i 14, 1 (coupling I karios' welcome of Dionysos wi th Keleos ' of Demeter
at Eleusis). Hyginus, Poet. Astr. I I , 4 (see infra, wi t h notes 60, 64). Schol .
Il, 10 , 27. See RE an d W. H. Roscher, Ausfiihrliches Lexikon der grie-
chischen and ro'mischen Mythologie (Hildesheim , 1965 ) s.vv. "Ikarios, "
"Erigone, " and "Maira. "
60. E . Hil l er , Eratosthenis carminum reliquiae (1872) , 94-114 , frags .
27-34; J. U. Powell, Collectanea Alexandrina (Oxford , 1925) , 64ff. , frag .
a figure of fun. Th e ri chl y cla d and nobl e figure on the Pa n
Painter's vas e is differently conceived , a wor t hy counterpar t
to princ e Triptol emos of Eleusis. The shor t patterne d gar -
ment h e wear s ove r hi s l on g chi t o n has som e likenes s t o a
ki nd o f "tabard" wor n b y Dionysos on a vase by the B erl i n
Painter an d b y a . maena d o n a vas e b y th e Andokide s
Painter,
6 3
bu t th e latte r i s qui t e wi t hou t fold s an d evi -
dently o f ver y sti f f materia l indeed . A l t houg h s o l i ttl e i s
preserved o f Ko re in the other picture , she i s clearly wearing
a garment identica l t o I karios' , and I suppose i t i s a ri tua l
vestment. N ei the r N onnu s no r an y o f the othe r survi vi n g
sources t el l di rect l y o f the i naugurat i o n o f sacrifice t o
Dionysos, bu t ther e i s som e reaso n t o t hi n k tha t i t di d
figure i n the story. Hygi nus relates how a goat damage d th e
vines an d I kario s ki l l ed i t and fro m it s ski n mad e th e firs t
askos t o hol d wi ne . H e quote s a lin e fro m Eratosthenes ,
whi ch appear s slightl y corrupt but i s easily emended t o sa y
that i n I kari a the y firs t dance d aroun d a goat . Hygi nu s
associates thi s wi t h askoliasmos, th e gam e o f balancing o n
inflated an d greas y wineskins , whi c h wa s apparentl y par t
of the fun at the Di onysi a at Athens; but H i l l e r concluded ,
as did Powell,64 that it must in fact refer to the sacrifice of
a goat . I t i s easy t o understand ho w th e stor y of the ki l l i n g
of a peccant goa t coul d be fuse d wi t h on e abou t th e i ni t i -
ation o f goa t sacrifice . Th e goa t i s th e regula r vi ct i m i n
sacrifices t o Dionysos . I t i s tru e tha t goat s o n A t t i c vase s
tend t o b e shaggier tha n th e anima l i n our pictur e appears,
but ver y l i ttl e o f i t i s left, and the degree of shagginess varies
greatly. A goa t i t mus t surel y be . A relativel y smooth on e
appears on a vase onl y a l i ttl e late r tha n thi s one, i n a con-
text o f great interes t t o us .
Thi s i s a j ani for m kantharo s fro m Spina,
65
wi t h th e
front hea d depictin g Dionysos and th e rear a satyr. Beazle y
assigned th e saty r hea d t o hi s Class K (Toront o Class) an d
the red-figur e picture s t o th e Syrisko s Painte r (perhap s
school pieces) . Al fi er i date s i t 480-460, an d I woul d sup -
pose that i t comes nearer the end tha n the beginning of tha t
span. I n the picture above the Dionysos face the god appears
again, seated o n th e groun d t o lef t wi t h a cushion behi n d
hi m; i n hi s lef t han d i s a vine, one branc h o f whi ch disap -
pears behi nd hi s ri gh t le g after passin g i n front o f his ri gh t
arm, whi c h i s stretche d forwar d wi t h a larg e kantharo s
22-28b; E. Di ehl, Antk Lyr. Graec, vol . 2 (Leipzig , 1925) , 236, frag. 5.
61. Se e A . C . Pearson , Fragments of Sophocles, vol . 1 (Cambridge ,
1917), 173-176 ; S. Radt , Tragicorum Graecorum Fragmenta 4 , Sophoclis
(Gottingen, 1977) , 232f. , frags. 235, 236. E. Maass tried t o show (Phil-
ologus 77 [Leipzig , 1921] , 1-25) tha t Sophocles' Erigone wa s a satyr play
on th e theme of Dionysos an d Ikarios . Hi s thesi s has me t wi t h littl e
acceptance and i s certainly not proven, but we may keep an open mi n d
on R . Pfeiffer' s di ctu m (Kallimachosstudien [Muni ch , 1922] , 10 7 n. 1)
that i t is improbabl e tha t any pre-Hellenisti c poet treated the stor y of
Erigone, daughter of Ikarios.
Two Pelikai by the Pan Painter 85
Figures 5a-b. N eck-amphor a b y the P ri a m Painter . Left: sid e A ; right: side B . C ompi gne, Mus e Vi vene l 975 . P hoto: H ut i n .
toward a poi nted amphora leaning at hi s feet. O n the othe r
side, abov e th e saty r face , i s a tabl e wi t h a bell-krate r
underneath i t , and stretche d ou t o n th e table , feet i n air, i s
the carcass of a he-goat. A t the head (o n the lef t sid e of the
picture) a man i n a short chi ton , patterne d l oi n-cl ot h , an d
shoes ( wor ki n g garb ) stoop s ove r i t , busy wi t h a knife; a t
the tai l a chubby chi l d , nake d bu t fo r shoes, holds the goa t
steady b y th e hi n d legs . M uc h o f th e uppe r par t o f th e
figure scene is missing, i ncl udi ng the man' s head an d shoul -
ders an d th e uppe r par t o f the child' s hea d an d face , bu t
between them , abov e th e goat' s forelegs, hangs a knife cas e
of th e ki n d w e hav e alread y notice d i n a context o f sacri-
fi ce.
6 6
Th e anima l here has surel y been sacrifice d t o the god
i n th e pictur e on the other side. Hai r i s l i ght ly indicate d on
the body i n brown, but th e contour s ar e smoothl y drawn.
A cu p b y th e Heidelber g Painte r o f around th e mi d -
si xth centur y show s i n th e tond o t w o identica l figure s
facing eac h other : beard , i v y wreath, l on g chi ton , fringe d
hi mati on muf f i n g th e ri gh t arm, dri nki ng hor n i n the lef t
hand. Either figure by hi msel f woul d b e identified wi t hou t
hesitation as Dionysos, but Beazley suggested tha t the dop -
pel gnger mi gh t b e I kari os.
6 7
Several slightl y late r picture s
62. Paus . 1,2,4, wi th a mention of Ikarios (cf . 20,2; 38, 8); Schol. Aris-
toph. Acharn., p . 383 G.
63. Berli n Painter ; neck-amphora , Muni c h 876 6 (Para, 342 , t o
ARV
2
, 1700 , no. 2 1 bis; Mjb 31 , [1980] , 6-9 , figs . 1-2) ; Andokide s
Painter: amphora , N e w Yor k 63.11. 6 (Para, 320 , t o ARV
2
, 1617 , no. 2
bis; J. Boardman , Athenian Red Figure Vases. A Handbook [London ,
1975], fig. 6) . See Mjb 3 1 [1980] , 7.
64. Hi l l e r (supra , not e 60) , 105-109, frag. 33 ; Powell , (supra , not e
60), 64, frag. 22.
65. Ferrar a T.256 B VP; ARV
2
, 266 , no. 85, and 1537, no. 5. N. A l f i -
eri, Spina (Bologna , 1979), 9-10, figs. 25-27.
66. Se e supra, wi t h not e 3.
67. Louvr e CA 576; ARV
2
, 63 , no. 3; BeazleyJHS 5 1 (1931) , 278,
no. 3 , an d 283 , figs. 25-27 . Th e unexplaine d subject s o f the exterio r
mi ght conceivabl y be associabl e wi t h som e for m o f the Ikario s story:
side A, three bearded me n capering naked between two pairs of bearded
men standin g clothe d wi t h spears ; side B , between a pai r o f standing,
bearded men , two pairs of youths, one on left wi t h a dog, converging on
a bearded ma n movin g left , al l wi th spear s and clothed , the youth s i n
chlamys only.
86 Robertson
by th e Affecte r sho w Dionyso s handi n g a kantharo s t o a
bearded man; these have been, rather hesitantly , interprete d
i n th e sam e way.
6 8
Th e decorativ e characte r o f the Affec -
ter's wor k an d hi s eviden t lac k i n genera l o f narrative o r
dramatic interes t hav e made scholar s understandabl y loat h
to bui l d muc h o n hi s representation. B u t i f my interpreta -
t i on o f the fa r mor e detaile d an d specifi c scene on th e Pa n
Painter's vase i s ri ght , i t adds strengt h t o th e ide a tha t I ka -
rios may b e meant i n these Archai c pictures .
The Mi ssi o n o f Tri ptol emos begin s t o appea r i n A t t i c
vase-painting i n th e t hi r d quarte r o f th e si xt h century ,
when th e Affecte r seems to have been active, but he has lef t
no pictur e o f i t . I t i s not ver y popula r i n black-figur e an d
not ver y often associated wi t h Dionysia c scenes,
69
but ther e
is one exceptiona l piece whi c h i s of peculiar interes t fo r ou r
enquiry. O n on e sid e o f a neck-amphor a no w i n C om -
pi gne (figs . 5a- b)
7 0
th e P ri a m Painter , rathe r lat e i n th e
si xth century , dre w Tri ptol emo s on hi s wheele d sea t wi t h
grain i n bot h hand s and Herme s wal ki n g i n front l ooki n g
back a t hi m . Tri ptol emo s i s bearde d an d th e sea t ha s n o
wings; thes e ar e bot h regula r feature s i n black-figur e rep -
resentations t hough no t i n red-figure. The artis t has paire d
this wi t h a uni qu e scen e on th e othe r sid e o f the vase . A
satyr walk s i n front , lik e Herme s i n the pictur e o f T r i pt o -
lemos, wi t h a kantharo s i n hi s lef t hand , th e ri gh t han d
raised t o stead y a larg e amphor a o n hi s lef t shoul der .
B ehi nd hi m comes a wi nged seat wi t h a cart-wheel (quit e
diffrent fro m th e chario t whee l Tri ptol emos ' seat alway s
has).
7 1
O n thi s sit s Dionysos , o r a figur e indistinguishabl e
from Dionysos : beard , i v y wreath , chi t o n an d hi mati on ,
kantharos i n the lef t hand , vin e wi t h cluster s i n the ri ght .
T he painte r i s maki n g th e paralle l betwee n th e t w o grea t
gifts a s clearl y and strongl y a s th e Pa n Painte r o r Nonnus .
As notice d i n not e 70 , Tri ptol emo s an d I kario s ar e paire d
i n a n identica l way, traveling on wheele d seats , on anothe r
black-figure amphor a tha t i s no w lost , an d mor e tha n a
century ag o Strub e suggeste d tha t th e "Di onysos " shoul d
really b e calle d I karios . Tha t i s possible ; bu t ther e i s n o
t radi t i on o f I karios being sent out i nt o the wor l d, like T r i p -
tolemos, t o sprea d th e deity' s gift ; indee d suc h a mission i s
incompatible wi t h hi s stor y a s we have i t. I fi nd i t easier t o
suppose that , thoug h th e paralle l wi t h Triptol emo s i s cer -
tainly expl i ci tl y mad e o n thes e t w o black-figur e vases ,
what the y actuall y sho w i s th e go d hi msel f bri ngi ng th e
vine t o I karios . The wi ngi n g o f one sea t and no t th e othe r
by th e P ri a m Painte r mi gh t possibl y b e mean t t o se t th e
god of f from th e mortal . I f the t i n y curve d ar c of relief line
at th e edg e of the loos e fragmen t o f the Pa n Painter' s vase
(fig. l g )
7 2
i s compass-drawn (i t i s too smal l for on e t o b e
sure), i t coul d b e fro m a wheel -ri m, and w e shoul d hav e
here Dionysos neithe r standin g no r seate d on a throne, bu t
on a wheeled sea t lik e Triptolemo s o n th e othe r side . Th e
palmette-topped shaf t woul d the n b e th e sea t back. T r i p -
tolemos' sea t i s most ofte n a backless stool , but o n a t leas t
one exampl e i t ha s a tall , vertica l back endin g i n a gri ffi n
head.
7 3
I a m awar e o f n o red-figur e vas e othe r tha n th e Pa n
Painter's pelik e whi c h present s th e paralle l between T r i p -
tolemos an d I kario s so clearly, but a number sho w th e M i s -
sion o f Triptolemos balance d b y a conventional Dionysia c
revel. A splendi d exampl e i s a vol ute-krate r at Stanfor d
recently publishe d b y Isabell e an d A nt on y Raubitsche k
wi t h a convi nci ng ascription t o th e Kl eopho n Painter an d
a most valuabl e survey o f the Triptolemos theme, whi c h o n
the Stanfor d vas e has ver y unusua l features.
74
Th e Di ony -
siac picture on th e bac k i s l i nked t o the othe r b y the move -
ment an d glanc e o f Pan (named ) unde r on e handle .
O n som e vases the pictur e of Triptol emos is balanced b y
one whi c h relate s to hi m i n a slightl y differen t aspectno t
as the emissar y t o manki nd bearing a di vi ne gift, bu t a s th e
mortal prot g o f a dei t y o r deities . Thu s o n th e Spin a
pelike the Pa n Painte r pair s Tri ptol emos and th e Eleusinia n
goddesses on one sid e wi t h , o n the other , a youth receiving
shield an d helme t fro m a woman, wi t h a second woma n
bearing greave s an d a warri or i n attendance . Beyon d rea -
sonable doub t the y ar e Achille s an d hi s goddess-mothe r
68. ABV, 241E , nos . 23 , 34, 37, 44, 46, 60, and 89 ; H . Mommsen,
Der Affecter (Mainz , 1975), nos. 59, 70, 87, 92, 103, 106, and 109 , pis. 67,
75, 94, 101, 115, 119, and 123 .
69. Thre e black-figur e neck-amphorae tha t d o hav e such a pairing
are liste d by I . and A . Raubitschek i n Studies in Athenian Architecture,
Sculpture and Topography Presented to Homer A. Thompson. Hesperia, sup -
plement 2 0 (1982) , 110 n. 7. Thi s important articl e gives ful l referenc e
to earlier discussions o f Triptolemos' Mission in Attic vase-painting an d
lists the black-figur e examples (109f , n. 3). See further infr a wi t h not e
74.
70. Mus e Vivenel 975; ABV, 331 , no. 13; Gerhard (supra , not e 53) ,
pi . 41; CVA, pi . 10; AJA 8 2 (1978) , 376, figs. 5-6. I am mos t grateful t o
C. Lapointe , Director , Mus e Vivenel , fo r th e photograph s (clich
H ut i n) an d permission t o publish them. Hammond and Moon (AJA 8 2
[1978], 376) se e the Dionysos picture as a "parody" of the Triptolemos;
see als o W. Moon, Ancient Greek Art and Iconography (Madison, 1983) ,
117 n. 45 (i n a study o f other aspect s of this interesting painter' s i con -
ography an d styl e on whi ch a fuller wor k i s promised).
The two principal figures, wi thout their attendants, were shown also
on th e t wo sides of a lost black-figure neck-amphora (Lenorman t col -
lection) o f the same date: Lenormant an d d e Wi t t e, El, vol . 3, pl . 49A;
Overbeck, KM, pis . 5a-b an d 15 ; A. B. Cook, Zeus: A Study in Ancient
Religion, vol . 1 (Cambridge , 1914-1940) , 214 , figs . 5a-b . Triptolemo s
carries a scepter a s wel l a s th e grai n ears , an d th e seat s of bot h hav e
chariot wheels wi t hout wings. As noted by Cook, loc. cit., n. 1, C. Strub e
(Studien iiber dem Bildkreis von Eleusis [Leipzig , 1870] , 8) suggested that
the Dionysia c figur e her e wa s Ikarios , Dionysos ' protg paire d wi t h
Demeter's. I owe this important reference t o Dr. Gerda Schwarz o f Graz,
who i s preparing a book on Triptolemos.
71. Th e car t whee l i s reall y more suitabl e t o th e travelin g seat tha n
the chariot wheel , since chariot s wer e bui l t for standing i n and cart s for
sitting i n. Good example s ca n be seen on the Amasi s Painter' s wedding
Two Pelikai by the Pan Painter 87
Thetis, wi t h a nerei d an d eithe r Patroklo s o r Anti l ochos ,
depending o n whethe r thi s i s th e firs t o r secon d sui t o f
armor.
7 5
T h e pelik e by the Triptol emo s Painter i n C open -
hagen
7 6
ha s identicall y compose d picture s o n eithe r side .
O n on e i s a uni qu e renderi n g o f T ri pt ol emos . H e sit s
(named) t o lef t o n a stool wi t h a patterned cl ot h ove r i t .
He i s bearde d (a s normal l y i n black-figur e bu t almos t
never i n red-fi gure) ; his hai r i s looped u p unde r a myrtl e
wreath. H e hold s a scepte r i n hi s lef t hand , leanin g i t
against hi s shoulder, ri gh t hand extende d wi t h a phiale i nt o
whi ch a standing goddes s pours fro m a j ug, whi l e sh e lift s
grai n i n he r lef t hand . B ehi n d T ri pt ol emo s stands th e
second goddes s wi t h a wreat h i n bot h hands . Th e revers e
of the painter' s nam e vase , a stamnos i n the L ouvr e wi t h a
nor mal T ri pt ol emo s pi ct ur e o n th e f r ont ,
7 7
show s a
bearded figure , th e t wi n o f the Copenhage n Triptolemo s
but no t named , standi n g front al , scepte r i n lef t hand ,
empty phial e i n ri ght , betwee n t wo flaming altars . B ehi nd
the alta r on the lef t stand s a goddess wi t h a torch i n either
hand; behi nd th e othe r alta r the second goddes s i s pouri ng
wi ne on the flames fro m a j ug. The bearded figur e ha s bee n
called Keleo s o r P l uton , but a s Beazle y point s out ,
7 8
"th e
persons on B mi gh t b e expecte d t o b e th e same as o n th e
N y Carlsber g pelike. " T o sugges t o n thi s evidence , a s h e
very tentativel y does , tha t th e i nscri pti o n o n th e pelik e
mi ght b e a mistake , seem s ba d method . Perhap s i n bot h
cases we mi gh t se e th e ma n a s th e matur e Triptolemos ,
back i n Eleusis, hi s mission completed.
O n th e othe r sid e of the Copenhage n pelik e a youth sit s
to th e lef t o n a stoo l wi t h a patterne d cl oth , exactl y lik e
Triptolemos o n th e fron t bu t wi t h not hi n g i n hi s hands .
B ehi nd hi m a femal e figur e stand s wi t h a wreat h i n bot h
hands, agai n exactl y lik e th e goddes s behi n d Triptolemo s
on th e othe r side . T he standing figur e i n front o n thi s side,
however, i s Poseidon, tri dent in ri ght hand, fis h i n left, an d
the pictur e undoubtedl y shows Theseu s between Poseido n
and A mphi t ri t e : anothe r morta l wi t h hi s di vi n e patrons .
O n th e F rankfor t cup wi t h th e nam e o f Brygos as potter ,









Tri ptol emos' Mi ssi o n i s balance d b y th e punishmen t o f
Aglauros an d Herse : Demeter' s goo d bo y agains t Athena' s
bad gi rl s.
7 9
Th e pai ri n g o f Triptolemos wi t h Marpess a o n
a Manneris t amphor a i n L ondon
8 0
seems looser , Apollo' s
interest i n Marpessa bein g of a different ki nd and , further ,
rejected. A skyphos i n Brussels, attri bute d to the Painter of
the Yal e L ekythos,
8 1
has o n on e sid e Triptolemo s and o n
the othe r th e I ni t i at i o n o f Herakles, anothe r god-chose n
mortal , bu t her e pl ainl y th e commo n Eleusinia n setting i s
a poi nt of greater importance . The skypho s look s ahead t o
fourth-century treatments .
O f particula r interes t ar e th e othe r figure s o n th e sky -
phos by Makron, whose Triptolemos picture, as we noticed,
stands in a close relation to that on the Pan Painter' s Mal i b u
pel i ke.
8 2
Under handl e A / B , behin d Eleusis, sits Eumolppos
(sic, fig . 2d), a n Eleusinia n figur e o f importance, s o con -
nected wi t h th e mai n scene . H e look s ove r hi s shoulde r
toward i t , but hi s knees t urn th e other way, l i nki ng hi m t o
the deities on the back. Under an added-red myrt l e wreat h
his l ong hai r i s loose o n hi s shoulders; h e wear s chi to n an d
hi mati on an d hold s a scepter . Unde r th e othe r handle ,
behi nd Demeter , sit s Poseidon (fig . 2b) , whose son E umol -
pos i s sometimes sai d t o b e thoug h thi s may i n ori gi n b e a
confusion betwee n differen t characters o f the same name.
8 3
Posei don, t oo , wear s chi t o n an d hi mat i o n and ha s a n
added-red myrt l e wreath , unde r whi c h hi s hai r i s looped
wi t h onl y on e l oc k loose . H e too looks over hi s shoulder a t
the scene of Tri ptol emos' departure, bu t by the di recti on in
whi ch he sits, he belongs wi t h th e figures on the back. N ext
to hi m hi s wi f e A mphi t r i t e stand s t o lef t l ooki n g bac k a t
her husband . He r hai r i s looped up unde r a reserved fillet ,
and wi t h he r ri gh t han d sh e lift s he r hi mati on , exposin g
the chi to n wi t h dee p overfold. N ex t t o Eumolpos ( a swa n
or goos e walk s betwee n them ) stand s Zeu s t o ri gh t i n
chi ton an d hi mati on , hi s hai r loope d u p (on e loc k loose )
under a red-figur e myrt l e wreat h (th e wreaths o f E umol -
pos an d Poseido n ar e i n adde d red) , scepte r i n lef t hand ,
thunderbol t i n ri ght. Between Zeus and A mphi t ri t e , occu -
lekythos (N e w York 56.11.1; Para, 66, below; AntK3 [1960] , pi . 7), an
the racin g cart o n th e Burgo n Panathenai c (Londo n B 130 ; ABV, 89
no. 1; JHS 8 0 [1960] , pi . 2). A processional shi p cart i n whi ch Dionyso
rides wi t h satyr s on some late black-figure skyphoi is fitted wi t h wheel
of thi s type : Athens , Akr . 1281; Langlotz, pi. 74; Haspels, ABL, 250
no. 29; Bologna 130; CVA, pi . 43; Haspels, ABL, 25 , no. 15.
72. Se e supra, wi t h not e 5.
73. Bell-krater , London E 496; ARV
2
, 620 , Vi l l a Giuli a Painter no
23; RbmMittll (1912) , Beilage at 286, 2.
74. I . an d A . Raubitschek (supra , not e 69) , 116f, pi . 15b.
75. Supra , wi t h note s 36, 37. The appea l o f Thetis and Eos t o Zeu
on th e bac k o f the Oreithyi a Painter' s bell-krate r wi t h Triptolemo
(Palermo V 779; ARV
2
, 496 , no. 5; CVA, pis . 35-37) relate s t o the sam
theme but hardl y makes a parallel in the same way.
76. Supra , not e 28.
77. Louvr e G 187 ; ARV
2
, 361 , no. 2; CVA, pi . 20, 3 and 6.
d
,
s
s
,
.
s
s
e
78. ARV
2
, 1648 , addenda to p. 361.
79. Frankfort , Liebieghaus S T V 7; ARV
2
, 386 , below; K. Schefold,
Gottersagen (Muni ch , 1981) , 50, figs. 57-60 ( A and B ). The tondoshows
Poseidon pursuing a woman, and the name of Ai thra has been suggested ,
but i t woul d b e stretching the evidenc e t o see her e another allusio n to
Theseus. Anothe r cu p wi t h th e nam e o f Brygos a s potter , los t an d
known onl y i n a brief description (ARV
2
, 398 , no. 10) , balanced T ri p -
tolemos wi t h Menelao s and Helen. I f Aphrodit e were shown protecting
Helen, i t could fin d a place i n this context.
80. Londo n 95.10-31.1; ARV
2
, 583 , no. 1; CVA, pis . 4,1 and 12,4.
81. Brussel s A 10; ARV
2
, 661 , no. 86; CVA, pi . 18,1 .
82. Supra , wi t h not e 44.
83. Se e Roscher (supra , not e 59) , s.v. "Eumolpos."
88 Robertson
Figures 6a-b. F ragment s o f a smal l pel i ke b y t h e Pa n Painter . M al i bu , T h e J. Pau l Get t y Museu m 76.AE . 102.29-30.
pyi ng th e cente r o f thi s sid e (fig . 2c), stands Dionyso s t o
ri ght wi t h l on g hai r loos e o n hi s shoulder s unde r a red -
figure i v y wreath . Hi s ri gh t han d i s muffle d unde r hi s
mantle. A s staff he has a fennel stalk, but instea d o f a bunc h
of i v y leaves ti ed t o the top t o make a true thyrsos , he hold s
t wo loos e i v y sprays there .
The Mi ssi o n of Triptolemos i s certainl y the mai n them e
of thi s vase, but th e attitude s o f the figure s unde r th e han -
dles an d th e Eleusinia n characte r o f Eumolpos sho w tha t
the whol e decoratio n ha s a uni ty . Th e reason s fo r th e
choice o f the othe r deitie s ar e not clear , bu t Dionyso s takes
pride o f place o n th e reverse , and thi s i s evidentl y anothe r
case of the pai ri ng of the gift s of grai n and vine . I n the l i gh t
of th e Pa n Painter' s picture , i t i s o f interest tha t th e wi n e
god i s given an unfinishe d thyrsos.
84
We ma y en d wi t h anothe r l oo k at th e hydri a b y th e
Kleophrades Painter , whi c h wa s menti one d abov e fo r it s
myrtl e-wreathed Di onysos.
8 5
Wha t th e go d carrie s her e i s
neither thyrso s no r fenne l stal k bu t si mpl y a spray o f i vy .
N one o f th e figure s i n th e pictur e ha s a thyrsos , bu t th e
satyr wh o recline s pi pi n g a t th e god' s fee t an d th e thre e
maenads wh o cavor t aroun d h i m wea r i v y wreath s i n
added red.
8 6
Th e maenads ' bl ond hai r i s loose, an d the y ar e
stri ki ngl y lik e th e gi r l i n the Pa n Painter' s picture . One o f
them, too , look s ful l at u s lik e th e saty r there . Th e Kl eo -
phrades Painter i s of a very different temperament fro m hi s
considerably younge r ri val ; bu t thes e t w o vases , whi c h
must b e ver y clos e t o eac h othe r i n date, seem t o m e als o
unusually alik e i n feelingan unexpecte d an d attractiv e
rapprochement.
T wo fragment s fro m th e t w o side s o f a smal l pelike i n
Mal i bu (fig . 6a-b) wer e ascribe d t o th e Pa n Painte r b y
84. I am grateful t o Lucill a B urn of the British Museum for drawing
my attention t o the importance o f Dionysos on Makron' s skyphos .
85. Supra , wi t h note s 45 and 51.
86. Thi s corrects a misstatement i n my "C orn and Vine on a Vase by
the Pan Painter, " supra , at the beginning of the notes.
87. M al i bu , T h e J . Pau l Get t y Museu m 76.AE . 102.29 an d
76.AE. 102.30. I am mos t gratefu l t o Dr . von Bothmer fo r allowing m e
to publish this vase. Fragment aMaximu m length: 8 cm. Wi t hin neck ,
shiny black; wi t hi n body , rough black. Fragment bMaxi mu m length:
5 cm . Wi t hi n , roug h black ; relie f contour : lowe r par t o f lef t sid e o f
skyphos; no dilut e black or added color .
88. ARV
2
, 555 , nos. 88-92; 1659, nos. 91 bis, 92 bis, and 93 bis.
89. Becker , vol . 1 , 54-55, and nos . 190-197 .
90. Vienn a 3727; ARV
2
,555, no . 88; CVA, pi . 76, 1-3; Beazley, Panm.,
pi . 23, 1-2. Louvre G 547; ARV
2
,555, no . 89; CJ^4 d, pi. 46, 1-3; Beazley,
Panm., pi . 23,3; Follmann, pi. 9, 1.
91. Beazley , Panm., 13 ; Beazley, Pan P., 4.
92. Follmann , 40, 43. See supra, note 33.
93. C B 2, 55-61; lis t of 28 vases, 58-60. The y ar e furthe r discusse d
by John Boardma n i n an articl e in this volume, p. 35.
94. Alkimacho s Painter : list , C B 2 , no . 23 ; Mannerists : ibid. , nos .
17-22.
Two Pelikai by the Pan Painter 89
Di et ri ch vo n B othmer , who als o identifie d an d presente d
the ri ght -hand part o f fragments a and b.
8 7
Fragment a , 76.AE . 102.29Under a band o f ovolo, t wo
"Anakreonti c" komast s fac e on e anothe r i n a dance. O f the
one on the left , onl y th e front o f the head remains , wearing
a sakkos , wi t h th e ea r an d a bi t of temple hai r i n front o f
i t , o r rathe r bel o w i t, showi ng that th e head wa s ben t ver y
sharply, l ooki ng at the ground. More survives of hi s partner ,
whose hea d wa s likewis e bent forward , t houg h no t qui t e
so far . T he sakko s o n hi s head swing s up wi t h th e forc e of
the movement . Ea r an d templ e hai r ar e preserved, wi t h a n
eyebrow an d par t o f an ey e and o f the beard, a s wel l a s th e
broad nec k an d par t o f the hi mati on whi ch cover s a n ar m
flung bac k an d u p (th e lef t i f the figur e i s i n fron t view ,
ri ght i f i n back).
Fragment b, 76. A E. 102.30The front o f a woman's hea d
is preserved t o just belo w the mout h, and he r lef t ar m an d
hand extende d forwar d wi t h a large skyphos hel d upri ght
by the foot . T he edge of a garment i s visible at the shoulder ,
and she wear s a sakkos, th e templ e hai r appearing bel ow i t.
Profile an d i nteri o r o f the fragment s sho w tha t th e to p o f
the skypho s i s about leve l wi t h th e l eft-han d man' s ear o n
fragment a . The woman was probabl y seated, but she coul d
have bee n crouchi n g o r bendin g forward , possibl y i n a
dance. Abov e her forehea d appear s the narrow end o f some
object, conceivabl y a dri nki ng horn . There wer e n o doub t
t wo figure s on each sid e of the vase.
The vas e mus t hav e belonge d t o th e Clas s o f the Pa n
Painter's Smal l P el i kai ,
8 8
whi c h Becke r subsume s i n he r
X X , Clas s o f the Smal l Pelikai by the Gera s Painter.
8 9
Th e
pictures whi c h th e Gera s Painte r put s o n hi s vases of thi s
ki nd ma y perhaps be thought o f as crude imitation s of the
Pan Painter's . Th e drawi n g on ou r fragment s i s undoubt -
edly b y th e Pa n Painter , a s B othme r saw . O n thes e l i ttl e
vases he sketches scenes, often odd ones, qui ckl y an d freely ,
sometimes the y ar e careless , bu t the y ar e almos t alway s
fresh an d del i ghtful . O u r fragment s hav e thes e qualities t o
a hi g h degre e an d see m particularl y close t o th e master -
pieces of the Class , th e Vi enna fisher-pelike an d on e i n the
L ouvre wi t h a mistress an d a slave gi r l at a big tub, probably
washing clothes.
90
Beazle y speaks of the Clas s a s belonging
to th e sam e peri o d a s th e Bosto n Pan-krate r itself,
91
an d
F ol l mann, who date s that piec e late r i n the painter' s caree r
than I do, put s some wi t h i t , some later st i l l .
9 2
N on e surel y
is early , an d I shoul d suppos e tha t ther e ar e fifteen o r
t went y year s between th e t wo Gett y pelikai .
"Anakreonti c" komast s (bearde d reveler s i n drag) wer e
listed an d discusse d b y Beazley.
93
Our s ar e th e first t o b e
recognized i n th e wor k o f the Pa n Painter , thoug h ther e
are example s b y artist s who stan d i n some relation to hi m:
one b y the Al ki macho s Painter an d severa l fro m th e M an -
nerist workshop.
9 4
On e o f thes e i s o n th e onl y lekytho s
attri buted t o the Mannerist workshop, and i t is said to hav e
been foun d wi t h on e by the Pan Painter whi c h i t resemble s
i n shape and ornament.
9 5
Th e skyphos hel d by the woma n
on ou r secon d fragmen t shows tha t th e mot i f was a dr i nk -
i ng scene, but whether she was strictl y par t of a komos, one
cannot b e sure. O n a hydria fragment b y the B erl i n Painter ,
a naked woma n i n a sakkos, wi t h a cloak loosel y slung over
her shoulders , hold s a bi g skypho s o n he r extende d lef t
hand bu t look s th e othe r way.
9 6
Sh e clearl y belong s t o a
komos, and ou r woman may have too. That the edge of the
woman' s garmen t o n ou r fragmen t look s mor e a s thoug h
i t i s par t o f a dress than o f a loose cloa k does not rul e ou t
this context, but the figure i n the Pan Painter' s wor k who m
she mos t resemble s i s diffrent . O n a slight bu t charmi n g
lekythos i n Have r ford Col l ege,
9 7
whi c h mus t belon g t o
much th e sam e ti m e a s th e l i ttl e pelika i an d i s simila r i n
character, a woman wearin g sakkos, chi ton , an d hi mati on
sits t o lef t wi t h a cake (perhaps ) i n her lef t han d an d he r
ri ght han d hel d forwar d wi t h a large skyphos . I n front o f
her stand s a slave gi r l wi t h a ladl e i n her ri gh t han d poise d
above th e skypho s an d a phial e i n he r lef t hand . A cu p
hangs o n th e wal l an d a lidde d psykte r stand s betwee n
t hem. 98 B ot hmer has not ed how cl osel y t he pai r resembl e
the woman and girl on the Louvre pelike99 and charmingly
suggests that the y ar e the same people, perhaps members o f
the painter' s household , a t wor k an d relaxing . It woul d b e
natural t o restor e ou r figur e o n th e line s o f that one , an d
that may well be right; but ours seems more mouvemente
and he r activ e participatio n in a komos o n th e line s sug -
gested abov e cannot b e rule d out .
Cambridge
on an d th e positio n of the ladl e fit s bette r wi t h Bothmer' s vie w (se e
next note) tha t i t is being ladled from th e skyphos int o the bowl i n the
girl's hand. On e woul d thi nk , however , tha t th e larg e skyphos canno t
have muc h i n i t , for unlik e thos e o n th e Gett y fragmen t an d o n th e
fragment b y the Berli n Painte r (supra , wi t h not e 96) , the skypho s o n
the Haverford vase is not held underneath, but apparentl y by one handl e
(on th e far side, though the handl e tha t shoul d correspond t o i t on th e
near side i s not shown).
99. Bothmer , AJA 6 1 (1957) , 310.
95. Bosto n 13.199; ARV
2
, 558 , no. 73; CB 2, 55-61 n. 93, 55ff. , no .
99, pi. 51,3, list no. 17. See Beazley, 55.
96. Athens , Akr . 933; Langlotz , pi . 77; ARV
2
, 210 , no. 177 ; D. C .
Kurtz and J. D. Beazley, The Berlin Painter (Oxford , 1983) , 105, no. 66,
pis. 30 and 60a .
97. H . Comfort, Attic and South Italian Painted Vases at HaverfordCol-
lege (Haverford , 1956) , no. 24 ; ARV
2
, 557 , no. 116 ; J. V. Noble, The
Techniques of Painted Attic Pottery (N ew York, 1965), fig. 125. See fol l ow-
ing notes .
98. Th e actio n i s no t perfectl y clear . Nobl e (supra , not e 97 , 19) ,
seems to i mpl y that wine is being ladled from th e psykter, but the l i d is
90 Robertson
POSTSCRI PT
When I wrote thi s article, I knew th e L ouvr e fragment s
onl y i n photograph. Whe n I examined th e originals , I sa w
that wi ne ( i n added red ) i s shown pouri ng from Kore' s j ug.
Thus th e Pa n Painte r her e combine s th e l i bati o n wi t h th e
moment o f handi ng ove r th e grain-ears .
For A dol f Greifenhagen o n hi s
ei ghti eth bi rthda y
A Chous by the Oionokles Painter
Elfriede R. Knauer
T he J . Pau l Gett y Museu m ha s a red-figur e chous , a
wi ne j u g o f a typ e wel l documente d i n classica l ar t an d
literature (figs , l a- c , g) .
2
Undecorate d fo r norma l every -
day us e bu t adorne d wi t h fi gure-wor k fo r specia l purposes,
the chou s stands out amon g th e te n know n type s o f oi no -
choai fo r it s siz e an d sturdiness.
3
Thes e potter y pitcher s
were designe d fo r l adl i n g an d pouri n g wi ne . Firs t con -
ceived i n Atti c a about th e mi ddl e o f th e si xt h centur y B.C. ,
the shap e wa s wel l establishe d b y th e earl y fi ft h centur y





Abbreviations:
Add: L . B urn and R . Gl ynn , comps., Beazley Addenda, Additiona l Ref-
erences to ABV, A R V
2
an d Paralipomen a (Oxford , 1982) .
BPP: B . A. Sparkes and L . Talcott, Black and Plain Pottery of the 6th, 5th
and 4th Centuries. Th e Atheni a n Agora , vol . 12 (P ri nceton ,
1970).
1. Aristophanes , Thesm. 633: oncpiov ZvvXX TTT]0V' o yp i)v fiis
(Xenylla requeste d a basin, fo r ther e was n o chambe r pot) . The Loe b
translation (B . Bickle y Roger s [1924 , reprin t 1972 ] reads : Scaphium
petiit Xenylla, matula enim non aderat. I would like to thank R udol f Kassel
who befor e it s publicatio n has generousl y opene d t o m e th e page s of
Poetae Comici Graeci, vol . 3, 2 , Aristophanes. Testimoni a e t Fragmenta ,
R . Kasse l an d C . Austin , eds. (Berli n an d N e w York , 1984) . Se e als o
note 11.
I a m much indebte d t o Dietrich von Bothmer fo r hi s comments an d
criticism of the manuscript an d for liberal access to hi s phot o collection
and notes . H e does not, however , shar e my conviction as t o the ascrip -
ti on of the vase.
2. Mal i b u 86.AE.237 . Height : 2 3 cm ; diamete r (belly) : 18. 6 cm ;
diameter (foot) : 12. 3 cm. Portions ar e broken and repaired, wi t h severa l
small part s missing and restore d i n plaster, including the lowe r back o f
the lef t leg and th e front of the lef t foot of the youth; part o f the bottom
and spou t o f the jar h e holds ; par t o f the lef t thig h o f the man . Th e
chous is glazed inside (poorly ) and out ; the glaze has misfire d on a large
part o f the surface , an d th e chous i s unglazed beneat h and a t th e lowe r
edge of the foot . Relie f lines o f the ornamen t includ e two line s eac h
framing th e uppe r border ; th e undulatin g lin e o f the border-pattern ;
and the handle-palmette throughout , except wi t hi n the tendri l coils and
the reserve d shiel d above. Relie f contours ar e found on al l of the man' s
body except hi s right hand, chi n (beard) , hair , and th e sol e of his right
foot; throughou t th e boy' s bod y an d al l objects hel d b y hi m, except i n
the outlin e o f the hea d an d bot h soles ; (th e damage d contou r o f th e
man's righ t forear m wa s retouche d b y a restorer , a s wer e th e glaz e
between th e fingers o f his right hand an d the boy' s nose and eye) . Relief
lines ar e found o n th e ear , brow, moustache, upper edge of beard, fillet ,
penis, and mantl e folds of the man, on the fringes o f the boy' s hair , an d
on the patter n an d string s o f the basket . Relief lines affected b y damage
to surface include the boy' s ey e and brow, the basket , and probabl y th e
contour o f the ivy-decke d chous; also damaged ar e mos t o f the interior
and conti nue d dee p i nt o th e fourt h . A mon g th e preserve d
choes, smaller o r mi ni atur e examples prevail.
4
T he vas e i n th e Gett y Museu m i s on e o f th e fe w f ul l -
size, red-figur e shape- 3 vessel s t o hav e survive d fro m th e
first decade s o f th e fi ft h centur y B.C.
5
Typicall y i t ha s a
bulbous body whi ch rise s in a continuous curve from a l o w
spreading foo t i nt o a stee p neck. I t s trefoi l mout h i s onl y
moderately pul l ed i n an d i s flat o n top . Th e slightl y slopin g
spout facilitate s pouri ng . Th e handle , triangular i n section ,
body marking s i n dilut e glaze. The y ar e preserve d o n th e man' s right
shoulder an d (partly ) on hi s legs , on th e fillet , cloth-patter n an d clot h
fringes, and on the i vy wreath of the chous. Added red is found on leaves
of th e wreat h o f the ma n (muc h worn ) an d o n strap s o f the basket .
Remains o f a preliminar y sketc h ca n b e see n on th e lef t thig h o f th e
youth, on the lef t hee l of the reveler , and o n the basket . Circa 470 B . C .
References: H . Cah n an d A . Emmerich, Masterpieces of Greek Vase
Painting, 7th to 5th century B . C . , ex . cat . (Ne w York, 1964) , no. 30; Welt-
kunst aus Privatbesitz, ex . cat . (Cologne , 1968) , no. A 35 (K . Schauen-
burg); D. von Bothmer an d J. Bean , Greek Vases andModern Drawings
from the Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Walter Bareiss, ex . cat . (N e w York ,
The Metropolita n Museum o f A rt, 1969) , 5, no. 59; Greek Vases: Molly
and Walter Bareiss Collection, ex . cat . (Mal i bu , Th e J . Pau l Gett y
Museum, 1983) , no . 38, pp. 5 4 an d 77 . (Th e firs t thre e reference s ar e
owed t o D. von Bothmer) .
I than k Jin Fre l for permission t o publish the chous and Mari on True
for providing both a careful description of the vase's condition and muc h
aid from afar .
3. Fo r the classification of shapes, see ARV
2
, XL I X- L , chous : oi no-
choe, shape 3. G. M . A. Pdchter and M . J. Mi l ne , Shapes and Names of
Athenian Vases (N ew York, 1935) , 18-20 .
4. G . Van Hoorn, Choes and Anthesteria (Leiden , 1951); A. Rumpf ,
"Attische Feste-Attische Vasen, " BonnJbb 161 (1961), 208-214; A. Grei-
fenhagen, "Ei n Satyrspie l de s Aischylos? " 118. Winckelmannsprogramm
(Berlin, 1963) ; BPP, 14fF. , 60-62. J. R . Green, " A Series of Added-Red -
Figure Choes, " A4 4 (1970) , 475-487; idem, "Choes of the Late r Fift h
Century, " BSA 6 6 (1971) , 189-228. Se e also idem, BICS no . 19 (1972) ;
E. M . Stern, "Kinderkannche n zu m Choenfest, " Thiasos (Amsterdam ,
1978), 27-37; A . J . Clark, "The Earlies t Know n Chous by th e Amasi s
Painter," MM A] 1 5 ( 1981 ), 35-49 (referenc e owe d t o D. von Bothmer) ;
see als o tex t t o th e t w o choe s i n W r z bur g , M ar t i n vo n Wagne r
Museum H5387 and H4937, ARV
2
, 871,95 , CVA 2, 24-28 , pis . 16, 17, 1-
2, 18 , 19, 1-4 . Fo r oinochoa i pi cture d o n vase s see : H . Gericke ,
Gefafidarstellungen auf griechischen Vasen (Berlin, 1970) , 147-160 . I a m
much oblige d t o J. R . Gree n wh o enlightene d m e o n the developmen t
of the shape by generousl y providin g a sequence of his profil e drawings
of choes from th e firs t hal f of the fift h century .
5. Othe r examples , wi t h references in Add: ARV
2
,118,2 (Para, 332 ) ;
210,186 (1634 ; Para, 343 ; Add, 97) ; 210,187; 229,46; 242,78 (Add, 100) ;
92 Knauer
Figure la. Chous , front . Malibu , The J. Pau l Gett y M u-
seum 86.AE.237 .
Figure lb. Sid e of chous, figure la .
Figure 1c. To p view o f chous, figure la .
Figure Id. Detai l of chous, figure la .
A Chous by the Oionokles Painter 93
Figure Ig. Profil e o f chous , figur e l a . Dr awi n g b y Mart h a Bree n
Bredemeyer.
Figure le. Revers e of chous, figure la . Figure lf. Handle-palmett e of chous, figure la .
94 Knauer
has it s roo t halfwa y up , at th e greates t wi dt h o f th e body .
Taut i n outl i ne , th e handl e juts ou t abov e i nt o th e orifice.
6
Less typi cal tha n it s form , however , i s th e decoratio n o f
the Gett y chous (fig . I d) . Th e picture , unframed, i s define d
by a n uppe r an d l owe r border . Th e maeande r bas e differ s
from ordi nar y one-directiona l band s b y it s alternatel y
vol te-faci ng units : a pai r o f maeander s t o ri ght , a cross -
square, a pai r o f maeander s t o left , a checkerboard , a pai r
of maeander s t o ri ght , a checkerboard, a pai r o f maeander s
to left , an d a fina l cross-square.
7
T h e pronounce d uppe r
border, a s wi d e a s th e cente r foi l o f th e mout h an d thu s
enhancing th e stee p neck , display s a n unusua l patter n o f
alternating tear-shape d drops , frame d b y th e dense , snak y
curves o f a relie f line . A l t houg h thi s patter n occur s onl y
rarely o n cerami c shapes,
8
i t i s no t unusua l fo r borde r dec -
orations o f red-figur e choe s t o displa y rathe r uncommo n
patterns.
9
A heart-shape d circumscribe d palmett e wi t h
seven hangin g petal s an d a blac k do t i n th e cente r shiel d
rivets the handl e-roo t t o th e bod y o f the vas e (figs , l e - f ) .
1 0
T H E P I C T UR E
A bearde d revele r wi t h broa d dotte d fille t an d wreath ,
naked bu t fo r a mantl e slung ove r hi s lef t shoulde r an d hi s
left an d uppe r ri gh t arms , appear s i n hi s grea t excitemen t
almost unawar e o f hi s boy-servant' s rescu e operation. Th e
small procession , o n it s wa y t o th e ri ght , ha s com e t o a
stop, an d th e bo y mus t hav e turne d aroun d t o answe r hi s
master's cal l fo r th e substitut e receptacle : " fxia 77a?."
11
T he reveler' s grand gesture , half-open mout h , an d inspire d
upward gaz e seem t o reflec t hi s devoti o n t o th e go d whos e
242,79 (1638) ; 544, 66-67; 595,71 bis (1660; Para, 394); 595,72 (Para, 513;
Add, 129) ; 606,8 3 (Add, 130) ; 607,8 4 (Add, 130) ; 607, 85-86 ; 607,8 7
(1661); 611,40 (1661 ; Para, 396; Add, 131) ; 658,22; 688f, 255-257; 776, 1
(1669; Para, 416 ; Add, 141) ; 776, 2 (1669) ; 871,91-95 (Para, 426 ; Add,
147).
Chous i s a measure of capacity. Fo r the lates t discussio n o f the l i qui d
contents o f such jugs, see Clar k (supra , not e 4) , 47-49, an d H . Busing,
"Metrologische Beitrage, " Jdl 9 7 (1982) , 1-45 , esp . 28f : on e chou s =
3.2825 liters . The chou s i n th e Gett y Museu m hold s 3.0 5 liter s whe n
filled wi t h ric e t o the bottom of the nec k an d 3.55 liter s when fille d t o
the bri m (measure d b y Mari on True) .
6. Fo r th e changin g characteristic s i n the cours e of the firs t hal f of
the fift h century , see BPP, pi . 6 and 60-63; J. R . Gree n (supra , not e 4) ,
(1970), 484f ; (1971) , 189-191; and (1972) , 6f. I n a letter of November
11, 1983, J. R . Gree n writes :
"...earlier i s taller-looking wi th th e greates t diamete r relativel y
high. I n earlier versions th e formation of the mout h i s relatively
simple: mor e upright , les s full y modelled , th e cla y a t th e li p
squared of f more than thinned. I n the view from above , the fron t
and back halves o f the mout h tend t o be more equal i n size, wi t h
the side s pulled i n onl y slightly. The overal l tendency i s for th e
back hal f to widen , almost a t th e expens e of the front , s o tha t
ultimately, in the thi r d quarter o f the century, one has somethin g
much mor e lik e a tru e trefoil . Similarly , whe n see n fro m th e
front, th e mout h begins t o spread out mor e and th e clay is made
thi nner a t th e l i p . Whi l e thi s happens , th e bod y become s
plumper an d th e centre of gravity drops. "
He suggest s tha t th e shap e of the Gett y Museu m chou s b e compare d
wi t h th e Tarquini a Painter's choes (ARV2, 871, 91-95 ) an d leans toward
a dat e of circa 470 B . C . A useful compariso n i s provided on plat e 87 of
C ^4 Muni c h 2: The mout h of the Berli n Painter' s chous (2453, ARV2,
210,187) ha s a flat to p an d th e greates t diamete r i s found hig h on th e
jug, muc h lik e the Gett y chous , whil e th e mout h o f the late r chous by
the N i obi d Painte r (2454 , ARV2, 607,84 ) i s sharpened and thinne r an d
has the widest diameter lowe r down.
7. Fo r a maeander that similarl y changes direction, see the chous by
the Berli n Painter , ARV2, 210,187 . More important for the Gett y chous
seem th e parallel s fo r th e checkerboard s o n Nolan s b y th e Providenc e
Painter; cf. , e. g., ARV2, 636, 4 and 637,34. For a schematized tabl e of the
maeanders of the Providence Painter , se e E . Papoutsaki-Serveti, O zogra-
phos tes Providence (Athens, 1983) , pis. 2-5. Fo r the development o f the
maeander on Nolans of pupil s of the Berli n Painter see : C . Isler-Kernyi,
"Hermonax i n Zuri ch, I I : Di e Halsamphora Haniel, " AntK 27 (1984) ,
54-57, esp . 55f . Cf . not e 23 . See als o the observation s o n th e direction
and symmetr y o f maeander border s b y B . O tto, "Dekorative Element e


























i n de n Bildschpfungen de s Kleophrades - un d Berliner-Malers, " i n
H . A . G. Brijder , ed. , Ancient Greek and Related Pottery. Proceedings of
the I nternationa l Vas e Symposium , Amsterda m 1984 . Al l ar d Pierso n
Series, vol. 5 (Amsterdam, 1985) , 198-201.
8. Dietric h vo n Bothmer adduce s the kalpis , Palermo 766 , and th e
pelike, Boston 1971.34 3 (ARV
2
, 254, 5 "Recall s th e Syleus Painter") ; se e
The Museum Year 1971-72, Th e 96t h Annual Report o f the Museum of
Fine Art s Boston, 43ff . Fo r sid e B , whi ch display s tha t patter n a t th e
bottom o f the frame , se e Bulletin of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 78
(1980), 32 , no . 12 . The patter n recur s o n th e abacu s o f the sphinx' s
column on side A. It is met wi t h already on the late Corinthian oinochoe
2610; see T.J . Dunbabin , ed. , Perachora: The Sanctuaries of Hera Akraia
and Limenia, vol . 2 (Oxford , 1962) , pi . 112 and p . 273, wi t h furthe r
references (kotyle , kothones; a similarly decorate d kotho n from a mi d-
sixth-century tomb i n Sindos wa s shown b y M . Tiverios at the C ol l o -
qui um on Greek Vases, Beazley Centenary, London , June 25-26, 1985) .
There ca n hardl y b e a direct connection. Th e patter n i s also met wi t h
as a decorative devic e on a carved piec e o f furniture on a Locrian relief
(circa 455 B . C . ) i n Reggio, Calabria . Se e K. Schefold, Die Gottersage in
der klassischen und hellenistischen Kunst (Muni ch , 1981) , fig. 30. I t also
occurs i n vase-painting a s a molding pattern below the volutes o f altars ,
e.g.: ARV
2
, 203,101 ; 319,6; 554,82 ; 574,9 ; an d whe n depictin g chased
metal vases, see e.g. the omphalos cu p hel d by Phoinix, ARV
2
, 369,4 , or
the oinochoe of Persephone, ARV
2
, 496,5 . The patter n als o occurs as the
neck decoration of an Etruscan amphor a i n Gt t i ngen, see P . Jacobsthal,
Gottinger Vasen (Berlin , 1912) , pl . I I I .8. A stylize d kyma seems t o b e
intended throughout .
9. See , e. g., Van Hoorn (supra , not e 4) figs . 6, 12, 23, 29, 38, 74, 82,
88, 118, 128a, 141 , 183, 184, 198, 397, 407a, 498, 510; Jdl 8 6 (1971) , 110,
112, 115 (referenc e fro m D. von B othmer).
10. Cf. , e. g. , ARV
2
, 210,18 6 (Add, 97) ; 210, 187; Wr z bur g H5387 ,
CJ^4 2 , pi . 17, 1-2, an d ARV
2
, 595,7 1 bis . The palmett e o f the Gett y
chous should go between th e Berli n Painter' s and that of the Wr z bur g
chous. Unfortunately , the handle-palmettes o f choes are rarel y pictured.
11. Eupolis , frag. 351,5K. ( A ) . . . ris dirtv " J U naV irpros fiera^v
mvcov; (B) UcL\afn)8iKv ye rovro rov&vprma KGU oocpv oov (A. ". . . Who
first sai d 'slave, a chamber pot ' i n the mids t of his drinking? B. Yes, that
is a wise and Palamedi c concei t of yours" ). ( Athenaeus, The Deipnosoph-
ists, vol. 1, trans. G. B. Gulick [Cambridge , Mass. and London , 1927]. )
The fragment come s from Athenaeu s ( I 17d) wh o credit s Eupoli s wi t h
first using the term fiis. Meinek e identified the gadget's advertiser, ( A ) ,
whose achievemen t i s likened by hi s interlocutor , ( B ) , to thos e of the
archinventor Palamedes , as Alkibiades.
Moments of crisis must have occurred frequentl y during symposia and
komoi. Vase-painter s too k th e subjec t u p a s eagerl y a s di d writer s of
comedy. Kasse l and Austi n (supra , not e 1) , 160, frag. 280 (wh o alread y
A Chous by the Oionokles Painter 95
gift h e mus t hav e sample d t o a grea t extent , a s wel l a s t o
express hi s patheti c urgency . Yet , becaus e o f hi s arouse d
state, nature' s cal l i s force d t o wai t . Th e boy' s attitude ,
however, i s cal m an d matte r o f fact . Whi l e shoulderin g hi s
master's knot t y stick , togethe r wi t h th e string s o f a picni c
basket, neatl y covere d b y a fringed embroidere d napki n , h e
proffers th e larg e j ug an d steadie s i t t o wai t thing s out .
1 2
Hi gh-handl ed round-mout he d jugs , bande d an d occa -
sionally wi t h a flat bot t om , muc h lik e th e pl ai n on e hel d
out b y th e boy , hav e been found i n th e lowes t level s of wel l
deposits i n th e Atheni a n Agor a (shap e 9) . Thi s attest s t o
their us e a s wate r jars. Ther e is , however , inscriptional evi -
dence an d indication s fro m red-figur e vase-painting s tha t
they wer e als o used a s urinal s (ajtiiSes ) (fig . 2) .
1 3
A cu p b y
the Doki masi a Painter i n th e Gett y Museu m bear s thi s ou t
take not e o f the present articl e as forthcoming) assembl e the pertinen t
parallels t o thro w ligh t o n a fragmen t fro m Aristophanes ' comed y
Apftjuara 7 7 Kevravpos, preserve d by Pollux (X 185 ) : aXk eis KOLOP Xa^o)v
Tiv ovpei 1T17JIV0V (tak e the pitched vessel and make water int o i t ! ) . Th e
centaur Pholos seems to encourage Herakles t o have recourse to a water-
proof substitut e receptacl e durin g their dri nki ng bout . We see the same
measures being adopted i n a mythical scenari o a s i n dail y life . Women,
though less conspicuous a t Athenian social events and therefor e less pic-
tured, reverted t o identical measures; cf. the passage from Aristophanes '
Thesm. (se e titl e of thi s article) and the tondo picture of a kyl ix i n Berlin
i n th e manner o f the Foundr y Painter (ARV
2
, 401,11) : a naked woman
using a cla y basi n (oKayiov). Fo r th e basin' s shap e an d decoration ,
compare ou r figur e 3. The woman may be a hetaera, though she i s pic-
tured unaccompanied . On e shoul d compar e th e desperat e attempt s t o
retain some privacy of such a gi r l relievin g hersel f while a n aulet e trie s
to infring e o n i t ; see th e hydria , Louvr e G 51 , ARV
2
, 32, 1 , near th e
Dikaios Painter . Th e domesti c dunghil l seems to have been the normal
answer fo r the housewife (Thesm. 485) : es TOV Koirpuv ovv epxofwa ( I go
to th e dunghil l now) . Children' s needs were catere d t o wi t h practica l
stools (lasaa) know n from bot h vase-paintings an d an actual find. Se e
the miniatur e chou s o f abou t 440/43 0 i n th e Britis h Museum , G R
1910.6-15.4, depicting an "enthroned" toddler , wi t h a toy and a minute
chous next to it on the floor. Th e vase is reproduced i n : D. Burr T homp-
son, An Ancient Shopping Center. Excavations of the Athenian Agora, pic-
ture book no. 12 (Princeton, 1971) , fig. 40, together wi t h th e carefull y
decorated objec t foun d i n the Agor a excavations. Se e als o th e stemles s
cup, Brussel s A 890 , ARV
2
, 771,1 , aki n t o th e Sotades Painter; an d th e
lekythos, Berli n F2209, ARV
2
, 1587, 2 (to p of page). Fo r mor e classica l
references to the chamber pot , see RE I , 1 s.v. Afiis, 1837f . (Mau) . Athe -
naeus ( XI 519e) make s the Sybarite s th e first t o inven t chambe r pot s
and carr y them t o thei r dri nki ng parties. Fo r vase-paintings o f mortals
or immortal s relievin g themselves , se e K . Schauenburg , 2E I A H N 0 2
OTYW,RomMitt$l (1974), 313-316 (reference from D. von Bothmer).
One o f the vases listed by Schauenbur g i s the Gett y chous, two other s
had already appeared i n BPP, 65 n. 41.
12. Dietric h vo n Bothme r note s tha t th e basket , unusually , ha s a
foot. However , footed basket s occur no t infrequentl y wi t h th e Brygos
Painter, cf . ARV
2
, 371,2 4 (twi ce) ; 372,33; 377,106; 379,150.1 found on e
instance wi t h Onesimos , ARV
2
, 318,2 . Von Bothmer als o observes that
the stick helps t o steady the vessel , since time is involved.
13. Fo r such jugs see BPP, 63-65, for a list of red-figur e cups showing
the jugs about t o be and being used as apiSes: 65 n. 41. Numbe r 2 of tha t
list, a cup by the Foundr y Painter, ARV
2
, 402,1 3 i n East Berlin, was lost
i n Worl d Wa r I I . Add the calyx-krater by Epiktetos i n the Vi l l a Giulia ,
ARV
2
, 77,90 , an d th e earl y komo s cu p b y th e Triptolemo s Painter ,
(fig. 3) . N o t onl y doe s i t sho w on e o f th e youn g reveler s
profaning a bande d wate r jar , bu t i t als o shows a wast e
basin (oicfaov), which was occasionally used as a urinal.14
T he Gett y chou s ma y wel l hav e serve d a s on e o f th e
officially gauge d wi n e vessel s require d at th e Choes , th e
second an d mai n da y o f th e Atheni a n sprin g festiva l o f th e
Anthesteria, sacre d t o Dionysos , whe n th e ne w wi n e wa s
first sampled.
15
Fo r tha t day' s dri nki n g contest , parti ci -
pants brought thei r own jugs , th e choes , from whi c h t o f i l l
their cups. A specia l market da y wa s hel d befor e th e festiva l
to provid e th e contestant s wi t h th e necessar y pitchers. Th e
vi ctor wa s regale d wi t h a ski n ful l o f wi ne b y th e A rcho n
Basileus, Athens ' highes t magistrate . O n th e sam e da y o f
the Choes , Atheni a n chil dre n thre e year s o f ag e wer e fes -
ti vel y admi tte d t o th e religiou s communi t y an d presente d
Louvre G 311, ARV
2
, 365,54 . This is the onl y other parallel to the Gett y
reveler's specia l physica l stat e known t o me . Arreste d i n hi s unstead y
dancing step, a youth i s offered a j ug by a n understandin g companio n
who, however , shield s hi s eye s at th e sight . Ther e were , i n addition,
special portabl e container s available t o th e Athenia n partygoer o f th e
mi d-fi ft h centur y B .c. The classical urinal i s beehive-shaped, decorate d
wi t h glaze d bands; it has a horizontal strap-handle o n top and a hooded
opening high up on the shoulder. For examples see BPP, pi . 96, nos. 2012
and 2013, and p. 231, and, by the same authors, Pots and Pans of Classical
Athens (Princeton , 1958) , fig. 22. Eupolis (see supra, not e 11 ) may have
thought of similar model s when he has the a/us discusse d b y Alkibiades
and hi s partner . I t has bee n argue d b y B . A. Sparkes (JHS 9 5 [1975] ,
128) tha t th e smal l number o f such vessel s found (onl y hal f a dozen i n
the Agora excavations) a s wel l as the fact that they are never represente d
on vase-painting s ma y spea k agains t th e i denti fi cati on , thoug h h e
admits tha t suc h a sophisticated shape is whol l y i n line wi t h lat e fifth-
century developments . I t shoul d b e sai d tha t thei r absenc e on vase s is
but natura l since scenes of symposia peter ou t already about th e middl e
of th e fifth century . I f we ge t a glimps e o f komoi , i t i s i n mythica l
disguise, and her e the receptacles used ar e naturall y traditional. (Cf . the
chous mentioned i n Jdl 8 6 [1971] , 11 2 n. 9 and the chous Athens 1218,
ARV
2
, 1212,2 , color photo i n B. Philippaki , Vases of the National Museum
of Athens [Athens , n. d. ], fig. 50, our figur e 2). That onl y a few of the
beehive urinal s were found i n the Agora may have its reason in their not
being particularl y suitable fo r bein g dumpe d i n wells, i n spit e o f that
age's surely rather l i mi te d concep t o f hygiene. As we saw, fifth-century
symposiasts di d use oinochoa i of the same shape as the many water jars
found i n the wells . O nl y a singl e one (Agor a P 28053) , however , wa s
found bearin g the inscription af i i s scratche d o n the shoulder afte r firin g
(BPP, 8 , 65 , an d 23 1 an d Sparke s [1975] , 12 8 n . 34 , pi . Xl l f ) . Thi s
plainly shows th e fel t nee d fo r keepin g the m apar t fro m th e ordinar y
water jugs. The rar e occurrence o f a clearly designated aids a t the Agora
possibly hint s at a different final restin g place for discarded specimens
perhaps the dunghill .
14. I t was see n by D. Wi l l i ams t o b e identica l wi t h ARV
2
, 413,12 .
Mal i bu, The J. Paul Gett y Museum 82.AE.121. The shallow metal basi n
(7To8avmTrjp) use d by symposiasts fo r washing their feet served at times
also a s a urinal . Herodotu s make s thi s eviden t i n hi s amusin g repor t
about ho w th e commone r Amasi s makes himsel f respecte d a s ki n g b y
the Egyptian s b y havin g a golde n "washpot " turne d int o th e muc h
revered image of a native deity (11,172) .
15. Fo r the Anthesteria, see L . Deubner, Attische Teste (Berlin, 1932 ;
reprint Berlin, 1956) , 93-123; A. Pickard-Cambridge, The Dramatic Fes-
tivals of Athens (Oxford , 1927 , 1968
2
; revise d b y J. Goul d an d D. M.
Lewis), 1-25 ; H . W Parke , Festivals of the Athenians (London , 1977),
96 Knauer
Figure 3. Cu p by the Dokimasi a Painter. Diam. : 22.4 cm. Malibu, The J. Paul Getty Museum 82.AE.121.
Figure 2. Atti c red-figur e oinochoe , abou t 43 0 B.c . Athens ,
National Archaeological Museum 1218.
A Chous hy the Oionokles Painter 97
Figure 4.
Bernisches Historische s Museum 12215. Photo: Cour -
tesy Bernisches Historisches Museum.
Sid e B o f Nolan amphor a b y th e Oionokle s Painter .
Figure 5. Sid e A o f Nolan amphor a b y th e Oionokle s Painter . Paris , Louvr e G 210 . Photo: M . Chuzeville;
courtesy Muse du Louvre.
98 Knauer
wi t h mi ni atur e choes, amon g other gifts . Numerous exam -
ples hav e bee n foun d i n children' s tombs ; henc e th e larg e
number o f such vessel s in existence. Mos t of them bear pi c -
tures o f the mani fol d joyous activities of that i ni ti ati o n day .
Since a large i vy-decke d chous stand s on th e groun d i n
our picture , i t woul d b e tempti n g t o imagin e th e revele r
and hi s pais o n thei r wa y t o th e sanctuar y o f Dionysos '
Iv Aifivais o n the evening of the day of the Choes. A ccord -
i ng t o an old ri tual, however, the participants were required
"not t o deposi t i n the temple s th e wreaths whi c h the y ha d
wor n. . . . Rather eac h shoul d la y hi s wreat h aroun d hi s
choes pitche r an d tak e i t t o th e priestes s i n the templ e ' i n
the marshes ' and the n perfor m the furthe r sacrifice s i n th e
sanctuary."
16
B u t no t onl y i s ou r revele r sti l l wearin g hi s
own wreath , besides a fil l et , ther e ar e als o to o man y pi c -
tures know n tha t sho w wreathe d vessel s i n the contex t o f
ordi nary symposia.
17
Thus , i t seems safe r t o l oo k a t ou r
tippler a s an ordi nar y partygoer .
T H E P AI N T E R
T he chou s i n t h e Get t y M us e u m ha s neve r bee n
ascribed.
18
On e woul d lik e t o assig n i t t o th e Oionokle s
Painter. Beazle y list s hi m amon g th e earl y classi c painter s
of smaller pots , especiall y of Nolans and l ekythoi , an d call s
hi m a fol l owe r o f The Providenc e Painter . Th e Oionokle s
Painter wa s give n hi s nam e fo r th e kalo s inscription s o n
four o f hi s N ol ans.
1 9
Hi s mai n wor k consist s o f neck -
amphorae an d l ekythoi . On e col umn-krate r an d th e frag -
ment o f a l outrophoros are known i n addi ti on to one oi no -
choe o f shape 1 . T he Gett y vase woul d b e hi s onl y chous ,
thus far .
107-120 and E . Simon, Festivals of Attica, An Archaeological Commentary
(Madison, 1983) , 92-99. Se e als o th e literatur e supra, not e 4 and th e
important chapte r "Anthesteria " i n W. Burkert , Homo Necans: The
Anthropology of Ancient Greek Sacrificial Ritual and Myth, trans . P . Bin g
(Berkeley, Lo s Angeles , an d London , 1983) , 213-247 , esp . 216-226 ,
whi ch elucidate s th e somber backgroun d of the festival .
16. Phanodemos , F . Jacoby, ed. , Die Fragmente der griechischen Histo-
riker (Berli n an d Leiden , 1923-1958) , 325 F 11 ; Burkert (supra , not e
15), 321f.
17. Whi l e decke d ou t storag e an d mi xi n g vessel s occur frequentl y
(see th e cu p b y the Dokimasi a Painter, Berli n 2309, Para, 372,1 1 bis),
decked ou t choes on vase-paintings ar e rare. See, for example, a cup by
the Foundr y Painter, ARV
2
, 403,3 4 (1706) ; A. D. Trendall, Greek Vases
in the Logie Collection (Chris t Church , N e w Zealand , 1971) , no. 30 ,
already adduced b y Sparkes and Talcott , BPP, 62 n. 27, and the choes in
Wr zbur g, H5387 and H4937, ARV
2
, 871,9 5 (se e supra, not e 4) . They
have n o obviou s connectio n wi t h th e Anthesteria . Th e majorit y o f
wreathed choes are t o be found o n miniature choes clearly intended for
the festiva l (e.g. , van Hoor n [supra , not e 4] , figs. 300a , 307 , 360, 367,
and 469, to not e onl y thos e where the wreaths ar e less casually depicted
than on countless others) .
18. Herber t Cahn ki ndl y informs me that i n July 1963 a photo wa s
sent t o Beazley, who was i l l a t the time and di d not pronounce o n th e
piece. I a m muc h oblige d t o Donn a Kurtz , wh o confirme d thi s afte r
checking the vase' s records i n the Beazley Archive .




















Breathless pursui t i s th e mai n subjec t o f hi s scene s o n
Nolans, be thi s pursuit amorous o r bellicose, male after male ,
male after female, o r vice versa. O n th e narrowe r fiel d o f his
tall l ekytho i ther e i s roo m fo r just on e figure , stridin g o r
running, an d on e wonder s whethe r th e pertainin g partner s
may have been picture d on companion pieces lost to us .
One of the painter' s favorit e themes is Dionysos wi th hi s
followers. Onc e Dionyso s i s shown rushing along as a par -
ticipant i n a wi l d chas e of satyrs an d maenads . H e appro -
pri at el y wear s a chi toni sko s an d hi g h embade s an d
manipulates a huge snak e wi t h th e hel p of his thyrsos.
2 0
I n
the engaging scene on a N ol an i n B ern, the god seems more
himself, gazin g i n rapt attentio n at a bald-pated sile n who
is ni mbl y dancin g an d beatin g ti m e for hi msel f wi t h cas -
tanets. Wi ne flows fro m Dionysos ' ti l ted kantharos . O n th e
back o f thi s vase, a satyr l ucki l y ha s pai d attentio n t o th e
scene (fig . 4) . The expressiv e gestur e o f hi s ri ght ar m i ndi -
cates concer n abou t th e preci ou s l i qui d bei n g los t an d
respectfully signal s tha t h e i s o n hi s wa y t o replenis h th e
god's kantharo s fro m hi s wi ne ski n.
2 1
Thi s saty r lend s hi msel f wel l t o compariso n wi t h th e
Getty reveler . Th e expansiv e gestur e o f the arm , th e con -
cave smal l of the back, the prot rudi ng buttocks, whi ch cor -
respond t o th e bul gi n g belly , a s wel l a s the rigidnes s of the
erect bod y ar e ver y similar , thoug h differentl y moti vated .
The feature s an d physica l type of the Gett y symposias t ar e
also muc h lik e thos e o f Herakle s o n th e N ol a n i n th e
L ouvre (fig . 5), wh o i s wrecki n g the hous e o f hi s crue l
employer, Syleus.
22
The protagonist s o n vase s b y som e o f th e Oionokle s
Painter's contemporarie s ten d t o portray rather vapi d ges -
19. ARV
2
, 646-64 9 (1603 ; Para, 402) . I n Add (134 ) th e Oionokles
Painter appear s i n the actua l entr y a s wel l a s i n the inde x as Oinokles
Painter. Ad d now as a fift h mentio n of the kalos-name ( E O N O K U Q )
the Nola n b y the Painte r o f the Pari s gigantomachy: MuM Auktion 63 ,
Kunstwerke der Antike (Basel , 1983) , lot. 42.
20. N e w York 41.162.21, ARV
2
, 646, 1 . The Nolan by the Providence
Painter, Londo n E 303, ARV
2
, 636, 4 shoul d b e compared : a similarl y
attired Dionyso s wi t h a snake fights a giant. When not a spectator bu t
engaged i n battl e o r partakin g i n the thiasos , Dionyso s ofte n wear s a
short o r tucked-u p chito n an d "Thracian " boots. Cf . e.g. the stamnos ,
London E 439, ARV
2
, 298 , in style not unlike the Hephaisteion Painter ;
the oinochoai by the Blenhei m Painter, ARV
2
, 598, 2 and by the N i ko n
Painter, ARV
2
, 651,19 ; also the bell-krater near the Peleus Painter as wel l
as th e Hektor , ARV
2
, 1037, 1 and th e calyx-krater , Group o f Vienna
1104, ARV
2
, 1078,2 .
21. I nv . 12215, ARV
2
, 646,3 . I . Jucker, Aus der Antikensammlung des
Bernischen Historischen Museums (Bern , 1970) , no. 55, pis. 20-21.1 owe
a copy of the catalogue t o the kindness o f its author. The photo i s cour-
tesy of the museum. For similar scenes of Dionysos wi th tilte d kantharo s
i n nee d o f a refil l o n one side of the pot and a satyr on the othe r eager
to serv e hi s master , se e th e pelik e by the Argo s Painter, ARV
2
, 289,1 3
and th e Nola n b y the Brygo s Painter, ARV
2
, 383,198 . For a kantharo s
being actuall y fille d fro m a skin , se e th e cu p b y th e Kodro s Painter ,
ARV
2
, 1270,17 .
22. Paris , Louvre G 210, ARV
2
, 647,18 , Add, 134 . The photo i s by M.
A Chous by the Oionokles Painter 99
ticulations, a flaw partl y cause d b y th e shap e of th e surfac e
to b e fi l l ed . I n contrast , th e actor s of the Oionokl e s Painte r
are ofte n redeeme d b y th e consonanc e o f a speakin g l oo k
and meaningfu l gestures . On e feel s that Beazle y mus t hav e
listed ou r painte r a s a fol l owe r o f th e Providenc e Painte r
for th e attenti o n bot h pa y t o th e languag e o f th e eyes .
Whi l e i t i s pri mari l y th e radian t orbs of the i mmortal s tha t
the Providenc e Painte r emphasizes,
23
th e eye s o f mos t o f
the Oionokl e s Painter' s creatures , t houg h goggle-lik e a t
times, becom e instrument s o f intens e communi cat i on.
2 4
Hi s mor e stati c figure s ofte n engag e i n ri tua l o r officia l
functi ons.
2 5
T he y ar e alread y i mbue d wi t h th e purposefu l
t ranqui l l i t y tha t wa s t o becom e th e hal l mar k o f th e Clas -
sical period .
There ar e man y tel l i n g trait s i n th e pictur e o n th e Gett y
chous whi ch ca n b e parallele d i n th e oeuvr e o f th e O i ono -
kles Painter . Compare , fo r example , th e sharpl y bent , ye t
slightly rubber y lef t ar m o f the attentiv e pais, hi s han d seiz -
i ng t w o thing s a t once , wi t h tha t o f th e saty r o n B o f th e
N ol an i n N e w Ybr k (fig . 6) .
2 6
Her e th e saty r manage s
single-handedly a ful l wi n e ski n an d a kantharos . A clos e
parallel t o th e Gett y pais i s foun d o n th e N ol a n i n O xfor d
where a saty r shoulder s a wi neski n wi t h hi s lef t ar m an d
holds a barbi ton wi t h hi s outstretche d ri gh t arm . O n thes e
t wo vase s articulation o f the uppe r limb s an d finger s i s v i r -
tual l y i denti cal .
2 7
Particular t o th e Oionokle s Painte r i s a narrow, shawl -
like mantl e slun g ove r th e nec k an d arms . I t i s frequentl y
densely pleated, occasionall y caught under a belt, and wor n
by bot h sexes.
28
Wi t h grea t consistency , th e l i ttl e droplik e
weights sewn i nt o th e mantle' s selvage-ends j ut ou t almos t



















C huzevi l l e, courtes y Muse d u L ouvre , Anti qui ti e s Grecque s e t
Romaines (th e phot o i s owed t o the kindness o f Al ain Pasquier) . T yp -
ical, too , i s th e slightl y ti pti l t nose , especiall y noticeabl e o n a three -
quarter face ; cf . ARV
2
, 647,19 , (Add, 134) . Herakles wear s a wide fillet ,
like the Mykonos symposiast, ARV
2
, 648,29 , whi ch i s close i n shape to
the Gett y reveler's, although being in added red , it lacks dots. These are
found, however , on that of the N ew Yor k satyr (se e infra , fig . 6) . Such
voluminous headbands as these, decorated wi t h rows or groups of dots
whi ch ca n be either intersperse d wi t h vertica l zigzags or arranged i n a
stepped patter n (produce d by twisting the material?) are much favored
by symposiast s i n the second quarte r o f the fift h centur y and ar e often
worn combine d wi t h leaf y wreaths , a s ca n b e observe d o n th e Gett y
chous. The y ar e frequentl y met wi t h , fo r example, i n the wor k o f the
following painter s (fo r the sake of brevity, onl y one exampl e is listed for
each): th e Triptolemo s Painte r (ARV
2
, 365,61) ; th e Brygo s Painte r
(ARV
2
, 380,172) ; the late r Douri s (ARV
2
, 437,128) ; Makron (ARV
2
,
466,106); the Pan Painte r (ARV
2
, 551,15) ; the cup assigned t o the Tar -
quinia Painte r (K . Schefold , Meisterwerke griechischer Kunst [Basel ,
1960], no. 220); the Painter of the Brussels Oinochoe (ARV
2
, 775, 2 and
3); and th e Euaion Painter (ARV
2
, 792,51) . Such fillet s ma y have bee n
fashioned fro m woolle n cloth .
23. See , for example, the name piece ARV
2
, 635, 1 (Add, 133 ) ; 641.80.
For mortal s se e e.g . ARV
2
, 640,67 ; 641,8 3 (Add, 133) ; 642,101. The
Oionokles Painte r share s wi t h th e Providenc e Painte r certai n checker -
board maeander borders; cf . ARV
2
, 636, 4 and 647,14 (dot s i n the white

Figure 6. Sid e B o f Nol a n amphor a b y th e Oionokle s
Painter. Ne w York , Th e Metropolita n Museu m
of Ar t 09.221.41 . Photo: Courtes y Th e Metro -
politan Museum o f Art .


fields!); fo r th e Gett y chou s checkerboards , cf . ARV
2
, 637,34 . For th e
Providence Painter' s maeanders , see the reference i n note 7.
24. Se e Pluton and Persephone on the Nola n i n the Louvre, ARV
2
,
648,25.
25. Se e Athena pausing i n the act of wri t i ng o n a tablet on a Nolan
i n th e Cabine t de s Mdailles 369 , ARV
2
, 348,3 1 (Add, 134) , o r th e
hoplite cutting of f a lock from hi s forehead on the lekythos in Cleveland
28.660, ARV
2
, 648,3 7 (Add, 134) .
26. N e w York , Metropolita n Museu m o f A r t 09.221.4 1 (Roger s
F und), ARV
2
, 646,6 . I am grateful t o Dietric h vo n Bothmer and Joan
Mertens fo r lettin g m e stud y th e piece s i n the Metropolita n Museu m
and t o the trustees for thei r permission to publish the photograph.
27. Oxfor d 1965.106 , ARV
2
, 646, 4 (Para, 402) . For a similarly out -
stretched han d holdin g th e handl e o f a jug, lik e th e Gett y boy , se e
ARV
2
, 648,29 .
28. Wi t h males : ARV
2
, 647,13 ; 647, 22 ; 648, 24 ; 648, 30 ; 648,3 5
(belted); 649,43; 649,45 (Add, 134) ; 649,47. Wi th females : ARV
2
, 646, 1
(belted); 646, 4 (Para, 402) ; 647,11; 647,1 6 (Add, 134) ; 647,17 (Para,
402). The plain cloakshort and usually wi thout a borderis, of course,
often wor n b y komast s (mor e rarel y by warriors) already i n early red-
figure; see , fo r example , the kyl i x attribute d t o th e Epidromo s Painte r
by von Bothmer ( Wealth of the Ancient World [Beverl y Hills , 1983] , no.
7) o r wi t h painter s o f the Coarse r Wi n g (e.g. , the cup b y the Ni kos -
thenes Painter, ARV
2
, 125,13) . I t becomes more frequent , however , i n
the 470' s an d 460's , ofte n wor n i n combination wi th th e wide , dotte d
100 Knauer
hori zontal l y, defyin g th e laws o f gravi ty.
2 9
Addi t i onal fea
tures that ca n be matched i n other piece s by the painter are
hands articulate d b y relie f line s whi c h carr y th e contou
i nt o th e wri s t whe n see n fro m outsid e an d ofte n almos
across i t when see n from i nsi de
3 0
; pronounced squar e heel
and hi g h insteps ; rounde d anklebones ; tau t sinoida l eye
brows touchi n g th e roo t o f th e frequentl y poi nte d nose
small, roun d ear s wi t h onl y a modi cum o f i nteri or arti c
ul ati on; and shor t dens e beards for matur e men , apparentl
the post-Persia n vogue.
3 1
Ther e i s a noticeabl e predilectio
for generou s patterningfolds , cuirasses , decorate d mate
rials, lavis h curlsi n spit e o f a general tendenc y towar d a
-
:
r
t
s
-
;
-
y
n
-

summary executio n o f the design.
32
Wher e preserved , th e
dilute-glaze marking s o f the muscle s ar e carefu l an d pro -
fuse. Whe n discernible , th e prel i mi nar y design i s equall y
met i cul ous, t r aci n g t h e bodi es ' out l i ne s wi t h fe w
penti menti .
Except fo r a number o f warriors, perhaps occasioned b y
the sti l l fres h memorie s o f the Persia n wars,
3 3
th e O i ono -
kles Painte r give s u s fe w mortals . Thus , th e chou s i n th e
Getty Museu m i s a welcome addi ti on to our knowl edg e of
Atheni an lif e settlin g down t o a mor e relaxe d pac e i n th e
decade after th e grea t confrontation .
Philadelphia
fillet discusse d supra, for exampl e wi t h th e lat e Douris (ARV
2
, 445,257 )
and especiall y hi s followers . The cloaks ' edge s are consistentl y square d
off instea d o f showing undulatin g ends . M y surve y wa s facilitate d by
Robert Guy' s generousl y lettin g me se e a xero x o f hi s unpublishe d
Oxford Ph.D . dissertatio n "Th e Lat e Manne r an d Earl y Classical F ol -
lowers of Douris" (1982) . To my knowledge, none of the above painter s
uses the short mantl e so consistentlyor for that matter for both sexes
as doe s th e Oionokle s Painter , whos e renderin g o f the dens e folds i s
unmistakeable. O nl y occasionall y d o squared-of f edge s occur (ARV
2
,
647,11; 648,24; 648,29; 648, 37), yet the pleating remains dense.
29. E.g. , ARV
2
, 646, 1 ; 646, 8; 646, 10 ; 647, 11; 647,12 (Add, 134) ;
647,13; 647,14; 647,16 (Add, 134) ; 647,17 (Para, 402) ; 647,21 (Add, 134) ;
647,22; 648,25; 648,27; 648,30; 648,34; 648,39; 649,44 (Add, 134) ; 649,45
(Add, 134) .
30. E.g. , ARV
2
, 646, 3 (Add, 134) ; 646, 4 (Para, 402) ; 646,6; 646,8 ;
646,10 (Add, 134) ; 647,11; 647,12 (Add, 134) ; 647,18 (Add, 134) ; 647,21
(Add, 134) ; 647,22; 648,25 ; 648,29 ; 648,3 7 (Add, 134) ; 648,39; 649,4 1












(Para, 402) ; 649,43; 649,44 (Add, 134) ; 649,45 (Add, 134) .
31. Th e long , wedge-shaped an d well-groome d spiky beards of the
Late Archai c perio d giv e wa y t o shorte r one s abou t thi s time . Th e
bobbed hai r o f the Gett y pais i s done i n relief lines, different fro m th e
coiffures o f other youths by the Oionokles Painter. But where the painter
gives u s th e old-fashione d bear d (ARV
2
, 648,25 ; 648,34 ; 648,37 [Add,
134] ), he does use relie f line for the stif f top hair ; thus, the boy' s fring e
is not an isolated feature .
32. Cuirasse s an d shiel d apron s (eyes) : ARV
2
, 646, 7 (Add, 134) ;
646,8; 648,35; 648,37 (Add, 134) ; 649,47. Decorated material , including
pelt (ofte n dotted ) an d dow n abov e wi n g bar s (ofte n V-shaped) :
ARV
2
,646,6-7 (Add, 134) ; 646,10 (Add, 134);647,11;647,16 (Add, 134) ;
647,17; 648,31 (Add, 134) ; 649,42 (Para, 402) ; 649,44 (Add, 134) ; 649,45
(Add, 134) .
33. ARV
2
, 646, 7 (Add, 134) ; 646, 8; 648, 35 ; 648,3 7 (Add, 134) ;
649,47.
Polygnotos: An Iliupersis Scene at the Getty Museum
Susan B. Matheson
Scenes o f Aja x seizin g Kassandra , whi c h ar e extracte d
from, o r par t of , a narrative representation o f the I liupersis,
occur o n numerou s A t t i c black-figur e an d Sout h I talia n
red-figure vases . They are , however , less common on A t t i c
red-figure vases . Significant iconographie changes that tak e
place betwee n th e A t t i c black-figur e representation s an d
those o f Sout h I talia n vases can be traced through survi vi ng
A t t i c red-figur e examples o f the episode. T he most stri ki n g
of thes e changes i s the transformatio n of the stri di n g f ul l -
sized At hen a o f the bl ack-fi gur e scenes i nt o th e smal l
Archaic imag e o f the goddes s tha t i s accompanied, o n th e
South I talia n vases, by a representation o f the goddes s her -
self. The earlies t survi vi ng representation o f this dual man -
ifestation o f Athena, i.e . bot h th e goddes s an d he r image ,
occurs o n a fragmentar y red-figur e vol ut e krate r i n the J .
Paul Gett y Museu m attri bute d t o Polygnoto s an d databl e
to circ a 440-435 B.C . (fig . l a) .
1
O nl y a smal l port i on o f the Aja x an d Kassandr a scen e is
preserved o n the Gett y krater , but th e identificatio n o f the
subject i s confi rmed by inscription s labeling Athena, Kas -
sandra, and Aj ax.
2
A fronta l statu e of Athena occupie s th e
center o f the composi ti on . The goddes s i s shown wearin g
an A t t i c helme t an d hol di n g a spear and shield . The ri chl y
decorated peplo s an d th e arrangemen t o f the hai r i n l on g
corkscrew curl s t o th e shoulder s an d a n orderl y ro w o f
spiral curl s across the forehea d designat e thi s as a n Archai c
image. Th e t oni n g o f th e hai r wi t h di l ut e glaz e furthe r
differentiates th e statue from th e figures around i t .
To th e ri gh t o f th e statu e th e goddes s Athen a hersel f
appears, wearin g a n elaboratel y decorate d versio n o f th e
A t t i c helmet , wi t h hinge d cheek piece s wor n folde d u p t o
show wi ngl i ke undersides. Di l ut e glaze i s used for the di v i -
sions an d tai l o f it s crest . Athena' s hai r i s rathe r elaborat e
for thi s period , wi t h th e curl s acros s he r forehea d an d i n
front o f he r ea r indicate d b y raise d dots . He r mout h i s
slightly open , an d sh e appear s t o watc h wi t h som e distres s
as, on the opposit e side of the statue, Aja x seize s Kassandra .
F rom th e positio n of Kassandra' s hea d relativ e t o thos e
of th e othe r figures , i t i s clear tha t sh e i s seated or kneeling
at the fee t o f the Athena statue, eithe r on the statue base or
on a n alta r i n front o f i t . Th e crouchin g pose that charac -
terizes man y black-figur e and earl y red-figur e examples o f
the scene does not appear t o be used b y Classical and Sout h
I talian vase-painters . Kassandr a wear s a dotted band i n he r
hair wi t h thre e upri gh t red leaves at the front . Th e survi v -
i ng fragment s o f the vas e giv e no hi n t a s t o whethe r sh e
was clothe d o r nude , an d ther e i s not enoug h consistenc y
i n othe r representation s o f the subjec t t o permi t confident
restoration of this i mportant detail.
A bearde d Aja x reache s fo r Kassandra' s shoulde r wi t h
his ri gh t han d (on e canno t tel l whethe r h e hel d a sword)
and hold s a shiel d o n hi s lef t arm . Th e shield' s i nteri or ,
decorated wi t h a four-poi nte d star , i s black ; th e sectio n
behi nd Ajax' s arm , however , i s execute d i n di l ut e glaze ,
possibly uni ntenti onal l y . His baldric , abdomina l muscles ,
and nipple s ar e drawn i n di l ut e glaze, an d hi s C ori nt hi an
helmet i s toned wi t h th e same material. He wears a chlamys
over on e shoulder , bu t i s otherwis e nude.
3
B ehi n d Aja x a
Abbreviations:
Arias, "Tomb a 136" : P . E . Arias, "Dall e Necropol i di Spina, L a Tomb a
136 di Valle Pega," RivIstArch n.s . 4 (1955) , 95-178.
Davreux, Cassandre: J. Davreux , La lgende de la prophetesse Cassandre
(Lige, 1942) .
LIMQ "Aia s I I " : O . Touchefeu, "Aia s I I , " LIMC 1 , 336-51, pis. 253 -
268.
Moret, L'Ilioupersis: J . M . Moret, LTlioupersis dans la cramique italiote.
Bibliotheca Helvetica Romana 14 (Rome, 1975) .
1. Mal i bu , TheJ. Pau l Gett y Museum 79.AE.198. Preserved height :
28.8 cm ; diamete r o f the mouth : 47. 7 cm ; height o f the friez e o n th e
neck: 8. 8 cm. I am grateful t o Mari t Jentoft-Nilsen fo r providing these
dimensions.
The vas e i s attribute d t o Polygnoto s b y Ji fi Frel . I t i s a pleasure t o
express my gratitud e t o hi m for hi s invitatio n t o publis h thi s vase and
for hi s generous assistance throughout th e course of my study .
O n th e artist-Beazley' s "Polygnoto s I -se e ARV
2
, 1027-33 , 1678 -
1679, 1707 , and Para, 442 .
2. Inscription s in added-red are now largely ghosts: between the heads
of th e two Athenas:A0NA; to the right of Ajax' s helmet , above Kassandra,
interrupted by the large chi p at the break: K A [ $ A ] N [ A P A ] ; t o the right
of Ajax' s helmet, higher than the last inscription, next t o the break: Al AS;
to the right of the goddess Athena's helme t crest : M ( N ( [ . . . ] , suggestin g
an additiona l figur e t o th e righ t of those remaining, perhaps Menelaos ,
although hi s presence would be unusual i n this scene.
3. Ajax' s lack o f bod y armor i s unusual fo r thi s date. He i s similarly
undressed on an amphora i n N ew York by the Ethiop Painter (56.171.41 ;
ARV
2
, 666.12 ; LIMC, "Aia s I I , " no . 63) , but no t consistentl y s o unti l
the lat e fift h an d fourt h centuries (e.g. , a cup b y the Codru s Painte r i n
the Louvr e [ G 458; ARV
2
, 1270.11 ; LIMC, "Aia s I I , " no. 67] an d almos t
all th e Sout h I talia n versions fro m th e fourt h century). The full y arme d
Ajax i n red-figure vases usually wears a composite cuirass .
102 Matheson
Figure lb. Sid e B of volute-krater, figur e la.
Figure la. Volute-krate r by Polygnotos (sid e A ) . Malibu, TheJ. Pau l Gett y Museum 79.AE.198.
Polygnotos: An Iliupersis Scene 103
young femal e attendant o r priestes s flees to th e left , l ooki n g
back a t th e scen e behi n d her.
4
Sh e wear s a chi to n an d
hi mati on an d carrie s a box decorate d wi t h a red rosett e an d
tendrils o n he r head . T o th e lef t o f thi s figur e ar e trace s o f
the inverte d palmett e surroundi n g th e fron t roo t o f th e
krater's handle .
Six satyr s and fiv e maenads cavort i n a friez e aroun d th e
krater's neck (figs , l a- c ) .
5
O n sid e A t w o o f th e satyr s ar e
compl et el y nud e an d carr y wi neski ns , whi l e th e t hi r d
bends over wi t h a leopard ski n drape d acros s hi s back . On e
of th e satyr s carrie s a forke d stick . On e maena d wear s a
chi ton an d hi mati on , whi l e th e othe r t w o wea r a belte d
peplos wi t h a leopar d ski n drape d ove r thei r lef t arm , i n
one cas e pinned at th e ri gh t shoulder . Each maenad carrie s
a different object : on e a leopard, on e a forked stick , an d th e
t hi r d a thyrsos , whi c h sh e swing s at th e bendin g satyr . A
wreath (? ) an d a kantharos ar e suspende d i n th e field . O n
side B on e maena d wear s a chi ton, th e secon d a peplos. Th e
maenad wearin g a chi t o n apparentl y carrie s a thyrsos ; he r
hair i s wor n unfastene d an d he r hea d i s t hr ow n bac k i n
ecstasy. The peplos-cla d maena d wear s a Stphane an d car -
ries t w o l i ghte d torches . Sh e i s pursue d b y on e o f thre e
satyrs. A secon d satyr , i n th e cente r o f th e composi ti on ,
appears t o hav e droppe d a n amphora . Th e t hi r d satyr , a t
the fa r left , carrie s a torch . T o th e fa r ri gh t o f th e scen e
stands a thyrsos , wi t h a kantharos above i t i n th e fiel d (fig .
l c) .
Representations o f th e Aja x an d Kassandr a scen e hav e
Figure lc. N ec k detai l of side B o f vol ute-krater, figur e l a .
been collecte d mos t recentl y b y Odett e Touchefe u fo r th e
Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae.
6
Black-figur e
representations of the subjec t ar e remarkabl y consistent (fig .
2) . Ajax , wearing a bel l corslet over a short chi t on,
7
hi s fac e
covered b y hi s C ori nt hi a n helmet , approaches from th e left ,
sword i n hand. Facing hi m i s Athena, stri di ng left , he r ri gh t
arm raise d a s sh e brandishe s he r spear.
8
He r shield , hel d o n
her lef t arm , fill s th e cente r o f th e pi cture.
9
Beneat h i t ,
beside i t , o r eve n partl y behi n d i t , Kassandr a crouche s o r
4. O n th e identification of similar fleeing female s a s priestesses, s
T. B . L . Webster, Monuments Illustrating Tragedy and Satyr Play, BI
Supplement, no . 20 (1967) , 146-147, where the priestess in an Ajax a
Kassandra scene is identified as Theano, wif e o f Antenor; Moret, L 'Ili
persis, 22-23, followin g Beazley , C B 3, 62-64, identifie s th e figure s
servants.
5. Adde d red: i vy wreaths wor n by satyrs; crowns of maenads exce
figure 4 on side B ; torch flame of figure 4 on side B . Di l ute glaze: side
L t o R borde r o f figure l' s himation; spots on leopar d ski n of figure
pine cone end of thyrsos; side B: interior details of torches held by figur
1 and 4 ; abdominal muscle s and kneecaps of figure 3; pattern o n fall
amphora.
There i s a tooled groov e a t th e juncti on of neck an d body , wi t h
band of black tongues in reserved rectangle s below it on the vase's sho
der. Another tooled groove marks the top of the satyr and maenad friez
while abov e th e friez e i s a n offse t pattern-ban d o f alternating lotus
and palmette s ( 8 palmette s o n sid e A ) . Above the lotu s an d palmett
band i s another offse t band o f egg pattern, a tooled groove, and a conv
band wi t h a n i v y and berr y pattern . Th e i v y leaves are reserved , whi
the vin e an d th e six-berr y cluster s ar e i n adde d color , whi c h i s no
faded bu t was probabl y red. A final band o f egg-pattern ring s the low
outside edg e of the l i p . The palmette , eg g pattern , an d i v y bands a
interrupted a t th e poin t wher e th e krater' s handl e orginall y cover
them. Red was h has been applied t o the underside o f the l i p and al l t
tooled grooves .
The mout h i s black glaze on top; the vessel' s interior is black glaze
ee
C
n
o
a
e

e
l
r
e
t
the base of the neck, wi t h a reserved ban d unde r th e shoulder an d t hi
ner, uneve n blac k glaze inside the body .
S
d
u-
s
pt
A,
3;
es
n
a
ul-
e,
s
e
ex
e
w
er
e
d
he
o
n -
6. LIMC, "Aia s I I . " T o thi s list , add a black-figure cup i n the col -
lection o f Mr . an d Mrs . Art hu r J . Frank , o n loa n t o th e Elvehje m
Museum of A rt, Universit y of Wisconsin, Madison, unattributed, circa
520 B .c., i n W. G. Moon, ed. , Greek Vase Painting in Midwestern Collec-
tions, ex. cat. (A r t I nstitute of Chicago, 1979) , no. 59, where the subjec t
is unidentified. It has subsequentl y bee n recognized b y Moon i n AJA 8 5
(1981), 504 ; an d a fragmentar y red-figur e kyl i x b y Onesimo s i n th e
Getty Museum, 83.AE.362, illustrated here, figure 4.
Earlier literature on Ajax and Kassandr a includes primarily: Davreux,
Cassandre; Arias , "Tomb a 136, " 109-16 ; C B 3 , 62-65 ; F . Brommer ,
Vasenlisten zur griechischen Heldensage, 3r d ed . (Marburg , 1973) , 382 -
386; Moret, Vllioupersis, 11-27 .
7. Onc e h e seems to wear just a chiton (LIMC, "Aia s I I , " no . 19) ,
and onl y once does he appear t o be nude (LIMC, "Aia s I I , " no. 36).
8. Lik e the Athenas o n Panathenai c amphorae, sh e probabl y reflect s
an Archai c image of Athena, possibly from th e Akropoli s i n Athens. The
identification o f the statu e i s beyond th e scop e o f thi s paper , bu t fo r
discussions o f the question , se e C . J. Herington , Athena Parthenos and
Athena Polias (Manchester , 1955) ; D. vo n Bothmer , " A Panathenai c
Amphora, " BMMA 11-1 2 (1952-1954) , 52-56 ; J . H . Krol l , "Th e
Ancient Imag e o f Athena Polias, " i n Studies in Athenian Architecture,
Sculpture, and Topography Presented to Homer A. Thompson. Hesperia Sup -
plement, no . 20 (1982) , 65-76; Stell a G. Mi l l er , " A Miniatur e Athena
Promachos," Hesperia Supplement, no . 20 (1982) , 93-99.
9. Show n once i n profile i n black-figure: LIMC, "Aia s I I , " no . 33a
(this i s not Ajax' s shield, as stated on p. 351); more commonl y i n red-
figure, e.g. , LIMC, "Aia s I I , " no . 44.
104 Matheson
Figure 2. Amphor a by an artist in Group E . Berlin, Antikensammlung F 1698. Photo: Courtesy Anti ken -
sammlung, Staatliche Musee n z u Berlin.
Figure 3. Plat e by Paseas. New Haven, Yal e University Art Gallery 1913.169. Photo :
Courtesy Yal e University Art Gallery.
Polygnotos: An Iliupersis Scene 105
kneels a t th e en d o f her r u n t o th e shelte r o f the goddess.
10
A l t hough facin g Athena , sh e turn s he r hea d bac k towar d
Ajax. I n man y depiction s sh e grasp s Athena' s shield . I n
scale, Kassandra varie s fro m full-size d an d adul t t o di mi n -
uti ve an d chi l dl i ke,
1 1
mor e commonl y th e latte r a s th e
arti st accommodate s he r fi gur e t o th e spac e unde r th e
shield. Her dres s varies fro m a short chi t o n and chlamy s t o
total nudi ty , wi t h som e versions showi n g her nud e excep t
for a chlamy s drape d acros s he r ches t an d bot h arms.
1 2
Such variation s i n detail , however, d o no t alte r th e under -
l yi ng si mi l ari t y o f the three-figur e grou p i n black-figur e
vases.
As mi gh t b e expected , th e earlies t red-figur e represen -
tation o f Aja x an d Kassandra , o n a plat e attri bute d t o
Paseas i n th e Yal e Uni versi t y A rt Galler y (fig . 3) ,
1 3
has a
good deal i n common wi t h th e black-figur e versions. Onc e
again th e scen e i s l i mi t e d t o th e thre e mai n characters : a
di mi nut i ve Kassandr a betwee n Ajax , who grasps her b y th e
arms, an d Athena , behi n d whos e shiel d sh e seek s refuge .
B ut here , i n the spiri t o f experimentation that characterize d
early red-fi gur e vase-pai nti ng , Pasea s ha s reverse d th e
composi ti on t o sho w wha t i s essentiall y th e tradi ti ona l
black-figure scen e fro m behi nd . Th e resul t i s t o increas e
the dramati c effec t o f th e scene . N o longe r i s Kassandr a
shielded fro m Aja x an d th e viewe r b y Athena' s shield .
Instead sh e appear s befor e th e insid e o f th e shield , poi -
gnant l y smal l i n scal e an d nude , wi t h he r ar m l i nke d
t hr ough Athena' s an d he r han d cl ut chi n g the goddess '
drapery a s Aja x pull s her away . Th e conjuncti o n of Ajax's
hand, Kassandra' s elbow, and Athena' s arm , whi c h focuse s
the eye on the dramati c as wel l a s the pi ctori a l center o f the
scene, could not hav e been executed i n black-figure; Paseas
has clearl y understood th e potenti a l of the ne w red-figur e
technique an d ha s exploite d it for dramati c effect .
Paseas' Athena appear s t o b e a statue, a side vi e w o f th e
one seen on the Gett y krater . She stands stiffl y wi t h he r fee t
together an d he r gaz e fixed, wi t h n o i ndi cati on of response
to th e scen e befor e her . Si mi l arl y stati c Athena s o n late r
red-figure vase s fro m Athen s an d Sout h I tal y ar e clearl y
designated a s statue s b y thei r reduce d scal e an d Archai c
dress.
14
A relativel y early exampl e o f this trend towar d th e
10. Fo r a variatio n wi t h a n altar , whi c h i s uncommo n i n black -
figure, see LIMC, "Aia s I I , " nos . 38 and 41.
11. Adul t an d ful l scale : e.g., LIMC, "Aia s I I , " nos . 38 and 42; small
and childlike : e.g. , LIMC, "Aia s I I , " nos . 22, 23, and 28.
12. Clothed , e.g., LIMC, "Aia s I I , " no . 28; nude, e.g. , LIMC, "Aia s
I I , " no . 39; chlamys only, e.g., LIMC, "Aia s I I , " nos . 33a and 34.
13. Yal e University A rt Gallery 1913.169; ARV
2
, 163A; LIMC, "Aia s
I I , " no . 51.
14. E.g. , LIMC, "Aia s I I , " nos . 54 and 67 (bot h Atti c) an d virtuall y
all Sout h I talia n versions . The Archai c dress is usually a peplos, i n con-
trast t o the chiton worn by the other figures; i f the statue wears a chiton,
i t generall y has archaizing zigzag or swallowtai l folds.
15. Naple s H 2422; ARV
2
, 189.74 . For a contemporary stridin g red-
di mi nut i ve Archai c Athena statu e i s th e famou s Vi venzi o
hydri a b y th e Kleophrade s Painter.
1 5
I t show s a slightl y
reduced figur e standin g o n a base , weari n g a peplo s ( a
rather pl ai n on e compare d t o th e on e o n th e Gett y krater )
and wi t h a hi nt o f the "Archai c smile" to add t o her imag e
of venerability . O n a krate r i n B ost on,
1 6
th e Al tamur a
Painter introduce s frontal i t y t o th e statu e t o distinguis h it
further fro m th e surroundi ng figures; almost al l subsequent
images ar e front al . T h e N i ob i d P ai nt er,
1 7
th e E t hi o p
Painter,
1 8
an d som e artist s i n th e Grou p o f P ol ygnotos
1 9
continue t o reduc e th e siz e o f the statu e whi l e increasin g
the siz e o f it s base correspondingly. Th e relativ e position s
of th e head s o f Kassandr a an d th e Athen a statu e o n th e
Getty krate r indicat e tha t thi s statue, too, must hav e stoo d
on a substantia l base . I n th e numerou s Sout h I talia n ver -
sions whi c h succee d th e A t t i c scene s i n th e lat e fi ft h an d
fourt h centurie s B.c. , the developmen t reache s it s concl u-
sion when th e statue and it s base are place d i n an architec -
tural setti ng.
2 0
Th e correspondin g chang e i n Kassandr a
from smal l t o large scal e occurs mor e qui ckl y : sh e achieve s
ful l adul t scal e at th e ti m e o f th e Kleophrade s Painter' s
hydri a an d maintain s i t thereafter .
T he questio n remain s a s t o whethe r th e black-figur e
artists intende d thei r Athena s t o b e understoo d a s statues .
Beazley believed that i n the Aja x an d Kassandr a scene s "the
figure o f Athena alway s depict s a statue."
21
J. Davreux, f ol -
l owed by Arias and Touchefeu, distinguishes t wo types: ( 1 )
that o f most black-figur e representations, i n whi ch Athen a
herself trie s t o protec t Kassandr a agains t th e antagonis t
Ajax, an d (2 ) th e typ e represente d b y the Vi venzi o hydri a
and th e Earl y Classical an d Classica l example s cite d above ,
i n whi c h th e figur e of Athena i s a statue o f the goddess.
22
K. Schefold , i n hi s discussio n o f representations o f statues
on vases , consider s th e questio n "meaningless " (sinnlos),
al though h e doe s stat e tha t i t wa s th e red-figur e painter s
who firs t consciousl y represente d Athen a as a statue.
23
Davreux' s di sti ncti o n implies that onl y th e stati c stand -
i ng Athena s (bot h fronta l an d profile ) represen t statues ,
whi l e the stri di ng mi l i t ant typ e represent s the goddess her -
self. B u t a n i mportan t cu p b y Onesimo s showi n g scene s
f r om t he I l i upe r s i s , r e c e nt l y a c q ui r e d b y t he Ge t t y
figure Athena statue, see figur e 4, infra .
16. Bosto n 59.176; ARV
2
, 590.11 .
17. Bologn a 268; ARV
2
, 598. 1 below.
18. N e w Yor k 56.171.41; ARV
2
, 666.12 .
19. Grou p o f Polygnotos , Cambridge , Corpu s Christ i Colleg e 43;
ARV
2
, 1058.114 . Painter o f London E470 (name vase) , Britis h Museum
E 470; ARV
2
, 615. 2 below.
20. E.g. , LIMC, "Aia s I I , " no. 56.
21. C B 3, 64 .
22. Davreux , Cassandre, 140-141 , 157; Arias, "Tomb a 136, " 113;
LIMC, "Aia s I I , " 350 .
23. K . Schefold, "Statuen au f Vasenbudern, "^/ 5 2 (1937) , 41.
106 Matheson
Figure 4. Kyl i x attribute d to Onesimos as painter. Malibu, The J. Paul Getty Museum 83.AE.362.
Museum,
2 4
preserve s a figur e o f a stri di n g Athen a o n a
base, whi ch prove s tha t thi s type coul d als o be though t of
as a statue (fig . 4). A vi rt ual l y contemporar y black-figure
representation exist s on a fragmentary hydri a by the P ri am
Painter i n th e Vatica n i n whi c h th e reduce d scal e o f th e
Athena an d it s elevate d posi ti o n relativ e t o th e res t o f the
figures mak e th e identificatio n o f i t a s a statu e vi rt ual l y
certai n.
2 5
I t i s a profil e figure , an d al thoug h it s fee t ar e
missing, enough o f the legs survives t o show the outl i ne of
the uppe r par t o f the cal f o f the bac k le g reveale d b y th e









peplos ski r t stretche d ove r i t; the posi ti on of this back leg is
i dent i cal t o tha t o f th e fami l i a r st r i di n g bl ack-fi gur e
Athenas.
The literar y sources that refer t o the Aja x an d Kassandr a
episode,
26
al thoug h fragmentar y an d secondhan d a t best ,
are nevertheles s clea r o n th e poi n t tha t Aja x dragge d Kas -
sandra awa y fro m a statue o f Athena. I t wa s no t onl y hi s
vi ol ati on o f Kassandra tha t brough t th e wrat h o f the god s
down o n Ajax' s head , but als o hi s vi ol ati on of the image of
Athena at whi c h Kassandr a ha d take n refuge , an d whi c h
24. Mal i b u 83.AE.362 ; GettyMus] 1 2 (1984) , 246. I woul d lik e t o
thank Dyfr i Wi l l i am s fo r allowin g me t o us e thi s illustration prio r t o
his forthcomin g publication of this cup. A second exampl e exists in frag-
ments of a cup by the Eleusis Painter, Vienna, University 53c 23-25 and
20; ARV
2
, 314A; LIMC, "Aia s I I , " no . 45.
25. Vatica n 733 (e x Astarit a collection; Para, 147.30 ; LIMC, "Aia s
I I , " no . 38.
26. Fo r a discussion of the literar y sources , se e Davreux , Cassandre,
3-87; Arias , "Tomb a 136, " 114-116; LIMC, "Aia s I I , " 336-337; P . G.
Mason, "Kassandra, " JHS 79 (1959) , 80-93.
27. Davreux , Cassandre, 165 ; LIMC, "Aia s I I , " 336 ; both citing th e
Iliupersis o f Arktinos of Miletos as epitomized by Proclus i n the Chres-
tomathia. Cf. also the fresco by Polygnotos of Thasos in the Lesche of the
Knidians at Delphi , Paus. 10.23.6.
28. Moret , L 'Ilioupersis, 12 .
29. E.g. , LIMC, "Aia s I I , " nos . 44, 38, 60, etc.
30. A s she does on LIMC, "Aia s I I , " nos . 60, 64, and 65.
31. E.g. , LIMC, "Aia s I I , " nos. 51 , 61, 63, and mos t Sout h I talia n
examples.
32. Moret , L'llioupersis, 193-225 . Moret traces the mot i f of hair seiz-
ing throug h scenes of combat and sacrifice, noting it s use by the Kl eo -
phrades Painter an d it s probabl e occurrence behin d Athena' s shiel d on
Polygnotos: An Iliupersis Scene 107
she tor e fro m it s base as Aja x dragge d he r away.
2 7
J. M . Moret, who wi t h Beazle y believes that al l the A t he-
nas ar e statues , suggest s tha t th e misunderstandin g ma y
arise fro m th e confrontationa l composi ti o n o f the bl ack -
figure versionsth e simpl e arrangemen t tha t position s th e
Ajax an d Athen a figures a s i f they wer e th e pri mar y antag -
onists.
2 8
Thi s idea has meri t . I n versions wher e othe r char -
acters or othe r episode s i n the sac k of Troy ar e i ncl uded,
2 9
the artist s hav e expl i ci tl y show n a statue ; i n th e bl ack -
figure extract s fro m th e large r story , th e artist s hav e el i mi -
nated th e visua l distinction s i n a n effor t t o streamlin e th e
scene. The addi ti o n o f the secon d figur e o f Athena whe n
the artis t wante d t o indicat e tha t th e goddes s hersel f wa s
present onl y serves t o confi r m th e i denti t y of the ori gi na l
figure a s a statue.
The goddes s on th e Gett y krate r i s added a s an observer ;
unl ike he r black-figur e predecessors , sh e respond s emo -
ti onal l y t o th e scene , but lik e th e statues , sh e i s unabl e t o
help Kassandra . Athena' s rol e a s a powerles s bystande r i s
affirmed b y the fac t tha t Kassandr a does not l oo k at her .
I n th e representation s o f Aja x an d Kassandr a tha t pre -
cede th e Get t y krater , th e stres s o f th e confront at i o n
between th e t wo protagonist s i s evident i n thei r poses an d
the leve l of their action (runni ng , dragging, pleading). Th e
Getty scene , in contrast, i s calm and restrained . Aja x place s
his han d o n Kassandra' s shoulder , bu t h e i s no t visibl y
dragging her away . Far fro m expressin g fea r o r supplication,
Kassandra l ook s nei the r a t A j ax
3 0
no r a t th e At hen a
statue.
31
I nstea d sh e look s straigh t ahead , he r hea d tippe d
slightly dow n an d he r lip s onl y slightl y parte d i n quiet ,
seemingly introspectiv e gri e f at a n inevitabl e fate. He r rel -
ative cal m i s shared by the woma n fleeing t o th e left . P ol y -
gnotos ha s i ntroduce d a new ki n d o f nobi l i t y t o hi s figures ,
distinguishing the m fro m thei r Archai c and Earl y Classica l
predecessors.
Hi s restraine d grou p als o stand s i n marke d contras t t o
another comba t mot i f tha t enter s the repertor y o f Ajax an d
Kassandra scenes at thi s ti me, that o f Ajax seizin g Kassandra
from behi n d b y th e hai r a s sh e run s t o o r kneel s b y th e
statue of Athena.
3 2
Th e t wo earlies t example s o f this mot i f
are vi rt ual l y contemporar y wi t h Polygnotos , on e b y a f ol -
lower o f the N i obi d Painte r an d anothe r i n th e Grou p o f
some black-figur e Aja x an d Kassandr a scenes, but h e emphasize s tha t
seizing th e hai r fro m behin d a kneeling figur e i s a novelt y whe n i t
appears in a Greek an d Amazo n group on the shiel d of Phidias' Athen a
Parthenos; a running Kassandr a seized fro m behin d b y th e hai r occur s
as earl y a s th e N i obi d Painter' s krate r i n Bologna , 268; ARV
2
, 598. 1
below.
33. Painte r o f London E 470 (nam e vase) , Britis h Museu m E470 ;
ARV
2
, 615. 2 below; LIMC, "Aia s I I , " no. 66 (N i obi d Group) . Group of
Polygnotos, unassigned, Cambridge, Corpu s Christ i Colleg e 43; ARV
2
,
1058.114; LIMC, "Aia s I I , " no . 54. South I talian , e.g. , LIMC, "Aia s I I , "
no. 58.
Polygnotos, an d i t i s repeate d b y numerou s Sout h I talia n
vase-painters.
33
Seizin g th e hai r essentiall y replace s othe r
methods o f captur e o n vase s date d late r tha n th e Gett y
krater, whi c h i s one o f the las t t o show th e ol d method .
The Gett y krate r i s one o f Polygnotos' mos t ambitiou s
creations, an d i t represent s th e artist' s matur e styl e a t it s
peak aroun d 440-43 5 B.C . The characteristi c Polygnota n
facial typ e i s ful l y develope d here : a l ong face wi t h th e ea r
placed almos t o n a line wi th th e eye ; a l ong nose somewha t
squared of f at it s t i p ; the mout h slightl y ope n an d wi t h a
distinct downt ur n a t it s corner ; an d a bulbous chi n joi ned
to th e lowe r l i p by a straight line . A l l three o f his charac -
teristic nostri l type s ar e foun d o n thi s vase , an d Athena' s
ear exemplifie s hi s distinctiv e type, whi c h i s shaped lik e a n
inverted comma t o indicat e the thickenin g at the lobe . Th e
eye i s drawn wi t h thre e lines ; th e iri s i s an ova l disc quit e
far forward , and t w o opposin g arc s ar e use d fo r th e uppe r
l i d a s i s frequent l y see n f r o m th e mi d- f i f t h cent ur y
onward.
3 4
Th e hai r i s rendered i n a variet y of ways: rathe r
solid blac k masse s wi t h wav y contour s fo r bot h women ,
wi t h i ndi vi dual i ze d l ong wave s frami n g Kassandra' s fore -
head; qui t e st ri ng y separat e strand s al on g th e edge s o f
Ajax's hai r an d beard ; an d a n archaizin g arrangemen t o f
raised dot s i ndi cati n g curl s surroundi n g Athena' s face. 35
Gi ven th e condi t i o n o f th e vase , l i ttl e ca n b e sai d abou t
drapery o r anatomica l detail s o n th e majo r figures , asid e
from not i n g that th e j unct i on o f Ajax's ar m wi t h hi s bod y
is draw n wi t h a singl e curve d lin e i n contras t t o earlie r
works where two intersecting lines are used, 36 and that his
abdomi nal muscle s ar e dr aw n i n di l ut e glaze , whi c h
replaces the earlie r relie f line for thi s tas k i n most (bu t no t
all) of Polygnotos' mature and late works.37 The drawing
is free an d sure , and Polygnoto s ha s abl y represented Ajax' s
torso i n a recedin g three-quarte r view , mi rrore d b y th e
three-quarter vi e w of the insid e of his shield.
As w e se e o n th e Gett y krater , Polygnotos , lik e mos t
vase-painters o f the Classica l period , use s t wo styles , on e
for th e figure s i n th e majo r scene s an d a secon d fo r th e
smaller figure s i n subsidiar y area s like th e nec k o f a vol ut e
krater, a s wel l a s i n th e doubl e registe r forma t o f some
calyx-kraters an d o n th e shoulder s o f hydri ae.
3 8
Detai l i n
these smal l figures i s mi ni mal , an d thei r styl e of drawi ng is
34. O n the addition of the thi r d line among Periklea n vase-painters,
see S . Karouzou, "Stamnos de Polygnotos au Muse National d' Athnes, "
RA (1970) , 236-237.
35. Raise d dot s a s ringlets , e.g., th e Herakle s o n a n amphor a b y th e
Berlin Painter i n Basel, B S 456; ARV
2
, 1634. 1 bis.
36. E.g. , Louvre G 375; ARV
2
, 1032.54 .
37. Earl y wi t h relie f line : e.g. , Britis h Museu m 96.7-16.5 ; ARV
2
,
1027.2 Lat e wi t h dilut e glaze: e.g. , Bologna 275; ARV
2
, 1029.18 .
38. E.g. , the hydri a i n Athens, 14983 , ARV
2
, 1032.60 , and th e frag -
mentary calyx-krate r i n the Vienn a Universit y collection, 505, ARV
2
,
1030.33.
108 Matheson
even free r an d mor e fluid tha n tha t of their larger counter -
parts. Nevertheless , th e l on g chi n an d othe r signatur e
motifs remain . Th e han d i s a s unmistakabl e her e a s i n th e
rapi dl y sketche d figure s o n th e reverse s o f th e artist' s
amphorae an d stamnoi .
O f th e other work s from Polygnotos ' matur e period , the
amphora i n th e B ri ti s h Museu m showi n g th e Mi ssi o n o f
Tri ptol emos (fig . 5) appear s closes t t o th e Gett y krater.
3 9
That Polygnotos reache d hi s peak betwee n 44 0 and 435 B.C .
is suggested by the relation of vases like the B ri ti sh Museu m
amphora t o th e Partheno n frieze : th e seate d Triptolemo s
pulls on e foo t bac k just a s almos t al l the god s o n th e eas t
frieze do , i n contras t t o seate d figure s o f Triptolemos i n
earlier work s b y Polygnoto s an d others.
4 0
Th e line s o f
Kore's hi mat i on fol l ow closel y the sculptured version of thi s
garment wor n b y th e marshal l o n Eas t I . The influenc e of
the friez e o n th e Gett y krate r i s fa r les s specific , bu t th e
downward t i l t o f Kassandra' s head an d th e quie t restrain t
wi t h whi c h sh e an d he r Troja n compani on fac e thei r si t -
uati on mus t surel y reflec t th e di gni t y an d repos e o f th e
frieze. M or e obvi ou s i nfl uenc e occur s o n a stamnos i n
O xford wi t h th e Di oskouroi (fig. 6) .
4 1
T heir drapery i s less
sculptural tha n Kore' s o n th e B ri ti s h Museu m amphora ,
but th e subtl e distinction s between moderatel y flying an d
moderately quie t drapery , th e variatio n i n th e downwar d
t i l t o f the heads of the riders , the positions of their petasoi ,
and abov e al l the basi c composi ti on of overlapping horse -
men reflec t man y o f the essentia l stylisti c elements o f th e
Parthenon frieze.
4 2
T he influenc e of the friez e is , of course, no t a s strong i n
the work s o f Polygnotos a s i t i s i n th e Achille s Painter' s
wor k o r i n certai n works by th e Kl eopho n Painter. N o r i s
there an y influenc e o f the draper y styl e o f the Partheno n
pediments i n Polygnotos ' lat e vases . Hi s draper y become s
increasingly sketchy an d simplifie d i n the lat e works, as, for
example, o n th e bell-krate r wi t h a citharode i n N ew Yor k
and th e hydri a e i n Athen s an d Brussel s,
4 3
rathe r t ha n
movi ng towar d th e comple x draper y styl e o f th e Eretri a
and Meidia s Painters , wi t h it s dozen s o f smal l pleats , o r
39. Britis h Museum E 281; ARV
2
, 1030.36 .
40. Cf . Florenc e 75748 , ARV
2
, 1028.8 , otherwis e fai rl y clos e t
Polygnotos' matur e style ; Capu a 7529 , ARV
2
, 1028.7 ; an d a n earlie
Triptolemos scene by the N i obi d Painte r o n a stamnos i n a private col
lection i n Lugano, Para, 395.4 1 ter .
41. Th e Ashmolean Museum 1916.68; ARV
2
, 1028.6 .
42. Cf . for example, West VI I and Sout h XI X .
43. N e w Yor k 21.88.73 ; ARV
2
, 1029.20 . Brussel s R 226 ; ARV
2
1032.65. Athens 14983; ARV
2
, 1032.60 .
44. E.g. , Ferrara T 127 , ARV
2
, 1171.1 .
45. Se e Appendi x 1.
46. ARV
2
, 1027 .
47. Se e Appendi x 2. A second connectio n wi t h th e N i obi d Painter ,
whi ch i s more importan t for the artist s i n Polygnotos' Group tha n fo r
o
r
-
,


Figure 5. A mp h o r a b y P ol ygnot os . L o n d o n , B r i t i s h
Museum E 281. P hoto: C ourtes y th e Trustee s of
the B ri t i s h Museum .
even th e fluid bu t comple x drawi n g styl e o f th e Di no s
Painter o r Ai son . Polygnotos ' las t vase s indicat e tha t h e
conti nued t o wor k i nt o the 420' s but i n a stylistic vein tha t
led t o P ol i on
4 4
rather tha n throug h the mainstreams o f the
late fi ft h century , the Eretri a and Meidia s Painters .
The importanc e o f monumental subjec t matterscene s
from th e Troja n epic , amazonomachies , centauromachies ,
gigantomachies, an d i ndi vi dua l fightsi n Polygnotos '
wor k reflect s hi s artisti c root s an d bring s u s t o a consider -
ation o f hi s earl y works. 4 5 Beazle y state s tha t Polygnoto s
"came fro m th e schoo l o f the N i obi d Painter, " 4 6 an d i t i s
i n hi s preferenc e fo r monument a l subject s an d comba t
scenes that Polygnoto s owe s th e mos t t o hi s teacher. 47 Hi s
debt i s less evident i n small Morellian details, wi t h th e excep -
tu painte r himself , i s the continuin g popularity of scenes of warriors
leaving home. O nl y one , th e stamnos i n Capua (7530 ; ARV2, 1028.5) ,
is attribute d t o Polygnotos, whil e multipl e examples ar e ascribed t o th e
Hector, Lykaon, and Peleus Painters, along wi th other s i n the group. For
departure scenes by the Peleus and Hector Painters, see Y . Korshak, "Der
Peleusmaler un d sei n Gef hrte, de r Hektormaler, " AntK 2 3 (1980) , 125.
48. Louvr e G 375; ARV
2
, 1032.54 .
49. Compar e th e proportions of such figures as the Menelaos on side
A o f the lat e N i obi d Painte r krate r i n Bologna, 269, ARV
2
, 599.8 , or th e
central figure in the amazonomachy o n the krater from Ruv o in Naples,
2421, ARV
2
, 600.13 .
50. Nam e vase : Louvr e G 341, ARV
2
, 601.22 ; krate r fro m Ruvo :
Naples, 2421, ARV
2
, 600.13 .
51. Fo r a n exampl e fro m th e N i obi d Group , se e th e krate r b y th e
Polygnotos: An Iliupersis Scene 109
Figure 6. Stamno s by Polygnotos . O xford , Ashmolea n Museum 1916.68 . P hoto: Courtes y Ashmol ea n Museum.
t i on o f what mus t b e on e o f his earlies t works , the pelik e in
the Louvr e wi t h Apol l o slayin g Tityos (fig . 7) .
4 8
Her e th e
N i obi d Painter' s styl e i s reflected i n the tall , angular A pol l o
4 9
and i n the spiral form o f the ear , a detail taken from th e olde r
artist whi c h Polygnoto s abandon s almos t immediately . Th e
falling Tityos , struc k b y a n arrow, recall s the afflicte d so n of
Ni obe t o th e lef t o f Artemi s on th e N i obi d Painter' s nam e
vase i n th e wa y h e brace s hi s kne e o n a rock . Polygnotos '
Tityos lack s th e foreshortene d kne e o f th e fallin g N i obi d .
Ti tyos' pos e i s similar to tha t o f the Amazo n i n another lat e
N i obi d Painte r work , th e krate r fro m R uv o i n th e Naple s
Museum.
5 0
Th e us e o f terrain lines t o suggest rocksa prac -
tice rar e i n the N i obi d Painter' s wor k apar t fro m hi s name
vase, although more frequent amon g member s o f his Group
is carried on here and elsewher e b y Polygnotos.
51
The interes t i n th e three-quarte r vi e w o f the fac e tha t
Polygnotos display s o n th e L ouvr e pelike reflect s bot h th e
N i obi d P ai nter
5 2
an d a general fondnes s fo r th e devic e i n
the secon d an d t hi r d quarter s o f the fi ft h centur y B.C . I t i s
found o n othe r vase s of this dat e as wel l a s on th e metope s
of th e Templ e o f Zeus at O l ympi a and o n th e Partheno n
frieze. Polygnoto s i s eve n mor e libera l i n hi s us e o f th e
three-quarter vi e w o f the body i n combi nati on wi th a pro-
file face , a s seen in the figur e of Ajax o n the Gett y krater.
5 3
A n earl y example, the signed stamnos in Brussels wi t h Kai -
neus an d th e centaurs , combine s th e three-quarte r vi e w
wi t h a rocky terrai n lin e underneat h th e centaur' s hoove s
(F ig. 8) .
5 4
Th e earl y dat e fo r thi s vase , circ a 45 0 B.C. , is
Painter o f th e Wool l y Satyr s i n N e w York , 07.286.84 , ARV
2
, 613.1 .
Among Polygnotos ' work s wi t h terrai n line s suggestin g landscape :
ARV
2
, 1027. 1 both sides (althoug h he stil l uses the maeander border a s
the groundline for Kaineus, as he does again in the late krater i n Bologna
[275, her e fig . 11; ARV
2
, 1029.18] , i n a traditio n reachin g bac k int o
black-figure. O n Kaineu s scenes , se e B . Cohen, "Paragone : Sculptur e
versus Painting, Kaineus and th e Kleophrades Painter, " i n W G . Moon ,
ed., Ancient Greek Art and Iconography [Madison , 1983], 171-192; on the
stamnos by Polygnotos in Brussels, see p. 172, and on the krater in 53. Front view, e.g., ARV2,1027.1,1028.14,1028.15,1029.28,1030.34,
Bologna, 275, see p. 192 n. 154) , 1032.53, 1032.54 , 1032.55. Wi t hi n th e
Polygnotan Group , terrai n lines ar e mos t notabl e o n th e pelik e by th e
Lykaon Painter i n Boston, 34.79, ARV
2
, 1045.2 . On the relation between
terrain line s i n vase-painting o f the 460' s to the 440' s and monumenta l
painting, se e E . Simon, "Polygnotan Painting and th e N i obi d Painter, "
AJA 6 7 (1963) , 43-62; M . Robertson, A History of Greek Art (C am -
bridge, 1975) , 240-270; Cohen (supra , thi s note), 184-186 .
52. N i obi d Painter , e.g. ARV
2
, 599.2 , 602.22, 602.24; N i obi d Grou p
e.g. ARV
2
, 613. 1 (Painte r o f th e Wool l y Satyrs) ; Polygnotos , e.g. ,
ARV
2
, 1028.15 , 1030.35 , 1032.55 . See als o Cohen (supra , not e 51) , 176-
177, on the possibl e derivatio n of the earlies t three-quarte r view s fro m
monumental painting.
53. Front view, e.g., ARV2,1027.1,1028.14,1028.15,1029.28,1030.34,
1030.36, 1031.37, 1031.38, 1032.55, 1032.58, 1032.60. Back view, e.g.,
ARV
2
, 1029.18 , 1029.20, 1031.38, 1031.47, 1032.53.
54. Brussel s A 134 ; ARV
2
, 1027. 1 (not visibl e in this photograph) .
110 Matheson
Figure 7 . Pelik e b y Polygnotos . Paris , Mus e d u L ouvr e G
375. P hoto: C ourtes y M . C huzevi l l e.
Figure 8. Stamno s signe d b y Pol ygnotos . Brussels , Muses
R oyaux A 134 . P hoto: C ourtes y H i r me r Verlag,
M uni ch.
suggested firs t b y th e fac t tha t Kaineu s i s ful l y arme d an d
wearing a corslet , a s h e i s i n black-figur e and Earl y Clas -
sical red-figur e representations . B y contrast , h e appear s
nude excep t fo r a helme t an d shiel d i n Classica l versions ,
where th e nudi t y of the Lapith s i n th e battl e a t th e wed -
di ng feas t o f Perithoos ha s come t o pervade bot h the coun -
tryside centauromachie s an d th e Kaineu s scenes.
55
O the r
early features includ e the Archai c f orm o f the centaur' s ey e
and th e mas s o f wavy hai r frame d i n glaz e streamin g ou t
behind th e hea d o f the lef t centaur .
Four o f the fiv e vases signed b y Polygnotos appea r t o b e
early, al thoug h the y ar e rathe r differen t i n styl e fro m th e
Louvre pel i ke.
5 6
T h e signe d amphor a i n Moscow, whi c h
Beazley describes as earl y wi t hout gi vi n g hi s reasons, shows
Achilles i n retirement o n sid e B (fig . 9) an d Eo s dri vi n g a
biga o n sid e A .
5 7
The occurrenc e o f t wo distinc t subject s
on th e t wo side s of the vas e relates i t mor e t o vases of th e
second quarte r o f the fi ft h centur y tha n t o (:h e character -
istic formul a of the second hal f of the centur y whi c h place s
undistinguished singl e figure s o r conversatio n group s o n
side B . Drawi n g the hai r a s a soli d blac k mas s i s als o a n
early feature .
The signe d Polygnoto s stamno s i n the B ri t i s h Museu m
showi ng Herakle s an d th e centau r E uryt i o n (fig . 10)
5 8
should b e regarde d a s earl y o n th e basi s o f the awkwar d
proportions of the centaur' s body (leg s too short , body to o
l ong); th e separatio n o f the pectora l muscle s wi t h a care -
ful l y drawn , wi dely spaced doubl e line; the us e o f relief line
for th e abdominal muscles; an d th e stiff , sl ightl y mi sunder -
stood fold s of Mnesimache's hi mati on . On th e othe r hand ,
the Polygnota n ea r an d basi c facial typ e ar e clearl y present,
and i n spit e o f th e relativel y undeveloped qual i t y o f th e
drawing, th e styl e i s already quit e distinc t from tha t o f the
N i obi d Painter .
Finally, th e signe d pelik e i n Syracus e showi n g a Gree k
battl i ng a n A mazon (fig . 11) i s related t o th e earl y L ouvr e
pelike i n ornament an d us e o f terrain l i nes.
5 9
The propor -
tions of the tall , long-legged Greek recal l the N i obi d Paint -
55. O n th e change from arme d t o nude Lapiths , see Cohe n (supra ,
note 51) , 173-175 . I n Polygnotos ' othe r Kaineu s scene , th e krate r i n
Bologna, 27 5 (fig . 11), the Lapit h ki n g i s nude excep t fo r hi s helmet ,
whi ch place s th e vas e late r tha n th e Brussel s stamnos . Th e Bologn a
krater shows a n otherwise uncontaminated countrysid e battle, wi t h th e
left centaur wieldin g a branch and Kaineus ' opponent th e usual rock.
56. Th e fift h signatur e i s on a fragment i n Reggi o Calabria , Muse o
Nazionale, ARV
2
, 1030.2 8 bis ; I hav e seen neither th e fragmen t no r a
photograph of i t .
57. Pushki n Museu m 73 , ARV
2
, 1030.34 ; "a n earl y wor k o f th e
painter," J. D. Beazley, "Citharoedus, " JHS 4 2 (1922) , 70 n. 5.
58. Britis h Museum 96.7-16.5; ARV
2
, mi2, 1678 .
59. Syracus e 23507; ARV
2
, 1032.53 . B. Philippaki, The Attic Stamnos
(Oxford, 1967) , 151, sees a connection i n shape and decorativ e pattern s
between th e Vi l l a Giuli a Painter an d earl y works by Polygnotos, noting
that the signed pelike 23507 has "exactl y the same" shape, floral patterns ,
Polygnotos: An Iliupersis Scene 111
er's lat e figures , bu t Polygnotos ' drawi n g styl e i s alread y
softer an d mor e fluid tha n tha t o f hi s teacher. The A mazo n
i n particula r i s rathe r sligh t an d delicat e compare d t o he r
formidable counterpart s o n th e N i obi d Painter' s vases .
Another hi n t tha t thi s vase i s sti l l earl y i s the fac t tha t th e
A mazon wear s trouser s wi t h definit e hems above the shoes;
later thes e patterne d garment s appea r t o continu e dow n
i nt o th e shoes like ti ghts.
6 0
T he subjec t o f th e Syracus e pelik e bring s u s bac k t o
Polygnotos' preferenc e fo r comba t scene s and othe r mon -
umental subjects . Th e Gett y krate r provide s a n i mportan t
new piec e o f evidence tha t no t onl y confirm s thi s prefer -
ence, but als o changes our perception o f the relativ e i mpor-
tance o f T roj an subject s i n P ol ygnot os ' oeuvre . I t no w
becomes clea r tha t subject s f r o m th e T roj a n epi c spa n
P ol ygnot os' career , f r o m th e earl y Mosco w amphor a
through th e Gett y krate r o f hi s matur e phas e t o th e late r
fragmentary krate r i n th e Vi enn a Uni versi t y collection,
whi ch show s mul t i pl e episode s from th e stor y o f Achilles:
the nereid s bri ngi n g armor , th e R anso m o f Hekt or , an d
Achilles Mour ni n g fo r Patroklos.
61
I n addi ti on , the Gett y
Ajax an d Kassandr a scen e significantly increase s our under -
standing o f the wa y i n whi ch Polygnoto s represente d sub -
jects o f thi s type i n what can be considered hi s major works.
A l ong wi t h th e krate r fragmen t i n Adri a wi t h th e deat h o f
Laios an d th e Bologn a krate r wi t h Kaineu s an d a centau -
romachy (fig . 12),
6 2
th e Gett y krate r bring s t o thre e th e
number o f survi vi ng vases by Polygnotos wher e a n epi c o r
combat scen e i s treate d o n th e larg e scal e an d wi t h th e
compl exi ty o f composi ti on that ar e particularl y character -
istic of the N i obi d Painte r an d hi s Group. The Gett y krate r
remains th e onl y exampl e o f a Trojan subject b y Polygnoto s
executed i n thi s monumental style . Thi s conception o f the
Ajax an d Kassandr a scen e places Polygnotos securel y i n th e
tradi ti on o f th e N i obi d Painte r an d verifie s mor e surel y
than an y o f the detail s o n hi s vases Beazley' s perceptio n o f
the origins of Polygnotos' style.
Yale Uni versi t y A rt Gallery
and ornament a s the pelike 22177 in Syracuse by the Vi l l a Giuli a Painter .
60. Wi t h hems , e.g. , o n th e N i obi d Painter' s krate r i n Palermo, G
1283, ARV
2
, 599.2 , and a krater near the Penthesilea Painte r i n Bologna,
289, ARV
2
, 891 ; wi t h "tights, " e.g., the closel y related pelike in Syracuse
by a member o f Polygnotos' Group, 9317, ARV
2
, 1059.132 , and a squat
lekythos by Aison i n Naples, R C 239, ARV
2
, 1174.6 .
61. O n Troja n subjects b y Polygnotos and hi s Group, see Appendi x
2. O n the subject o f the Vienna University krater and its possible relation
to Aeschylos ' Achilles trilogy , see H. Kenner, OJh 33 (1941) , 1-24; Web -
ster (supra , not e 4) , 142-143, noting the same combination of subject s
on a large squat lekythos by the Eretri a Painter i n N ew York , 31.11.13,
ARV
2
, 1248.9 ; T . B . L . Webster , Potter and Patron in Classical Athens
(London, 1972) , 91-92.
62. O n the Adri a krater, see Appendi x 2, and on the Bologna centau-
romachy, supra, not e 55.






Figure 9. Amphor a signed b y Polygnotos . Moscow, State
Pushkin Museum of Fine Art s 73. Photo: Afte r
a museum photo .
Figure 10. Stamno s signed by Polygnotos. London, British
Museum 96.7-16.5. Photo: Courtesy the Trust-
ees of the British Museum.
112 Matheson
Figure 11. Pelik e signe d b y Polygnotos . Syracuse , Muse o
Nazi onal e 23507 . P hoto : A l i nar i (Anderso n
29315).
Figure 12. Vol ute-krate r b y Pol ygnotos . B ol ogna , Muse o
C i vi co 275 . P hoto: DA I R ome, neg . no . 4777 .
A P P E N DI X 1
PROVISIONAL CHRONOLOGY OF VASES BY POLYGNOTOS
T hi s lis t i s i ntende d t o defin e th e parameter s o f th e majo r
chr onol ogi cal groupi ng s di scerni bl e i n P ol ygnot os ' wor k . I t
obvi ousl y doe s no t i ncl ud e ever y vas e attri bute d t o Polygnotos ,
nor doe s i t sugges t a chronol ogi ca l arrangemen t wi t hi n eac h
phase. I i nt en d t o dea l wi t h bot h thes e issue s i n a fut ur e
publ i cati on.
Early, circa 450 B.C .
L ouvre G 375 , pelike, A pol l o an d T i t yos , ARV
2
, 1032.5 4
Villa Giulia 3584, stamnos, symposion, ARV2, 1028.15
Brussels A 134, stamnos, Kaineus and centaurs, ARV2, 1027.1
L ondon 96. 7- 16. 5, st amnos, H er akl es and E ur yt i on, A R V2,
1 0 2 7 . 2
Moscow, P ushki n Museu m 73 , amphora , A : Eos i n a biga, B :
Achi l l es i n reti rement, ARV2, 1030.34
Syracuse 23507, pelike, amazonomachy, ARV2, 1032.53
Slightly more developed, but not yet mature, circa 450-445 B.C .
Capua 7529 , stamnos , T ri ptol emos , ARV
2
, 1028. 7
Capua 7530, stamnos, warrior leaving home, ARV2, 1028.5
Florence 4227, stamnos, Herakles "Auletes, " ARV2, 1028.11
Mature, circa 445-430 B.C .
M al i bu, T h e J. Pau l Get t y Museu m 79.AE.198 , vol ute-krater ,
Ajax an d Kassandr a
L ondon E 281, amphor a, T r i pt ol emos, A R V2, 1030. 36
Florence 75748, stamnos, Triptolemos, ARV2, 1028.8
O xf or d 1916. 68, st amnos, Di oskour oi , A R V2, 1028. 6
London E 455, stamnos, sacrifice, ARV2, 1028.9
O nce Gotha 51, stamnos, sacri fi ce, AR V2, 1028.10
B ol ogna 308, bel l -krater, symposi on, AR V2, 1029.28
N e w Yor k 45.11.1, pelike, Perseus and Medusa , ARV
2
, 1032.5 9
Adri a B e 104 , bel l -krate r fragments , deat h o f Laios , ARV
2
,
1029.19
Late, circa 430-420 B.C .
O xf or d 522, st amnos, amazonomachy, A R V2, 1028. 3
At hens 18063 , stamnos , Theseus , H el en , P eri t hoos , an d
Phoi be, ARV
2
, 1028.1 3
F errara T 411, bel l -krater, Amazons setti ng out, AR V2,
1029.21
Ferrara T 271 , hydri a , Peleu s an d Theti s , Eo s i n a biga ,
ARV
2
, 1032.5 8
Athens 14983, hydria, Menelaos and Helen, ARV2, 1032.60
Brussels R 226, hydria, Zeus pursuing a woman, ARV2,
1032.65
L ouvre G 430, amphora, sat yrs and maenads, A R V2, 1031. 40
Vi enna, U ni versi t y 505 , cal yx-krate r fragments , wi t h t w o
rows o f pictures : above , nereid s wi t h armo r fo r Achilles ;
below, A , R anso m o f H ekt or , B , Achille s M our ni n g fo r
Patroklos, ARV
2
, 1030.3 3
N ew Yor k 21.88.73, bel l -krater , citharode, ARV
2
, 1029.2 0
B ol ogna 275 , vol ute-krater , centauromach y wi t h Kaineus ,
ARV1, 1029.18
O nl y on e previou s attemp t ha s bee n mad e t o impos e a chr o -
nol ogy o n th e vase s o f Pol ygnotos . I n he r wor k o n th e relativ e
chronol ogy o f vase-painters i n th e secon d hal f o f the fi ft h cen -
Polygnotos: An Iliupersis Scene 113
tury C . Isler-Kereny i dates Polygnotos' perio d of activity fro m
shortly before or around 450 to the 420' s and places his peak late
in hi s career , circ a 43 0 ("Chronologi e un d 'Synchronologie '
attischer Vasenmale r de r Parthenonzeit, " Zur Griechischen Kunst;
Hansjorg Bloesch zum sechzigsten Geburtstag am5.Juli 1972. AntK,
Beiheft 9 [1973] , 23-33, especiall y p. 26). She considers hi s early
works to be those wi th traditiona l themes, such as scenes of war-
riors leaving home and Triptolemos scenes. Capua 7530 and 7529
are thu s early ; on th e othe r hand , th e Triptolemo s stamnos i n
Florence, 75748, i s hel d t o b e influence d by the Partheno n an d
thus t o be later tha n 440. Other earl y vases are the Vill a Giuli a
symposion stamnos , 3584 , th e Louvr e pelike wi t h Apoll o an d
Tityos, G 375, and the signed stamnos in London wi th Herakle s
and th e centau r Eurytion , 96.7-16.5 . Onl y passin g referenc e i s
made t o Polygnotos ' relation to hi s teacher, the Ni obi d Painter ,
and i t is restricted t o citing comparabl e subjec t matter : amazon -
omachies an d th e Missio n o f Triptolemos. Th e signe d Brussel s
stamnos, A 134, and the hydri a in Mississippi from th e Robinson
collection (ARV
2
, 1032.64 ) ar e bot h date d circ a 440. They ar e
followed between 440 and the late 430's by three stamnoi that ar e
viewed a s influence d b y th e Partheno n frieze : Oxfor d 1916.6 8
wi t h the Dioskouroi ; Oxford 522 wi th Greeks fighting Amazons ;
and Florenc e 75748 , Missio n o f Triptolemos. The artist' s peak ,
circa 430, is represented by a single vase, the extremel y fragmen -
tary krater in Adria wi t h the death o f Laios, Be 104, and onl y one
vase, the krater i n Bologna wi th a centauromachy, 275, is cited as
characteristic o f his latest work s in the 420's. Althoug h n o vases
are specifically mentioned as examples, those wi th offerin g scenes
(presumably Britis h Museu m 455 , an d formerl y Goth a 51) ;
Dionysiac subject s (presumably , e.g. , Louvr e G 406, and Naples ,
ARV
2
, 1029.25) ; and gigantomachie s (Louvr e G 375 i s the onl y
example of this subject i n Beazley's lis t of Polygnotos' work) ar e
placed after 440 as subjects typical of the Parthenonzeit. The
inclusion o f th e gigantomach y i n thi s grou p o f late r subject s
while placing the onl y vase representing i t close t o 450 points t o
the hazard s of a dating metho d whic h relie s rathe r heavil y on
subject matter . Unfortunately, Trojan subjects ar e not mentioned
by Dr . Isler-Kerenyi, since the Getty krater, which was undoubt -
edly unknown t o her , woul d hav e provided an interestin g test
for he r chronology . She mention s onl y tw o o f the fou r signe d
vases; the amphor a i n Moscow, Pushki n Museu m 73, whi c h
Beazley describes as early (se e supra, not e 57) , is not cited. Wi t h
the exception of the influence of the Parthenon frieze , any stylis-
tic criteri a used in the final lis t ar e not explicit .
I n additio n to Isler-Kerenyi' s chronology, dates for a number
of individua l vase s have been suggested, mos t o f them aroun d
440. A s noted, Beazley describes the signed amphor a i n Moscow,
73, a s earl y (supra , not e 57) . B . Philippaki link s th e shape and
ornament o f the signe d pelike in Syracuse, 23507, t o a pelike by
the Vill a Giuli a Painter (se e supra , not e 59) . S. Karouzou places
the stamno s i n Athens , 18063 , an d th e pelik e i n N ew York ,
45.11.1, around 430 or at the beginning of the 420' s (supra , not e
34, p . 252). S. Aurigemma dates the hydri a in Ferrara, T 271, to
430-420 B.C . (La necropoli di Spina in Valle Trehha, vol . 1 [Rome ,
1960], 160) , although i t i s date d circ a 440 i n N . Alfieri , P . E .
Arias, and M . Hirmer, Spina (Florence , 1958) , 50. Y Korsha k in

her wor k o n the Peleus and Hector Painters , suggest s that Poly-
gnotos, the Hector Painter, and the Lykaon Painter began work -
ing befor e the Peleus Painter ("Th e Peleus Painter and the Art of
His Time, " unpublishe d Ph.D . diss. , Universit y of California ,
Berkeley, 1973, 172) . I am grateful t o Dr. Korshak for providing
me wi t h a copy of her dissertation. She dates the Peleus Painter' s
career to 445-435/430 ("De r Peleusmaler un d sei n Gef hrte, de r
Hektormaler," AntK 2 3 [1980] , 131 ) an d correctl y point s ou t
that th e Peleu s Painter and , unde r hi s influence , the Kleophon
Painter ar e mor e obviousl y influenced b y th e Partheno n friez e
than i s Polygnotos, whom she views as anachronistically looking
back t o Earl y Classical style s ("Th e Peleu s Painter an d th e Art
of Hi s Time, " 163-166 , 172-174 , 192-197) . She does not, how-
ever, sugges t specifi c dates for Polygnotos ' career . Ther e ar e n o
vases by Polygnotos amon g thos e i n the Rhenei a deposit , fro m
the purificatio n o f Delos i n 426/25; ther e are , however , two by
followers of his, a hydria by the Christi e Painter, ARV
2
, 1049.58 ,
and anothe r b y a member o f the Grou p o f Polygnotos, ARV
2
,
1061.149.
APPENDIX 2
COMBAT A ND EPI C I N VASES BY POLYGNOTOS,
THE NI OBI D PAINTER , A ND THEIRGROUP S
Excluding scenes from th e Trojan Epic, twelve of the seventy -
one vases attributed to Polygnotos by Beazley have combat scenes
such as amazonomachies, gigantomachies , an d centauromachies :
Brussels A 134, ARV2, 1027. 1
London 96.7-16.5, ARV2, mi.2
Oxford 522 , ARV1028. 2, 3
Bologna 275, ARV2, 1029.1 8
Ferrara T 72 4 B VP, ARV
2
, 1029.2 2
Paris, Cabine t de s Mdailles 42 1 an d par t o f 420, ARV
2
,
1030.30
London E 280, ARV
2
, 1030.3 5
London E 272, ARV
2
, 1031.3 8
Berlin 2353, ARV1031.3
2
, 9
Syracuse 23507, ARV
2
, 1032.5 3
Louvre G 375, ARV1032.5
2
, 4
Ferrara T 711 B VP, ARV
2
, 1032.6 3
A smalle r proportio n of the survivin g vase s by th e Niobi d
Painter an d hi s Group have subjects o f this type:
Niobid Painter:
Bologna 268 (neck) , ARV
2
, 598. 1
Palermo G 1283, ARV
2
, 599. 2
Leningrad 6796, ARV
2
, 599. 3
Naples 2421, ARV
2
, 600.1 3
Louvre G 341, ARV
2
, 601.2 2
Ferrara T 313, ARV
2
, 602.2 4
Taranto, no inv. no., ARV
2
, 602.2 5
Manner of the Niobid Painter:
Athens, Agora P 104, P 110, and P 223, ARV
2
, 609. 7
Delos, no inv. no., ARV
2
, 612.4 2
Painter of Bologna 279:
Ferrara T 579, ARV612.
2
, 1
Switzerland, private collection, ARV
2
, 612. 2
Bologna 279,
2
612. 3


ARV,
114 Matheson
Painter of the Woolly Satyrs:
N ew Y ork 07. 286. 84, A R V2, 613A
L ouvre C 10749, A R V2, 613. 2
Ferrara T 607 , ARV
2
, 614.1 2
C oul ommi ers, R en Maj ure l col l ecti on , ARV
2
, 614.1 3
Geneva Painter:
Geneva M F 238 , ARV
2
615.1
Painter of the Berlin Hydria:
N e w Yor k 07.286.86 , ARV
2
,616.3
These subject s ar e relativel y rar e amon g vase s b y o r nea r th e
named painter s i n Pol ygnotos ' Group , wi t h th e excepti o n o f th e
C hri sti e Painter :
Near the Hector Painter:
L eni ngrad 769 , ARV
2
, 1037.3 (bel ow )
Florence 4004, ARV
2
, 1038. 5
Manner of the Peleus Painter:
Ferrara T 128 , ARV
2
, 1041.5
Ferrara T 300 , ARV
2
, 1041.6
Curd Painter:
Syracuse 22833, ARV
2
, 1042. 4
Near the Curd and Peleus Painters:
2
Athens, Agor a P 12641 , ARV , 1043.1
Guglielmi Painter:
Vatican, n o i nv . no. , ARV
2
, 1043.1
Naples 1768 , ARV
2
, 1043.3
Epimedes Painter:
L ondon E 450 , ARV1043.
2
, 1
Christie Painter:
L ondon 64.10-7.1680 , ARV
2
, 1048.32
B ari , n o i nv . no. , ARV1048.3
2
, 3
Taranto 107946-7 , ARV1048.3
2
, 4
L ondon 98.7-15.1 , ARV1048.3
2
, 5
Copenhagen 2694 , ARV1048.3
2
, 6
Brussels A 133 , ARV
2
, 1048.39
L eni ngrad 3374 , ARV1048.4
2
, 0
Close to the Christie Painter:
O nce L ondon , Edward s col l ecti on , ARV1049.
2
, 1
I n cont rast , t he y ar e wel l represente d amon g vase s b y
unnamed painter s i n Pol ygnotos ' Grou p ( Beazley's Grou p o f
Polygnotos, undet ermi ned) :
Naples 3089, ARV1050.
2
, 4
O nce Paris , Pr ei r e col l ecti on , ARV1051.1
2
, 0
L ouvre G 414 , ARV
2
, 1051.11
Naples 2663 and L ei pzi g T 665 , ARV
2
, 1051.12
Vatican, n o i nv . no. , ARV
2
, 1051.1 3
B ol ogna 176 , ARV
2
, 1051.1 4
L ouvre C 11034 , ARV
2
, 1052.28
L ondon 99.7-21.5 , ARV
2
, 1052.29
Ferrara T 961 , ARV
2
, 1053.30
Naples R C 148 , ARV1054.5
2
, 0
M adr i d 11013 , ARV
2
, 1054.51
Naples R C 161 , ARV
2
, 1055.74
Lucerne Marke t ( A . A.), ARV1056.9
2
, 2
Syracuse 23629, ARV1057.10
2
, 6
Chicago, Uni versi ty , n o i nv . no. , ARV
2
, 1057.107
Atl anta, n o i nv . no. , ARV
2
, 1058.115
Mississippi, Uni versi t y , n o i nv . no. , ARV
2
, 1058.116
Vi l l a Gi ul i a 50777, ARV1059.12
2
, 2
N e w Yor k 38.11.4 , ARV1059.12
2
, 8
Athens 1182 , ARV
2
, 1059.132
Mul grave Castle , no i nv . no. , Para, 44 2
Basel, Herber t C ah n col l ecti on , Para, 445.5 0 bi s
Scenes f r o m th e Troja n Epi c (no t i ncl udi n g th e marriag e o f
Peleus an d Theti s o r departur e o f warri o r scene s wi t h Troja n
names l i ke H ekt or ) i ncl ud e th e fol l owi ng :
Niobid Painter:
B ol ogna 268 , ARV
2
, 598.1
R eggi o d i Calabria , n o i nv . no. , ARV
2
, 599.5 (? )
B ol ogna 269 , ARV599.
2
, 8
Ferrara T 936 , ARV
2
, 601.18
Manner of the Niobid Painter:
B ol ogna 291 , ARV
2
, 608.5
R eggi o d i Calabria , n o i nv . no. , ARV609.
2
, 6 bi s
Athens, Agor a P 21352 , ARV609.1
2
, 2
iobid Group:
Connected with the Geneva Painter:
L ouvre G 482 , ARV
2
, 615
ainter of London E 470:
Los Angele s A 5933.51.108 , ARV
2
, 615.1
L ondon E 470, ARV
2
, 615.2
olygnotos:
Athens 18063 , ARV
2
, 1028.13
Vi enna, Uni versi ty , 505 , ARV
2
, 1030.33
Moscow, P ushki n Museu m 73 , ARV
2
, 1030.34
L ei pzi g T 667 , ARV
2
, 1032.6 2
Mal i bu, T h e J. Pau l Get t y Museu m 79.AE.19 8
Group of Polygnotos:
ector Painter:
Vatican, n o i nv . no. , ARV
2
, 1036.8
A dd th e hydri a i n the Get t y Museum , 86.AE.97 , attri bute d b y
. von B ot hme r t o th e C i rcl e o f Pol ygnotos, probabl y th e Hect o r
Painter: armo r brough t t o Achil l es , publ ishe d i n M . Tru e an d J .
rel, Greek Vases: Molly and Walter Bareiss Collection ( Mal i bu ,
1983), no . 117 .
eleus Painter:
Magdeburg, n o i nv . no. , ARV1039.
2
, 5
Athens 15299 , ARV
2
, 1040.14
roup of Polygnotos, undetermined:
Perugia 81, ARV
2
, 1050.3
O nce Gela , C ampi s i col l ecti on , ARV
2
, 1054.45
Ferrara T 5 3 A VP , ARV
2
, 1054.46
Gela V l xv i i , ARV
2
, 1054.47(?)
O nce R ome , Stron g col l ecti on , ARV1056.9
2
, 3
C ambri dge, C orpu s C hri st i Colleg e 43 , ARV
2
, 1058.114
N ot e shoul d als o b e mad e her e o f th e fragmentar y krate r b y
olygnotos i n A dri a wi t h th e deat h o f Laios , Muse o C i vi c o B e
04; ARV
2
, 1029.19. O n thi s vas e as a n i l l ustrati o n of the Laios o f
eschylos, se e Webste r (supra , not e 4) , 142 .
N
P
P
H
D
F
P
G
P
1
A
Some Gnathia Potter y i n the J. Paul Gett y Museum
J. R. Green
We begi n wi t h a small fragment (fig . 1) .* A satyr stands
facing left , hol di n g a thyrso s i n fron t o f hi m i n hi s ri gh
hand. Th e figur e i s drawn wi t h incise d lines , an d whi t e i
added fo r hi s hair , beard , an d th e ste m o f his thyrsos . T h
incision i s f i r m an d consistent , an d th e artis t ha s manage
to conve y th e roundnes s of body an d ar m wi t h a remark
able economy. Th e contex t o f this piece becomes clearer b
comparison wi t h th e fragment s o f another calyx-krater , i
the Metropol i ta n Museum o f A rt (fig . 2) .
2
The y depic t a
satyr standin g befor e a seated woman , an d sh e mus t hol
the wreath, a part o f whi ch i s preserved betwee n th e satyr'
ri ght han d an d th e edg e o f th e sherd . Anothe r fragmen
from th e Metropol i ta n calyx-krater ha s th e lowe r par t o f
woman movi n g ri ght, whi le a fourth piece has some dotte
groundl i ne wi t h wha t look s lik e the en d o f a sash or girdl
over i t .
3
Th e whol e scen e wa s draw n i n incisio n wi t h a
l i mi t ed us e o f whi t e fo r detail s suc h a s hair , beard, tail , an
female flesh. Th e effec t i s pleasing i n it s si mpl i ci ty . O n th
N ew Yor k vase , thi s effec t contrast s wi t h th e scen e on th
front , whi c h wa s dr aw n i n a n elaborat e pol ychrom
technique.
,
t
s
e
d
-
y
n
d
s
t
a
d
e
d
e
e
e



















The drawi n g of these t wo set s of fragments i s undoubt -
edly by the same hand: th e heads of the satyr s are s o similar
that the y mi gh t hav e been drawn o n th e same morni ng. I t
is tempti ng t o associate them wi t h th e calyx-krate r i n Bos -
t on (figs . 3a- b) ,
4
no t onl y because i t i s decorated i n pol y-
chrome techniqu e o n the front an d wi t h incise d outl i ne on
the back , a s ar e th e N e w Yor k fragments , bu t als o because
the woma n o n th e revers e has he r draper y decorate d i n th e
same, i ndi vi dua l manne r a s th e woma n show n movi n g
ri ght o n th e smalle r N e w Yor k fragment ; mor e i mpor -
tantly, the drawi n g of her draper y seem s to have touches of
the same style a s tha t o f the seate d woman (fig . 2).
The Bosto n vas e inevitabl y introduce s th e probl e m o f
the Konnaki s Painter , wi del y regarded a s the founder o f th e
Gnathia techniqu e an d style . Ye t scholars ' concept s o f thi s
painter hav e been so varied that l i ttl e securit y can be offere d
i n th e classificatio n o f thi s vi ta l phas e i n th e developmen t
of Gnathi a pottery.
5
Nevertheless , i t i s probabl y possibl e t o
accept th e attri buti o n o f th e W r z b u r g fragmen t wi t h
tragic acto r an d th e Eumenide s krate r i n th e Hermitag e
along wi t h thes e vases and th e Konnaki s fragment s t hem -
Abbreviations:
The following abbreviations hav e been employed i n addition to those in
normal use :
Art of S. Italy: M . E. Mayo and K. Hamma, eds. , The Art of South Italy.
Vases from Magna Graecia, ex . cat . (R i chmond , Vi rgi ni a
Museum o f Fine Arts , 1982) . Ther e i s a convenient outlin e of
the development o f Gnathia potter y o n pp. 255-259 .
Bareiss Coll.: Greek Vases. Molly and Walter Bareiss Collection, ex. cat .
(Mal i bu, The J. Paul Gett y Museum, 1983) .
Forti: L . Forti, La cermica di Gnathia (Naples , 1965) .
Gnathia...Bonn:]. R . Green , Gnathia Pottery in the Akademisches Kunst-
museum, Bonn (Mainz , 1976).
Schneider-Herrmann: G . Schneider-Herrmann , Red-Figured Lucanian
and Apulian Nestorides and Their Ancestors (Amsterdam, 1980) .
I a m mos t gratefu l t o Ji fi Fre l for hi s invitation t o publis h the Gna -
thia i n the Gett y Museum an d t o Mari t Jentoft-Nilsen fo r much prac -
tical help. J. M . Murphy has pursue d wi t h efficienc y an d goo d humo r
references inaccessible in Sydney. Fo r photographs and/o r permission t o
use them , I shoul d als o lik e t o than k G . Beckel , D. von Bothmer , A .
Cambitoglou, F.J. Hassel,J. W Hayes , R . V. Nicholls, H. Nicolet, J. V.
Noble, W. Oberleitner , A . Pasquier , K . Schauenburg , A . Steiner , F .
Wolsky, and th e Trustees of the Britis h Museum .
1. Mal i b u 86.AE.444 ; formerl y o n loa n t o th e Met ropol i t a n
Museum of A rt L.69.11.50. Maxi mum height: 5.5 cm; maxi mum wi dt h:
8.6 cm. Bareiss Coll., 86, no. 241. Orange-buff (Tarentine ) clay ; probably
from a calyx-krater.
2. 10.210.17b-d , Roger s Fund. Published mos t recentl y i n Art of S.
Italy, no . 11 9 (wi t h earlie r references) . Dietrich von Bothmer , wh o ha s
been abl e t o compar e the two , agrees that the y ar e unlikel y to b e fro m
the same vase. I am mos t gratefu l t o hi m for hi s help.
3. Thi s fragmen t i s shown upside-dow n i n Art of S. Italy, 261. I t
looks as i f i t shoul d come from th e base of the wall , immediatel y above
the convex molding ; it is perhaps from th e right of the scene.
4. Boston , Museu m o f Fine Art s 00.363. H . B ul l e , "Vo n gri e -
chischen Schauspieler n un d Vasenmalern, " Festschrift fur James Loeb zum
sechzigsten Geburtstag gewidmet von seinen archaologischen Freunden in
Deutschland und Amerika (Muni ch , 1930) , 30-31, figs. 19a-b ; M . Bieber ,
History of the Greek and Roman Theater, 1st ed. (Londo n and The Hague ,
1939), figs. 376-377, 2 d ed. (Princeton , 1961) , figs. 502a-b ; F . F.Jones,
The Theater in Ancient Art (Princeton , 1951) , no. 33, pi. 9; L. Catteruccia,
Pitture vascolari italiote di soggetto teatrale cmico (Rome , 1951) , no. 77, pi.
12; Forti, pi . 12; A. D. Trendall, Phlyax Vases, 2d ed. (London , 1967), no.
177.
5. I n Art of S. Italy, 252 , I describe d hi m a s a "rathe r nebulou s
figure, " and A my Brauer i n the same publication (unde r nos . 121-122 )
independently pointe d ou t on e inconsistency . Th e origina l concept wa s
Bulle's (supra , not e 4) ; I am unabl e t o accep t hi s grouping but i t was ,
of course, based on much less evidence tha n i s now available. He di d not ,
however, nam e the painter ; th e ter m Konnakis Painter was firs t applie d
by A . R umpf Ji / / 49 (1934) , 17 . On thes e problems, se e als o Forti , 99 -
100.1 hope t o deal wi t h th e question mor e full y o n another occasion .
116 Green
Figure 1. F ragmen t o f cal yx-krater (?) . Mal i bu , T h e J. Pau l Get t y Museu m 86.AE.444 .
Figure 2. Fragment s o f a cal yx-krater . N e w York , T h e Met ropol i t a n Museum o f A r t , Roger s F und
10.210.17b-c.
,
Some Gnathia Pottery 117
Figures 3a-h. Calyx-krater , details. Boston, Museum of Fine Arts 00.363. Photo: Courtesy Museum of Fine Arts.
selves.
6
F ro m even thi s small nucleus, however , i t is possibl e
to see some of the characteristi c feature s o f earliest Gnathia :
the isolatio n of figures agains t th e blac k ground , wi t hou t
fi l l i ng ornament s o r frame; th e us e of a careful pol ychromy
i n combi nati o n wi t h incise d outl i ne ; and th e empl oymen t
of large shapes, at thi s stage all kraters.
S l i ght l y late r i n dat e i s th e epichysi s i n th e Get t y
Museum (figs . 4a- b) .
7
I t i s mad e o f a goo d orange-buf f
clay an d i s carefull y constructe d wi t h a narrow , beake d
spout tha t ha s a modele d edge ; a handl e wi t h a raise d
curved mol di ng along its outer face ; well-impressed femal e
heads at th e uppe r handl e-root ; an d th e inne r fac e o f th e
foot se t of f from th e undersid e o f the floor. Th e bod y o f
the vase is rather squat , and thi s i s one o f the earlies t exam -
ples o f the round-bodi e d typ e i n Gnathia. A n epichysi s o f
the same type i n Mai nz (figs . 5a-b ) belong s t o muc h th e
same stage.
8
I t was mad e i n a different workshop (t o judge
6. Conveniently , Bulle (supra , not e 4) , pi. 2 above and 24-25, figs .
9-10; Forti , pis. 10-11 .
7. Mal i b u 86.AE.447 . Height (inc . handle): 1 8 cm; diameter : 8. 4
cm. Bareiss Coll., 63, no. 46, 86, no. 244.
8. Mainz , R GZM 0.12457 , CVA 2 , pi. 20, 9-10 (alread y attributed
to the workshop of the Rose Painter b y H. Biising-Kolbe).
9. Th e shap e i s particularl y common i n th e year s followin g circ a
330 B . C . , bu t i t dies ou t nea r the en d o f the century , a s do mos t o f the
smaller oil-vessels .
10. N e w York , Th e Metropolita n Museum o f A rt 69.11.69, Parke -
Bernet, N e w York , Decembe r 4 , 1969, lot 244; London WT 131 , CVA
by th e decoration , th e worksho p o f the Ros e Painter ) bu t
has th e same overal l characteristics. Late r versions hav e th e
center o f gravit y higher , wi t h a mor e globula r bod y an d
something o f a ste m betwee n bod y an d foot;
9
the y neve r
carry figur e scenes and onl y rarel y femal e heads; more ofte n
vines or wreaths o f laurel .
The ori gi n o f the shap e i s di ffi cul t t o determine . Ther e
are thre e type s o f epichysis: th e standar d wi t h th e flanged
box-body (fig . 6) ; the round-bodi ed like the vases just dis -
cussed (figs . 4, 5) ; and th e flat, whi c h ha s a low, squat body
like tha t o f th e flat lekytho s (fig . 7) .
1 0
O f vessel s wi t h
closely related functi on, ther e ar e the flat lekythos , the squat
lekythos ( whi c h i s the standar d shape) , and th e bottl e (cf .
figs. 16 , 17) , as wel l a s t wo rar e shapes whi ch hav e a trefoi l
mout h lik e that o f an oinochoe: the lekythos-oinochoe (fig.
8) , whi c h ha s a body lik e tha t o f a bottl e o r ou r typ e o f
epichysis,
11
an d th e flat j u g (fig . 9) .
1 2
That is , the mouth s
l , pl . 6 (42) , 18.
11. London , British Museum 67.5-8.1206, CVA 1 , pi. 6 (42), 19. The
edge of the mout h has the same molding as that of a bottle, almost as if
the potter ha d originall y thrown a bottle mouth and the n converted i t
into j ug form. Se e als o Naple s 80917 (sic), CVA 3 , pi . 68, 3. The shape
also appear s in metal, as, for example, i n Archaiologike Ephemeris, 1948 -
1949, 98, fig. 11; K. N i nou, ed. , Treasures of Ancient Macedonia, ex. cat .
(Archaeological Museu m o f Thessalonike, n.d.) , no. 35 , from Kozani ;
or the ver y similar ADelt 1 8 (1963) , pi. 226c, from Derveni .
12. Cambridge , F i tzwi l l i a m Museu m GR.69.189 6 (G.258a) , C ^ 4
1, pi . 43, 26. There ar e not many examples ; mos t ar e ribbed and belon g
118 Green
Figure 4a. Epichysis . Mal i bu , T h e J . Pau l Get t y Museu m
86.AE.447.
Figure 4b. Sid e o f epichysis, figur e 4a .
Some Gnathia Pottery 119
Figure 5a. Epichysis . Mai nz, R omi sch -
Germani sches Ze nt r al mu -
seum 0.12457 .
Figure 5b. Sid e of epichysis, figur e 5a . Figure 6. Epichysis . N e w York, T h e
M et r opol i t an M us eu m o f
A r t , Wi ns l o w C ar l t o n Gi f t
F und, 1969 , 69.11.69 .
Figure 7. F l at - bodi e d epi chysi s . L o n -
don, B ri t i s h Museu m WT 131 .
Figure 8. L ekythos-oi nochoe . L o n -
don, B r i t i s h M u s e u m
67.5-8.1206.
Figure 9. F l at-bodi e d j ug , C ambri dge , F i t z -
wi l l i am Museu m GR.69.1896 .
120 Green
Figure 10. A t t i c red-fi gur e j u g o f specia l shape . Paris ,
L ouvre G 6 8 ( M N B 3562).
and bodie s o f these vessel s interrelate an d ar e almos t freel y
interchangeable. Ther e i s even an exampl e o f a flanged box -
body wi t h a bottl e mout h.
1 3
Thi s interchangeabilit y i s
typical o f Gnathia , wi t h it s deligh t i n a variet y o f smal l
shapes and it s l i ki ng fo r experiment i n shapes.
14
Neverthe -
less, several o f these shapes have a considerable history , and
where beak-spoute d vessel s ar e concerned , i t i s alway s
wor t h considerin g a n ancestr y i n metal .
1 5
Th e di ffi cul t y
lies i n demonstratin g a consisten t tradi ti on . Fo r example ,
there i s a squat , broad-base d vesse l wi t h a long , narro w
neck an d trefoi l mout h i n C ori nt hi a n Geometric, P rot o -
C ori nt hi an, an d so-calle d Argi v e monochrome.
1 6
T o judge
by it s shape, i t i s surely mor e l ikel y t o b e a n oil-vesse l tha n
an oinochoe . I t the n seem s t o disappea r fro m th e potter y
repertoire, bu t i n late r f i f t h - an d earl y fourth-centur y
A t t i c red-figure , ther e i s what appear s t o b e a refined ver -
sion (a s on e woul d expec t i n A t t i c red-fi gure).
1 7
I t ha s a
beaked spout , an d s o on e ma y suspec t tha t somethin g o f
the sor t ha d bee n curren t i n metala bronz e exampl e i n
A mst er dam canno t b e fa r f r o m thes e i n date.
1 8
T h e
Amsterdam versio n i s sai d t o b e fro m nea r C ori nt h , an d
C or i nt h i s often a source for Apul i a n shapes .
These precedents are probabl y enough t o account fo r th e
flat-bodied epichysis , and ther e i s no di ffi cul t y i n supposing
that a n enterprising potter coul d substitut e th e mout h of a
lekythos, give n th e i denti t y of functi on, o r rever t t o th e
trefoil mout h of the potter y t radi t i o n fo r the flat juglets. I t
is possibl e tha t th e round-bodi e d typ e o f the Gett y vas e
derived fro m th e refine d and revise d versions o f A t t ic red -
figure, bu t it s clos e parallelis m wi t h th e bottl e i n shap e
development i n th e late r fourt h centur y suggest s tha t th e
bottl e ma y hav e been pri mar y and th e beak-spou t substi -
tuted b y assimilatio n fro m th e othe r type s o f epichysis.
19
The bottl e als o appear s i n bronz e i n the late r fourt h cen -
tury, fo r exampl e a t Derveni , a fact whi c h mi gh t als o sup -
to th e earlie r par t o f the thi r d centur y B . C . Othe r example s includ e
Naples (n o number) , CVA 2 , pi . 11, 8; Naples 8097 2 (sic), CVA 3 , pi.
68, 6; Karlsruhe B 163, CVA 2 , pi. 82, 13 (taller than most); and Warsa w
140358, CI ^4 6, pi. 24, 3.
13. Naple s 80947, Cl^4 3, pi. 71, 9. Note that the lekythos mouth on
the box-bodied Svres 129, CVA, pl . 48, 13 seems to be alien, but com-
pare the red-figure Como C.75, CVA 1 , pi. 13, 3a-b . One does, of course,
find th e occasiona l beak-spou t o n th e bod y o f a squa t lekythos , a s
London WT 146 , CI ^4 1, pi. 5 (41) , 17, a variant whi ch als o occur s i n
Atti c red-figur e and blac k glaze, although ther e th e bod y i s rather tha t
of th e shap e I I oinochoe: fo r example , Naple s 3122 , ARV
2
, 689 , 258,
B owdoi n Painter ; AM 9 0 (1975) , pi . 28, 3-4; Leningra d 863, ARV
2
,
1167, 109 , Painte r o f Muni c h 2335 ; AM 9 0 (1975) , pi . 28, 2 ; black ,
London 67.5-8.1100 .
14. Note , for example, the use of the zuppiera, the experiment s wi t h
bell-kraters (se e J. R . Green, "Ear s of C orn and Other Offerings, " in A.
Cambitoglou, ed. , Studies in Honour of Arthur Dale Trendall [Sydney ,
1979], 81 ; Art of S. Italy, no . 123) , and odditie s suc h a s th e krate r i n
Sotheby (London ) Sale Catalogue, December 9,1974 , lot 123 (now MuM
Auktion 6 3 [1983] , no. 74, pi. 30), the Leningrad krater illustrated in L.
Forti, RendNap 3 2 (1957) , pl . 1, Cermica di Gnathia, pl . 24a, o r th e
R i chmond askos , Art of S. Italy, no. 126.
15. Se e principall y D . K. H i l l , "Th e Long-Beake d Bronz e Jug i n
Greek Lands, " AJA 6 6 (1962) , 57-63, especiall y 62 ; also J. R . Green ,
BICS 19 (1972), 8-9.
16. J . N . Coldstream, Greek Geometric Pottery (London, 1968), 95ff .
I t als o occur s i n Atti c Earl y Geometri c whe n th e lekytho s o f Proto-
Geometric disappears.
17. Brussel s R379, CJ^4 2, I I I I d, pi. 11, 1, ARV
2
,1132,181, Washin g
Painter; Leide n 1922/4.3, BICS 1 9 ( 1972), pi. 3d.
18. Amsterda m 3367, AJA 6 6 (1962) , pl. 16, 10; BICS 1 9 (1972) , pl.
3b-c; I . Kouleiman-Vokotopoulou , Chalkai Korinthiourgeis Prochoi
(Athens, 1975) , pi. 34f; note als o i bi d. , pis. 32a, 32d, 35b, and fig . 23.
19. On e woul d b e hard put , though, to demonstrat e th e chronolog-
ical primacy of either from th e remaining evidence.
20. F ro m Derveni, ADelt 1 8 ( 1963), pi. 227b, and Treasures of Ancient
Macedonia (Archaeologica l Museu m o f Thessalonike , n.d.) , no . 169 ;
from Poteidaia , ADelt 2 1 ( 1966), pi. 361d, and Treasures of Ancient Mace-
Some Gnathia Pottery 121
port th e ide a of the bottle' s bein g the pri mar y shape.
20
I n thi s context i t is perhaps wor t h not i n g that th e ques -
t i on o f the ori gi n o f the standar d epichysi s remain s unre -
sol ved. Wei gh t o f numbers (rathe r t ha n chronol ogi ca l
considerations) mi gh t sugges t i t wa s invente d i n Apul i a .
Apul i an version s hav e bee n foun d i n C ori nt h , an d loca l
(and possibl y A t t i c ) version s hav e bee n foun d at O l y n -
thos.
2 1
H o w th e Apulian s coul d hav e com e t o i nven t o r
adopt i t i s unclear . Beazle y toye d wi t h th e ide a tha t " i n
ori gi n, the epichysi s i s probably a compound shape; an i mi -
tation o f a squa t oinocho e standin g i n a concave-side d
di sh."
2 2
T h e body o f the vase in fact resemble s most closel y
what i s known for Atti c a a s the pyxi s type C . Thi s type of
pyxis wa s curren t i n Athen s duri n g th e late r par t o f th e
fi ft h an d th e firs t hal f of the fourt h centur y B.C. , an d i t was
made also i n Apul i an blac k glaze i n a slightly different ver -
sion. Pyxide s were , o f course, toilet-boxes , an d thi s si mi -
l ari ty o f purpos e ma y hav e mad e th e ide a o f placin g a n
epichysis mout h an d nec k o n to p mor e attractive . B ut thi s
may no t b e th e whol e answer . A mon g lat e fi fth-centur y
At t i c an d C ori nt hi a n wares ther e exis t occasional example s
of a smal l angula r j u g lik e tha t i n figur e 10.
2 3
Th e smal l
size, the elongated trefoi l mout h , and th e l ong neck sugges t
its possibl e functi on a s an oil-vessel . The rari t y of the shape
i n pottery , togethe r wi t h paralle l manufactur e i n bot h
Athens an d C or i nt h and aspect s of the shap e itsel f such a s
the hi gh-archi n g handle , th e overal l form, an d th e deco -
ration o f the shoulder , al l suggest a possibl e prototyp e i n
metal, of whi ch thes e examples ar e reduce d terracott a ver -
sions.
24
I t i s qui t e possible , therefore , tha t th e ide a fo r th e
standard "A pul i an " epichysi s wi t h flanged box-bod y or i g -
inated wi t h a metalworker who was , i n fact , modi fyi n g a n
existing t ype.
2 5
To retur n t o th e Gett y vase, on th e fron t i s a boy abou t
to wrestl e wi t h a young Pa n (fig . 4a). Th e bo y i s painte d
donia, no. 347. Also M. Comstock and C . Vermeule, Greek, Etruscan and
Roman Bronzes in the Museum of Fine Arts (Greenwich , Conn., 1971) ,
no. 450 ; A. Andriomenou, BCH 99 (1975) , 571, no. 11 , % 40 .
21. Green , i n Studies in Honor of Arthur Dale Trendall (supra , not e
14), 8 1 and nn. 5-6; I . McPhee, BSA 7 6 (1981) , 304.
22. J . D. Beazley, Etruscan Vase-Painting (Oxford , 1947) , 156.
23. Paris , Louvre G 68 ( M N B 3562), ARV
2
, 1357 , 1, Rayet Painter ,
wi t h anothe r i n th e Nobl e collection ; see als o Para, 479 , 4 4 bis . Fo r
Corinthian, see for example, H . Payne, NC, 336 , fig. 191.
24. Fo r a representation o f a larger versio n i n what mus t b e metal ,
see Muni ch 2455, CJ^4 2, pi. 86, 9-10, by the Pan Painter. I n the context,
i t mus t be used fo r wine.
Where oinochoai are concerned, high-archin g handles usuall y i mpl y
metal. Fo r example , th e shape I I oinochoe usuall y has a l ow handl e i n
clay, a high handl e i n metal , and thi s i s sometimes imitate d in clay. For
an excellen t treatmen t o f metal oinochoai , see no w T . Weber , Bronze-
kannen. Arch ologische Studien, 5 (Frankfurt , 1983).
25. T o speculat e further , th e metalworke r coul d hav e bee n eithe r
Corinthian o r Tarentine , bot h o f the m renowne d center s fo r metal -
i n red-brow n wi t h fin e line s of whi te over fo r th e details .
Hi s hai r was golden. Whi te was used for hi s eye, wi t h blac k
lids an d eyebrow , an d blac k fo r hi s mout h . Th e Pa n i s
mostly i n whi t e, wi t h gol d fo r the hai r on hi s head an d o n
his leg s a s wel l a s fo r hi s tail ; hi s horn s ar e red-brown .
Whi t e, no w faded , wa s use d fo r th e groundlines . O n th e
ground betwee n th e figures' legs rests a heap of red drapery ,
a wreat h abov e i t , and, abov e that , a rosette . I n th e fiel d
above i s a re d sash , it s end s reachin g dow n i nt o th e are a
between th e figures ' heads ; just abov e it s to p i s a rosette .
The scene is framed o n each side by floral-work wi t h spira l
tendrils, fringe d leaves , an d palmett e flowers. A smal l bi r d
flies ou t o f the floral-work o n th e ri ght .
The scene has char m an d humor . Th e bo y seems deter -
mi ned; h e set s hi s fee t f i r ml y an d clenche s hi s fist . Th e
young Pa n i s mor e l i th e an d offer s a less aggressive , eve n
good-humored, warni n g wi t h hi s lef t hand . The y ma y o r
may no t com e t o blows : we ar e lef t t o interpre t th e resul t
as we wi l l . B u t whethe r the y fi gh t o r not , th e youn g Pa n
wi l l outsmar t th e slower boy. The floral-work t o either sid e
emphasizes th e rusti c setting . Eve n th e bi r d take s a l ivel y
interest.
Pans belong i n the countryside . Often, and especiall y i n
South I talia n vase-painting , the y ar e almos t substitute s fo r
satyrs, whethe r i n thei r relationshi p t o Dionysos , i n thei r
mi schi evous qual i t y , or i n t hei r capacit y a s friend s o f
man.
2 6
A recentl y publishe d bell-krate r i n Benevent o ha s
a pictur e o f a young ma n washin g a t a laver , seemingl y a
l i ttl e surprise d a t th e appearanc e o f a youn g Pa n pouri n g
more wate r i nt o th e basi n.
2 7
The y wer e alway s presen t i n
more remot e place s (a s th e youn g herdsma n o n th e Pa n
Painter's nam e vas e discovered) , an d on e wa s neve r sur e
how the y woul d reac t at a chance meeting. I f the settin g i s
the countryside , th e ti m e of day i s clear : i t i s midday, tha t
special ti m e i n summer i n the islands , Sicily , an d souther n
working. I t i s als o conceivabl e tha t th e Ol ynthia n and possibl y Atti c
examples deriv e independentl y fro m (Corinthian? ) meta l rathe r tha n
Apulian clay. The Greek examples hav e wider neck and mout h wi thou t
the distinct channel i n the spout. Olynthus, vol . 5 , pi . 60:92 has a distinct
foot; compar e th e meta l version mentione d supra , not e 24 , or fo r tha t
matter som e of the pyxides . O n th e importanc e o f C ori nth for beak-
spouted jugs , se e Vokotopoulo u (supra, not e 18) , and fo r meta l olpai ,
see T . Weber, AA 1983 , 187-198.
26. O n Pa n i n Sout h I tal i a n vase-painting , se e K. Schauenburg ,
RomMitt 6 9 (1962) , 27-42, RomMitt 8 8 (1981) , 108-110, A4, 1981, 474,
483-486; for broader studies , see R . Herbig, Pan: dergriechische Bocksgott
(Frankfurt a m Mai n , 1949) ; P . Borgeaud , Recherches sur le dieu Pan
(Rome, 1979) , an d H . Walter , Pans Wiederkehr (Muni ch , 1980) . O n
the saty r a s a friend o f man, se e J.-P. Descoeudre s "SLOTOS haiiiuv"
Antichthon 1 5 (1981) , 8-14.
27. F ro m Caudium, tomb 111 , AA 1981 , 481, fig. 27 ; E. Galasso, Tra
i Sanniti in terra beneventana, ex. cat . (Muse o del Sannio, 1983) , 75, fig.
71a.
122 Green
Figure lia. O i nochoe . Sydney , N i chol so n Museum 54.06 . Figure lib. F ron t o f figure 11a .
Figure 12a. Squa t l ekyt hos . M a l i b u , T h e J . P au l Get t y
Museum 86.AE.446 .
Figure 12b. F ron t o f l ekythos, figur e 12a .
Some Gnathia Pottery 123
I taly, whe n th e hea t shimmers , th e ai r i s sti l l , th e silenc e i s
oppressive, almos t fri ghteni ng :
That i s when a boy mi gh t fi n d a Pan, an d i f he i s stupid,
challenge hi m before h e i s ful l y awake .
The figur e drawing, the use o f color, and the baggy f or m
of th e epichysi s al l suggest a relativel y earl y dat e fo r thi s
piece, certainl y the t hi r d quarte r o f the fourt h centur y an d
most l i kel y th e earlie r par t o f i t . T h e decoratio n seems t o
be b y th e sam e han d a s a n oinocho e i n th e N i chol so n
Museum, Sydne y (figs , l l a - b ) , wi t h a youn g partygoe r
carryi ng hi s torc h an d si tul a.
2 9
Th e drawi n g of the boy' s
eye and mout h i s particularly similar. The Sydney vase also
gives a goo d ide a o f the ori gi na l appearanc e o f the boy' s
hair o n th e epichysis . B ot h boy s als o hav e whi t e over th e
br own o f the skin , on the Sydne y vas e t o outl i ne the ri gh t
breast, on the Gett y vase along the uppe r edg e of the ri gh t
arm. O n th e latte r i t i s more clearl y used a s hi ghl i ght , an d
the techniqu e i s share d wi t h a numbe r o f earl y Gnathi a
vases whi c h mus t belon g i n thi s stylisti c area.
30
Th e re d
and yel l o w fille t o r garlan d o n th e Sydne y j ug echoes th e
symposi on,
3 1
an d lik e th e floral-work o n th e epichysis , i s
relevant t o the scene. On late r vases such a s those i n figures
21 or 28, ther e i s usuall y onl y a hori zontal , and i t becomes
mere pat t ern-ban d wi t h l i t t l e memor y o f the ori gi na l
functi on.
Datable t o th e 330' s B.C . is a squa t l ekyt ho s (figs .
12a-b).
3 2
A n Ero s stands , facin g ri ght , betwee n frami n g
floral patterns ; hi s hai r i s bound i n a kekryphalos , and h e
wears slipper s on hi s feet, bangles o n each arm, and a neck-
lace. I n hi s lef t han d i s a mi r r o r an d i n hi s ri gh t a dotte d
sash. R e d i s use d fo r hi s fa r wi ng , yel l o w fo r th e interna l
details o f the figur e an d fo r th e nea r wi ng . A yel l o w was h
was applie d ove r hi s slippers , th e mi rror , th e ri gh t sid e of
the sash , and ove r part s o f the floral system s t o giv e the m
depth. O n th e lowe r par t o f the nec k i s a zone o f tongue s

28. Theocritu s I , 15ff . See A . S. F . Gow's excellent not e ad loc. where
he also refers t o Norman Douglas, Old Calabria, chapte r 40 . There seem
to be no grounds fo r relating our scene to the contest betwee n Ero s an d
Pan: see O . B i eJd/4 (1889) , 129-137; B . Neutsch,Jdl70 (1955) , 155 -
184; Borgeaud (supra , not e 26) , 113, wi th refs .
29. I nv . 54.06 . Height : 14. 4 cm ; diameter : 9. 8 cm . Th e vas e ha s
recently been cleaned an d i s illustrated here from a new photograph .
30. Especiall y close t o the Sydney and Gett y vases is the calyx-krater
i n Bonn wi th Ero s pursuing a fawn, Gnathia...Bonn, pl . 1.
31. Compar e th e N ew Yor k krater , Art of S. Italy, no. 118.
32. Mal i b u 86.AE.446. Height: 18.3 cm; diameter: 8 cm. Bareiss Coll.,
86, no. 243.
33. Th e figure s o f Early Gnathi a ar e ofte n active , but compar e th e
i n whi t e ; on the shoulder , eg g and dot (whi t e ) wi t h a row
of yel l o w dot s below . B el ow th e scen e i s anothe r ban d o f
egg and dot . The vase is carefully made o f a strong orange -
buff (Tarentine ) cla y wi th a slight step or ridge at the j unc-
t i on o f the nec k an d shoulder , an d a three-step foot . Th e
reserved zon e at the base of the wal l an d th e uppe r par t of
the foot i s strongly reddened; s o too i s the inner face of the
foot, bu t th e underside o f the floor i s untreated .
The vas e i s typi cal o f its peri od. The line s of the floral-
wor k ar e now fairl y uni f or m i n their thickness; the flowers
emerging betwee n th e tendril s ar e losin g thei r car e an d
i ndi vi dual i ty. Ye t we sti l l hav e fringe d leaves , an d th e firs t
tendri l o n th e inne r sid e doe s no t ye t reced e i nt o a ti gh t
spiral bu t turn s bac k o n itsel f onl y once . Th e pos e of the
figure, too , i s ver y muc h o f thi s phase : relaxe d wi t h hi s
wei ght o n on e leg , exhi bi ti n g l i ttl e rea l movement , bu t
lacking th e exaggerate d indolenc e of some of the late r f i g -
ures.
33
Stylisti c classification in thi s area is, however, a di f -
fi cul t probl em , not leas t becaus e of the apparen t si mi l ari t y
of many of these erotes. Th e drawi ng here is not unl i k e th e
wor k o f the Ros e Painter , bu t i t canno t b e his . Anothe r
piece tha t bear s comparison i s a squat lekytho s i n the B r i t -
ish Museum wi t h a n Eros i n a very similar pose, attending
to a kottabos-stand,
34
bu t agai n th e detail s o f bod y an d
florals sho w the hand i s not the same. M uch close r i s a squat
lekythos i n Taranto, not onl y i n the pose ( wi t h th e substi -
t ut i on o f a phiale for the mi r r o r an d a wreath for the sash)
but, mor e i mportantl y , in the detail s o f the anatomy , suc h
as th e drawi n g of the breas t o r th e V- l i n e a t th e navel.
3 5
The Tarant o lekythos has frami n g plant s of the earlier type,
composed o f small circles about incise d lines. There i s als o
a mor e genera l relationshi p t o th e wor k o f the painte r o f
t wo pelika i i n Mater a an d anothe r i n B ar i ,
3 6
bu t fo r th e
moment i t is di ffi cul t t o define the place of our lekythos in
a consistent worksho p tradi ti on .
A pelik e i n th e Gett y collectio n (fig . 13) ha s a n Eros ,
facing left , hol di n g a n alabastro n i n hi s lef t han d an d a
phiale i n hi s r i ght .
3 7
Th e vas e i s mad e o f a dul l -col ored
clay, somewha t br owne r t ha n th e nor ma l "T arent i ne "
orange-buff. I t i s a pelike of type 2, that is , wi th a mol di ng
woman o n th e revers e of the Bosto n krater (fig . 3b). For slightl y late r
versions, compar e fo r example, M . Bernardini, Vasi dello stile di Gnathia
(Museo Provincial e Castromediano; Bari , n.d.) , pi. 30, 2 and especiall y
pi. 30, 4.
34. Londo n F 579, CVA 1 , pi. 1 (37), 11; F orti, pi . 29b.
35. Tarant o 52521.
36. Mater a 10119 , fro m T i mmar i tom b 2 3 (1911) , Forti , pi . 19c ;
Matera 10118 , fro m th e sam e tom b (seate d Ero s wi t h phial e an d
wreath); Bar i 6697 (standin g Eros wi t h phial e and hoop) . Also close t o
our lekythos i s the bottl e Taranto 5492 7 (Ero s pursuing a bi rd) .
37. Mal i b u 71.AE.211. Height: 23.4 cm; diameter: 10. 4 cm. Published
i n Art of S. Italy, no. 124.
124 Green
Figure 13. P el i ke . M a l i b u , T h e J . P au l Get t y M us eu m
71.AE.211.
at th e to p o f the nec k an d a foot tha t i s separated of f from
the body . I t i s more elaborat e tha n typ e 1 , and a s mi ght b e
expected wi t h Gnathia , i s the mor e popular shape after th e
early peri od . Th e handles , a s usua l wi t h thi s type , ar e o f
circular sectio n an d ar e remarkabl y t hi n towar d th e top .
The figur e i s drawn i n whi t e wi t h yel l o w interna l detail s
and yel l o w was h ove r the hair , the phiale, the lower part of
the alabastron , th e leadin g edg e o f the farthe r wi ng , an d
t wo bands on the l ower part of the nearer wi ng; the dotte d
groundl i ne als o ha s yel l o w over . Th e decorativ e mark s o n
the phiale, mostly chevrons, ar e done i n a br own tha t seems
to b e a more concentrated versio n of the glaze used t o pr o-
38. Mal i b u 86.AE.445 . Maxi mum height : 16. 1 cm. Bareiss Coll., 86 ,
no. 242. The two holes at the top are modern, for the fragments t o hang
as a plaque.
duce th e yellow. (Ther e ar e groups of three whi t e dots ove r
the phiale. ) The central part o f the nearer wi ng i s a br own -
ish red . Ther e ar e som e trace s o f th e prel i mi nar y sketc h
preserved, mostl y behi n d th e figure' s ri gh t leg , a s i f th e
painter ha d bee n unsur e o f how t o angl e i t . There i s also a
pair o f lines comi ng down about halfway between the wi n g
and the body; they come t o a poi nt at the bot t om and mus t
have bee n intende d fo r th e farthe r wi ng , th e l owe r part o f
whi ch wa s neve r drawn . Above the scen e on th e nec k i s a
zone o f egg-pattern i n whi te wi t hout dot s o r incise d out -
line. Ther e i s n o decoratio n o n th e reverse . Th e reserve d
band o n the uppe r par t o f the foo t i s strongl y reddened .
To judge b y it s f or m, th e pelik e i s probabl y t o b e date d
circa 330-320 B.C . Thi s seems t o b e th e onl y shap e whi c h
preserves fo r s o l on g th e earl y schem e o f a figur e place d
si mpl y agains t th e black wi t hout fram e or cl utteri ng orna-
ment. T he mos t stri ki n g aspect of the drawi ng, however, i s
the contras t betwee n th e fine , delicat e detai l o f the hea d
and th e broad, hasty, almost crude strokes for the body, not
to ment i o n th e omissio n of the farthe r wi n g (despit e th e
prel i mi nary sketch) . I t is di ffi cult t o fi nd goo d stylisti c par -
allels despit e th e popul ar i t y of the subjec t matter . A n
unpublished fragmentar y squa t lekytho s in the Lagioi a col -
l ecti on, B ari , come s close . I t ha s a seate d Ero s hol di n g a
wreath i n his ri ght hand and wi t h hi s left supporti n g a har p
on hi s knee. T he drawi ng of the body shows man y stylisti c
resemblances to the Gett y vase, but the drawi ng of the hea d
is more like that o f the body i n character, an d s o i s di ffi cul t
to compar e wi t h tha t of the Gett y pelike.
We mov e no w t o a group o f three j oi ni ng fragment s i n
the Gett y Museum . T he y com e fro m a bell-krate r an d
seem t o b e mad e o f the relativel y orang e "Tarentine " clay
(fig. 14).
3 8
O n th e lef t i s a plant wi t h a red stem. A n Eros
moves ri ght , beating a tambourine, toward a seated woman
who support s a swan o r goos e on he r raise d lef t han d an d
wi t h he r ri gh t draws it s beak towar d her lips . The mot i f i s
clearer fro m a replic a on a squat lekytho s formerl y i n th e
col l ect i on o f the Marques s o f N or t hampt on a t Castl e
Ashby (fig . 15).
3 9
He r draper y ha s falle n dow n abou t he r
waist. I t i s orange-brown wi t h a red border a t the top. The
lines o f the fold s seem t o hav e bee n dry-drawn , al though
i t i s possibl e tha t the y wer e don e i n whi te whi ch ha s sinc e
vanished. She has bangle s o n bot h wrists, a simple necklace,
and a strin g o f beads runni n g abou t he r ches t fro m he r
ri ght shoulder . Sh e wear s a sakkos o n he r head . Th e Ero s
on th e Gett y fragment s ha s bangle s bot h on hi s wrist s an d
on hi s l owe r legs , a necklace , an d a string of beads abou t
his ches t wi t h anothe r o n hi s ri gh t thi gh . H e ha s golde n
39. CVA, pi . 57, 6-7, Christie's , London, July 2, 1980 , lot 13; now
N ew York , collection of Gregory Kallimanopoulos.
40. Fo r th e painter , se e especiall y BICS 1 5 (1968) , 40 ; BICS 1 8
Some Gnathia Pottery 125
Figure 14. Fragment s o f a bel l -krater . Mal i bu , T h e J. Pau l Get t y Museu m 86.AE.445 .
slippers o n hi s feet . Hi s hai r i s bound i n a red kekryphalos ,
and re d i s also used for the base of the Stphane towar d th e
front o f hi s head . Th e dot s fo r th e Stphane ar e whi t e ,
whereas th e othe r detail s an d th e ribbon s ar e yel l ow ; th e
tambourine i s si mi l arl y colored . Hi s hai r i s golden brown .
The farthe r wi n g i s red wi t h whi t e details; the nearer wi ng ,
whi t e wi t h re d alon g the cente r and yel l o w fo r the leadin g
edge and ove r th e pi ni o n feathers . I n the fiel d betwee n th e
t wo figure s hangs a bal l wi t h re d markings and yel l o w ove r
the centra l cross . Th e re d throughou t i s o f a particularl y
deep shade, almost purple .
T he drawi n g may b e attri bute d t o th e Painte r o f Lecc e
1075 a t a fairl y earl y stage of hi s career.
40
Hi s figures d o no t
have the elegance or daintiness o f those of the previous gen -
eration. The y ar e heavier , jus t a s hi s florals, o r fo r tha t
matter, hi s line , ar e heavier . Nonetheless , thi s phas e of hi s
wor k i s goo d an d careful , an d h e sti l l use s a n interestin g
variety o f colors, a technique o f whi ch h e i s the las t expo -
nent i n Mi ddl e Gnathia . A mon g th e characteristic s o f hi s
dr awi ng tha t wi l l survi ve , wi t h som e modi fi cat i on ,
throughout hi s caree r i s th e treatmen t o f the eye : a fairl y
long, sl ightl y curvi n g line fo r th e eyebrow , a shorte r lin e
parallel t o i t for the uppe r eyelid , the pupi l a s a short strok e
attached t o it s end, and th e lower l id as a short stroke below.
Also typica l i s th e reticulat e patternin g o f th e woman' s
sakkos.
(1971), 34 (bot h these isolating his later, mor e run-of-the-mi l l work) ;
Gnathia...Bonn, 6- 7 an d n. 25. I n the last I took the London and Bonn
pelikai as his earliest work: the pieces illustrated here enlarge our concep t
of hi s earl y phase.
126 Green
Figure 15. Squa t l ekythos . F ormerl y Castl e Ashby .
N o on e coul d doub t tha t th e lekythos formerly i n Castl e
Ashby (fig . 15 ) i s b y th e sam e hand , a s ca n als o b e safel y
said of a pair o f bottles i n the Cabine t de s Mdai l l es i n Pari s
(figs. 16 , 17).
4 1
Compar e the stoo l of figure 1 6 wi t h tha t o f
figure 15 . Compare i n figures 1 4 and 1 6 the fal l o f the drap -
ery abou t th e wais t an d th e fold s abou t th e uppe r legs ;
compare, also , th e borde r pattern s o f figure s 1 4 an d 16 .
Many o f these features recu r o n hi s fin e pelik e i n B onn.
4 2
Another detai l commo n t o figure s 1 4 t o 1 7 i s t o hav e th e
farther le g o f the seate d figur e extende d forward , a s i f the
Figure 16. B ot t l e . Paris, Cabi ne t de s Mdai l l es 1062 .
foot reste d o n a ris e i n the ground.
4 3
T h e Ero s of figure 1 7
also matche s th e Ero s o f figur e 1 4 i n man y respects . I t i s
some remov e fro m th e mor e mi nci n g version o n th e rela -
ti vel y lat e pelik e i n Toront o (fig . 18);
4 4
nevertheless , th e
elements o f the painter' s styl e ca n b e trace d through , par -
ti cul arl y wi t h hi s nam e vas e a s a n i ntermedi ary.
4 5
T h e
Toronto Ero s sti l l wear s a sakkos decorate d i n a way ver y
like that o f the woma n o f the Gett y fragments .
The red-stemme d plan t o n th e lef t o f th e Gett y frag -
ments (fig . 14) wa s doubtles s repeate d t o th e ri gh t o f th e
41. D e Ridder 106 2 and 1063 . One shoul d als o add another bottl e i n 44. Toront o 919.5.4, D. M. Robinson, C . G. Harcum, and J. H . I liffe ,
. A Catalogue of the Greek Vases in the Royal Ontario Museum of Archaeology
(Toronto, 1930) , pi . 78 , 505 ; A . Rumpf , Malerei und Zeichnung der
f Griechen (Muni ch , 1953), pi . 53, 6; BICS 1 5 (1968) , pi . 6a; J. W. Hayes,
y Greek and Italian Black-Gloss Wares and Related Wares in the Royal Ontario
Museum(Toronto , 1984) , no. 233.
the same collection, Forti , pi . 34d, and perhap s a fourth, Delepierre 60
42. Gnathia...Bonn, pis . 8b, 9, 10.
43. Th e Ero s o f figure 1 7 sit s on a bunc h o f dar k re d draper y (o
much th e same shade as o n th e Gett y fragments ) whi c h i s not clearl
visible i n the monochrome photograph ; not e also his farther wi ng .
Some Gnathia Pottery 127
Figure 17. B ot t l e . Paris , C abi net de s Mdai l l es 1063 .
scene. Th e sam e mot i f i s use d t o fram e th e figur e o f a
woman a t a laver on a squat lekythos in L ei den.
4 6
She holds
an alabastro n i n he r ri gh t han d an d reache s bac k t o fi t a
slipper on her lef t foot . B ehi n d he r i s a pillar on whi ch res t
a heap of drapery an d a mi rror . Despit e some wear t o th e
surface, i t i s clearl y by the Painte r o f Lecce 1075 . B oth th e
drawi ng and the shape of the lekythos show i t must be later
than on e normal l y expect s suc h plan t work . A bell-krater
i n th e L ouvr e showi ng a young satyr wi t h a cl ub or lago-
bolon also ha s red-stemme d frami n g pl ants.
4 7
T h e figur e i s








45. Lecc e 1075: CVA 1 , pi. 5, 1, 2 and 4; Bernardini (supra , note 33),
pi . 30, 1-3; F orti , pi . 30c.
46. Leide n BN 1, C. W. Scheurleer, Grieksche Ceramiek (Rotterdam ,
1936), pi . 45, 129.
47. Paris , Louvre K 605 bis (ED 150), Forti, pi . 24c (shown in mi rror
image). The figur e i s probably a young satyr rathe r tha n a young Pan,




Figure 18. Pelike . T oronto, R oyal O nt ari o Museum 919.5.4.
badly preserved, but enough remain s of the drawi ng of the
eye t o sho w tha t i t too i s most l i kel y b y th e same painter ,
at a stag e betwee n th e Gett y fragment s an d th e Leide n
lekythos.
The mot i f o f a woma n kissin g a swa n o r goos e i s a n
interesting one.
4 8
Thes e bird s ar e commo n o n Apul i a n
pottery an d ca n wander amon g th e participant s i n a rang e
of scenes ; they are , a s wel l , favorit e subject s fo r pursui t by
erotes and by women. There seems to be no consistent dis -
t i nct i on betwee n the drawi ng of a swan and that of a goose
but see the references cite d supra, not e 26.
48. I t recurs on the painter' s pelike in Bonn (supra , not e 42) . Note
also the miniatur e hydria, London F 563, CVA 1 , pl. 1 (37), 12, or th e
squat lekythos , Tarant o 11002 . O n th e bottl e i n th e Cabine t de s
Mdailles, Delepierr e 60 (se e not e 41), the bi r d seems to kiss the lips of
a female head, a theme whi ch recur s i n later Gnathia.
128 Green
Figure 19a. S kyphoi d krater . M al i bu , T h e J. Pau l Get t y Museu m 79.AE.189 .
Figure 19b. Bac k o f skyphoid krater , figur e 19a .
Some Gnathia Pottery 129
except fo r size . T h e swa n was , o f course, associate d wi t h
Aphrodi te an d ha d a promi nent plac e i n myt hol ogy.
4 9
Th e
Greeks wer e fon d o f keeping smalle r bird s a s pets , amon g
them geese , an d an y creatur e kep t a s a pe t coul d als o b e
given a s a l ove-gi ft .
5 0
Thus , o n Apul i a n pottery, on e see s
these bi rd s no t onl y at t ract i n g th e at t ent i o n o f youn g
women
5 1
bu t als o bein g hel d b y a youn g woma n i n th e
company o f a young ma n an d a n Eros
5 2
: a pet ma y hav e a
particular sentimenta l value . When a n Eros pursues a goose
or any othe r bi rd , he may be doi ng it in i mi t at i on o f huma n
behavior: human s do i t often enoug h i n vase-painting, an d
apparently i n lif e a s wel l , i f the stor y relate d b y Platoo f
the Macedoni a n pri nc e wh o ha d bee n t hr ot t l e d an d
t hr own dow n a wel l bu t wa s sai d b y hi s murdere r t o hav e
fallen down the wel l accidentall y i n pursuit o f a goosewas
to hav e an y degre e o f veri si mi l i tude.
5 3
So to o er o tes tra p
birds and shoo t arrows a t t hem,
5 4
o r the y ma y pursue the m
as potentia l love-gifts , either i n thei r functi o n a s erote s o r
because the bi r d itsel f i s an eroti c symbol whi ch i s given it s
most explici t expressio n i n the phal l os-bi r d o r th e wi nge d
phallos.
5 5
B u t for the ladie s o n th e Gett y an d Castl e Ashb y
pieces (figs . 14 , 15) , we ma y mor e modestl y interpre t th e
geese a s favorit e pets , an d i n vi e w o f th e Eros , a s havin g
some sentimental value .
Another piece to be connected wi t h th e Painte r o f Lecce
1075, and qui t e l i kel y by hi m, is the Getty' s skyphoi d krate r
(figs. 19a-b).
5 6
I n shape , th e vas e ma y b e describe d a s a
very large skyphos o f A t t ic type , a type not otherwis e pop -
ular i n Apul i a n Gnathi a wher e fo r th e smalle r standar d
dri nki ng vesse l th e l i ghte r C ori nt hi a n typ e (kotyl e ) wa s
normal l y preferred. Th e clay i s of the pale , souther n variety .
The vas e i s decorated i n a scheme usual fo r ope n vessel s of
this ki nd , a pi-shape d arrangemen t enclosin g a centra l
moti f. O n sid e A , at th e l i p , are thre e pattern-bands sepa-
rated b y doubl e incise d lines : eg g an d do t i n whi t e wi t h
incised outl i ne ; red and yel l o w zigzag fil l e t wi t h a fi l l i ng o f
groups o f three whi t e dots ; an d the n a line of yel l ow dots .
49. Se e recently , K. Schauenburg J dl 8 7 (1972) , 258fF.; W. Marti n
i n Ursul a Hockmann and Artj e Krug , eds. , Festschriftfr Frank Bromme
(Mainz, 1977) , 223-229; I . Krauskopf , Forschungen und Funde: Festschrif
Bernard Neutsch (I nnsbruck , 1980), 243-248.
50. Aristophane s specifically mentions the goose among birds used a
love-gifts at Birds 707 . For the dove as a love-gift t o a gi rl, see Theocrit
V, 132-133:
See also i bi d. , 96-97.
51. As , for example, Art of S. Italy, no. 127.
52. A s Art of S. Italy, no. 76; see als o our painter' s name vase (supra
note 45) wher e the yout h stil l holds the bi r d by a string.
53. Plato , Gorgias 471C .
54. Fo r erotes wi t h bird-traps , see the Gnathi a squat lekythoi : P hi l
adelphia L-64-19 , AA, 1981 , 346, fig. 3, CVA 1 , forthcoming; Paris
Louvre K 615, K. Schauenburg, Jagddarstellungenin dergriechischen Vasen
r
t
u
-
i malerei (Hamburg, 1969), pi. 24. For erotes shooting, see e.g., Naples Stg.
508, CVA 3 , pi . 70.3, or Taranto 52574, F orti, 33 n. 17. A bi rd caught in
a trap forms part of the decoration on the round-bodied epichysis Yale
1913.281.
55. Thus , note the comic actor in pursuit of a winged phallos, mi m-
icking normal human behavior , on the Harvar d fragment, A . D. Tren-
dall, Phlyax Vases, 2d ed., no. 154, pi. 4g, and Art of S. Italy, no. 121. O n
this whol e question, see mos t recentl y my comment s i n Greek Vases in
the J. Paul Getty Museum 2 (1985) , 111. Als o H . Hoffmann, Sexual and
Asexual Pursuit (London , 1977) . At the beginning of the sequence, we
may also remember how Penelope's pet geese (Odyssey xi x, 535ff. ) wer e
killed b y an eagl e i n her dream and then interpreted as symbolizing th e
suitors who were to be killed the next day by Odysseus .
56. Mal i b u 79.AE.189. Height: 30.1 cm.
57. Londo n F 585, CVA 1 , pi. 5 (41) , 19.
58. Vienna , Kunsthistorisches Museum I V 121.


s
s
,
-
,
F rom thi s line in the centra l par t han g fiv e pendant s drawn
as groups o f three di mi ni shi n g lines. T he centra l moti f , i n
whi t e wi t h yel l o w details , i s a swa n standin g o n a stele ,
facing left , it s wi ngs outstretched an d it s head turne d back .
The groun d i s shown a s a doubl e ro w o f dots fro m whi c h
spring t wo yel l o w branches flanking th e stele . I n the fiel d
to either side of the swan ar e yel l ow rosettes wi th triangula r
petals and whi t e di mi ni shi n g lines unde r them . Thi s cen -
tral scene is framed o n each side by a descending spray wi t h
yel l ow leave s on th e inne r side , whi t e leaves on th e outer ,
about a doubl e incise d stem , an d the n i v y descenders. Th e
i vy i s of an i ndi vi dual type wi t h alternatin g re d and yel l ow
leaves on incise d stems and wi t h whi t e dot -frui t abou t re d
centers. A fragmen t o f th e l i p an d uppe r wal l ha s bee n
broken an d rejoine d o n th e uppe r left . Ther e i s some slight
retouching o f the eg g patter n a t th e break , an d th e zigza g
fillet i s worn i n thi s area.
T he revers e ha s a si mpl e pi -shape d arrangemen t o f
sprays (o n doubl e incise d lines, the uppe r leaves of the hor -
izontal an d th e inne r leave s o f the descender s ar e yel l ow )
frami ng rosett e an d circl e pendants . Th e circle s an d th e
rosette ar e yel l ow; the di mi ni shi n g lines, whi t e. The lowe r
wal l i s reserved an d decorate d wi t h t w o line s o f black; th e
clay i s strongly reddened. The inne r face of the foot i s black;
on th e undersid e o f the floor i s a broad blac k circl e whi ch
once had a narrower on e aroun d i t (no w wor n away) . Th e
central are a an d th e stri p betwee n th e t w o circle s i s red -
dened, an d beyon d th e circle s ar e th e arm s o f a re d cros s
wi t h swastika-lik e daub s on thei r ends .
The re d and gol d i vy descenders framing the scene on side
A ar e distinctiv e an d recu r onl y o n a restricte d numbe r o f
vases. These include a ver y fin e bu t wor n askos i n London,
on whi c h the y fram e a swan preenin g it s feathers,
57
an d a
bell-krater i n Vi enn a (fig . 20) .
5 8
O n th e Vi enn a vas e th e
i vy i s hori zontal ; below, birds fly down t o a basi n whi c h i s
fi l l ed wi t h wate r fro m a l i on-head spout just below the i vy.
N ot onl y i s the styl e o f the i v y the same , but s o to o i s th e
130 Green
Figure 20. Bell-krater . Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum
I V 121.
style of other detail s such as the descending sprays , the rosettes
wi t h triangula r petal s an d a ri ng i n the cente r (rathe r tha n
the usua l soli d ci rcl e) , th e group s o f three smal l di mi ni sh -
i ng lines , an d th e birds ' wi ng s wi t h th e curvi ng , fanlik e
spread o f the pi ni o n feathers . T h e artis t i s the same.
59
A proble m i n attributing Gnathia vases is the difficult y o f
showing links between one category o f decorative scheme and
another, betwee n vase s that rel y o n figures , florals, vines , o r
ivy. Th e connectio n wi t h th e Painte r o f Lecce 1075 , who i s
known mainl y for or throug h hi s drawing of figures an d o f
heads, can onl y b e made through subsidiar y motifs . Thu s hi s
characteristic an d relativel y lat e pelik e i n Toront o (fig . 18)
has th e same rosettes and th e same groups o f small di mi ni sh -
i ng line s under th e uppe r border . Notic e now tha t thi s same
rosette i s found decoratin g th e tympano n hel d b y th e Ero s
on th e Gett y fragment s (fig . 14) . Th e Vienn a bell-krate r
(fig. 20 ) provide s a l i n k wi t h hi s birds , as doe s the swa n o f
59. On e ma y ad d anothe r skyphoi d krate r recentl y o n th e Rom e
market o n whi c h th e sam e descender s ar e use d t o fram e a siren wh o
holds a bird-trap; see to o the bell-krater Oxfor d 1939.72 , R . M . Cook,
Greek Fainted Pottery (London , 1960) , pi . 56b (fo r the bi rd) . Ther e i s
also a series of vases decorated simpl y wi t h thi s sor t o f i vy but wi t h
whi te rathe r tha n re d center s fo r th e fruit . O n presen t evidenc e on e
cannot sa y i f they ar e by the Painter o f Lecce 1075 .
60. Mal i b u 79.AE.188. Height: 25.4 cm.
61. I t i s standar d o n th e vine-kotyla i o f the Knudse n Group . On e
example among many: Gnathia...Bonn, pi . 16b. For skyphoi d kraters of
that Group , see StEtr 4 2 (1974) , pi . 94b (tw o examples) o r Sotheby's ,
London, July 10, 1972, lot 175, pi. 46.
62. Ornab a 1951.567. 1 owe my knowledge of this piece t o A nn Stei-
the skyphoi d krater (fig . 19a).
T he secon d skyphoi d krate r fro m th e Gett y collection
(figs. 2 1 a-b) i s a l i ttl e smaller.
60
I t i s mad e o f a slightl y
coarse, pal e clay and o n the fron t ha s a standard scheme . At
the l i p , i t has bands of egg-patter n ( whi t e) , re d and yel l o w
fil l et, an d the n yel l ow dot s bordered b y incised lines. B el ow
this i s a vin e fram e enclosin g a swan . Th e vin e ha s a re d
stem, an d o n th e hori zontal , the ri gh t side s o f the leave s
and grap e bunches ar e washe d ove r t o mak e the m yellow ,
as ar e th e l owe r sides on the verticals . T he swa n stands left ,
shaki ng it s wi ng s an d preeni n g it s breas t feathers . T h e
details an d th e bac k o f th e nec k ar e i n yellow . O n th e
ground t o th e lef t i s a plant; i n the field , a yel l ow sas h an d
a rosette . T h e revers e si mpl y has eggs , then yel l o w dot s a t
the l i p, and the n t wo whi te i vy descenders frami ng a rosett e
wi t h yel l o w center .
T he vas e may b e attri bute d t o th e relativel y early stages
of the Laure l Spray Grou p a s i t breaks away fro m th e circl e
of th e Ros e Painter . I t i s typi cal o f this Group , an d o f the
Knudsen Group whi c h succeeds i t, to draw the egg-patter n
wi t hout dot s o r incise d outlines. What become s mor e an d
more typi ca l i s to put th e hori zontal of the vi ne frame har d
up agains t th e l i p decoration, wi t hout leave s or tendril s on
the upper sid e of the stem.
6 1
T h e Gett y vase is an unusuall y
careful piece : the painters i n the Laurel Spray Group tende d
to prefer faste r producti o n of standardized schemes . N one -
theless i t ha s th e characteristi c heav y grap e bunche s an d
t hi ckl y drawn leaves .
Another carefu l an d i n man y way s simila r piec e i s a
kotyl e i n the Joslyn A r t Museum, Omah a (fig . 22) .
6 2
I t i s
sti l l clos e t o th e Ros e Painter. Sti l l anothe r usefu l compar -
ison i s a kyathos i n W r z b ur g (fig . 23) .
6 3
Her e th e grape s
are just a s blobby as on the Gett y vase, and th e leaves seem
to b e drawn i n the same style. O n th e neck, th e W r z b ur g
vase has th e distinctiv e laurel spray tha t give s th e grou p it s
name an d tha t lead s one o n t o a further serie s whi c h use s
the spra y a s a pri nci pa l mot i f .
6 4
I ndeed , th e kyatho s i s
short-l i ved a s a shape i n Gnathi a potter y an d seem s v i r -
tual l y confine d t o thi s group.
6 5
T he nestori s i n th e Gett y Museu m (fig . 24) i s a piec e
ner, wh o i s t o publis h the potter y i n the Joslyn Museum' s collection.
The reverse is much more hasty .
63. E . Langlotz, Griechische Vasen in Wrzburg (Muni ch , 1932) , pi.
241, no . 839 , whenc e th e illustratio n here . Th e vas e was damage d i n
Worl d Wa r I I and restore d o n th e basi s of Langlotz' illustration . I a m
grateful t o Guntram Beckel for much hel p on thi s piece. Als o of much
the same stage are th e bell-krater s Warsaw 198132 , Ci^ 4 6, pi . 15, 4-5,
and C ompi gn e 1007 , CJ^4, pi . 24, 16 and 18 . The latte r ha s th e same
sort of laurel spray by the handles on the reverse .
64. Cf . Gnathia...Bonn, pi . 8a, an d th e piece s associated wi t h i t i n
the text .
65. Amon g published examples , note , i n descendin g chronologica l
order, CVA Veron a 1, pi. 20, 3; CJ^ 4 Naple s 3, pi . 64, 9; CVA Copen -
Some Gnathia Pottery 131
Figure 21a. S kyphoi d krater . Mal i bu , T h e J. Pau l Get t y Museu m 79.AE.188 .
Figure 21b. B ac k o f skyphoid krater , figur e 21a .
132 Green
Figure 22. Kot yl e . O maha , Josly n A r t Museum , gi f t o f
Mr s. W. H . Qui gl ey, 1951.567 .
wi t hout clos e paral l el .
6 6
I t i s made o f a pal e buf f cla y an d
has th e characteri sti c hi gh- ar chi n g stra p handle s wi t h
shieldlike disc s attache d fron t an d bac k at thei r highes t
poi nt an d a t th e leve l o f th e l i p . T he vas e i s elaboratel y
finished. N ot onl y i s the body ri bbed from shoulde r t o base
but th e hori zonta l handle s hav e doubl e ridge s o n thei r
outer face s an d th e foo t ha s bot h vertica l and hori zonta l
grooving. T h e ri bbi n g o n th e bod y was , a s usual , planne d
before th e applicatio n of the handles . Whi l e th e vas e wa s
sti l l o n th e wheel , shallow prel i mi nary grooves wer e mad e
to define the upper an d lower l i mi ts for the ribs , whi ch ru n
all aroun d th e vase . The ri bbi n g itsel f was, o f course, don e
after th e applicatio n of the handles . T h e vas e i s completel y
coated i n glaze. Th e overpainte d decoratio n i s confined t o
the disc s an d shoulde r an d i s the same on each side: on th e
discs i s a star mot i f wi t h dot s o n th e r i m ; on th e shoulde r
is i vy wi t h dot -frui t . Th e decoratio n i s al l done i n whi t e ,
washed ove r t o make i t yellow.
I t i s wor t h compari n g thi s vas e wi t h a nestori s b y th e
Varrese Painte r i n a privat e col l ecti o n i n Ki e l (fig . 25) ,
6 7
whi ch i s t o b e date d circ a 350-340 B.C . T he Gett y piec e i s
clearly later , a s i s evident bot h fro m th e mor e ovoi d bod y
and especiall y f r o m th e tal l e r foot . T h e r i bbi ng , t oo ,
extends over a greater par t o f the body an d i s more qui ckl y
executed. A l l this , together wi t h th e styl e of the i v y on th e
shoulder (wi del y space d wi t h a painte d ste m an d al l i n
monochrome yel l ow) , suggest s a dat e at th e en d o f th e
fourt h centur y o r eve n i n the earl y t hi rd .
T he Varres e Painter' s vas e shows influence s fro m metal ,
notably th e carefu l ri bbi ng , th e groove d side-handles , th e
relief heads on th e discs , the l i on-hea d protomai where th e
vert i cal handle s mee t th e l i p , and th e impresse d egg -
pattern o n th e l i p . The Gett y vase , thoug h les s elaborate ,
continues thi s tradi ti on , eve n i n th e shieldlik e appearance
of th e discs . Th e relationshi p between metalwar e an d pot -
tery i s rarel y a simpl e one.
6 8
Di rec t copies fro m on e t o th e
other sometime s occur , but not infrequentl y pottery shapes
can develop a metal l icizing t radi t i on of their own, wi t hout
specific referenc e bac k t o i ndi vi dua l meta l versions , just a s
pottery shape s ca n b e take n ove r i nt o meta l an d hav e a n
hagen 7 , pi . 276, 3 ; Sotheby's , London , Februar y 23 , 1976 , lo t 293 ;
Dubl i n, Universit y College (e x Hope 342), Proceedings of the Royal Irish
Academy 7 3 (1973) , 455, no. 1144 ; Vl aardi ngen, private col l ecti on,
Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, Klassieke Kunst uit Particulier Bezit ex . cat.
(Leiden, 1975) , no. 595, fig. 237. For similar vines at the same stage, see
the oinochoe CJ^ 4 Naple s 3, pi . 65, 11; the kotyla i CVA Bologn a 3, pi.
2, 15; Toronto 957.153.16, Hayes (supra , not e 44), no. 257 (slightl y later
and less careful), CVA Naple s 3, pi. 73, 10, H. Sichtermann, Griechische
Vasen in Unteritalien aus der Sammlung Jatta in Ruvo (Tubingen , 1966),
pi . 149 , K 97-98, and many unpublishe d kotylai i n Ruvo.
66. Mal i b u 78.AE.320, presented b y R. Collins . Height (at l i p) : 45.5
cm; diameter: 26. 3 cm. Christie's, London, July 12 , 1977, lot 141, pi. 31;
Schneider-Herrmann, 37-38 , fig . 95; Art of S. Italy, 274, no. 134.
Figure 23. Kyat hos . W r z b u r g , M a r t i n v o n Wagne r
Museum L . 839. P hot o: Aft e r L angl ot z (1932) .
Some Gnathia Pottery 133
Figure 26. A pul i a n red-fi gur e col umn- kr at er . Josep h
Veach N obl e col l ecti o n o f classica l anti qui ti es ,
Tampa Museum .
Figure 24. Nestoris . M al i bu , T h e J . Pau l Get t y Museu m
78.AE.320.
independent lif e eve n afte r th e shap e has disappeare d fro m
pottery an d th e potter y version s hav e develope d i n a di f -
ferent di recti on . T he scene on th e name vase of the Mapl e -
wood Painte r i s useful her e (fig . 26) .
6 9
The nestori s carrie d
by th e woma n i n the cente r o f the scene seems intended a s
metal: not e th e ri bbi n g of the body , th e elaborat e foot , an d
the us e o f whi t e (washe d yel l ow ) fo r th e handles . Th e
scene i s clearl y on e o f welcome fo r vi ctori ou s nativ e war -
riors. A l t hough Atheni an vase-painters often showed meta l
rather tha n cla y vessel s i n more elevate d contexts , Apulian s
normal l y seem t o have been more litera l i n this respect , an d
when we see a metal vessel we may assume it reall y is metal .
A . D. Trendal l has poi nte d ou t tha t th e earlies t extan t nes -
67. RVAp, vol . 1, 343, no. 34 ; K. Schauenburg, _/<// 89 (1974) , 137 -
186 ( wi t h usefu l note s o n nestoride s i n general) ; W. Hornbostel , ed. ,
Kunst der Antike. Schatze aus norddeutschem Privatbesitz (Mainz , 1977) ,
362-363, no . 311; Schneider-Herrmann, 63 , no. 5, fig. 73.
68. Se e th e fundamenta l articl e by Dorothy Ken t H i l l , "Th e Tech -
nique of Greek Meta l Vases and It s Bearing on Vase Forms i n Metal and
Pottery," AJA 5 1 (1947) , 248-256 .
69. Tamp a Museum , Joseph Veac h Nobl e col l ecti o n of classica l
antiquities. RVAp, vol . 1, 249, no. 187 , pi . 82, 1; Jdl 8 9 (1974) , 150 , fig.
15; Schneider-Herrmann, fig . 101; Art ofS. Italy, 120-121 , no. 42 ( wi t h
further references) . Mi ddl e of the fourt h centur y B .c. Se e als o the ver y
similar pair , RVAp suppl . 1 (BICS suppl . 42, 1983) , pi. 5.
Figure 25. A pul i a n red-fi gur e nestoris . Germany , privat e
col l ecti on.
134 Green
Figures 27a-b. C up . Above: profi l e ; below: i nt eri or . M al i bu , T h e J . Pau l Get t y Museu m
76.AE.50.
torides i n Apul i a n red-figur e war e dat e t o th e mi ddl e o f
the fourt h century , whereas they ar e depicte d i n red-figur e
from a s earl y a s th e Sisyphu s Painte r i n the late r fi ft h cen -
t ur y.
7 0
Som e of the example s depicte d ar e smal l and argu -
ably represent the nativ e Messapian trozzella, bu t other s ar e
larger an d should , lik e th e on e o n th e Mapl ewoo d vase, b e
metal. I t i s therefor e qui t e possibl e tha t th e nestori s cam e
i nt o th e repertoir e o f the Apul i a n Gree k potte r fro m metal .
There ma y b e a less direct l i n k wi t h thei r Lucania n coun -
70. A . D. Trendall , Gli indigeni nella pittura italiota (Taranto, 1971) ,
Iff., and Magna Graecia, vol . 6, no. 9/10 ( 1971 ), 14ff . The Sisyphus Painte
vase: London F 174 , RVAp vol . 1, 16 no. 5 5 (wi t h earlie r references) ;
Schneider-Herrmann, fig . 97 .
71. See , for example, my comment s i n Art of S. Italy, 288-292 .
72. Collecte d by Schneider-Herrmann, 27 .
73. Art of S. Italy, 256.
74. Mal i b u 76.AE.50 . Height: 5.3 cm; diameter (a t l i p) : 10. 2 cm.
75. Fo r the shape, compare i n general terms CVA Britis h Museum 7,

r


terparts tha n ha s bee n supposed , an d thes e vases certainl y
appear a t a ti m e whe n th e Gree k potter s an d painter s o f
A pul i a wer e maki n g close r contac t wi t h th e nati v e
popul ati ons.
7 1
T he Gett y vase is the onl y known true Gnathi a nestoris .
There ar e a few trozzelle wi t h overpainte d decorati on,
7 2
bu t
they stan d outsi d e th e Gnat hi a t r adi t i o n proper , eve n
t hough th e decoratio n o n som e o f them imitate s Gnathi a
i n techniqu e an d i n som e o f th e motif s employed . Th e
pi. 3 (478) , 4a-b; CVA Goth a 2, pi. 90, 1-2; CVA Warsa w 6, pi. 22, 3-
4; CVA Rennes , pl. 44, 5 and 7 (less close) ; Vienna IV 296 (unpublishe d
but ver y close). A l l thes e are Campanian .
76. A n exception, though ver y different i n approach, i s the series of
small plates whi ch have, i n the center, an impressed rosett e whi ch i s then
used as an earring for a red-figure femal e head: e.g., Zuri c h 2686, CVA
1, pi . 48, 6-7 ; RVAp vol . 2, 77 6 no . 14 7 (Amphora e Group) ; Mi l an ,
collection " H . A." 286, RVAp vol . 2, 668, no. 221, pi. 249, 7 (Chevro n
Group).
Some Gnathia Pottery 135
Getty vas e i s l i kel y t o hav e been a n experiment , base d o n
red-figure versions , bu t lik e othe r larg e vessel s i ntroduce d
or reintroduce d at th e sam e period , th e shap e wa s soo n
abandoned.
7 3
The stemles s cup (figs . 27a-b) i s of somewhat abnorma l
form; i t mi gh t almos t b e calle d a cup-skyphos , give n th e
height o f the l i p in relation t o it s di ameter,
7 4
al thoug h th e
handles o f a cup-skypho s normal l y sprin g fro m a lowe r
poi nt o n th e bowl . Th e vas e i s intact bu t fo r a smal l frag -
ment o f th e l i p on sid e B , whi c h ha s bee n restored . I t i s
made o f a pal e br ow n clay , and befor e i t wa s painted , th e
center o f th e insid e wa s decorate d wi t h a scheme o f si x
impressed palmette s l i nke d b y compass-draw n loops , al l
arranged abou t a squar e containin g fou r palmettes . Th e
latter have thinner, spikier leaves. The vase was the n dippe d
i n th e glaze , bu t th e undersid e wa s lef t unpainted ; no r wa s
i t reddened . Wi t h i n th e l i p is painted a band o f laurel wi t h
dot -frui t . Th e centra l ri b o f each lea f i s drawn i n yellow ,
and th e whol e i s coated wi t h a yel l ow wash . O n th e out -
side, o n side s A an d B , there are , fro m th e l i p , t wo incise d
lines, a re d an d yel l o w band , anothe r incise d line , the n a
vi ne-pattern. B el o w tha t ar e t w o group s o f three dot s o n
side A bu t no t o n side B . The stems of the vin e ar e washe d
yellow, as are the ri ght sides of the grape bunches and leaves.
The yel l o w her e and o n th e ban d neare r th e l i p is a strong,
deep shade; the red i s fairly dul l . The paint i s qui te thi ck an d
tends t o flake off , almost a s i f it were modern , bu t i t i s not .
The cu p i s Campanian, a s i s evident fro m th e clay , th e
shape, th e impresse d decoration , th e styl e o f th e painte d
decoration, an d th e qual i t y of the pai nt .
7 5
Apul i a n potter y
rarely combine s painte d an d impresse d decorati on,
7 6
an d
the styl e o f the impresse d decoratio n i s purel y Campania n
even i f ul ti matel y derive d fro m Athens . I t i s typical , fo r
example, t o have a square mot i f i n th e center . I n Campania ,
however, impresse d decoratio n i s mor e ofte n combine d
wi t h th e characteristi c i v y on a n incise d stem,
7 7
an d thi s i s
a tradi ti o n that, a s poi nte d ou t elsewhere , lead s ul ti mately
to th e Tean o Class; but ther e ar e occasiona l example s wi t h
laurel or eve n wi t h laure l and i v y combi ned.
7 8
The Gnathi a styl e wa s neve r develope d a t al l ful l y i n
C ampani a.
7 9
Th e mos t commo n categor y foun d i s i vy dec-
oration suc h a s ha s just bee n mentioned . I t seems t o hav e
been bor r owe d f r o m A pul i a , perhap s nor t her n A pul i a ,
77. Fo r example , th e Vienn a an d Goth a vase s mentioned supr a i n
note 75; also CJ^4 Gallatin , pi. 64, 7, Naples Stg. 106, Amsterdam 1401.
78. O n th e l i n k wi t h Teano , se e Gnathia...Bonn, 16 , and Art of S.
Italy, 258-259. For laurel wi th i v y about incised decoration on the stem-
less cup , se e J . Dri g, ed. , Art antique. Collections prives de la Suisse
romande (Geneva an d Mainz , 1975), no. 297.
79. Fo r attempt s t o distinguish Campanian traits , see L . Forti, "Vasi
del tipo 'Gnathia' provenient i da Pontecagnano, " Apollo 1 (1961), 89-98,
and La Cermica di Gnathia, 131fF .
Figure 28. Oinochoe . The Auckland Museum 18515.
Figure 29. Kotyle . Melbourne , Nationa l Galler y o f Vi c -
toria (o n loa n t o th e Uni versi t y o f Mel -
bourne), 175 .
136 Green
Figure 30. Fragmen t o f a calyx-krater. Malibu, The J. Paul
Getty Museum 83.AE.431.
some ti me i n th e t hi r d quarte r o f the fourt h centur y an d
to hav e laste d unt i l th e earl y t hi rd . Anothe r categor y o f
overpainted war e ha s l i ttl e o r n o relatio n t o Apul i a n Gna -
thia. Thi s i s the series of skyphoi decorated wi t h laure l an d
scroll motif s i n applie d whi t e an d red.
8 0
Th e us e o f vi ne-
patterns, floral-work, femal e heads , o r masks , however ,
seems neve r t o hav e bee n adopte d i n an y consisten t way ,
and i t i s di ffi cul t t o isolat e an y worksho p traditions . Th e
Getty cu p i n figur e 2 7 borrow s qui t e di rectl y fro m th e
Apul i an Sidewinde r Group , o f whi ch t w o reasonabl y t yp -
ical example s ar e give n i n figure s 2 8 an d 29.
8 1
Th e Side -
wi nder Group , whi c h represent s th e vine-decorate d vase s
of th e Dunedi n Group , i s a larg e on e an d wa s produce d
over som e l engt h o f ti me, but i t mus t giv e a terminus post
quern for th e Gett y cu p o f circa 325 B.C . at the earliest . Th e
cup use s the group s o f three dot s o n th e l owe r wal l , exag -
gerates th e trilobat e characte r o f th e grap e bunches , an d
makes the leaves i nto i nverted palmettes. Mor e typical , per -
haps, of its provi nci al qual i ty is the wa y the re d and yel l o w
band i s placed ri gh t u p agains t th e l i p . Apulians were usu -
ally ver y consciou s o f th e structur e o f th e decoratio n i n
relation t o th e f or m o f the vase ; the y sa w thes e bands a s
80. Fo r example , fro m Cumae , Mon Ant 2 3 (1913) , pi. 109, 1 and 3;
from ola , M . Bonghi Jovino an d R . Donceel , La necropoli di Nola
preromana (Naples , 1969) , pl. 11, A 3. The latter see the m a s an i mpov-
erished versio n of Saint-Valentin vases, probably under th e influence of
the Xenon Group.
81. Aucklan d 1851 5 an d Melbourne , Nationa l Galler y o f Victoria ,
on loa n t o th e Universit y of Melbourne, Classics Department 175 . O n
the Sidewinde r Grou p i n general , se e BICS 1 5 (1968) , 1 8 an d Gna-
friezes an d use d eg g an d do t fo r th e corni ce.
8 2
B u t tha t
may b e pedantr y whe n see n from th e wi l d west .
A DDE N DU M
Since thes e note s wer e wr i t t en , th e M useu m ha s
acquired t wo furthe r piece s of Gnathia pottery . T he firs t i s
the beautifu l fragmen t (fig . 30) onc e i n th e collectio n of
Karl Zinser, the cour t jeweler, i n Stuttgart. I t is well known
from Bulle' s publ i cati on.
8 3
A s Bull e saw , th e fragmen t i s
from a large calyx-krater , and , a s always , on e find s i t di f -
fi cul t t o i mprove on hi s description. We have the upper par t
of a woman facing ri ght , supporti ng a lyre by its cross-piece
wi t h he r ri gh t hand . I t i s qui t e l i kel y tha t sh e i s a Muse ,
and possible , give n the pose , tha t sh e wa s seated . Her flesh
is whi t e, her hai r red-brown , it s wave s draw n i n a darke r
version of the same color. At the brows , temples , an d nec k
much o f the colo r has flaked awa y wher e i t overlapped th e
whi t e. He r hai r i s hel d b y a broa d headban d i n medi u m
brown, whi c h support s i t at th e bac k an d carrie s a diade m
on top ; thi s ban d i s folded ove r abov e the ear s and i s dec -
orated wi t h a row of dark dot s a t the front an d wi t h zigzag s
and rows of whi te dot s alon g the edges . The diade m i s also
whi t e. Sh e wear s a yel l ow- br own peplos, th e pai n t o f
whi ch ha s agai n flaked of f wher e i t la y ove r th e whi t e
(pri nci pal l y b y he r ri gh t arm) , an d the n a mantle, whi c h
comes ove r he r lef t shoulde r an d u p behi n d he r neck . I t i s
of a relativel y pale shade of br own wi t h th e fold s shown b y
darker line s and th e decoratio n wi t h group s o f three whi t e
dots. Th e details , he r earring , necklace , bracelet , an d lyr e
are don e i n a golde n brown . Remarkably , th e gol d i s als o
used on th e uppe r sid e of the forear m a s shading t o suggest
roundness. A l l thi s i s on a blue-black glaz e o f hi gh quality.
Bulle describe d th e fabri c wi t h som e care , an d s o fa r a s I
can mak e out , h e wa s th e firs t t o observ e th e type : roug h
pale cla y wi t h a thi c k coatin g o f a finer, mor e orang e cla y
over i t . This i s the typ e I called I I I i n my categorizatio n o f
Gnathia fabrics.
84
Fo r som e reason , perhap s a shortag e o f
the bette r material , potter s i n th e are a of Taranto adopte d
the custo m o f t hrowi n g large r vase s i n thi s coarser , pal e
clay and the n di ppi n g the produc t i n a sol uti on of the fine r
clay. T h e orange-buf f bot h l ooke d bette r (an d mor e
normal ) an d forme d a mor e reliabl e foundati o n fo r th e
glaze. Smal l vases suc h a s th e epichysi s (fig . 4), th e squa t
lekythos (fig . 12), and eve n th e bell-krate r fragment s (fig .
tliia...Bonn, 9 and n. 35.
82. Th e one exception that comes to mi nd i s the cup CVA Stuttgart ,
pi. 60, 6.
83. Mal i b u 83.AE.431 . Height : 10. 7 cm; wi dth 1 1 cm. Bull e (supra ,
note 4) , 22, pi. 2 (color) , whence Fort i pi . 13b.
84. A 4 , 1977, 589-562.
85. Art of S. Italy, 262-263, no. 120, wi th references .
86. Naple s 3249 , fro m Ruvo . C . Watzinger i n F R i i i , 367 , pis. 179 -
Some Gnathia Pottery 137
Figure 31a. B el l -krater , side A . M al i bu, T h e J. Pau l Get t y
Museum 82AE .15 .
14) ar e mad e completel y o f thi s latte r material , al thoug h
wi t h ti m e eve n the y came t o b e mad e of the pal e cla y an d
dipped.
Muses ar e no t commonl y show n o n Gnathi a pottery .
There i s a fine exampl e o n th e name vase of the Painte r o f
the B owdoi n Muse, where she stands leaning against a rock,
hol di ng pipe s i n he r hand.
8 5
Close r i n man y way s i s th e
seated Mus e wi t h lyr e o n th e wel l - know n l i d i n Naples ;
she eve n ha s simila r headgear.
86
F ort i wa s tempte d t o asso-
ciate i t wi t h th e Zinse r fragmen t i n style , but , fo r th e
moment a t least , th e attri buti o n does no t carr y complet e
convi cti on, eve n i f the piec e clearl y belongs t o th e circl e of
early painters .
The Museum' s othe r recen t acquisitio n i s a fascinatin g
bell-krater (figs . 3 1 a-c) tha t ha s bee n publishe d b y Fay a
Causey F rel .
8 7
The shape is of that specia l typ e ( B ) , appar-
entl y borrowe d fro m C ori nt h , tha t i s foun d onl y i n th e
earlier year s of Gnathia product i on.
8 8
A s i s normal fo r th e
type, th e vertica l face o f the foo t ha s a groove b y it s uppe r
edge; th e stra p handle s ar e ridge d an d hav e protrusion s
(spurs) t o eithe r side . Th e vas e i s taller i n appearance tha n
180; J. Charbonneaux , R . Marti n , an d F . Vi l l ard, Classical Greek Art
(London, 1973) , 312, fig. 362 (color) ; F ort i pi . 9, and see her p. 46.
87. Mal i b u 82.AE.15 . Height: 35 cm; maxi mum diameter: 39. 5 cm.
F. C. Frel , "Prometheus Parodied: A Gnathi a Hilarotragedy. " I n Studies
in Honor of Leo Mildenberg, edite d b y A . Houghton, S . Hurter , P . E .
Mottahedeh, and J. A . Scott (Wetteren , 1984) , 51-55, pi . 7.
88. Se e my comments i n Studies in Honor of A. D. Trendall, edited by
A. Cambitoglou (Sydney , 1979) , 81, and 87 n. 3 for a brief list of exam-
Figure 31b. Sid e B o f bel l -krater, figur e 31a .
Figure 31c. Det ai l of side A o f figure 31a .
138 Green
most othe r examples , bu t whethe r th e shap e sequenc e a t
this poi nt (sa y about 360-35 0 B.C. ) i s from squa t t o tal l o r
vice versa i s di ffi cul t t o say. Gnathi a shapes i n general wer e
i n a phase of organization and establishment . T h e stout t o
slender cycl e was a t it s very beginning. The r i m and uppe r
wal l at th e bac k o f the vas e had bee n broke n i n anti qui t y
and mende d wi t h lea d clamps . The cla y of the vas e i s lik e
that o f the Zinse r fragment , a mor e orang e coatin g over a
pale core, and thi s is a very earl y exampl e of the technique .
The vase was completel y covered wi t h glaz e except fo r th e
inner face s o f th e handles , th e restin g surface , an d th e
underside, whi ch wer e reserved an d reddened. M uc h o f the
glaze has flaked away , especiall y from sid e B.
O n sid e A, between sprays o f i v y wi t h incise d stems that
r un dow n obl i quel y fro m th e handles , stand s the figur e o f
Prometheus, hi s arms outstretched. He i s bound t o the rock
and gazes down t o hi s ri ght a t a bi rd tha t i n t urn cont em -
plates hi m. He i s drawn in orange-brown paint wi t h whi t e
for hi s hair and bear d as wel l as for the fetter s on hi s wrists.
Darker pain t i s used fo r the inner details, whi le th e wound
just bel o w the breastbon e i s pi nk an d th e bl oo d dar k red .
I ncision wa s use d fo r hi s cloak, the bi rd , an d th e ground -
lines. There ar e also l i ght incisions for the body hai r (pubic,
above th e navel , and o n th e chest).
8 9
O n sid e B (fig . 31b) ,
t wo i v y sprays come i n from th e handle s an d almos t mee t
i n th e center , bu t her e th e stem s ar e painted , not incised ,
and ther e i s no evidenc e of dot -frui t .
Faya Fre l attri bute d th e vas e t o th e Konnaki s Painter ,
probably ri ghtl y . I t i s certainl y very clos e t o hi m indeed .
She als o poi nte d out tha t th e representatio n o f this cruell y
amusing parod y mus t deriv e fro m th e theater , o r a t leas t
from a t radi t i o n o f representations base d o n theater . Th e
figure doe s no t wea r theatrica l costume, no r a mask, bu t
the iconographi e type of the figur e clearl y derives from th e
spectacle o f th e stage . Caricature s i n Sout h I talia n vase -
pai nti ng ar e no t uncommon , especiall y i n marginall y the -
atrical contexts.
9 0
A t the same ti me the figure , wi t h it s dis-
tended belly , enlarged genitalia, and emaciated limbs , seems
to hav e al l the symptom s o f a classi c cas e of schistosom-
iasis.
91
One mi gh t eve n wonder i f the painter had based hi s
depiction o n observatio n of an actua l sufferer . T h e diseas e
seems to have been common enough i n Egypt, but we hav e
no othe r evidenc e fo r i t i n Apul i a a t thi s peri od . I f the
painter kne w i t , he ma y hav e though t o f i t a s a foreig n
disease, and t o a Greek, that may have made i t more amus -
i ng. Thi s attitude is surely part of the background i n a cul -
tural sens e t o th e portraya l of caricature an d grotesqu e i n
the scul pture s an d terracotta s o f A l exandr i a.
9 2
T h e
advances made b y the follower s of Lysippos may have mad e
i t possibl e i n an artisti c sense, but the othe r essentia l i ngre-
dients wer e the Gree k attitud e t o the physicall y deformed ,
their attitud e towar d Egyptians , and, o f course, th e close -
ness o f contact i n sufficien t number s i n a setting suc h a s
Alexandria provided . The attitud e o f superiorit y i mpl i e d
by suc h representation s i s mor e l i kel y t o develo p amon g a
domi nant grou p place d i n close pr oxi mi t y t o an d possibl y
feeling uncomfortabl e wi t h peopl e differen t i n physica l
appearance. One woul d therefor e never cl ai m that the Get -
ty's Prometheus provide d the fir e fo r such a development ,
but i t i s a splendid exampl e of Greek humor an d acutenes s
of observation.
The Uni versi t y o f Sydney
pies. One ma y als o not e the piece i n J. V. Noble's collection (Art of S.
Italy, 264 , no. 123) , whi ch seem s t o b e b y th e same hand a s Palerm o
2254, an d anothe r i n a Dutc h privat e collection (Klassieke Kunst uit
particulier Bezit, ex . cat. [Leiden , 1975] , no. 592, fig. 238).
89. Fre l (supra , not e 87) give s a careful account o f the evidence for
preliminary sketch in the figure-work .
90. Se e Trendal l (supra , note 4), 83.
91. Se e A. and E. Cockburn, Mummies, Diseases and Ancient Cultures
(Cambridge, 1980) , 3, 30 , 71, 79, an d 268 . I a m indebte d t o Mare e
Browne for thi s reference .
92. N . Hi mmel mann, Alexandria und der Realismus in der griechischen
Kunst (Tubingen , 1983) i s now fundamental . O n thes e questions, se e
especially pp. 27 ff. and 61 ff. One looks forward t o his treatment of earlier
material.



A Clusium Group Duck-Askos in Malibu
Mario A. Del Chiaro
A red-fi gure d vas e i n th e f or m o f a duc k recentl y
acquired b y th e J. Pau l Gett y Museu m (figs , l a - b )
1
con -
forms t o th e genera l typ e o f E trusca n vase-pai nt i n g
assigned b y John Beazle y t o hi s C l usi um Group
2
a Grou p
that derive s it s name from a producti on center believe d b y
C. Al bi zzat i an d Beazle y earl y o n t o hav e been locate d i n
or aroun d present-da y C hi usi ,
3
a ci t y i n ancien t E truri a
known i n R oma n time s a s C l usi um . I n recen t years , th e
C l usi um Grou p ha s bee n studie d i n dept h b y Mauri zi o
Harari , wh o ha s considere d th e pri ckl y questio n o f t wo
possible center s for the Group, namely, C hi usi and the not -
too-distant Vol terra.
4
The identificatio n askos i s generall y give n t o a flasklike
vase bearin g a handl e an d a dee p body , normal l y wi de r
than hi gh , an d possessin g a spoutlik e orific e fo r fi l l i n g
whi ch i s placed at or near the vessel' s top. T he Gett y askos
along wi t h other s i n the shape of a duck ar e wel l suite d fo r
pouri ng l iquid s of a precious natur e (suc h a s scented oi l s) .
O f al l the duck-asko i attri bute d t o variou s Etrusca n cen -
ters,
5
thos e of the C l usi u m Group ar e characterize d b y th e
fol l owi ng: a ful l , taperin g body balanced o n a l ow ri ng base
(affecti ng a floating o r s wi mmi n g duck) ; a graceful l y
curved nec k leadin g t o a hea d disclosin g a wel l -rounded
eye i n relief; a striated bi l l pierce d by a small hole t o permi t
l i mi t ed emissio n o f it s preciou s content ; a vertica l fille r
spout accente d b y a flaring r i m ; an d a n arche d handl e
whi ch ma y projec t noticeabl y abov e ora s I believe or i gi -
nally was th e case for the Gett y askossomewha t flattened
Abbreviation:
Harari: M. Harari , i7 "Gruppo Clusium" nella ceramografia etrusca (Rome,
1980).
1. Mal i bu , Th e J. Pau l Gett y Museu m 83.AE.203 . Presented b y
Vasek Polak. Maxi mum preserve d height : 13. 5 cm; maxi mum preserved
length: 25 cm; diameter (ri n g base) : 5. 0 cm. I wis h t o than k Ji r Fre l
for permissio n t o study and publish the Gett y duck-askos .
2. J . D. Beazley, Etruscan Vase-Painting (Oxford , 1947) , chapter 5 ,
esp. 113-122 .
3. Beazle y (supra , not e 2) ; C . Albizzati , "Du e fabbrich e d i vasi a
figure ross e (Clusium-Volaterrae), " RomMitt 3 0 (1915) , 129-160 , esp .
152.
4. Harari , 47-62.
5. Fo r other propose d Etrusca n centers of production of early an d
late duck-askoi, see M . De l Chiaro, "Late Etruscan ' Duck-Askoi, ' " RA,
1978, 27-38.
6. M . Del C hi aro , " A n Etrusca n R ed-F i gure d Duck-Askos, "
BClevMus, Apri l 1976, 108-115; see p. 109; Harari, pi. XXXVI , 2; and G.

and abou t leve l wi t h th e r i m of the fille r spou t (compar e
fig. 2 wi t h figs . 3 an d 5) . Whe n vi ewe d frontally , suc h
duck-askoi presen t a ful l y rounde d bod y surmounte d b y
an aler t an d perk y head.
6
Despite th e extent o f the missing portions at the handle ,
breast, and tai l , particularl y on th e ri gh t sid e (fig . l b ), the
Getty vas e nevertheless retain s ver y shar p an d clea r pai nt -
ing, i ncl udi ng the added-whi t e paint , whi ch i n many othe r
cases is onl y fai ntl y visibl e or altogethe r missin g because of
its hi ghl y fugitiv e nature . A s wi t h othe r fin e duck-askoi of
the C l usi u m Group (se e figs . 2 an d 3) , th e Gett y vas e i s
ri chl y embellished wi t h pattern s o f carefull y rendered , st yl -
ized feather s fo r it s wing s an d body . Th e chi e f an d mos t
conspicuous decoration , however, i s the wi nged female f i g -
uresone t o eac h sidewh o fly majesticall y towar d th e
duck's breas t wi t h thei r legs curiousl y set i n a "swimmer' s
ki ck." I f the flying femal e carrie s object s tha t ca n b e i den -
tified a s an alabastron an d it s dipstick and possibl y a sash
as o n th e lef t sid e o f the Gett y asko s (fig . l a)then sh e
may b e regarde d a s a Lasa , a n i mportan t Etrusca n mi no r
di vi ni t y bes t associate d wi t h th e Etrusca n goddes s Tura n
(the equivalen t o f the Gree k A phrodi t e).
7
Lasae ar e fre -
quentl y painted , an d mor e rarel y depicte d i n relie f (e.g. ,
fig. 4 )
8
o n duck-asko i o f th e C l usi u m Group , an d a s a
decorative theme , the y contras t markedl y wi t h equall y
common duck-asko i decorate d wi t h mal e o r female head s
i n profil e (e.g. , fig. 5) .
9
O n th e evidenc e o f the pai nti n g in general an d th e hi g h
Pianu, Ceramiche etrusche a figure rosse (Rome, 1980) , pi. C XI I , c.
7. Se e R . Herbig , Goiter und Damonen der Etrusker (Mainz , 1965) ;
A. Rallo, Lasa, Iconografia e Esegesi (Florence , 1974) ; and, more recentl y
i n regar d t o Lasae engraved o n Etruscan bronz e mirrors , C. Sowder i n
A Guide to Etruscan Mirrors, N . Thomson d e Grummond , ed. (Talla -
hassee, 1982), 114-115.
8. London , British Museu m G 151 . The photograph i s courtesy of
the trustee s of the Britis h Museum . Height : 15. 6 cm; length: 23.5 cm.
See also M. Del Chiaro (supra , not e 6) , 111, fig . 5 , and i n RA, 1978 , 28,
fig. 3; and Harari , pis. XXXVI ; XXXVI I , 2 ; XXXVI I I ; an d XXXI X .
9. Florence , Muse o Archeologic o 4232. Height : 13. 3 cm. Fo r th e
opposite sid e of the asko s wi t h nea r identical profile type , see StEtr 3 5
(1957), 480, fig. 4. See also M. Del Chiaro, " An Etruscan Duck-Askos, "
MedelhavsMusB 1 2 (1977), 62-69; and Harari , pis. XXI V, XXV, XXVI ,
and XXI V , 1-2 . Ther e ar e example s o f duck-askoi attributabl e t o th e
Clusium Group whi c h ar e "plain, " that is , decorated solel y wi th pl um -
age; fo r example , se e M . Del Chiaro, "Etrusca n Vase s at Sa n Simeon, "
CalifStClAnt 4 (1971) , 120-121, pi. 3, 1-2; als o Harari , pi. XXXV, 2- 3.
140 Del Chiaro
Figure la. Duck-askos . Malibu, The J. Paul Getty Museum 83.AE.203.
Figure lb. Pdgh t side of duck-askos, figur e la . H: 13.8 cm.
A Clusium Group Duck-Askos 141
Figure 2. Duck-askos . Paris , Muse d u Louvr e H 100 .
Photo: Courtesy M. Chuzeville.
Figure 4. Duck-askos . London , Britis h Museu m G 151.
Photo: Courtes y th e Trustee s o f the B ri ti s h
Museum.
qual i ty o f it s detailing , the Gett y duck-asko s mus t hav e
been greatl y admire d an d regarde d a s a priz e possession ;
ancient repai r hole s alon g th e breakag e at th e duck' s nec k
testify t o thi s hi g h status . Th e bod y an d wi n g feathers
(plumage) hav e been execute d carefull y and precisely; not e
the overlappin g concentri c semicircle s o r crescent s o f th e
body feather s i n shar p contras t t o th e patter n o f the l on g
plumes wher e th e interna l spin e o f th e flight feather s i s
painted i n blac k o r whi t e . Thi s meticulou s attentio n t o
detail i s augmente d b y th e overal l applicatio n of opaqu e
black glaz e pain t an d th e ri c h adde d whi t e whi ch i s gen -
erously employe d throughout ; fo r th e firs t ran k o f wi n g
feathers, fo r th e dot s an d dashe s on variou s blac k portions
10. Fo r bot h femal e an d mal e coiffures , th e thi n fille t painte d i n
whi te wi t h a n antennaelike "bow" above the forehead, a loop above th e
ear, and a trailing end dangling at the ear has parallel s on other vases of
Figure 3. Duck-askos . Cleveland , Cleveland Museu m of
Art 75.23. Photo: Courtesy Ariell e Kozloff .
Figure 5. Duck-askos . Florence , Muse o Archeologic o
4232. Photo: Courtesy Soprintendenza .
(the duck' s neck , th e fil l er-spout , th e borderin g series of
circles o n th e uppe r an d lowe r breast , etc.) , fo r th e hea d
fil l et an d j ewel r y (diadem , necklaces , armlets , bracelets ,
earrings), fo r th e shoelace s o r thongs , fo r th e alabastron ,
and t o accent th e edges of the sash as wel l a s the l ong flight
feathers o f the flying females.
Each femal e wear s th e sam e typ e o f necklac e (beade d
wi t h pendant s and droplets ) an d earrin g ( a but t on wi t h a
single pendan t an d dropl et) , bu t the y diffe r fro m eac h
other i n thei r coiffures : on he r nec k on e Las a sport s l on g
and wav y hai r that i s tied roun d the head wi t h a t hi n fille t
(fig. l a ) ,
1 0
whi l e th e compani o n figur e wear s a n elaborat e
diadem an d sphendone (cl ot h snoo d fo r containing the hai r
the Clusium Group: see Harari , pis . VI I I , 1; I X; and L I X, 3- 4 . Se e als o
G. Pianu (supra , not e 6) , pl. XL VI I .
142 Del Chiaro
neatl y of f the nap e o f th e neck ) embroi dere d wi t h a
dotted-rosette mot i f (fig . l b ) .
1 1
Th e latter femal e i s further
bejeweled b y a n exceedingl y long , beade d necklac e wor n
"bandol i er" fashio n ove r th e shoulders , acros s th e breasts ,
and dow n t o th e uppe r thighsno t a n unusua l mod e o n
vases of the C l usi u m Group (se e fig . 3) .
1 2
I t i s qui t e clea r tha t th e Las a o n th e Gett y duck-asko s
(fig. l a) , who wear s a l ong sash (taenia) stolelik e across her
back wi t h it s trai l i n g end s drape d ove r th e uppe r arms ,
carries a n alabastro n i n her lef t han d an d a l ong dipstick in
her ri ght . He r fl yi n g compani o n o n th e opposit e sid e (fig.
l b) support s a metal greav e wi t h he r ri gh t hand,
1 3
bu t th e
crucial port i on of the vas e whi ch woul d hav e depicted he r
left forearman d consequentl y th e lef t handi s missing .
Unfortunatel y, ther e remain s bu t a very l i mi t ed amoun t o f
drawi ng abov e th e breakag e whi ch woul d al l o w fo r i nter -
pretation o f what sh e hel d i n her lef t hand . Nonetheless , I
believe tha t thi s objec t wa s a secon d greav e rathe r tha n a
Thraci an helmet , fo r whi c h ther e are , however , prece -
dents.
14
Significantly , th e bearin g o f weapon s o r armo r
(spear, shield, helmet, greave , cuirass , etc. ) a s on th e Gett y
vase, supports Harari' s contenti on that suc h a female figur e
may b e a nerei d rathe r tha n a Lasa, tha t is , a nereidalbei t
wi nged
1 5
transporti ng th e armo r acquire d b y Theti s fo r
her so n Achi l l es.
1 6
There ca n b e l i ttl e questio n tha t i n term s o f type an d
decoration th e Gett y vas e ranks amon g th e bes t example s
of duck-askoi , fo r whi c h fou r distinctiv e paintersarbi -
trari l y designate d "Painte r O ne " t hroug h "Painter Four"
have thus fa r been i ndi vi dual l y recognized.
1 7
Detaile d sty -
listic analysi s o f th e duck-asko i attri bute d t o thes e fou r
artists ha s convince d me tha t th e Gett y duck-askos canno t
be assigned t o any o f thes e painters but mus t be the produc t
of a fi ft h an d hi thert o unrecognized hand , tha t is , "Painte r
Five." Tha t th e vas e can b e readil y assigne d t o a C l usi um
Group "workshop " on th e evidenc e o f its shape and deco -
ration require s n o elaboratio n here ; however , th e rel ation -
ship o f th e Gett y vas e t o an y o f th e know n duck-asko i
remains t o be determined. The drawi ng of the Las a and th e
wi nged nerei d on the Gett y vase does indicate that i t stands
somewhere betwee n th e celebrate d duck-asko s i n th e
L ouvre b y Painte r On e (fig . 2 )
1 8
an d th e fin e specime n i n
the Clevelan d Museu m o f A r t assigne d t o Painte r Fou r
( f i g . 3) . 19
A l t hough I believ e i t i s unnecessar y t o detai l obviou s
si mi l ari ti es"C l usi um breasts, " j ewel r y (parti cul arl y th e
heavy arml et ) , general characte r an d attitud e of the bodies ,
and s o forthattenti o n shoul d b e give n t o som e specifi c
details tha t hav e prompte d m e t o distinguis h the wor k o f
three differen t painter s fo r thes e thre e duck-asko i (figs .
1-3). I t shoul d firs t b e note d tha t th e profil e head s of th e
female figure s o n th e Gett y vas e ar e se t i n the di recti o n of
the flight, a featur e tha t contrast s markedl y wi t h th e
turned-back profile s of their counterpart s o n th e Pari s an d
Cleveland askoi . Likewise , th e genera l characte r o f th e
wings fo r th e flying figure s i s dissimilar ; the y ar e out -
stretched, on e t o each side o f th e females ' body , on the Pari s
and Clevelan d vases , whereas the y ar e folde d bac k o n th e
Getty askos . I n addi ti on, the differin g stylisti c details pres -
ent o n the Gett y vase (figs , l a- b ) includ e the proport i on-
ately smal l heads o f the female s i n relatio n t o thei r t hi c k
and ponderou s bodie s (compar e th e slende r an d l i t h e
bodies o f t hei r counterparts ; figs . 2 , 3) , an d th e shor t
hatching t o indicat e the pubi c area and abdomina l muscles ,
whi ch i s place d hor i zont al l y between th e breast s an d
arranged i n t wo parallel deep and less deep U' s t o each side
and belo w a central abdomina l line , whi c h terminate s i n a
navel configuratio n whol l y unl i k e tha t o f th e Pari s an d
Cleveland women .
A l t hough th e dr awi n g o f th e mout h s o f th e Get t y
females shows some analogy wi t h tha t of their counterpart s
on th e Clevelan d vase (fig . 3), the profile s of the nos e an d
eye differ . O n th e Gett y vase, the Las a (fig . l a) exhibit s the
same high-laced shoe s wor n b y th e wome n o n th e Cleve -
land askos ; however, th e narro w fille t ti e d a t th e ea r o f the
Getty Las a find s it s sol e paralle l on th e Pari s vas e (fig . 2).
These few but significan t stylisti c references fo r th e Getty ,
Paris, an d Clevelan d vase s shoul d suffic e t o illustrat e th e
wor k o f three i ndi vi dua l artist s an d th e existenc e o f a fi ft h
and previousl y unknown painter o f C l usi u m Grou p duck -
askoi activ e at C hi us i duri ng the secon d hal f of the fourt h
century B.C . o r perhaps just after th e mi ddl e of tha t century .
Uni versi ty o f Cal ifornia, Sant a Barbar a
11. Simila r sphendone typesthat is , appearing angula r rathe r tha n
rounded behin d th e ear , wi t h o r wi thou t embroidere d designar e
known o n Clusiu m Group kylikes : se e Harari , pis. 111,1; VI , 1; VI I I , 1 ;
and I X, 1 .
12. Fo r Clusium Group vases other tha n duck-askoi , see Harari , pis.
VI I I , 1 and I X, 2 .
13. O n a duck-askos o f the Clusium Group i n Florence, see Harari ,
pi . XXXI , 2 .
14. Harari , pl. XXXI , 1.
15. I t was commo n practic e fo r Etruscan artist s engage d i n various
media t o "edit " Greek theme s and personage s in the light of their own
concepts o r misconceptions .
16. Harari , 140-141.
17. M . Del Chiaro (supra , not e 6) , 113.
18. Paris , Muse du Louvre H 100 . Height: 11.5 cm; length: 19.5 cm.
19. Clevelan d Museum of A rt C M A 75.23. Height: 15.3 cm; length:
25 cm.
Dipping as a Glazing Technique in Antiquity
Toby Schreibe

r
One o f the lesser-used glazing methods i n anti qui ty was
di ppi ng, whi c h i s the proces s of i mmersi ng a piece of pot-
tery i n a container o f glaze. Di ppi n g produce s a very eve n
coat o f glaze compared wi t h applicatio n by brushing. Since
Greek piece s wer e fire d onl y once , di ppi n g wa s don e o n
raw ware , whi c h wa s eithe r leather-har d o r dr y clay. R a w
ware absorb s wate r rapidl y fro m th e glaze , necessitatin g a
qui ck, smoot h glazing action to prevent cracking or resoft -
ening of the clay. Because the Greeks use d on e glaz e excl u-
sively, i t is necessary t o examine the properties of that glaz e
better t o understand it s use i n the di ppi n g process .
I n 194 2 Theodo r Schuman n rediscovere d th e ancien t
technique o f maki ng glaz e using the fin e colloida l particle s
of Gree k clay . Briefly , th e techniqu e o f glaze maki n g wa s
as follows : a small , measure d amoun t o f clay wa s mi xe d
wi t h a large, measure d amoun t o f peptized wate r (tha t is ,
water mi xe d wi t h a n alkal i suc h a s woo d ash) . Thi s mi x -
ture was allowe d to settle, wi t h th e coarse particles si nki n g
and th e fine r particle s remainin g i n suspension. Th e ver y
t hi n to p port i o n becam e th e ancien t Gree k glaze , whi c h
was use d bot h i n a t hi n sol uti o n an d i n a n evaporated ,
thicker state.
Most Gree k vase s wer e glaze d wi t h th e brushin g tech -
nique, usin g bot h t hi n an d thi c k glaze , thi c k particularl y
i n outl i ni ng . Th e painter , usin g variou s size s brushe s o r
other simila r tool s of application whi c h h e dipped i nt o th e
glaze, painte d th e design s an d backgroun d ont o th e vase .
The natur e o f the decoration on most Greek vases lent itsel f
qui te readil y to the brushing technique .
O n red-figur e vases where onl y on e sid e of the vase was
decorated, however , ther e wer e occasion s whe n th e glaze r
dipped th e undecorate d sid e of the vase di rectl y i nt o a t hi n
sol uti on o f glaze. A fin e exampl e o f thi s i s a n A t t i c squa t
l ekyt hos i n th e Get t y M useu m (fi g . l a, 80.AE .100 ) o f
whi ch onl y th e handl e an d adjacen t are a were dipped , th e
remaining port i on bein g decorated b y brushing. T i me and
wear hav e mad e i t possibl e t o se e th e delineatio n betwee n
these t wo glazing techniques, sinc e the dipped port i on di s -
plays a more eve n coa t (th e broke n line i n the phot o i ndi -
cates th e delineation) . Thi s piec e o f potter y wa s rolle d
slightly fro m sid e t o side when i t was dipped , as evidence d
by th e V-shape d (rathe r tha n U-shaped ) patter n o f glaz e
i n th e mout h of the vase (fig . l b ). Also, a small port i on of
































the foo t wa s accidentall y immerse d i n th e glaz e sol uti o n
and subsequentl y cleane d off , perhap s b y spongin g i n a
daubing mot i on s o as not t o remove any o f the raw, unfire d
clay. Thi s foot wa s no t cleanl y sponged, however , a s smal l
flecks o f glaz e ar e dotte d ove r th e dippe d port i on . Figur e
l c show s a compariso n o f the undi pped , clea n sectio n o f
foot fa r left o f center wi t h th e dotted, glaze-flecked port i o n
to the ri ght .
The fol l owi n g fourth-centur y B.C . Campanian piece s
i n th e J. Pau l Gett y Museum illustrat e three differen t di p -
pi ng techni que s singl e di ppi ng , doubl e di ppi ng , an d
overlapping.
SI NGLE DI P P I N G
The foo t o f a duck-askos (fig . 2a, 71.AE.405 ) was hel d
by al l five digit s of the glazer' s ri gh t hand . Wi t h hi s f i n -
gertips simultaneousl y touchi n g th e bod y o f the vase , h e
dipped th e entire piece i nt o the container o f glaze, stopping
short of the underside bu t covering all five fingertips in the
process. Whe n th e vas e wa s released , th e are a covere d b y
the finger s was lef t unglaze d excep t wher e i t pooled i n the
center o f each fi ngerpri n t (fig . 2b- d) . Figur e 2d i s a close-
up of the t wo pool s o f glaze lef t b y the glazer' s l i ttl e finger .
A i r pressur e prevented th e i nteri o r o f the vas e from bein g
glazed.
DO U B L E DI P P I N G
Doubl e di ppi n g i s a glazin g proces s use d o n broad -
mouthed piece s whereby th e inverte d object i s grasped b y
the foo t an d presse d down i nt o a container o f glaze, an d
then sharpl y pul l e d upward , forcin g glaz e i nt o th e insid e
of th e piece ; finall y th e piec e i s pushed bac k i nt o th e glaz e
wi t h a sligh t shakin g mot i on . Thi s entir e proces s glaze s
bot h th e insid e an d outsid e o f a vessel wi t h on e cont i nu-
ous, qui c k movement . F o r thi s reason , th e doubl e -
di ppi ng techniqu e i s particularl y appropriat e fo r glazin g
raw wares . Thi s techniqu e work s wel l o n vase s wi t h a
promi nent foot , a s i t facilitate s handl i n g th e piec e dur -
i ng th e gl azi n g process . F i gur e 3 a show s thi s proces s
schematically.
A stemles s kyl i x wi t h a stamped tond o desig n (fig . 3b,
71.AE.407) i s an exampl e of the doubl e di ppi ng technique .
To protect th e ver y t hi n handle s o n thi s vessel , th e glazing
144 Schreiber
Figure la. Th e undecorated sid e of an Atti c squat lekythos
that was dipped into glaze. H: 12.1 cm. Malibu,
The J. Paul Getty Museum 80. AE. 100.
Figure lb. V-shape d glaze-pattern i n mouth of lekythos,
figure la .
Figure lc. Smal l flecks of residua l glaz e o n th e bas e of
lekythos, figure la , where the piece was dipped
and subsequentl y sponged .
Dipping as a Glazing Technique in Antiquity 145
Figure 2c. Singl e dipping of duck-askos, figur e 2a. Draw-
ing b y Martha Breen Bredemeyer.
Figure 2a. Duck-askos . H : 9. 5 cm . Malibu , Th e J. Pau l
Getty Museum 71.AE.405.
Figure 2b. Glazer' s fingerprint s on the base of duck-askos,
figure 2a.
Figure 2d. Close-u p of glazer's little-fingerprint o n duck-
askos, figure 2a.
146 Schreiber
Figure 3a. Doubl e clippin g the stemles s kyli x i n figure 3b . Drawing by Martha Bree n Bredemeyer .
Figure 3b. Stemles s kylix . Diam . wi t h handles : 17. 5 cm . Malibu, The J. Paul Getty Museu m 71 . AE.407.
Figure 3c. Uneve n glazin g surrounding th e glazer' s middle- and ring-fingerprint s o n the foo t ri m of kyl i x, figur e 3b .
Dipping as a Glazing Technique in Antiquity 147
Figure 4a. Smal l C ampani a n pitcher . H : 7. 5 cm . Mal i bu ,
T he J. Pau l Get t y Museu m 71.AE.432.
Figure 4b. Glaz e overl appi n g on pi tcher , figur e 4a. Dr aw-
i ng b y Mart ha Breen Bredemeyer .
Figure 4c. Gl aze d undersid e of pi tcher, figur e 4a .
148 Schreiber
process was don e qui ckl y , wi th th e foo t bein g hel d b y th e
t humb an d firs t thre e finger s o f the glazer' s ri ght hand. I n
this exampl e ther e i s n o i ndi cati o n tha t th e exterio r an d
i nteri or wer e glaze d separately , either b y brushing o r pour -
ing. O nl y t wo-t hi rd s o f th e foo t ar e glazed , an d thos e
irregularly, whi c h i s typica l of the result s o f the disturbe d
glaze surfac e o n th e secon d di p . Thi s i rregul ari t y ca n b e
seen on eithe r sid e of the mi ddl e - an d ri ng-fi ngerpri nt s i n
figure 3c .
O VE R L AP P I N G
A smal l Campani an pitche r ca n b e recognize d a s havin g
been glaze d wi t h th e overlappin g techniqu e (figs . 4a-b ,
71.AE.432). N ot e tha t th e dips overlap just bel ow the mi d -
section. I n thi s example , th e glaz e applie d wa s qui t e t hi n
i n compariso n wi t h th e solution s use d o n th e t w o piece s
discussed above . T h e step s i nvol ve d i n th e overl appi n g
technique ar e a s follows : first , th e glaze r graspe d th e bod y
of th e inverte d vas e wi t h th e t hum b an d firs t thre e finger s
of hi s ri gh t han d an d dippe d th e to p t wo-t hi rd s o f th e
pitcher i nt o the glaze , thu s leaving the are a underneath th e
four finger s ungl azed . T hen , whe n th e glaz e dri ed , h e
reversed th e piece , hol di n g i t by th e mout h , an d dippe d i t
bot t om firs t i nt o the glaze , overlappin g th e firs t di p abou t
one- hal f i nc h whi l e si mul taneousl y coveri n g th e fou r
unglazed finge r marks . Th e bot t o m o f th e pitche r wa s
glazed, a n uncommo n practic e (figur e 4c) .
Whi l e di ppi n g ha d l i mi t e d us e i n anti qui ty , i t wa s a
good techniqu e fo r glazin g a larg e surfac e are a tha t wa s
uni nterrupted b y design, a s wel l a s for glazing a number o f
vases qui ckl y.
Mal i bu