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XXIX ENFMC - Annals of Optics 2006

Measuring mechanical vibrations using speckle photo-electromotive-force


produced in photorefractive crystals

Tatiane Oliveira dos Santos,
*
Pedro Valentim dos Santos, Jaime Frejlich
Laboratrio de ptica IFGW, UNICAMP, Campinas-SP, Brazil
*
e-mail: valentim@ifi.unicamp.br

Jean- Claude Launay
Institut de Chimie de la Matire Condense de Bordeaux, Universit Bordeaux 1, Bordeaux,
France

Abstract
We investigated measurements of mechanical vibrations using photocurrent induced by speckle
photo-electromotive-force generated by laser radiation at 633 nm in undoped photorefractive
GaAs and CdTe crystals. The relation between the vibration amplitude, the parameters of the
materials and the resulting photocurrent is analysed.

Introduction

When a rough surface is illuminated by coherent light a random granular picture (speckle pattern) of light
intensity is produced. If these speckled pattern of light is scattered from a vibrating surface and projected onto a
photocondutive or photorefractive material a photo-electromotive-force (photo-emf) can be generated. Using a
short-circuited sample of a photocondutive or photorefractive crystal which is being illuminated by a vibrating
speckle pattern of light the induced photo-emf will produce an alternating (ac) photocurrent that depends on the
vibration amplitude, among others parameters, and can therefore be used to analyse the vibrating target [1].
Recently, speckle photo-emf in undoped photorefractive Bi
12
TiO
20
crystal was used for vibration amplitude
measurements and the results also shown the possibility of self-calibration of the photo-emf sensor [2].
In this work, we investigated measurements of mechanical vibrations using speckle photo-emf generated in
undoped photorefractive GaAs and CdTe crystals. The speckle pattern of light is generated by laser radiation at
633 nm. The relation between the vibration amplitude, the parameters of the materials and the resulting photo-
emf current is discussed.
Experimental Setup

The experimental setup used is shown in Fig. 1. The speckle pattern is produced by illuminating the vibrating
target, that in this case is a small and thin transparent diffusing glass plate attached to the cone of a commercial
loudspeaker. The illumination is provided by a CW He-Ne laser beam ( = 633 nm, P = 15 mW) with a beam
diameter 0.5 1.0 mm. The light scattered through the transparent target is collected by a lens and focused on
the input surface of the photorefractive crystal. Two stripe electrodes with an interelectrode separation 1.0 3.0
mm were deposited on the crystal surface and oriented perpendicular to the vibration direction. The speckle
photo-emf- induced photocurrent is collected by electrodes on the crystal surface and fed to a lock-in amplifier
tuned to .
The light onto the crystal can be assumed to be a radomly distributed pattern of speckles on the crystal surface as
shown in Fig. 1. Each speckle is described by an Airy disc with its radius being [3]
D
Z
R
S
22 . 1
= ,
where Z is the distance from the lens to the crystal, that in this case it is equal to the lens focal length, and D is
the diameter of the lens aperture.
XXIX ENFMC - Annals of Optics 2006



Laser
lens
photorefrative or photocondutive
crystal
Target
vibrating speckle pattern
Ends of
material
frontal view
Lock-in amplifier
i

Electrodes
GP
Laser
lens
photorefrative or photocondutive
crystal
Target
vibrating speckle pattern
Ends of
material
frontal view
Lock-in amplifier
i

Electrodes
GP


Figure 1: Experimental setup: The target used is a commercial loudspeaker; GP is a
diffusing glass plate fixed to the target; The ac photocurrent is collected by electrodes on
the crystal surface and fed to a lock-in amplifier tuned to .
Results and Discussions

The preliminar results obtained for a photorefractive GaAs crystal sample are shown in Figure 2. Fig. 2a depicts
the first harmonic i

of the speckle photo-emf ac current as a function of vibration amplitude for different


vibration frequencies. The always crescent monotonic behavior of i

is attributed to fast response time of the


material. In Fig. 2b is shown a high-pass filter type curve for i

as a function of vibration frequency for a


vibration amplitude of A = 2.80 m. The speckle diameter is D
S
= 1.65 m.
a)
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
0
600
1200
1800
2400
3000
3600
4200
GaAs Crystal


i


(
p
A
)
A (m)
100 Hz
200 Hz
400 Hz
600 Hz
1000 Hz
2000 Hz
3000 Hz
4000 Hz
5000 Hz

b)
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
0
300
600
900
1200
1500
1800
GaAs Crystal


i


(
p
A
)
frequency (Hz)
A = 2.80 m

Figure 2: a) Fisrt harmonic i

of the photo-emf current as a fuction of vibration amplitude (A) for different


vibration frequencies; b) High pass filter type curve for i

as a function of vibration frequency.


Conclusions

Preliminar results on speckle photo-emf generated in undoped photorefractive GaAs crystals for measurements
of vibration amplitude were presented. The dependence of i

photocurrent on the vibration amplitude exhibited


an crescent monotonic behavior and the speckle photo-emf sensor presented a charateristic of a high-pass filter.
XXIX ENFMC - Annals of Optics 2006

Acknowledgements
The authors thank the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientfico e Tecnolgico (CNPq) and the
Fundao de Amparo Pesquisa do Estado de So Paulo (FAPESP) for their financial support.

References
[1] S. I. Stepanov, I. A. Sokolov, G. S. Trofinov, V. I. Vlad, D. Popa, and I. Apostol, Measuring vibration
amplitudes in the picometer range using moving light gratings in photoconductive GaAs:Cr , Optics
Letters, 15, 1239 (1990).
[2] L. Mosquera, and J. Frejlich. Self-Calibration Speckle Photo-Electromotive-Force for large vibration
amplitude measurement. J. Opt A P. Appl. Op. 6, 1001 (2004).
[3] M. Franon, Laser Speckle and Applications in Optics, New York: Academic, 1979