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The majority of the Machine Learning and
Data Mining applications can easily be applicable
only on discrete features. However, data in solid
world are sometimes continuous by nature. Even for
algorithms that will directly encounter continuous
features, learning is most often ineffective and
effective. Hence discretization addresses this problem
by finding the intervals of numbers which happen to
be more concise to represent and specify.
Discretization of continuous attributes is one of the
important data preprocessing steps of knowledge
extraction. The proposed improved discretization
approach significantly reduces the IO cost and also
requires one time sorting for numerical attributes
which leads to a better performance in time
dimension on rule mining algorithms. According to
the experimental results, our algorithm acquires less
execution time over the Entropy based algorithm and
also adoptable for any attribute selection method by
which the accuracy of rule mining is improved.

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Improved Discretization Based Decision Tree

for Continuous Attributes

S.J yothsna

Gudlavalleru Engineering College,

Gudlavalleru.

G.Bharthi

Asst. Professor

Gudlavalleru Engineering College,

Gudlavalleru.

Abstract :- The majority of the Machine Learning and

Data Mining applications can easily be applicable

only on discrete features. However, data in solid

world are sometimes continuous by nature. Even for

algorithms that will directly encounter continuous

features, learning is most often ineffective and

effective. Hence discretization addresses this problem

by finding the intervals of numbers which happen to

be more concise to represent and specify.

Discretization of continuous attributes is one of the

important data preprocessing steps of knowledge

extraction. The proposed improved discretization

approach significantly reduces the IO cost and also

requires one time sorting for numerical attributes

which leads to a better performance in time

dimension on rule mining algorithms. According to

the experimental results, our algorithm acquires less

execution time over the Entropy based algorithm and

also adoptable for any attribute selection method by

which the accuracy of rule mining is improved.

Keywords Discretization, Preprocessing, Data Mining,

Machine learning

I. INTRODUCTION

Discretization of continuous attributes simply

not only broadens the scope of a given range of data

mining algorithms able to analyze data in discrete form,

but might also dramatically amplify the speed at which

these tasks can be carried out. A discrete feature, also

known as qualitative features, including sex and level of

education, is only able to be limited among a number of

values. Continuous features might be ranked if you want

and admit to meaningful arithmetic operations. However,

discrete features sometimes can possibly be arrayed

within the meaningful order. However no arithmetic

operations can be placed upon them. Data discretization

is a multipurpose pre-processing method that reduces the

quantity of distinct values to obtain given continuous

variable by dividing its range right into a finite set of

disjoint intervals, and after that relates these intervals

with meaningful labels [2]. Subsequently, data are

analyzed or reported with it higher-level of data

representation instead of the subtle individual values,

therefore results in a simplified data representation in

data exploration and data mining process. Discretization

of continuous attributes plays an important role in

knowledge discovery. Many algorithms linked to data

mining require the running examples contain only

discrete values, and rules with discrete values are

normally shorter and even more understandable. Suitable

discretization is useful to increase the generalization and

accuracy of discovered knowledge. Discretization

algorithms might be categorized into unsupervised and

supervised based upon if the class label details are used.

Equal Width and Equal Frequency are two representative

unsupervised discretization algorithms. Compared to

supervised discretization, previous research[6][9] has

indicated that unsupervised discretization algorithms do

not have as much computational complexity, but may

contribute to usually not as good classification

performance. When classification performance is

probably the main concern, supervised discretization

should really be adopted.

There are several benefits associated with using

discrete values over continuous ones: (1) Discretization

will reduce the number of continuous features' values,

which brings smaller demands on system's storage.

(2)Discrete features are in close proximity to a

knowledge-level representation than continuous ones.

(3)Data can also be reduced and simplified through

discretization. For both users and experts, discrete

features are easier to comprehend, use, and explain.

(4)Discretization makes learning more accurate and faster

[5]. (5)Besides the many advantages of obtaining discrete

data over continuous one, a suite of classification

learning algorithms is only able to cope with discrete

data. Successful discretization can significantly extend

the application range of many learning algorithms.

Possibly one of the supervised discretization

methods, introduced by Fayyad and Irani, is referred to as

entropy-based discretization. An entropy-based method

will use the class information entropy of candidate

partitions to decide on boundaries for discretization.

Class information entropy is naturally a measure of purity

and it measures the quantity of information which will be

International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) volume 5 number 5 Nov 2013

ISSN: 2231-2803 http://www.ijcttjournal.org Page258

needed to specify to which class an outbreak belongs. It

considers one big interval by using all of the known

values regarding a feature then recursively partitions this

interval into smaller subintervals until some stopping

criterion, for instance Minimum Description Length

(MDL) Principle or maybe an optimal large number of

intervals has been reached thus creating multiple

intervals of feature [11].

Discretization methods can possibly be

supervised or unsupervised depending upon whether it

uses class information files sets. Supervised methods

make use of the course label when partitioning the

ongoing features. On the other hand, unsupervised

discretization methods tend not to require the instruction

information to discretize continuous attributes.

Supervised discretization can be further characterized as

error-based, entropy-based or statistics based.

Unsupervised discretization is seen in earlier methods

like equal-width and equal-frequency.

Discretization methods can also be viewed as

dynamic or static. A dynamic method would discretize

continuous values when a classifier has been built, for

instance in C4.5 while in the static approach

discretization is done previous to the classification task.

II. LITERATURE SURVEY

Discretization method which is supervised,

static and global. This methods discretization measure

takes account of the distribution of class probability

vector by applying Gini criterion [1] and its stopping

criterion involves a tradeoff between simplicity and

predictive accuracy by incorporating the number of

partition intervals.

ADVANTAGES:

The purpose of this nonparametric test was to

determine if significant differences existed

between two populations.

Effective data classification using Decision tree

with discretization.

Reduces number of partitioning iterations.

DISADVANTAGES:

Cut points are selected by recursively applying

the same binary discretization method.

Doesnt discretization binary data.

Problem in discretization small instances.

In this system Multivariate Discretization

(MVD) Method [2] based on the idea of transforming the

problem of unsupervised discretization in association

rules into a supervised problem. Within the support-

confidence framework, they find that a rule with high

confidence usually makes the corresponding data space

have a high density. Thus, they firstly use a density-based

clustering technique to identify the regions with high

densities. Regarding every region as a class, they then

develop a genetic algorithm to simultaneously discretize

multiattributes according to entropy criterion.

ADVANTAGES:

Generates quality rules.

Generates high frequent association rules with

proposed discretization approach.

MVD-CG discretizes variables based on the

HDRs (High density regions) where some

patterns with relatively high confidences are

hidden.

DISADVANTAGES:

The disadvantage is that MVD really discretizes

the attributes one at a time instead of

discretizing themsimultaneously.

For association rules this system uses basic

apriori algorithm which generates high

candidate sets.

A whole new rule-based algorithm for

classifying and [8] proposes a new and effective

supervised discretization algorithm in accordance to

correlation maximization (CM) is proposed by employing

multiple correspondence analysis (MCA). MCA seems to

be an effective technique to capture the correlations

between multiple variables. Two main questions ought to

be answered when preparing a discretization algorithm:

the time you need to cut and how to cut. Many

discretization algorithms are based on information

entropy, for instance maximumentropy which discretizes

the numeric attributes using the criterion of minimum

information loss. IEM is an often one on account of its

efficiency and good performance among the

classification stage. IEM selects the very first cut-point

that minimizes the entropy function over all possible

candidate cut-points and recursively applies this strategy

to both induced intervals. The Minimum Description

Length (MDL) principle is employed to discover if you

would like to accept a selected candidate cut-point or not

and thus stop the recursion in the event the cut-point will

not satisfy a pre-defined condition. An applicant cut-

point, MCA is made use of to measure the correlation

between intervals/items and classes. The mattress that

allows the highest correlation in the classes is selected

being a cut-point. The geometrical representation of

MCA just not only visualizes the correlation relationship

between intervals/items and classes, but additionally

presents an elegant way to decide the cut-points. For one

numeric feature, the candidate cut-point that maximizes

International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) volume 5 number 5 Nov 2013

ISSN: 2231-2803 http://www.ijcttjournal.org Page259

the correlation between feature intervals and classes is

chosen like the first cut-point, then the strategy is

performed among the nearly everywhere intervals

recursively to further partition the intervals. Empirical

comparisons with IEM, IEMV, CAIM, and CACC

supervised discretization algorithms are conducted using

six well-known classifiers. Currently, CM places focus

on discretizing a dataset with two classes and shows

promising results. This will be extended to handle a

dataset that come with than two classes in our future

work.

Discretization algorithms are mainly categorized

as supervised and unsupervised algorithms. Popular

unsupervised top-down algorithms are Equal Width,

Equal Frequency [10] and standard deviation. While the

supervised top-down algorithms are maximum entropy

[11], Paterson-Niblett which uses dynamic discretization,

Information Entropy Maximization (IEM) and class

attribute interdependence Maximization (CAIM). Kurgan

and Cios have shown the outperforming results of CAIM

discretization algorithm when compared to other

algorithms. As CAIM considers largest interdependence

between classes and attribute it improves classification

accuracy. Unlike other discretization algorithm CAIM

automatically generate the intervals and interval

boundaries for your given data without any user input.

Over the next couple of section, C4.5 a tree based

classification is discussed.

C4.5 builds decision trees typically from a

variety of training data in the same fashion as ID3,

making use of the information gain ratio. Each node of

this very tree, C4.5 chooses one attribute of the results

that the majority of effectively splits its multitude of

samples into subsets enriched available as one class as

well as other. It calculates the post gain for the attributes.

Compared to the attribute when using the highest

information gain is chosen in order to make the decision.

Then upon the bases on that attribute, divide the given

training set into a subsets. Then recursively apply the

algorithmfor each subset till the set contains instances of

the very same class. If the set contains instances of the

same class, then return that class.

III. PROPOSED APPROACH:

Algorithm: Improved Discretization method.

Attributes:Ai

Input:

N, number of examples.

Ai, continuous attributes.

Cj, class values in training set.

Global Threshold value

Output: Interval borders in Ai

Procedure:

1. for each continuous attribute Ai in training dataset do

2. Do normalize the attribute within 0-1 range

3. Sorting the values of continuous attribute Ai in

ascending order.

4. for each class Cj in training dataset do

5. Find the minimum (Minvalue) using StdDev

attribute value of Ai for Cj

6. Find the maximum (Max) attribute value of Ai

for Cj.

7. endfor

8. Find the cut points in the continuous attributes values

based on the Min and Max values of each class Cj.

Best Cutpoint range measure:

9. Find the conditional probability P(Cj/A) on each cut

point and select the cut point with maximumprobability

value.

Stopping criteria:

10. If the cut point using the maximum probability value

is exist and satisfies the global threshold value then it can

be taken as an interval border else consider the next cut

point, where information gain value and global threshold

value satisfy the same point.

12. endfor

International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) volume 5 number 5 Nov 2013

ISSN: 2231-2803 http://www.ijcttjournal.org Page260

Improved Decisi on tree measure:

Modified Information or entropy is gi ven as

ModInfo(D)=

3

1

og

m

i i

i

S l S

,m different classes

ModInfo(D)=

2

3

1

og

i i

i

S l S

=

3 3

1 1 2 2

log log S S S S

Where

1

S indicates set of samples which

belongs to target class anamoly,

2

S indicates set

of samples which belongs to target class normal.

Information or Entropy to each attribute is

calculated using

1

( ) / ( )

v

A i i

i

Info D D D ModInfo D

The term Di /D acts as the weight of the jth

partition. ModInfo(D) is the expected information

required to classify a tuple from D based on the

partitioning by A.

IV. Experimental Results:

RULE-7 TECHNIQUE:

==================

(word_freq_your = '(0.28698-0.770745]') and

(word_freq_money ='(0.02-INF)') and (word_freq_all =

'(0.214647-0.615166]') =>is_spam=1 (422.0/5.0)

(word_freq_free ='(0.068896-INF)') and (char_freq_! =

'(0.107811-INF)') =>is_spam=1 (372.0/15.0)

(word_freq_remove = '(0.026225-INF)') and

(word_freq_george = '(-INF-0.008661]') =>is_spam=1

(440.0/23.0)

(char_freq_$ ='(0.156751-INF)') and (word_freq_000 =

'(0.218378-INF)') =>is_spam=1 (78.0/3.0)

(char_freq_$ ='(0.156751-INF)') and (word_freq_hp ='(-

INF-0.075835]') and (capital_run_length_total =

'(0.090418-0.211566]') =>is_spam=1 (28.0/2.0)

(word_freq_hp = '(-INF-0.075835]') and

(capital_run_length_longest = '(0.041854-0.073868]')

and (word_freq_edu = '(-INF-0.047378]') and

(word_freq_george = '(-INF-0.008661]') and

(capital_run_length_total = '(0.066714-0.090418]') and

(char_freq_$ = '(0.156751-INF)') => is_spam=1

(31.0/0.0)

(char_freq_! = '(0.107811-INF)') and

(capital_run_length_average = '(0.058836-INF)') =>

is_spam=1 (45.0/3.0)

(word_freq_hp = '(-INF-0.075835]') and

(word_freq_internet = '(0.036215-INF)') and

(word_freq_edu = '(-INF-0.047378]') and

(word_freq_order = '(0.092351-INF)') => is_spam=1

(33.0/0.0)

(word_freq_hp = '(-INF-0.075835]') and

(capital_run_length_average = '(0.046493-0.058836]')

and (word_freq_george = '(-INF-0.008661]') and

(word_freq_edu = '(-INF-0.047378]') and

(capital_run_length_longest = '(0.02916-0.041854]') =>

is_spam=1 (35.0/5.0)

(word_freq_hp = '(-INF-0.075835]') and

(capital_run_length_longest = '(0.041854-0.073868]')

and (char_freq_! = '(0.107811-INF)') => is_spam=1

(31.0/2.0)

(word_freq_hp ='(-INF-0.075835]') and (word_freq_free

= '(0.068896-INF)') and (word_freq_re = '(-INF-

0.026082]') and (capital_run_length_longest =

'(0.041854-0.073868]') and (capital_run_length_average

='(0.030341-0.046493]') =>is_spam=1 (21.0/2.0)

(word_freq_hp ='(-INF-0.075835]') and (word_freq_our

= '(0.185737-INF)') and (word_freq_your = '(0.28698-

0.770745]') and (word_freq_george ='(-INF-0.008661]')

=>is_spam=1 (87.0/23.0)

(word_freq_hp = '(-INF-0.075835]') and

(capital_run_length_longest ='(0.02916-0.041854]') and

(word_freq_edu ='(-INF-0.047378]') and (char_freq_( =

'(-INF-0.010126]') and (char_freq_$ ='(0.156751-INF)')

=>is_spam=1 (11.0/0.0)

(word_freq_hp ='(-INF-0.075835]') and (char_freq_$ =

'(0.096152-0.156751]') and (char_freq_! = '(0.049475-

0.107811]') =>is_spam=1 (33.0/4.0)

(word_freq_hp = '(-INF-0.075835]') and

(word_freq_george = '(-INF-0.008661]') and

(word_freq_edu = '(-INF-0.047378]') and

(capital_run_length_longest = '(0.041854-0.073868]')

and (char_freq_( = '(0.010126-0.106447]') and

(capital_run_length_average ='(0.030341-0.046493]') =>

is_spam=1 (11.0/0.0)

(word_freq_hp = '(-INF-0.075835]') and

(capital_run_length_longest ='(0.02916-0.041854]') and

(word_freq_edu = '(-INF-0.047378]') and

(word_freq_over ='(0.212283-INF)') and (word_freq_pm

= '(-INF-0.101716]') and (word_freq_all = '(-INF-

0.214647]') =>is_spam=1 (18.0/2.0)

(word_freq_hp = '(-INF-0.075835]') and

(word_freq_george = '(-INF-0.008661]') and

(word_freq_edu ='(-INF-0.047378]') and (char_freq_! =

'(0.049475-0.107811]') and (word_freq_mail =

'(0.049675-0.327926]') and (word_freq_credit =

'(0.064194-INF)') =>is_spam=1 (7.0/0.0)

(word_freq_hp = '(-INF-0.075835]') and

(word_freq_george = '(-INF-0.008661]') and

(word_freq_free ='(0.068896-INF)') and (word_freq_edu

= '(-INF-0.047378]') and (char_freq_$ = '(0.045623-

0.096152]') =>is_spam=1 (8.0/1.0)

(word_freq_hp = '(-INF-0.075835]') and

(word_freq_george = '(-INF-0.008661]') and

(capital_run_length_longest = '(0.041854-0.073868]')

and (word_freq_650 = '(0.023453-INF)') and

(word_freq_internet ='(-INF-0.036215]') =>is_spam=1

(15.0/1.0)

(word_freq_hp = '(-INF-0.075835]') and

(word_freq_george = '(-INF-0.008661]') and

(word_freq_business ='(0.362835-INF)') =>is_spam=1

(18.0/5.0)

(word_freq_george = '(-INF-0.008661]') and

International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) volume 5 number 5 Nov 2013

ISSN: 2231-2803 http://www.ijcttjournal.org Page261

(word_freq_hp ='(-INF-0.075835]') and (word_freq_re =

'(-INF-0.026082]') and (capital_run_length_average =

'(0.058836-INF)') and (word_freq_our = '(0.022361-

0.185737]') =>is_spam=1 (7.0/0.0)

(word_freq_hp = '(-INF-0.075835]') and

(word_freq_george = '(-INF-0.008661]') and

(word_freq_re ='(-INF-0.026082]') and (word_freq_font

= '(0.081988-INF)') and (char_freq_; = '(-INF-

0.128582]') =>is_spam=1 (14.0/1.0)

(word_freq_george = '(-INF-0.008661]') and

(word_freq_hp ='(-INF-0.075835]') and (word_freq_re =

'(-INF-0.026082]') and (char_freq_! ='(0.107811-INF)')

and (word_freq_will = '(-INF-0.159165]') and

(capital_run_length_longest ='(0.02916-0.041854]') and

(word_freq_meeting ='(-INF-0.178499]') =>is_spam=1

(13.0/1.0)

(word_freq_free ='(0.068896-INF)') and (char_freq_( =

'(-INF-0.010126]') and (capital_run_length_average =

'(0.058836-INF)') and (char_freq_! = '(0.049475-

0.107811]') =>is_spam=1 (5.0/0.0)

(word_freq_hp = '(-INF-0.075835]') and

(word_freq_george = '(-INF-0.008661]') and

(word_freq_edu = '(-INF-0.047378]') and

(word_freq_your = '(0.28698-0.770745]') and

(word_freq_business = '(0.095342-0.362835]') =>

is_spam=1 (7.0/1.0)

=>is_spam=0 (2811.0/122.0)

Number of Rules : 26

V. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE

Discretization of continuous features plays an

important role in data pre-processing. This paper briefly

introduces that the generation of the problem of

discretization brings many benefits including improving

the algorithms efficiency and expanding their

application scope. There have been drawbacks in the

existing literature to classify discretization methods. The

idea and drawbacks of some typical methods are

expressed in details by supervised or unsupervised

category. Proposed Improved discretization approach

significantly reduces the IO cost and also requires one

time sorting for numerical attributes which leads to a

better performance in time dimension on rule mining

algorithms. According to the experimental results, our

algorithmacquires less execution time over the Entropy

based algorithm and also adoptable for any attribute

selection method by which the accuracy of rule mining is

improved.

REFERENCES

[1]: A DISCRETIZATION ALGORITHM BASED ON

GINI CRITERION XIAO-HANG ZHANG, JUN WU,

TING-J IE LU, YUAN J IANG, Proceedings of the Sixth

International Conference on Machine Learning and

Cybernetics, Hong Kong, 19-22 August 2007.

[2]: A Novel Multivariate Discretization Method for

Mining Association Rules Hantian Wei, 2009 Asia-

Pacific Conference on Information Processing

[3]: A Rule-Based Classification Algorithmfor Uncertain

Data, IEEE International Conference on Data

Engineering

[4]: M. C. Ludl, G. Widmer. Relative unsupervised

discretization for association rule mining. In: In

Proceedings of the 4

th

European Conference on Principles

and Practice of Knowledge Discovery in Databases,

Berlin, Germany, Springer, 2000.

[5]: Stephen D. Bay. Multivariate discretization for set

mining. Knowledge and Information Systems, 2001,

3(4): 491-512.

[6]: Stephen D. Bay and Michael J. Pazzani. Detecting

group differences: Mining contrast sets. Data Mining and

Knowledge Discovery, 2001, 5(3): 213-246.

[7]: CAIM Discretization AlgorithmLukasz A. Kurgan

[8]: Effective Supervised Discretization for Classification

based on Correlation Maximization

Qiusha Zhu, Lin Lin, Mei-Ling Shyu

[9]: X.S.Li, D.Y.Li. A New Method Based on Density

Clustering for Discretization of Continuous Attributes,

Journal of SystemSimulation, 15(6):804-806,813,2005

[10]: R.Kass, L.Wasserman. A reference Bayesian test

for nested hypotheses and its relationship to the Schwarz

criterion, Journal of the American Statistical Association,

Vol.90:928-935, 1995.

[11]: Comparative Analysis of Supervised and

Unsupervised Discretization Techniques

Rajashree Dash

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