You are on page 1of 125

TEACHING ELEMENTS OF MYTHOLOGY IN

ENGLISH LITERATURE
PROF. MARCU MANUELA
PROF. COORDONATOR, UNIV. DR. MIHAI COSOVEANU
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1
INTRODUCTION
I. THEORETICAL APPROACH:
1. GENERAL ELEMENTS OF MYTHOLOGY:
a) Major t!"# o$ %t&#
') E(a%!)"# o$ %t&o)o*+"#
,. MYTHOLOGY REFLECTED IN THE UNIVERSAL LITERATURE AND ART
-. MYTHOLOGY REFLECTED IN BRITISH AND AMERICAN LITERATURE
II. EDUCATIONAL PRACTICE:
1) THE OB.ECTIVE OF USING MYTHOLOGY ELEMENTS IN TEACHING
ENGLISH
,) ELABORATED ACTIVITIES:
a) L"##o/ P)a/#
') T&" 0#" o$ $a+r ta)" t"(t#, !o"%# a/1 !ro#"
2) Co%%0/+2at+3" "("r2+#"#
1) L+#t"/+/*, r"a1+/*, #!"a4+/* a/1 5r+t+/* a2t+3+t+"#
") U#+/* %t&o)o* +/ t"a2&+/* *ra%%ar a/1 3o2a'0)ar
REFERENCES
INTRODUCTION
2
Elements of mythology integrated in the English language study help students to develop their
personality and creativity and they form positive values and attitudes.
Students will understand better how ancient people gave their contribution to the construction
of the human cultural legacy.
Mythology study generates the formation of an artistic taste and the practicing of an artistic
beauty in a teenagers life and in his every day living as a social individual.
Students are always attracted to superheroes, extraordinary deeds, magic elements and the
battle between good and evil.
he evil is defeated without using violence. !n most of the cases, the fight is happening at the
intellectual level not the physical one. he evil happened to someone is li"e a well worth
punishment because a taboo was violated or because a sin was committed. he punishments
have a religious explanation. !t is considered that they are well worth and they have to happen
so any mista"es will not repeat.
he study of mythology determines the development of a strong, creative and moral
personality and the belief that good always wins.
Myths may deal with #uestions of origins $ who you are and where you came from. hey
may teach values or attempt to explain natural phenomena. Myths are often intertwined with
religion, and some loo" ahead to the end of time.
%i"e many modern religions, classical mythology explores the relationship between humanity
and a higher power. Myths often tell stories about direct interaction between people and the
gods and goddesses. !n classical mythology, those gods and goddesses often act based on
emotion, not reason, which ma"es for some highly dramatic situations.
Students are always attracted to fantastic stories and they will be interested in learning English
if elements of mythology are used in the exercises and the texts they study.
I. THEORETICAL APPROACH:
&
1. GENERAL ELEMENTS OF MYTHOLOGY
Mythology can be defined as a body or collection of myths belonging to a people and
addressing their origin, history, deities, ancestors, and heroes.
he origin of the word mythology comes from 'ree" language( mythos means tale or legend
and logos means word.
Mythology includes all the myths belonging to a culture or religion and it is elaborated
beginning with the primitive age culture and continuing up to the culture of the modern age.
Myths are traditional or legendary stories, usually concerning some being or hero or event,
with or without a determinable basis of fact or a natural explanation, especially one that is
concerned with deities or demigods and explains some practice, rite, or phenomenon of nature.
) myth is a story that may or may not be true. Myths are generally very old. his means there
are no records or other proof that they happened. *e "now about them from older people
telling them to younger people. Some myths may have started as +true+ stories but as people
told and re,told them, they may have changed some parts, so they are less +true+. hey may
have changed them by mista"e or to ma"e them more interesting. )ll cultures have myths.
Many people once believed in mythological animals and gods. hese animals or gods may
have control or have power over a part of human or natural life.
he main characters in myths are usually gods, supernatural heroes and humans. )s sacred
stories, myths are often endorsed by rulers and priests and closely lin"ed to religion or
spirituality. !n the society in which it is told, a myth is usually regarded as a true account of
the remote past. !n fact, many societies have two categories of traditional narrative, -true
stories- or myths, and -false stories- or fables. .reation myths generally ta"e place in a
primordial age, when the world had not yet achieved its current form, and explain how the
world gained its current form and how customs, institutions and taboos were established.
he term -mythology- can refer either to the study of myths or to a body or collection of
myths. /or example, landscape mythology is the study of landscape features in terms of
totemic mythology. ) -myth- is a sacred narrative usually explaining how the world or
human"ind came to be in its present form,
1
-a story that serves to define the fundamental
worldview of a culture by explaining aspects of the natural world and delineating the
psychological and social practices and ideals of a society-. Many scholars in other fields use
1
0undes, !ntroduction , p.1
1
the term -myth- in somewhat different ways2
2
in a very broad sense, the word can refer to any
traditional story
&
or, in casual use, a popular misconception or imaginary entity. 3ecause the
fol"loristic meaning of -myth- is often confused with this more pe4orative usage, the original
unambiguous term -mythos- may be a better word to distinguish the positive definition from
the negative.
.losely related to myth are legend and fol"tale. Myths, legends, and fol"tales are different
types of traditional story. 5nli"e mythos, fol"tales can be set in any time and any place, and
they are not considered true or sacred by the societies that tell them. %i"e mythos, legends are
stories that are traditionally considered true, but are set in a more recent time, when the world
was much as it is today. %egends generally feature humans as their main characters, whereas
myths generally focus on superhuman characters.
here is a theory named 6euhemerism7 after the mythologist Euhemerus, who suggested that
the 'ree" gods developed from legends about human beings
1
. his theory claims that myths
are distorted accounts of real historical events. )ccording to this theory, storytellers repeatedly
elaborated upon historical accounts until the figures in those accounts gained the status of
gods. /or example, one might argue that the myth of the wind,god )eolus evolved from a
historical account of a "ing who taught his people to use sails and interpret the winds.
8erodotus 9:th century 3.; and <rodicus made claims of this "ind.
Some theories propose that myths began as allegories. )ccording to one theory, myths began
as allegories for natural phenomena( )pollo represents the sun, <oseidon represents water, and
so on. )ccording to another theory, myths began as allegories for philosophical or spiritual
concepts( )thena represents wise 4udgment, )phrodite represents desire, etc. he 1=th century
Sans"ritist Max M>ller supported an allegorical theory of myth. 8e believed that myths began
as allegorical descriptions of nature, but gradually came to be interpreted literally( for
example, a poetic description of the sea as -raging- was eventually ta"en literally, and the sea
was then thought of as a raging god
:
.
Some thin"ers believe that myths resulted from the personification of inanimate ob4ects and
forces. )ccording to these thin"ers, the ancients worshipped natural phenomena such as fire
and air, gradually coming to describe them as gods. /or example, according to the theory of
2
0undes, Madness, p.11?
&
@ir", 0efining, p. :?
1
6 Euhemerism7, he .oncise Axford 0ictionary of *orld Beligions
:
Segal, p. 2C
:
mythic thought, the ancients tended to view things as persons, not as mere ob4ects2 thus, they
described natural events as acts of personal gods, thus giving rise to myths.
)ccording to the myth,ritual theory, the existence of myth is tied to ritual. !n its extreme form,
this theory claims that myths arose to explain rituals. he biblical scholar *illiam Bobertson
Smith first put this claim forward. )ccording to Smith, people begin performing rituals for
some reason that is not related to myth2 later, after they have forgotten the original reason for a
ritual, they try to account for the ritual by inventing a myth and claiming that the ritual
commemorates the events described in that myth.
D

he anthropologist Eames /raFer had a similar theory. /raFer believed that primitive man starts
out with a belief in magical laws2 later, when man begins to lose faith in magic, he invents
myths about gods and claims that his formerly magical rituals are religious rituals intended to
appease the gods
?
.
Mythology has existed in every society. !ndeed, it would seem to be a basic constituent of
human culture. 3ecause the variety is so great, it is difficult to generaliFe about the nature of
myths. 3ut it is clear that in their general characteristics and in their details a peoples myths
reflect, express, and explore the peoples self,image. he study of myth is thus of central
importance in the study both of individual societies and of human culture as a whole.
a) Major t!"# o$ %t&#.
6Mt&# o$ or+*+/. Cosmogony and creation myth are used as synonyms, yet properly
spea"ing, cosmogony is a preferable term because it refers to the origin of the world in a
neutral fashion, whereas creation myth implies a creator and something created, an implication
unsuited to a number of myths that, for example, spea" of the origin of the world as a growth
or emanation, rather than an act. Even the term origin should be used with caution for
cosmogonist events 9as well as for other myths purporting to describe the beginning of things;,
because the origin of the world hardly ever seems the focal point of a mythological narrative
$as a mythological narrative is not a matter of in#uiry into the first cause of things. !nstead,
cosmogonist myths are concerned with origins in the sense of the foundation or validity of the
world as it is. .reation stories in both primitive and advanced cultures fre#uently spea" of the
act of creation as a fashioning of the earth out of raw material that was already present. !n
)frican cosmogonies, especially, the earth is preexistent. ) creation out of nothing occurs as a
D
Segal, p. D&
?
/raFer, p. ?11
D
theme much less fre#uently, for all that such creation myths are more satisfying to the
philosophical mind. <hilosophical #uestions, however, are less important in the 4ustificatory
systems set up by myth.
The origin of man is usually lin"ed immediately to the cosmogony. Man, for instance, is
placed on the earth by 'od, or in some other way his origin is from heaven. Gevertheless, it is
only in mythologies influenced by philosophical reflections that the place of man becomes the
conspicuous centre of the cosmogony. !n all cases, however, man has a particular place
9because of his duties to the gods, because of his limitations, or even because of his gifts;,
even though$especially in many hunters civiliFations 9e.g., the )frican San peoples and
many Gorth )merican !ndian tribes;$the harmony of man and other forms of nature is
emphasiFed.
6Mt&# o$ "#2&ato)o* a/1 1"#tr02t+o/
Myths of eschatology deal with 6the end.7 he end is conceived of as the opposite of the
cosmogony2 it means first and foremost the origin of death but also, in a wider sense, the end
of the world. Special forms of eschatology are prevalent in messianism 9belief in a future
salvation figure; and millenarianism 9belief in a 1,CCC,year reign of the elect;.
Myths about the origin of death, for which an added explanation has to be found in the sense
that death is not seen as automatically the end of life, are probably as widely diffused as
creation stories. Ane of the most common types of such myths spea"s of a primordial time in
which death did not exist and explains that it arose as the result of an error, as a punishment,
or simply because the creator decided, the earth would get too crowded otherwise.
Expectations of a cataclysmic end of the world are also expressed by myths. ) universal
conflagration with a final battle and defeat of the gods is part of 'ermanic mythology and has
parallels in other examples of !ndo,European eschatological imagery. !n many 6primitive7
religions specific expectations about the end of the world do occur, but until recently they
have not received much scholarly attention. )n example of such a belief about the end of the
world is found among the <awnee !ndians. !n their view, there will come a time when
everything will disappear and the star of death will govern the world. he moon will turn red,
the sun will be extinguished, and men will be turned into stars flying along the route to heaven
now ta"en by the dead.
6M"##+a/+2 a/1 %+))"/ar+a/ %t&#
?
he hope of a new world surges up from time to time in many civiliFations. Many such
religious movements have flourished in the 2Cth century in Melanesia, )frica, South )merica,
and Siberia. .hristian elements are usually detectable, but the basic element in virtually all
cases is indigenous. hese cults and movements centre on prophetic leaders, often emphasiFe
the return of the dead at the renewal to come, and are convinced of a catastrophic end of the
present world. !n many cases, the culture hero is expected to return and lead believers in battle
against the evil forces. !n the history of Eudaism and .hristianity, as in many primitive
millenarian and messianic movements, there is an expectation of a new heaven and a new
earth.
6Mt&# o$ 20)t0r" &"ro"# a/1 #ot"r+o)o*+2a) %t&#
) great many non,literate traditions have myths about a culture hero 9most notably one who
brings new techni#ues or technology to man"ind,e.g., <rometheus, who supplies fire to
man"ind in 'ree" mythology;. ) culture hero is generally not the person responsible for the
creation but the one who completes the world and ma"es it fit for human life2 in short, he
creates culture. )nother example of a culture hero is Maui in <olynesia, who brought islands
to the surface from the bottom of the sea, captured and harnessed the sun, lifted the s"y to
allow man more room, and, li"e <rometheus, gave fire to human"ind.
he bringer of culture is often also the bringer of health. hus, the culture hero of the
*oodlands and <lains !ndians in Gorth )merica is at the same time related to the foundation
of the medicine society. ) comparable figure occurs in many traditions of .lassical anti#uity
or the Mediterranean basin generally as the 6good son7$e.g., 8orus, the son of the god Asiris
in Egypt, or the figure of the "ing in the <salms. 8ealth and 9spiritual; salvation are
synonymous, and this is implied in the 'ree" word sHtIr, which can mean both 6saviour7 and
6preserver from ill health.7 Belated to soteriological myths in many cases is the hope for a
final and total salvation in which the 6good7 powers will triumph, such as through Saoshyant
the saviour in Joroastrianism. !n fact, Joroastrianism shared with the Eudeo,.hristian tradition
the notion of a %ast Eudgment followed by the ultimate salvation of the world. )ccording to
Joroastrian belief, as the end approached heroes from the past would come to life and help in
the struggle of good against evil. Saviours, the Saoshyants, would wor" toward the triumph of
virtue and the spreading of heavenly light over all creation.
,Mt&# o$ t+%" a/1 "t"r/+t
K
he apparent regularity of the heavenly bodies long impressed every society. he s"y was
seiFed as the very image of transcendence, and what seemed to be the orderly course of sun,
moon, and stars suggested a time that transcended mans$in short, eternity. Many myths and
mythological images concern themselves with the relationship between eternity and time on
earth. he number four for the number of world ages figures most fre#uently. he
Joroastrians of ancient <ersia "new of a complete world age of 12,CCC years, divided into four
periods of &,CCC each, at the end of which ArmaFd 9*ise %ord; would con#uer )hriman
90estructive Spirit;. Similarly, the 3oo" of 0aniel 9in the 3ible; mentions four "ingdoms$of
gold, silver, bronFe, and a mixture of iron and clay, respectively$after which 'od will
establish an everlasting "ingdom. he notion of four world ages, sometimes associated with
metals, occurs also in the wor"s of .lassical writers and in later speculative writings on human
history. Eudaism developed the view of a 1,CCC,year period between the four world ages and
the everlasting "ingdom 9hence the words millennium and millenarian;. )lthough other
numbers occur 9three, six, seven, 12, and ?2;, four is dominant. !n ancient Mexico, this world
was held to be preceded by four other worlds. !ndia, in both 8indu and 3uddhist texts, has
developed the most complex system of world ages and worlds that arise and come to an end.
8ere, too, the number four is important$e.g., the four ages 9yugas; of decreasing length and
increasing evil. Many writings, often with large numbers, reflect exact astronomical
observations and calculations. Some mythologies$e.g., those of the Maya in .entral )merica
$have developed sophisticated views interrelating time and space. Mythological accounts of
repetitions of worlds after their destruction occur not only in !ndia but also elsewhere, such as
in Arphism and in the Stoic philosophy that flourished in .lassical anti#uity.
6Mt&# o$ !ro3+1"/2" a/1 1"#t+/
!n attitudes to the idea of a lin" between human activity and the stars, the most familiar
example of which is probably astrology, there is a broad range of mythical motifs between
astrological calculations 9in the sense of an attempt at an intellectualiFed account of what is
happening; and devotional self,surrender. ) man may be filled with doubt about his own fate
or the fate of his community at many occasions. !n some myths, divine supremacy is mar"ed
by a gods mastery over fate. Mythological views of providence, destiny, or fate are given
precise shades of meaning vis,L,vis dominant views in a tradition concerning 4ustice and
divine law, the philosophical problem of determinism, the theological problems of theodicy
=
94ustification of a good god with observable facts of evil;, and predestination. )n important
difference in mythological accounts of providence exists between those traditions that spea" of
the creation of the world as a result of 'ods will 9as in Eudaism, .hristianity, and !slam; and
those that attribute worldly phenomena to causation by a lesser being 9as 3uddhism does;.
6Mt&# o$ r"'+rt& a/1 r"/"5a)
Myths of archaic traditions generally imply a conception of the world, nature, and man in
terms of cyclic time. )ccording to )ustralian )boriginal myth, man is reincarnated into
profane life at the moment of his birth. )t his initiation he reenters sacred time, and through
his burial ceremony he returns to his original 6spirit7 state. Many tribal peoples hold similar
beliefs, and their myths are expressed in terms of cosmic cycles. Special myths are narrated in
many places in preparation for initiation procedures. !n agricultural societies, in addition to the
themes of cosmic renewal, renewal through birth, and rebirth through initiation ceremonies at
the attainment of manhood and womanhood, the theme of seasonal renewal is of great
importance. he cyclic concept of time in all these traditions is present in many of the great
religious and philosophical systems, such as 3rahmanism 9a 8indu system;, 3uddhism, and
<latonism, and to some extent it is at variance with the idea of linear time typical of Eudaism,
.hristianity, and !slam. 3ut no culture, not even that of Eews, .hristians, or Muslims,
completely disregards the cyclic patterns of the seasons, wor", festivities, or existence. Such
patterns seem to be engraved on mans perception of the world.
,Mt&# o$ %"%or a/1 $or*"tt+/*
Some of the Gorth )merican medicine men claim to remember their prenatal existence. Such
memory, according to their mythology, is lost in ordinary people. Similar myths of memory
and forgetting are related to the hierarchy that exists in all archaic societies. he fundamental
"nowledge of the world, transcending ordinary consciousness, is not e#ually attainable by
everyone. Myths of memory can ta"e the form of collective nostalgia. !n South )merica, the
Maruros, whose material existence was so simple that they lac"ed the s"ills of the agricultural
and pastoral life, were one of the many tribes that in the face of modern *estern cultural
expansion gave up the struggle for their own social and cultural identity, becoming assimilated
into a more complex society. )s the Maruros ceased to struggle for the preservation of their
tribal identity, they expressed a yearning to return to the 'reat Mother ruling the land of the
dead and awaiting them in her paradise. Mythologies of memory and forgetting have a role in
1C
many traditions. hey are of great significance in traditions where the idea of rebirth or
reincarnation exists. Some people have claimed to remember previous existences, and a few
9among them the 3uddha; the very first. he veil of maya 96illusion7; in many !ndian stories
prevents a man from remembering his true origin and goal. !n 'nosticism there is tal" of a
similar forgetfulness, which must be resisted. !n ancient 'ree" myth, Mnemosyne 9Memory;,
the mother of the Muses, is said to "now everything, past, present, and future. She is the
Memory that is the basis of all life and creativity. /orgetting the true order and origin of things
is often tantamount to death 9as in the case of %ethe, the river of death in 'ree" mythology,
which destroys memory;. )namnesis, 6commemoration7 or 6recollection,7 is one of the
crucial parts of the .hristian celebration of 8oly .ommunion. hrough the anamnesis, the
<assion and death of the %ord is 6applied7 to the congregation. !n philosophy, the imagery of
forgetting and remembering occurs in the thought of Shan"ara, a medieval !ndian philosopher,
and of <lato in connection with the paramount calling of the thin"er and the difficulty of living
up to that calling.
,Mt&# o$ &+*& '"+/*# a/1 2")"#t+a) *o1#
Supreme celestial deities occur in many mythologies, with various #ualities and attributes, in
many shapes, and with great diversity in cultic significance. ) cardinal distinction exists
between the Supreme 3eing in many archaic or polytheistic traditions and the 'od of the great
monotheistic systems 9Eudaism, .hristianity, and !slam;. Even though certain #ualities seem
ali"e in many cases 9e.g., transcendence, omniscience;, the 'od of the latter arose historically
in a reaction to polytheistic views and practices and demonstrates his supremacy accordingly,
whereas the more archaic types of supreme beings nowhere show that aggressive aspect in
their mythologies. he exalted status of archaic supreme beings and celestial gods does not
necessarily involve exclusion of other supreme beings.
he s"y seen as a sacred entity is an all but universal belief. !t is often related to or identical
with the highest divinity. Gevertheless, supreme beings are always more than what can be
explained from celestial phenomena alone, for they are often called creators of the world,
founders of the order of the world, and protectors of law2 and they are praised for their eternity
and goodness.
6Mt&# o$ 4+/*# a/1 a#2"t+2#
11
'enuine myths concerning "ings are found only in traditions that "now a form of sacred
"ingship. emple records from ancient 3abylon mention offerings to "ings who were
considered divine. 8ymns addressed to them refer to the "ings union with a goddess$i.e., the
mythological motif of the 6sacred marriage.7 Ane of the epithets for the "ing in ancient Egypt
was 6endowed with life7 or 6imparting life.7 he twofold meaning of the epithet is significant
and can serve to ma"e the mythology of sacred "ingship understandable in other places as
well, because the function of the "ing is in fact double. 8e mediates between the divine world
and the world of man, representing each to the other. 8ence, in Egypt a sacrifice by an
individual was understood as offered to the "ing and at the same time by the "ing. he "ings
role of mediator and protector brings royal mythologies close to myths of culture heroes.
Solemn procedures in which "ings become divinities occur relatively late in history. )n early
and most conspicuous case of such an apotheosis 9becoming divine; is that of )lexander the
'reat, who was called a god in his lifetime. %ater, apotheosis too" place for Boman emperors,
although there are no cases of an emperor being accorded divine honors in his lifetime. )
great many legends have accumulated around the figures of "ings 9e.g., around @ing )sho"a
of !ndia and @ing )rthur in 3ritain;.
6Mt&# o$ tra/#$or%at+o/
.ountless stories exist concerning the origin of peculiar roc"s, properties of animals, plants,
stars, or other features in the world. !n addition to such etiologic tales there are several myths
that spea" of cosmic changes brought about at the end of primordial times. )n altogether
different and extensive mythology exists concerning initiation rites and other 6rites of
passage7 that involve transformation of mans being.
.osmic transformation may concern an original world, without proper human means of
existence and without death, that was transformed through a certain event 9e.g., the death of
8ainuwele, a type of primal being "nown as a dema or ancestral deity; into the world "nown
to man"ind, a truly inhabitable world with vegetation, animals, and other features that had not
existed before.
An a wider scale are myths that could be appendages to cosmogonic myths but that have not
turned into mere etiologies. Many myths a"in to the type of the dema deity 9li"e 8ainuwele;
and to the culture,hero type 9li"e <rometheus; account for events$such as the invention of
agriculture, domestication of animals, and the use of fire$that have transformed the world for
12
the benefit of man. Many others are 4ust as closely related to cosmogonic accounts but tell of
6setbac"s7 in primordial times. !n agricultural societies, for example, myths have been
collected that ascribe the unevenness of land or the formation of mountains to an ancient
mishap or evil force.
!n rites of passage 9e.g., rites accompanying birth, attainment of maturity, marriage, death; the
contents of myths are acted out. !n each case the intention behind the rites is that mans mode
of being be affected, indeed transformed. hrough the birth ceremony, the child 6becomes7 a
person, and through initiation, an adolescent 6becomes7 an adult, a member of a sodality, or a
warrior. here is a great variety of customs in different communities and traditions, but
everywhere these rites dramatiFe graphically the cosmic processes and realities expressed in
language in myths. !n many traditions, the myths of the community are conveyed to the novice
at the time of his initiation. Even in the ma4or world religions rites of passage are still
performed, as evidenced in such ceremonies as circumcision, 3aptism, weddings, and
mortuary rites. !n all instances, the rites derive their meaning from the core of the tradition,
and for that reason, mans existence is regarded as transformed. !n some cases, the
transformation derived from the dominant myth is far,reaching. he initiated shaman is able to
transcend the ordinary human condition and overcome dangers that would cause the death of a
non,initiate. hrough his initiation, he is believed to have gone through death and thus
con#uered it. !n certain 8ermetic 9an occult magical tradition; and 'nostic texts the certainty
of attaining divine being is clearly expressed.
') E(a%!)"# o$ %t&o)o*+"#
6Gr""4 %t&o)o*
!t is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient 'ree"s, concerning their gods
and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual
practices. !t was a part of the religion in ancient 'reece. Modern scholars refer to and study
the myths in an attempt to throw light on the religious and political institutions of )ncient
'reece and its civiliFation, and to gain understanding of the nature of myth,ma"ing itself.
'ree" myth attempts to explain the origins of the world, and details the lives and adventures
of a wide variety of god, goddesses, heroes, heroines, and mythological creatures. hese
accounts initially were disseminated in an oral,poetic tradition2 today the 'ree" myths are
"nown primarily from 'ree" literature.
1&
he oldest "nown 'ree" literary sources, 8omer+s epic poems Iliad and Odyssey, focus on
events surrounding the aftermath of the ro4an *ar. wo poems by 8omer+s near
contemporary 8esiod, the Theogony and the Works and Days, contain accounts of the genesis
of the world, the succession of divine rulers, the succession of human ages, the origin of
human woes, and the origin of sacrificial practices. Myths are also preserved in the 8omeric
8ymns, in fragments of epic poems of the Epic .ycle, in lyric poems, in the wor"s of the
tragedians of the fifth century 3., in writings of scholars and poets of the 8ellenistic )ge, and
in texts from the time of the Boman Empire by writers such as <lutarch and <ausanias.
he mythological -history of the world- may be divided into three or four broader periods(
,
The myths of origin or age of gods (Theogonies, "births of gods"): myths about the origins
of the world, the gods, and the human race.
-Myths of origin- or -creation myths- represent an attempt to render the universe
comprehensible in human terms and explain the origin of the world. he most widely accepted
version at the time, although a philosophical account of the beginning of things, is reported by
8esiod, in his Theogony. 8e begins with .haos, a yawning nothingness. Aut of the void
emerged 'aia 9the Earth; and some other primary divine beings( Eros 9%ove;, the )byss 9the
artarus;, and the Erebus. *ithout male assistance, 'aia gave birth to 5ranus 9the S"y; who
then fertiliFed her. /rom that union were born first the itans$six males( .oeus, .rius,
.ronus, 8yperion, !apetus, and Aceanus2 and six females( Mnemosyne, <hoebe, Bhea, heia,
hemis, and ethys. )fter .ronus was born, 'aia and 5ranus decreed no more itans were to
be born. hey were followed by the one,eyed .yclopes and the 8ecatonchires or 8undred,
8anded Anes, who were both thrown into artarus by 5ranus. his made 'aia furious.
.ronus 9-the wily, youngest and most terrible of 'aia+s children-;, was convinced by 'aia to
castrate his father. 8e did this, and became the ruler of the itans with his sister,wife Bhea as
his consort, and the other itans became his court.
-The age when gods and mortals mingled freely: stories of the early interactions between
gods, demigods, and mortals.
3ridging the age when gods lived alone and the age when divine interference in human affairs
was limited, was a transitional age in which gods and mortals moved together. hese were the
early days of the world when the groups mingled more freely than they did later. Most of these
11
tales were later told by Avid+s Metamorphoses and they are often divided into two thematic
groups( tales of love, and tales of punishment.
K
ales of love often involve incest, or the seduction or rape of a mortal woman by a male god,
resulting in heroic offspring. he stories generally suggest that relationships between gods and
mortals are something to avoid2 even consenting relationships rarely have happy endings.
he second type 9tales of punishment; involves the appropriation or invention of some
important cultural artifact, as when <rometheus steals fire from the gods, when antalus steals
nectar and ambrosia from Jeus+ table and gives it to his own sub4ects$revealing to them the
secrets of the gods, when <rometheus or %ycaon invents sacrifice, when 0emeter teaches
agriculture and the Mysteries to riptolemus, or when Marsyas invents the aulos and enters
into a musical contest with )pollo. !an Morris considers <rometheus+ adventures as -a place
between the history of the gods and that of man-
=
.
-The age of heroes (heroic age), where divine activity was more limited. he last and greatest
of the heroic legends is the story of the Trojan War and after 9which is regarded by some
researchers as a separate fourth period;.
he age in which the heroes lived is "nown as the heroic age.
1C
he epic and genealogical
poetry created cycles of stories clustered around particular heroes or events and established the
family relationships between the heroes of different stories2 they thus arranged the stories in
se#uence. here is a saga effect. *e can follow the fates of some families in successive
generations.
)fter the rise of the hero cult, gods and heroes constitute the sacral sphere and are invo"ed
together in oaths and prayers which are addressed to them. !n contrast to the age of gods,
during the heroic age the roster of heroes is never given fixed and final form2 great gods are no
longer born, but new heroes can always be raised up from the army of the dead. )nother
important difference between the hero cult and the cult of gods is that the hero becomes the
centre of local group identity.
11

K
'. Mile, .lassical Mythology in English %iterature, p.&K
=
!. Morris, )rchaeology )s .ultural 8istory, p. 2=1
1C
/.*. @elsey, )n Autline of 'ree" and Boman Mythology, p. &C
11
*. 3ur"ert, 'ree" Beligion, 2C:
1:
he monumental events of 8eracles are regarded as the dawn of the age of heroes. o the
8eroic )ge are also ascribed three great events( the )rgonautic expedition, the heban .ycle
and the ro4an *ar.
T&" Troja/ 7ar 22)", a collection of epic poems, starts with the events leading up to the
war( Eris and the golden apple of @allisti, the Eudgement of <aris, the abduction of 8elen, the
sacrifice of !phigenia at )ulis. o recover 8elen, the 'ree"s launched a great expedition under
the overall command of Menelaus+ brother, )gamemnon, "ing of )rgos or Mycenae, but the
ro4ans refused to return 8elen. he Iliad, which is set in the tenth year of the war, tells of the
#uarrel between )gamemnon and )chilles, who was the finest 'ree" warrior, and the
conse#uent deaths in battle of )chilles+ beloved comrade <atroclus and <riam+s eldest son,
8ector. )fter 8ector+s death, the ro4ans were 4oined by two exotic allies( <enthesilea, #ueen
of the )maFons, and Memnon, "ing of the Ethiopians and son of the dawn,goddess Eos.
)chilles "illed both of these, but <aris then managed to "ill )chilles with an arrow in the heel.
)chilles+ heel was the only part of his body which was not invulnerable to damage by human
weaponry. 3efore they could ta"e roy, the 'ree"s had to steal from the citadel the wooden
image of <allas )thena 9the <alladium;. /inally, with )thena+s help, they built the ro4an
8orse. 0espite the warnings of <riam+s daughter .assandra, the ro4ans were persuaded by
Sinon, a 'ree" who feigned desertion, to ta"e the horse inside the walls of roy as an offering
to )thena2 the priest %aocoon, who tried to have the horse destroyed, was "illed by sea,
serpents. )t night the 'ree" fleet returned, and the 'ree"s from the horse opened the gates of
roy. !n the total sac" that followed, <riam and his remaining sons were slaughtered2 the
ro4an women passed into slavery in various cities of 'reece. he adventurous homeward
voyages of the 'ree" leaders 9including the wanderings of Adysseus and )eneas 9the Aeneid;,
and the murder of )gamemnon; were told in two epics, the Beturns 9the lost Nostoi; and
8omer+s Odyssey. he ro4an cycle also includes the adventures of the children of the ro4an
generation 9e.g., Arestes and elemachus;.
12
6Ro%a/ %t&o)o*
12
6roy7, Encyclopaedia 3ritannica, 2CC2
1D
he study of Boman religion and myth is complicated by the early influence of 'ree" religion
on the !talian peninsula during Bome+s protohistory, and by the later artistic imitation of 'ree"
literary models by Boman authors. !n matters of theology, the Bomans were curiously eager to
identify their own gods with those of the 'ree"s 9interpretatio graeca;, and to reinterpret
stories about 'ree" deities under the names of their Boman counterparts.
1&
Bome+s early myths
and legends also have a dynamic relationship with Etruscan religion, less documented than
that of the 'ree"s.
*hile Boman mythology may lac" a body of divine narratives as extensive as that found in
'ree" literature, Bomulus and Bemus suc"ling the she,wolf is as famous as any image from
'ree" mythology except for the ro4an 8orse.
11
3ecause %atin literature was more widely
"nown in Europe throughout the Middle )ge and into the Benaissance, the interpretations of
'ree" myths by the Bomans often had the greater influence on narrative and pictorial
representations of -classical mythology- than 'ree" sources. !n particular, the versions of
'ree" myths in Avid+s Metamorphoses, written during the reign of )ugustus, came to be
regarded as canonical. he characteristic myths of Bome are often political or moral, that is,
they deal with the development of Boman government in accordance with divine law, as
expressed by Boman religion, and with demonstrations of the individual+s adherence to moral
expectations (mos maiorum) or failures to do so. 8ere are some other Boman myths(
,Bape of the Sabine women, explaining the importance of the Sabines in the formation of
Boman culture, and the growth of Bome through conflict and alliance.
,Guma <ompilius, the Sabine second "ing of Bome who consorted with the nymph Egeria and
established many of Bome+s legal and religious institution.
,Servius ullius, the sixth "ing of Bome, whose mysterious origins were freely mythologiFed
and who was said to have been the lover of the goddess /ortuna.
,he arpeian Boc" and why it was used for the execution of traitors.
1&
Gorth, Boman Beligion, p. 1,:
11
.<.*iseman, Bemus( ) Boman Myth, 9 .ambridge 5niversity <ress, 1==:; p. xiii
1?
,%ucretia whose self,sacrifice prompted the overthrow of the early Boman monarchy and led
to the establishment of the Bepublic.
,8oratius at the bridge, on the importance of individual valor.
,Mucius Scaevola, who thrust his right hand into the fire to prove his loyalty to Bome.
,.aeculus and the founding of <raeneste.
,Manlius and the geese, about divine intervention at the 'allic siege of Bome.
,Stories pertaining to the Gonae .aprotinae and <oplifugia festivals.
,.oriolanus, a story of politics and morality.
,he Etruscan city of .orythus as the -cradle- of ro4an and !talian civiliFation.
,he arrival of the 'reat Mother 9.ybele; in Bome.
1:
,E*!t+a/ %t&o)o*
)mong the most important myths were those describing creation of the world. he Egyptian
developed many accounts of the creation, which differ greatly in the events they describe. !n
particular, the deities credited with creating the world vary in each account. his difference
partly reflects the desire of Egypt+s cities and priesthoods to exalt their own patron gods by
attributing creation to them. Met the differing accounts were not regarded as contradictory2
instead, the Egyptians saw the creation process as having many aspects and involving many
divine forces.
1D
!n the period of the mythic past after the creation, Ba dwells on earth as "ing of the gods and
of humans. his period is the closest thing to a golden age in Egyptian tradition, the period of
stability that the Egyptians constantly sought to evo"e and imitate. Met the stories about Ba+s
1:
E. G. 3remmer and G. M. 8orsfall, Boman Myth and Mythography 9 5niversity of %ondon !nstitute of
.lassical Studies, 1=K?;, pp. 1=,1C:
1D
0avid 2CC2, pp. K1, K=
1K
reign focus on conflicts between him and forces that disrupt his rule, reflecting the "ing+s role
in Egyptian ideology as enforcer of maat.
1?
he collection of episodes surrounding Asiris+ death and succession is the most elaborate of all
Egyptian myths, and it had the most widespread influence in Egyptian culture.
1K
!n the first
portion of the myth, Asiris, who is associated with both fertility and "ingship, is "illed and his
position usurped by his brother Set. !n some versions of the myth, Asiris is actually
dismembered and the pieces of his corpse scattered across Egypt. Asiris+ sister and wife, !sis,
finds her husband+s body and restores it to wholeness. She is assisted by funerary deities such
as Gephthys, and )nubis, and the process of Asiris+ restoration reflects Egyptian traditions of
embalming and burial. !sis then briefly revives Asiris to conceive an heir with him, the god
8orus.
Several disparate Egyptian texts address a theme( the birth of a divinely fathered child who is
heir to the "ingship. he earliest "nown appearance of such a story does not appear to be a
myth but an entertaining fol"tale, found in the Middle @ingdom *estcar <apyrus, about the
birth of the first three "ings of Egypt+s /ifth 0ynasty. !n that story, the three "ings are the
offspring of Ba and a human woman. he same theme appears in a firmly religious context in
the Gew @ingdom, when the rulers 8atshepsut, )menhotep !!!, and Bamesses !! depicted in
temple reliefs their own conception and birth, in which the god )mun is the father and the
historical #ueen the mother. 3y stating that the "ing originated among the gods and was
deliberately created by the most important god of the period, the story gives a mythical
bac"ground to the "ing+s coronation, which appears alongside the birth story. he divine
connection legitimiFes the "ing+s rule and provides a rationale for his role as intercessor
between gods and humans.
1=
)nother Egyptian myth is about the 4ourney of the sun.

Ba+s movements through the s"y and
the 0uat are not fully narrated in Egyptian sources,
2C
although funerary texts li"e the Amduat,
ook of !ates, and ook of Ca"erns relate the nighttime half of the 4ourney in se#uences of
1?
<inch 2CC1, p. D=
1K
<inch 2CC1, pp. ?=,KC
1=
)ssmann 2CC1, pp. 11D,11=
2C
3aines in %oprieno 1==D, p. &D1
1=
vignettes.
21
his 4ourney is a "ey to Ba+s nature and to the sustenance of all life.
22
!n traveling
across the s"y, Ba brings light to the earth, sustaining all things that live there. 8e reaches the
pea" of his strength at noon and then ages and wea"ens as he moves toward sunset. !n the
evening, Ba ta"es the form of )tum, the creator god, oldest of all things in the world.
)ccording to early Egyptian texts, at the end of the day he spits out all the other deities, whom
he devoured at sunrise. 8ere they represent the stars, and the story explains why the stars are
visible at night and seemingly absent during the day.
2&
here is also a myth concerning the end
of the universe. Egyptian texts typically treat the dissolution of the world as a possibility to be
avoided, and for that reason they do not often describe it in detail. 8owever, many texts allude
to the idea that the world, after countless cycles of renewal, is destined to end. his end is
described in a passage in the Coffin Te#ts and a more explicit one in the ook of the Dead, in
which )tum says that he will one day dissolve the ordered world and return to his primeval,
inert state within the waters of chaos. )ll things other than the creator will cease to exist,
except Asiris, who will survive along with him.
21
0etails about this eschatological
2:
prospect
are left unclear, including the fate of the dead who are associated with Asiris. Met with the
creator god and the god of renewal together in the waters that gave rise to the orderly world,
there is the potential for a new creation to arise in the same manner as the old.
2D
6Nor#" %t&o)o* 8the collective myths of the Scandinavians( Sweden, 0enmar", Gorway,
and !celand;. he main sources for Gorse mythology, !ndo,European in origin, are the
!celandic Eddas. he shaping of Gorse mythology itself too" place in 'ermanic Europe,
including those elements of the myths, which were current in Scandinavia in the millennium
before that. Gorth mythology is the belief system of the Scandinavian countries before
.hristianity swept the world. Most of the world is familiar with 'ree" and Boman mythology,
but the Gorse mythology is not so well "nown.
Some of the gods of Gorse mythology are Adin, /rigg, %o"i, and hor.
Adin is the father god and is married to /reya. Most of the -lesser- gods of Gorse mythology
are their "ids. 8e has a raven who spies for him.
21
8ornung 1==2, p. =D
22
obin 1=K=, pp. 1K,1=
2&
<inch 2CC1, pp. =1,=2
21
8ornung 1=K2, pp. 1D2,1D:
2:
0unand and Jivie N .oche 2CC:, pp. D?,DK
2D
Mee"s and /avard,Mee"s 1==D, pp. 1K,1=
2C
/rigg is the goddess of married women and households. She+s married to Adin.
%o"i is the god of mischief. 8e is not considered to be especially evil, 4ust gets into a lot of
trouble because of his thievery.
hor is the god of thunder. 8e has these hammers which ma"e thunder when he uses them.
Most of Gorse mythology has to do with their gods and what happens with the afterlife. Since
the Oi"ings were essentially a con#uering people, it was important to -"now- what happened
after you died. Ane interesting thing about the Gorse system of theology is that their gods
were not perfectly formed. hey had scars and physical imperfections 4ust li"e their followers
did.
6C")t+2 %t&o)o* 8the religious beliefs and practices of the ancient .elts, an ancient !ndo,
European people;. !n the 1th century 3.E, their influence and territories covered the length of
Europe, stretching from 3ritain to )sia Minor. .eltic mythology is found in a number of
distinct, if related, subgroups, largely corresponding to the branches of the .eltic languages(
,)ncient .eltic religion 9"nown primarily through archaeological sources rather than through
written mythology2 cf. )ncient 'aulish and 3ritish deities;
,Mythology in 'oidelic languages, represented chiefly by !rish mythology
2?
and Scottish
mythology(
Mythological .ycle
5lster .ycle
/enian cycle
8istorical .ycle
,Mythology in 3rythonic languages, represented chiefly by *elsh mythology 9cf. also 3reton
mythology and fol"lore;
Irish mythology
2?
ABahilly . /. Early !rish 8istory and Mythology, 0ublin, 1=1D
21
6T&" Mt&o)o*+2a) C2)"
he Mythological cycle is the first of the four cycles and contains the earliest !rish myths.
he !rish, in contrast to other nations, did not have any myth about the creation of the world
which usually represents the basis of a nations mythology and which is the essential myth.
he situation in !rish mythology 9and in .eltic mythology in general; is different( the .elts did
not have any world,creation myth2 instead, they created a collection of myths describing the
invasions of their island and the arrival of the first inhabitants. his collection of the oldest
!rish myths is commonly "nown as the 3oo" of !nvasions or $e%or !a%&la 'renn in old !rish.
Most of the stories focus on the godli"e people of the goddess 0anu or uatha 0P 0anann
who represented the fifth wave of invaders coming to the island.
here were six successive invasions altogether at the end of which the island was inhabited
by the .eltic ancestors of todays !rishmen. !n the first invasion came a woman called .esair,
a granddaughter of Goah who fled from the Gear East with fifty other women before the
/lood. )fter her death <artholon and his men came to the island2 after their arrival they
cleared four plains and in addition to this seven la"es appeared in the countryside. Got only
did <artholons people have to fight the demonic /omhoires but they also have to begin with
the crafts and customs on the island. hey brewed the first beer, had their first teacher and first
doctor and started the breeding of cattle. /inally, they all died of the plague. he next invaders
were led by Gemhedh after whom they were called the Gemedians. Similarly to the
<artholans, they also had to fight the /omhoires and during their time they cleared twelve
other plains and four new la"es appeared. )fter the death of Gemhedh they continued to fight
the /omhoires but they were defeated and after the fourth unsuccessful battle they fled the
island. Some of their descendants 4oined the following wave of invaders "nown as the /ir
3holg people. hey divided the country into five provinces and introduced the concept of
"ingship. he next invaders who came to the island and fought and defeated the /ir 3holg in
the /irst 3attle of Magh uiredh were the uatha 0P 0anann. hese godli"e people s"illed in
magic and druidism brought with them four talismans( %ia /Qil or 6the stone of fate7 which
shrie"ed when the right "ing sat on it, the sword of Guadu which could not be defeated, the
magic spear of %ugh which was the guarantee of victory and finally the cauldron of 0agda
which could feed any number of people. he cauldron is probably the most important of all
four talismans for its motif appears at several places in both !rish as well as *elsh
22
mythologies. Moreover, there is a possibility that it served as an inspiration for the 8oly 'rail
of the )rthurian legend which will be focused on more in the last chapter.
uatha 0P 0anann fought two important battles, in the /irst 3attle of Magh uiredh they
defeated the /ir 3holg and the in the Second 3attle of Magh uiredh they faced the /omhoires
whom they finally defeated as well. here were several important figures among the uatha
0P 0anann that appeared in both battles and thus should be mentioned here. hey often
correspond with the old .eltic gods and goddesses and appear in the stories throughout the
whole Mythological .ycle
2K
.
hey are 0agda, the warrior, and leader of uatha 0P 0anann, who is "nown for his
cauldron and his gigantic club with which he mar"s the border between provinces. 8e could
be the .eltic counterpart to the northern god hor
2=
. he next is 3Rand, the goddess of the
river 3oyne and the lover of 0agda who becomes the mother of Sengus Sg, the god of youth,
love and poetry. ManannQn mac %ir is the god of the sea and is sometimes connected with the
!sle of Man. Gext comes Guadu 9Guadu of the Silver 8and; the former "ing of uatha 0P
0anann and husband of the goddess 3Rand. *hen he lost one of his arms he could not be the
"ing of his people any longer and was replaced by 3res. %ater his arm was replaced with an
artificial silver one and he regained his sovereignty. 8e is also the owner of the magical
sword, which is one of uatha 0P 0ananns talismans. Agma is another important figure of
!rish mythology for he is the patron of poetry and elo#uence and the inventor of the ogham
script. 0onn is another god of uatha 0P 0anann, the god of the dead and ruler of the
otherworld2 he is sometimes confused with 0agda. /inally, the last person that will be
mentioned here is 'oibniu, the godli"e blac"smith and patron of !rish handicrafts
&C
.
)s has been said earlier uatha 0P 0anann fought two battles at Magh uiredh both of
which are recorded in the earlier !rish myths preserved to our times. he /irst battle was
fought against the /ir 3olgh who did not want to share the rule over the island with the new,
coming uatha 0P 0anann. he second battle was against a worse adversary N the /omhoires.
)s the Second 3attle of Magh uiredh belongs among the core stories of !rish mythology it
will be briefly described here as well
&1
.
2K
Mac .ana, pp. :?,:K
2=
Mac@illop 1D?
&C
Mac@illop 1D?,1?1
&1
Mac .ana :K,:=
2&
uatha 0P 0anann were ruled by the wise and rightful "ing Guadu, but after he lost one of
his arms in the /irst 3attle of Magh uiredh he could not be the "ing any longer and had to
leave his place to 3res who was of noble birth but it turned out that he was completely
unsuitable for the "ings throne. !n the meantime Guadu got a new silver arm and could
become "ing again and replaced 3res, who wanted to get the throne bac" and decided to loo"
for help at the /omhoires side where his grandfather 3alar Tof the baleful eye lived. 3alars
eye was so big that he needed four men to raise his lid so that he could open the eye whose
gaFe could destroy a whole army of men. Guadu was finally helped by %ugh, the master of all
crafts and second grandson of 3alar. Guadu made him "ing of the country and leader of his
army. 0uring the battle against /omhoires, %ugh armed with a sling, drove 3alars eye
through his head so that he cast a destructive glance on his own people and /omhoires were
thus defeated and expelled from the country forever
&2
.
)fter the last battle uatha 0P 0anann ruled the country for some time until the arrival of
the Milesians. )lthough the Milesians were common people, they managed to replace the
uatha 0P 0anann on the !rish throne and started to rule themselves. hey are said to have
arrived from Spain and were probably the historical predecessors of the !rishmen. )fter their
arrival in !reland they met three goddesses( Uriu, 3anba and /Rdla each of whom wanted the
island to be called after her. /inally the Milesians chose Uriu whose name has been used for
the island until these days. )fter victorious battles over uatha 0P 0anann they started to rule
over the island and the godli"e uatha 0P 0anann decided to leave the sphere of mortals
forever and left for the underground. !t is believed that they live under hills and mounds called
s(dh which serve as the entrance gates to their 6fairyland7
&&
. %ater, the word s(dh started to be
used as another name for the .eltic otherworld.
6 T&" U)#t"r C2)"
)s the title of the cycle already suggests, the stories in this cycle focus on the !rish province
of 5lster, whose "ing is .onchobar, and its relationship with the neighbouring province
.onnacht, which is ruled by the #ueen Medb. his cycle is also closely tied with the life and
heroic deeds of .V .hulainn whose name appears in several stories of this cycle. his part of
!rish mythology bears thus some characteristics of the heroic literature so popular in the
Middle )ges. he cycle is also connected with the names of .onall .ernach and /ergus mac
&2
'regory 1?,:&
&&
Mac@illop 1?:,1KC
21
BRich. here are also some important godli"e women figures( Macha, 3adb and MorrWgan,
whose common feature is that they can act as one or as three persons. hey are also connected
with certain animals, Macha with horses and the other two with ravens
&1
he cycle begins with the story The $a%our )ains of the *laid and the T+ins of Macha
&:
explaining the name of Emain Macha, the "ings seat. !t is connected with one of the
appearances of Macha, the goddess of horses. !n the story she appears as the divine wife of
.runniuc. She is an excellent runner and when her husband boasts about her special ability
among other men, although she begged him not to do so, they as" her to prove the truth of it
and although she is pregnant she has to ta"e part in a race against the "ings horses. )fter her
victory she gives birth to twins. 3efore she dies in the labour pains she curses all men of
5lster that in the hardest of times they will suffer from labour pains for five successive days
and nights. he only exceptions from the curse are women, children, her husband and .V
.hulainn. he place where she died was later named Emain Macha 9emain meaning twins in
old !rish;.
he story of Macha shows certain resemblance with the *elsh story of Bhiannon, the wife
of <wyll. Bhiannon is also connected with horses2 she is an excellent horsewoman and
afterwards she is accused of the murder of her newborn son she has to sit at the courts gate
every day and carry the visitors from the gate to the castle on her bac" li"e a horse. She does
not die li"e Macha but she suffers a lot and when her son is finally found she calls him <ryderi
which in *elsh means 6the end of my trouble7.
he attention is then turned to the life and deeds of the superhuman hero .V .hulainn. his
6invincible hero to whom fate ordains a short life with lasting glory7
&D
is the offspring of the
god %ug and 0eichtWne, the sister or daughter of "ing .onchobar. 8is birth and boyhood are
described in stories called simply irth of C, Chulainn and oy Deeds of C, Chulainn
&?
.
here is an interesting story connected with the heros name.
&1
'reen, Miranda. -eltsk. m/ty, p. &?, rans. Michal @ovQX. <raha( %idovP noviny, 1==K.
&:
'antF, Eeffrey. 0arly Irish Myths and 1agas, p. 12?,12=, 8armondsworth( <enguin
3oo"s, 1=K1.
&D
Mac .ana, <roinsias. Celtic Mythology, 1C1 %ondon( 8amlyn, 1=?&.
&?
'regory, %ady. Irish Mythology, pp.&1=,&:C, %ondon( 3ounty 3oo"s, 2CC1.
2:
.V .hulainn was originally called SPtanta and he got his new name in the following way(
Ane day he was visiting a blac"smith called .ullan who had a dog guarding his house. *hen
SPtanta came to the house the dog did not want to let him enter so the boy "illed him. .ullan
was disconsolate because of his dogs death and when SPtanta saw him, he offered to bring up
a new dog for him and fulfil the duties of the dog himself in the meantime. 3ecause of his
willingness to undo his deed he was called .V .hulainn 9.ullans dog;
&K
%ater .V .hulainn leaves for Scotland in order to be trained at ScQthach who teaches him
the art of fighting. 8e does not only learn the art of fighting but he also learns the art of loving
despite the fact that his future wife Emer is waiting for him at home. 0uring his stay in
Scotland .V .hulainn conceives a child with one of ScQthachs adversaries, an )maFon called
)Wfe 9or )oife;. he son is called .onnla and it is .V .hulainns fate to fight with his own son
face to face in the future. his fight between the two of them, from which .V .hulainn comes
out as a winner, is described in the story The Only 1on of Aoife
&=

he most important story of the whole cycle, however, is The War for the ull of Cuailnge
9or T&in %2 C,ailnge;
1C
in which .V .hulainn plays a significant role as well. he story begins
with "ing )ilil and his wife, #ueen Medb, #uarrelling over the fact who owns a better bull.
he ownership of cattle was a sign of wealth in the pagan times, therefore, the better the cattle,
the greater the wealth of its owner. *hen Medb finds out that )ilill has the white,horned bull
/indbennach among his cattle, she gets angry and decides to get another bull, the brown bull
0onn, for herself. 0onn lives in 5lster and is owned by 0Qire mac /iachna who does not want
to give it to Medb. She therefore decides to get it by force and the war between .onnacht and
5lster begins. .V .hulainn stands alone against the .onnachts army for the other men are,
because of Machas curse, unable to fight for five days and four nights. .V .hulainn is a very
s"ilful warrior and defeats Medbs men #uite easily. 8e is also helped by his godli"e father
&K
Mac@illop, Eames. -eltsk. &3eslo"(4 )r5"odce -eltskou Mythologi(. YMyths and
$egends of the CeltsZ, p.2&:, rans. OQclav <elW[e". <raha( Ga"ladatelstvW %idovP
noviny, 2CC=.
&=
'regory, %ady. Irish Mythology, pp. :1=,:2&, %ondon( 3ounty 3oo"s, 2CC1.
1C
'regory, %ady. Irish Mythology, pp. 1&=,1?=, %ondon( 3ounty 3oo"s, 2CC1.
2D
%ug, who guards him for several days and nights so that the hero can have some rest. /inally,
the decisive fight comes in which .V .hulainn has to fight against /erdia, his friend and
colleague from ScQthach. !t is sometimes referred to as The 6ight at the 6ord
11
. 3oth men had
sworn never to fight against each other2 however, there is no other option for there is no other
warrior as s"ilful as .V .hulainn and /erdia is the only one who can face him because they
were both trained by ScQthach. hey meet at a ford where they fight for four days. )t the end
of each day .V .hulainn sends medicaments to /erdia who sends him food in return. An the
fourth day .V .hulainn uses his lethal weapon 'ae 3ulga and "ills /erdia. he fight between
5lster and .onnacht thus ends with the victory of 5lster. 0onn, the bull of 5lster, has,
however, fled to .onnacht where he meets and fights the white,horned /indbennach. hey
fight the whole day and night and finally 0onn "ills /indbennach and runs with his remains on
his horns bac" to 5lster. 8owever, when he reaches home, his heart splits and he dies as well.
hus the war between 5lster and .onnacht ends and peace is made between the two
"ingdoms.
)nother tale of the cycle is called Death of C, Chulainn
78
and tells the story of the heros
death. .V .hulainn dies because of three reasons. Ane of the reasons is his trespassing of a
certain prohibition 9geis;, the second reason is the revenge of his enemies and the third is the
magic of his enemies allies. !n one of his battles .V .hulainn "illed a magician .ailitWn
whose wife gave birth to six children who got educated in magic. hey are determined to
revenge their father and are 4oined by Erc and %ugaid, both of whom lost their fathers than"s
to .V .hulainn. .ailitWns children cast a magic spell over .V .hulainn, who thin"s that the
country is in danger. An his way to his stronghold, he is stopped by three witches who offer
him roasted dog. 8is refusal would be a trespass of a common prohibition, "nown as geis, not
to refuse any offered food, however, by eating the dog with them he trespasses one of his own
geis, not to eat dogs meat. Oiolation of any of these prohibitions means a disaster, in this case
his own death. *hen he approaches the stronghold, at first his coachman is "illed, then .V
.hulainns horse and finally .V .hulainn himself is mortally wounded. 8e goes to the nearby
11
Geeson, Eoin. Irsk. M/ty a $egendy, pp. 1C:,1&:, rans. !vana 0a\helovQ. 3rno( )ndo
<ublishing, 1==:.
12
'regory :&1,:11
2?
la"e where he washes his body and then ties himself to a pillar stone so that he can die
standing. Gobody dares to approach him for three days after which MorrWgan in the shape of a
crow sits on his shoulder and confirms thus his death. %ater, %ugaid cuts off his hand and head
both of which are ta"en to the capital of emaira. *ith the death of its main hero the 5lster
cycle comes to its end as well.
T&" F+o// C2)"
he third cycle of !rish mythology is called the /ionn .ycle and it is the best , preserved
and most voluminous cycle of all four, in addition to this its stories are still alive in the fairy,
tales and in the !rish story,telling tradition. he main heroes of the cycle are /ionn mac
.umhail with his men, his son AisWn and his nephew .aWlte mac BRnQin. )s <roinsias Mac
.ana says the /ionn .ycle 6is still a world of heroes Yli"e the 5lster .ycleZ, but one formed in
a different mould and conditioned by different temper of thought7 91CD;, later on he adds, that
6the stories of the /ian are more a"in to the mythological tales than are those of the 5lster
.ycle7 91C=;. he tales in this cycle do not focus only on the heroic deeds of /ionn and his
men, the /ianna, as it was more or less the case with the 5lster .ycle where all the attention
was concentrated on .V .hulainn, they also show a close relationship with the natural and
supernatural world as well
1&
.
/ionns men, "nown as the /ianna, are excellent hunters and warriors. he membership of
the group was not hereditary and the prospective member of the group had to undergo a very
challenging entrance exam. )ccording to <roinsias Mac .ana the applicant had to fight with
other nine men while standing up to his waist in the ground and having only a shield and a
haFel stic" to defend himself. hen he had to run through the woods with his hair braided
which had to remain so till the end of the race, moreover, no dead branch could crac" under
the runners feet. hen he had to 4ump over a bough as high as his forehead and run under one
as low as his "nees. /inally, he had to be able to draw a thorn from his foot while running
without changing his speed 91CK;. !f the applicant was able to do all this, only then was he
admitted as a member of the /ianna.
<raha( Oy[ehrad, 2CC1.
2K
/ionns birth and childhood are described in the story called The Coming of 6inn
77
. 8e was
the son of .umhall and Muirne who was a daughter of Guadu, the "ing of the uatha 0P
0anann. 8is father was "illed in the battle against the sons of Morna and so young /ionn was
for security reasons brought up secretly in the woods by a druid 3odhmall who taught him the
love of nature and trained him for a s"ilful hunter and warrior as well. 8e gets his name,
similarly to .V .hulainn, only later in his life.
)s a young boy he went to the poet called /ionn who was waiting for a Salmon of *isdom
for it was prophesised that he would become immensely wise after he eats it. *hen young
/ionn 9called 0emhne at that time; brought the salmon to his master, he told him that he had
suc"ed his burnt finger. he wise poet than told the boy that his name would be /ionn and that
it was he who was destined to eat the salmon. %ater, whenever /ionn wants to summon his
special s"ills he starts to suc" his finger
1:
.
/ionn was, li"e .V .hulainn, who was born on the same day as his two horses, often
connected with animals, especially with his two faithful dogs, 3ran and Sceolan. hese were
in fact his two nephews. )lso his wife Sadbh met /ionn for the first time in the shape of a hind
into which she was enchanted by a 0ar" druid whom she refused to love. *hen /ionn too"
her to his home she changed into a beautiful woman and they got married. 8owever, after
some time, the druid came again and too" Sadbh with him in the shape of a hind again. She
gave birth to a child whom /inn found in the woods some time later and who got the name
AisWn 9a fawn;, and later became one of /iannas best fighters and poets
1D
. 8ere, the motif of
the transformation of a human being into an animal appears again, which once more illustrates
the interconnectedness between the world of .eltic people and the natural world.
AisWn appears in the story called The Call of Ois(n
79
in which he does not resist the
temptation of Giam, daughter of the "ing of Wr na nSg, the land of eternal youth. She ta"es
him to her land and marries him. )fter some time, however, AisWn, although happy with his
wife, longs to visit his homeland and meet his father and peers. 8e does not "now that since
the time he left with Giam three hundred years have elapsed. Giam is sad for she "nows that
they will never see each other again and warns him not to step on the ground in !reland. AisWn
leaves her and when he comes to !reland he not only does not find his father or his peers, but
11
'regory 11?,12&
1:
Mac@illop 2D:
1D
'regory 12D,12K
1?
'regory 2KK,2=C
2=
he also helps some men to raise a large stone during which he touches the ground and
immediately becomes a three,hundred,year,old man and dies soon after that.
)s has already been said in one of the previous chapters dealing with the .eltic society and
religion, the otherworld played an important role in the .eltic life. he motif of the
otherworld, here called Wr na nSg or the land of eternal youth appears in .eltic mythology
#uite often. he .elts thought of the otherworld as a natural part of their own world which
could be entered at several places on special days such as on Samhain. he .elts believed in
the immortality of souls and so the idea of a world of the dead neighbouring with their world
was an important concept for them which will be further seen as well in the next chapter
dealing with *elsh mythology.
)nother story in this cycle is concerned with 0iarmaid and 'rQinne and their unhappy
love
1K
, 6the most beautiful and best,"nown story of the /ionn .ycle7
1=
. An the night of her
betrothal feast 'rQinne meets /ionn, her future husband, for the first time. *hen she sees him
and realiFes that he is much older than her, she feels disappointed and decides to act. She gives
a sleeping potion to all men present, except 0iarmaid whom she persuades to elope with her.
0iarmaid, loyal to his master /ionn, does not want to leave at first but later agrees and they
flee together to the woods. 0iarmaid builds a dwelling there where they can hide before
/ionns men come. *hen they arrive the lovers manage to escape with the help of Sengus Sg,
the god of poetry. hey have to flee further till they get to Scotland where they live for some
time. Ane day /ionn is on a hunt for the boar of 3en 3ulben, the enchanted half,brother of
0iarmaid, who was predestined to "ill 0iarmaid, near their place and 0iarmaid, in spite of his
geis not to hunt boars, 4oins /ionn and his men. 0iarmaid tries to "ill the boar, but before he
brings the animal down, he is seriously wounded by it. 8e as"s /ionn to help him with a
draught of water from his hands for /ionn was "nown to be able to heal people with the water
ta"en by his hands. /ionn intentionally delays his help and so 0iarmaid dies before the water
reaches his mouth.
he cycle ends with the death of /ionn who, similarly to .V .hulainn, dies because of the
violation of one of his geis. Ane version of the story says that /ionn once 4umped over a gorge
after which he could spend a night with a fairy called )thmaith. %ater, she told him that each
year he will have to 4ump over the gorge again and thus show his strength, and if he does not
1K
'regory 2&2,2D?
1=
Mac@illop 2?1
&C
ma"e the 4ump, he will brea" the geis and die. *hen he feels that his days are coming to the
end, he goes to the gorge once again to try if he still has enough strength to rule his men.
3efore he 4umps he is given a horn with a drin" and the witch that gives it to him tells him that
this is his last drin". /ionn then 4umps and ends in the abyss where he dies and thus the /ionn
.ycle comes to its end as well
:C
.
-.9 T&" :+/*# C2)"
he last part of !rish mythology is the so called @ings .ycle describing and focusing on
6the activities of the Thistorical "ings7
:1
. he word historical is put into inverted commas
because some of the "ings are not historically documented at all and some of them are
documented only vaguely. here is not, however, one "ing figuring in all the stories but it is
rather a collection of stories about different "ings from different historical periods. he cycle
is therefore sometimes called the 8istorical .ycle. Some of the "ings that play #uite an
important role in the mythological tales of this cycle are for example .onn .Ptchathach, Giall
GoWgiallach or 3rian 3Rrama 9better "nown as 3rian 3oru;
:2
.
he "ing, always a male, was almost a divine figure in the .eltic society for he could
perform certain things that no one else could do. herefore, in order to become a "ing the "ing
to,be had to undergo a series of initiation procedures before he could sit on the throne. Got
only had the "ing to be of a good origin and standing, he had to be physically fit, generous and
without criminal history, and he also had to comply with the initiation ritual.
!t consisted of two parts2 in the first part the future "ing had to ride in a chariot and if he
failed he could not become the "ing, then he had to wear the royal cloa" which had to fit him,
and after that he had to ride in a chariot between two stones which were only a hands breadth
away from each other. !f the stones let him pass he could become the "ing, and finally he had
to touch the %ia /Qil or 6the stone of fate7 which vocally indicated the right "ing. he second
part of the ritual was the bull,feast at which a bull was "illed and the future "ing had to eat its
flesh and drin" its broth after which he went to sleep wrapped in the bulls s"in. 8e was then
chanted by four druids and while sleeping he should see the man who would become the next
"ing
:&
.
:C
.larus 1K2,1K&
:1
'antF 22
:2
Mac@illop ?D
:&
Mac .ana 11=
&1
he "ing ruled in a certain region called tuath 9"ingdom; and he lived in emair 9ara;.
he #uality of his reign was reflected by the state of his "ingdom. )ccording to <roinsias Mac
.ana the rightful "ing had to 6ensure peace and e#uity, security of the "ingdoms borders, and
material prosperity( the trees bend low with the weight of their fruit, the rivers and the sea
teem with abundance of fish, and the earth brings forth rich harvests7 911=;. herefore, if the
"ing was wounded or too old, he could not ensure the well,being of his country as well as a
healthy young ruler could and so he had to be replaced. his could be illustrated by the
example of Guadu, the "ing of uatha 0P 0annan, who after losing his hand in a battle had to
be replaced by 3res. Guadu could return to the throne only after he was given a new silver
hand from the physician and god of healing 0ian .Pcht
:1
. Moreover, the rightful "ing also had
to wed his "ingdom and be united with the sovereignty of the part of the country over which
he ruled, this could be the goddess of earth or a personification of !reland
::
.
he sovereignty was often an old repulsive hag who when "issed became a beautiful young
lady giving the man who "issed her the right to become the "ing. Ane of the examples can be
the story of Giall GoWghiallach, the alleged founder of the 5W GPill dynasty. Ane day he and
his brothers went hunting and when they were loo"ing for some water they met a hideous hag
who promised to give them water when one of them "isses her. Ane of the brothers, /iachra,
gave her a small "iss but then came Giall who not only "issed her but offered to sleep with her
as well. he hag got immediately transformed into a beautiful young woman, the sovereignty
of !reland. She not only gave Giall the water but she also foretold him that he would become
the "ing of !reland and his family would reign for several successive generations
:D
.
he sovereignty of land was always represented by a female goddess who could appear
either as a beautiful woman or an old ugly hag as was the case in the above,mentioned story.
)ccording to <roinsias Mac .ana 6nowhere was this divine image of sovereignty visualiFed
so clearly as among the .elts, and more especially in !reland79=1;. 8e also adds that the
sovereignty is 6primarily concerned with the prosperity of the land( its fertility, its animal life
and Y]Z its security against external forces7 9ibid.;. 8ere, again, in the character of the
sovereignty the close relationship between the .eltic people and the natural world is
expressed. han"s to the importance of the goddess of sovereignty for the .eltic people
:1
Mac@illop 1DK,1D=
::
Mac@illop K=
:D
Mac@illop =2
&2
together with her appearance of an ugly hag, it has been suggested by some scholars, one of
whom is also Boger Sherman ugly hag, it has been suggested by some scholars, one of whom
is also Boger Sherman %oomis, that the goddess of sovereignty could have served as an
inspiration for the 3earer of the 'rail in the )rthurian legend.
)s it can be seen from the preceding pages the range of themes and motifs of !rish
mythology is wide with some motifs repeating in several stories. Ane of the favourite themes
in the !rish myths is the transformation of a human being into an animal, which is common in
*elsh mythology as well. his happens for example in such stories as The 6ate of the
Children of $ir
:9
in which the children of %ir were enchanted by their stepmother into swans
or in the Wooing of 'ta(n
:;
in which UtaWn is transformed first into water and then she was
turned into a worm and finally into a scarlet fly by a 4ealous wife of her lover Midir. )nimals
and nature in general play an important role not only in the everyday life of the .eltic people
but naturally in their mythology as well. Oery popular is the motif of cattle, which is typical
for !rish mythology and which appears in many stories with The War for the ull of Cuailnge
9or T&in %2 C,ailnge;
:=
being the most famous one. Ather popular animals often appearing in
various stories are dogs, swans and other birds, horses, salmon and insect. /rom the natural
scenery, the most important part is played by the sea which was the primary source of
livelihood for the inhabitants of !reland, rivers appear also #uite often in the myths as well as
the hills that served primarily as the entrance gates to the !rish otherworld. he otherworld
appears in several myths as well, the most well,"nown is the story The Call of Ois(n
<=
which
was already described in this chapter. )nother important motif not only in the !rish myths but
in .eltic mythology in general is the cult of the head for the .elts believed that the head was
the centre of power and it was therefore considered the most important part of the body.
*arriors often too" the heads of their dead enemies and used their s"ulls as drin"ing vessels
or as talismans
D1
. he head of a dead man sometimes had special abilities such as the head of
Sualtim in the story called The A+akening of *lster
<8
in which he goes to Emain Macha in
order to bring some men to help .V .hulainn and when he gets there he accidentally falls on
his shield and cuts his head off. )lthough cut off, the head still calls for help( 6Sualtims
:?
'regory 1C&,11&
:K
'antF &?,:=
:=
'regory 1&=,1?=
DC
'regory 2KK,&CK
D1
.larus 1=
D2
'regory 1?=,1=2
&&
shield came against his own head, and cut it clean off Y]Z and the shield dragged after him by
its own thongs, and Sualtims head in the hollow of it, and the head said the same words as
before Y]Z7
D&
. Ather common motifs that appear in !rish mythological stories deal more or
less with everyday events and things such as marriage, fights, cheating or the celebration of
the deeds of a hero.
he motifs appearing in !rish mythology are often similar to the motifs and themes found in
the mythology of the *elsh .elts.
he oldest body of myths stemming from the 8eroic )ge is found only from the early
medieval period of !reland.
D1
)s .hristianity began to ta"e over, the gods and goddesses were
slowly eliminated as such from the culture. *hat has survived includes material dealing with
the uatha 0P 0anann and the /omorians, which forms the basis for the text Cath Maige
Tuireadh 9the 3attle of Mag uireadh;, as well as portions of the history,focused $e%or
!a%&la 'renn 9the 3oo" of !nvasions;. he uatha 0P represents the functions of human
society such as "ingship, crafts and war, while the /omorians represent chaos and wild nature.
he leader of the gods for the !rish pantheon appears to have been the 0agda.
D:
he 0agda
was the figure after which male humans and other gods were based due to his embodiment of
the ideal !rish traits. .eltic gods were also considered to be a clan due to their lac" of
specialiFation and un"nown origins. he particular character of the 0agda describes him as a
figure of burles#ue lampoonery in !rish mythology, and some authors even conclude that he
was trusted to be benevolent enough to tolerate 4o"es at his own expense. !rish tales depict the
0agda as a figure of power, armed with a spear. !n 0orset there is a famous outline of an
ithyphallic giant "nown as the .erne )bbas 'iant with a club cut into the chal"y soil. *hile
this was probably produced in relatively modern times 9English .ivil *ar era;, it was long
thought to be a representation of the 0agda. his has been called into #uestion by recent
studies which show that there may have been a representation of what loo"s li"e a large
drapery hanging from the horiFontal arm of the figure, leading to suspicion that this figure
actually represents 8ercules 98eracles;, with the s"in of the Gemean %ion over his arm and
carrying the club he used to "ill it. !n 'aul, it is speculated that the 0agda is associated with
Sucellos, the stri"er, e#uipped with a hammer and cup.
D&
'regory 1K1
D1
Eac"son, @enneth 8urlstone 9 1=?1;, ) .eltic Miscellany, <enguin .lassics, pp. 2?,2K
D:
'eddes ^ 'rosset %td 9 1==?;, 0ictionary of the .elts, 3roc"hampton <ress %ondon, p. 11
&1
he MorrWgan was a tripartite battle goddess of the .elts of )ncient !reland.
DD
She was "nown
as the MorrWgan, but the different sections she was divided into were also referred to as
Gemhain, Macha, and 3adb 9among other, less common names;, with each representing
different aspects of combat. She is most commonly "nown for her involvement in the T&in 2
C,ailnge.
he god appearing most fre#uently in the tales is %ugh. 8e is evidently a residual of the
earlier, more widespread god %ugus, whose diffusion in .eltic religion is apparent from the
number of place names in which his name appears, occurring across the .eltic world. he
most famous of these are the cities of %ugdunum 9the modern /rench city of %yon;,
%ugdunum 3atavorum 9the modern city of @atwi4", 1C "ilometers to the west of %eiden in the
Getherlands; and %ucus )ugusti or _`ua`b _uc`def`g 9the modern 'alician city of %ugo;.
%ug is described in the .eltic myths as the last to be added to the list of deities. !n !reland a
festival called the %ughnasa 9Modern !rish l,nasa; was held in his honour.
Ather important goddesses include 3rigid 9or 3rigit;, the 0agda+s daughter2 )ibell, hine,
Macha, and the sovereign goddess, Uriu. Gotable is Epona, the horse goddess, celebrated with
horse races at the summer festival. Significant !rish gods include Guada )irgetlQm, the first
"ing of the uatha 0P 0anann2 'oibniu, the smith and brewer2 0ian .echt, the patron of
healing2 and the sea god ManannQn mac %ir.
Mythology of Wales
%ess is "nown about the pre,.hristian mythologies of 3ritain than those of !reland. !mportant
reflexes of 3ritish mythology appear in the /our 3ranches of the Mabinogi, especially in the
names of several characters, such as Bhiannon, eyrnon, and 3endigeidfran 9T3ran Y.rowZ the
3lessed;. Ather characters, in all li"elihood, derive from mythological sources, and various
episodes, such as the appearance of )rawn, a "ing of the Atherworld see"ing the aid of a
mortal in his own feuds, and the tale of the hero who cannot be "illed except under seemingly
contradictory circumstances, can be traced throughout !ndo,European myth and legend. he
children of %lir 9TSea j !rish %ir; in the Second and hird 3ranches, and the children of 0kn
90anu in !rish and earlier !ndo,European tradition; in the /ourth 3ranch are ma4or figures, but
the tales themselves are not primary mythology. *hile further mythological names and
references appear elsewhere in *elsh narrative and tradition, especially in the tale of Culh+ch
DD
'eddes ^ 'rosset %td 9 1==?;, 0ictionary of the .elts, 3roc"hampton <ress %ondon, p. 1&C
&:
and Ol+en, where we find, for example, Mabon ap Modron 9Tthe 0ivine Son of the 0ivine
Mother;, and in the collected riads of the !sland of 3ritain, not enough is "nown of the
3ritish mythological bac"ground to reconstruct either a narrative of creation or a coherent
pantheon of 3ritish deities. !ndeed, though there is much in common with !rish myth, there
may have been no unified 3ritish mythological tradition per se. *hatever its ultimate origins,
the surviving material has been put to good use in the service of literary masterpieces that
address the cultural concerns of *ales in the early and later Middle )ges.
American mythology
Gative )merican myths are very different from the 'ree" and .eltic traditions. hey contain
few recurring characters, and , for most tribes , few deities. 8owever, they are full of a sense
of all,pervading spirit, magical possibilities, and timelessness.
he Gr"at S!+r+t in some form or name is found in most )merican !ndian beliefs. !t is the
un"nown power that is found in everything$the air, a roc", the s"y. he 'reat Spirit is often
seen as the great creator of life and the universe, aided by other spirits who are in charge of
more specific things, such as stars, water, or trees. he .heyenne call the 'reat Spirit
>eamma+ihio2 the Shawnee, 6inisher2 and the )lgon#uin, !itche Manitou.
Coot" was a popular spirit among western tribes such as the Gava4o, Juni, Sioux, and
.hinoo". ) sly tric"ster, he made life more interesting for people. .oyote was responsible for
sorrow and death, but also for the creation of humans and the Mil"y *ay. here are many
stories of .oyotes mischievous tric"ery and his contributions to the world.
Ra3"/ seemed to have his bea" into everything, and li"e .oyote, was somewhat wily. 8e
could change into a bird, a human or an animal. Baven could bring both good and evil. )lways
hungry, his search for food often got him into a lot of trouble. Baven was found mainly in
<acific Gorthwest and southeastern )las"a tribes.
S45o%a/ 9!ro#uois; fell through a hole in the s"y to a dar" watery Earth populated only by
animals. 3irds caught her and put her on a giant turtles bac". he turtle grew bigger and
became the land. he S"ywoman fell through a hole and brought light to the world and the
beginning of Earth as we "now it.
:a2&+/a# 98opi; are spirits that lived in and controlled everything$the s"y, water, plants,
animals. he "achinas protected humans and brought them good fortune. oday, the 8opi give
their children "achina dolls to teach them about different spirits.
&D
A/+/*a/ 9Es"imo; is the most important Es"imo god and the Moon spirit. 8e was a hunter
and he also chased his sister, the Sun, around the Gorth <ole during the brief )rctic summer.
She was unable to go over the horiFon and the Sun never set.
he Br"at&%a4"r 9Seminole; or .reator made humans out of clay. 8e also blew across the
heavens and created the Mil"y *ay. *hen a good Seminole died the 3ig 0ipper became a
boat and sailed the soul across the Mil"y *ay to the .ity in the S"y.
7+/1+*o 9A4ibwa, )lgon#uin; was a huge evil demon who wandered the winter woods in
search of humans to eat. !n a sort of werewolf or vampire way, if a person was bitten by
*indigo, he turned into one.
,. MYTHOLOGY REFLECTED IN THE UNIVERSAL LITERATURE AND ART
Mythology was an early version of literature. 3efore everyone could write, people would tell
stories. hese stories were similar to fairy tales, and often had mythical creatures such as
Mermaids, 5nicorns and rolls. Gobody surely "new that any of this was true, but as nobody
could deny it, there was a possibility that it could be true. !t was literature from word of
mouth, and many years later was recorded and these ancient tales are now what we "now to be
fairy tales.
*ith the rediscovery of classical anti#uity in Benaissance, the poetry of Avid became a ma4or
influence on the imagination of poets and artists and remained a fundamental influence on the
diffusion and perception of 'ree" mythology through subse#uent centuries. /rom the early
years of Benaissance, artists portrayed sub4ects from 'ree" mythology alongside more
conventional .hristian themes. )mong the best,"nown sub4ects of !talian artists are
3otticelli+s irth of ?enus and )allas and the Centaur, the %edas of %eonardo da Oinci and
Michelangelo, and Baphael+s !alatea.
D?
hrough the medium of %atin and the wor"s of Avid,
'ree" myth influenced medieval and Benaissance poets such as <etrarch, 3occaccio and
0ante in !taly.
!n northern Europe, 'ree" mythology never too" the same hold of the visual arts, but its effect
was obvious on literature. 3oth %atin and 'ree" classical texts were translated so that stories
of mythology became available. !n England, .haucer, the EliFabethans and Eohn Milton were
among those influenced by 'ree" myths2 nearly all the ma4or English poets from Sha"espeare
to Bobert 3ridges turned for inspiration to 'ree" mythology. Eean Bacine in /rance and
D?
'ree" Mythology, Encyclopedia 3ritannica 2CC2, %. 3urn, 'ree" Myths, p. ?:
&?
'oethe in 'ermany revived 'ree" drama. Bacine rewor"ed the ancient myths $ including
those of <haidra, )ndromache, Aedipus and !phigeneia $ to new purpose.
he 1Kth century saw the philosophical revolution of the Enlightenment spread throughout
Europe and accompanied by a certain reaction against 'ree" myth2 there was a tendency to
insist on the scientific and philosophical achievements of 'reece and Bome. he myths,
however, continued to provide an important source of raw material for dramatists, including
those who wrote the libretti for 8andel+s operas Admeto and 1emele, MoFart+s Idomeneo and
'luc"+s Iphig.nie en Aulide. 3y the end of the century, Bomanticism initiated a surge of
enthusiasm for all things 'ree", including 'ree" mythology. !n 3ritain, it was a great period
for new translations of 'ree" tragedies and 8omer, and these in turn inspired contemporary
poets, such as @eats, 3yron and Shelley. he 8ellenism of lueen+s Oictoria poet laureate,
)lfred %ord ennyson, was such that even his portraits of the #uintessentially English court of
@ing )rthur, were suffused with echoes of the 8omeric epics. he visual arts "ept pace,
stimulated by the purchase of the <arthenon marbles in 1K1D2 many of the -'ree"- paintings
of %ord %eighton and %awrence )lma,adema were accepted, as part of the transmission of
the 8ellenic ideal.
DK
he 'erman composer of the 1Kth century .hristoph 'luc", was also
influenced by 'ree" mythology.
)merican authors of the 1=th century, such as homas 3ulfinch and Gathaniel 8awthorne,
believed that myths should provide pleasure, and held that the study of the classical myths was
essential to the understanding of English and )merical literature.
D=
)ccording to 3ulfinch, -the
so,called divinities of Alympus have not a single worshipper among living men2 they belong
now not to the department of theology, but to those of literature and taste-.
?C
!n more recent
times, classical themes have been reinterpreted by such ma4or dramatists as Eean )nouilh, Eean
.octeau, and Eean 'iraudoux in /rance, Eugene A+Geill in )merica, and . S. Eliot in
England and by great novelists such as the !rish Eames Eoyce and the /rench )ndrP 'ide.
Bichard Strauss, Eac#ues Affenbach and many others have set 'ree" mythological themes to
music.
Boman myths are also present in literature and art. he most obvious is that Bemus and
Bomulus being raised by wolves , this has been used many times, the most famous being the
DK
!. 3urn, 'ree" Myths, pp. ?:,?D
D=
@latt N 3raFous"i, )ncient 'ree" and Boman Mythology, p. 1
?C
. 3ulfinch, 3ulfinchs 'ree" and Boman Mythology, p. 1
&K
Eungle 3oo". -he Eungle 3oo"- was based on the concept of the -feral child-, that is children
who were raised by animals after being lost or abandoned somewhere in the 4ungle. here
were actual documented cases of such children.
he important Boman deities were eventually, identified with the more anthropomorphic
'ree" gods and goddesses and assumed many of their attributes and myths. )s far as Boman
mythology influencing modern culture, one should thin" about the fantasy genre in literature
and cinema. /or example, the various mythological creatures from -he .hronicles of
Garnia-... and, also 8ercules.
hemes and motifs from mythology appear fre#uently in Egyptian literature, even outside of
religious writings. )n early instruction text, the -eaching for @ing Mery"ara- from the
Middle @ingdom, contains a brief reference to a myth of some "ind, possibly the 0estruction
of Man"ind2 the earliest "nown Egyptian short story, -ale of the Shipwrec"ed Sailor-,
incorporates ideas about the gods and the eventual dissolution of the world into a story set in
the past. Some later stories ta"e much of their plot from mythical events( -ale of the wo
3rothers- adapts parts of the Asiris myth into a fantastic story about ordinary people, and -he
3linding of ruth by /alsehood- transforms the conflict between 8orus and Set into an
allegory.
?1
) fragment of a text, about the actions of 8orus and Set dates to the Middle @ingdom,
suggesting that stories about the gods arose in that era. Several texts of this type are "nown
from the Gew @ingdom, and many more were written in the %ate and 'reco,Boman periods.
)lthough these texts are more clearly derived from myth than those mentioned above, they
still adapt the myths for non,religious purposes. -he .ontendings of 8orus and Seth-, from
the Gew @ingdom, tells the story of the conflict between the two gods, often with a humorous
and seemingly irreverent tone. he Boman,era -Myth of the Eye of the Sun- incorporates
fables into a framing story ta"en from myth. he goals of written fiction could also affect the
narratives in magical texts, as with the Gew @ingdom story -!sis, the Bich *oman+s Son, and
the /isherman+s *ife-, which conveys a moral message unconnected to its magical purpose.
he variety of ways that these stories treat mythology demonstrates the wide range of
purposes that myth could serve in Egyptian culture.
?2
?1
3aines in %oprieno 1==D, pp. &D?,&D=, pp. &?&,&?1
?2
3aines in %oprieno 1==D, pp.&DD, pp.&?1,&?&, p. &??
&=
)nti#uaries of the 1=th century such as 'eorge *ebbe 0asent brought the mythology of
Scandinavia bac" to the popular notice of many people in 'ermany and England2 in both
cases, Gorse mythology was recogniFed as the latest surviving form of 'ermanic paganism.
'ermany and England were .hristianiFed far earlier than the Scandinavian countries and
much of their own traditions were lost.
!n 3ritain, *illiam Morris composed poetry such as 1igurd the ?olsung on Gorse legendary
sub4ects as well as translating !celandic sagas into English. !n 'ermany, Bichard *agner
borrowed characters and themes from Gorse mythology to compose the four operas that ma"e
up Der @ing des Ni%elungen 9The @ing of the Ni%elung;, though he also utiliFed medieval
'erman sources and 'ermaniFed the names of the Gorse gods.
!n the Marvel 5niverse, the Gorse <antheon and related elements play a prominent part,
especially hor who has been one of the longest running superheroes for the company and has
recently had a starring role in the 6he )vengers7, movie based on the comic boo"s.
he Gorse <antheon heroes are the main characters of the Eapanese anime Matantei %o"i
Bagnaro" 9loosely translated, 'reat 0etective %o"i;.
Adin, hor and %o"i, and several other beings and places in Gorse mythology have recurring
roles in Geil 'aiman+s Sandman graphic novel series, most notably in the Season of Mists and
he @indly Anes storylines.
Spar"ling 'eneration Oal"yrie Muu"i is a webcomic featuring Muu"i, a boy turned into a
Oal"yrie by 8ermod to stand against Surt and the 'iants. !t features many representations of
Gorse mythological figures in a modern,day setting.
he 0anish comic boo" series Oalhalla is based on the Gorse myths.
he manga series @agnarok, by Myung,Ein %ee, is based on Gorse mythology and the events
of Bagnaro", the prophesied fall of the gods.
he manga series Oinland Saga ta"es place in !celand, and 11th,century Europe, which ma"es
many references to Gorse mythology
!n the manga series >istoryAs 1trongest Disciple -enichi, the protagonists fight against a gang
organiFation "nown as Bagnaro". Each of the Eight /ists were nic"named after a figure in
Gorse mythology including2 3erser"er, /reya, %o"i, hor, Siegfried, 8ermit, Oal"yrie, and
their leader Adin.
1C
3rat,halla is a mythology webcomic about the Gorse gods during their elementary school
days. )ll,/ather Adin and his wife /rigg constantly have their hands full with youngsters hor
9the super strong runt of the litter;, %o"i 9the god of mischief who li"es to play with dolls;,
3alder 9the invulnerable pretty boy;, 8od 9the blind god of dar"ness and winter;, 8ermod 9the
hyper , super speedster; and the rest of the Gorse pantheon.
he Arder of the Stic" features the Gorse pantheon deities, including hor, Sif, %o"i, and
Adin, as the gods of the Gorthern lands and participants in the creation of the universe.
0ur"on hundershield, one of the main characters, is a cleric of hor.
he mangamanime series 6OhB My !oddess 6contains aspects of Gorse mythology. 8eaven+s
main computer is called Mggdrasil and the goddesses and demons+ names are based on Gorse
gods and goddesses, and the 5nderworld+s computer is called Gidhogg.
Ance a diverse cultural group that extended throughout western Europe and even farther south
and east, the .elts are today generally associated with the northwestern locales of *ales,
Scotland, .ornwall, 3rittany, the !sle of Man, and especially !reland, where individuals of
.eltic ancestry predominate. %in"ed with the insular branch of .eltic culture, these areas are
contrasted with those of the .ontinental .elts, who occupied the region "nown as 'aul 9today
approximately occupied by modern /rance;.
he .eltic people were closely tied with the natural world that surrounded them as well as
ruled their lives all year round. heir religion was therefore closely connected with nature as
well. he rituals were performed usually on the sacred places in the open air in sacred groves,
at pools, rivers or under a well,grown tree. here were not many temples or shrines built on
the 3ritish !sles until the arrival of the Bomans. he druids as well as the common people
preferred natural sanctuaries over the man,made ones. .eltic people often worshiped not only
gods and goddesses as we imagine today, but they also worshipped trees, rivers, hills and
various animals, especially birds.
)nother important part of the .eltic spiritual world was the world of the dead. .elts too"
death as an inseparable part of life and so li"ewise, they did not separate the world of the
living from the otherworld. he otherworld was often located on an island, and it could be
entered through a certain cave, a la"e or through bogs. 0uring the Samhain festival on the &1
st
Actober the border between the two worlds disappeared and it was possible for people to enter
the otherworld and the beings from the otherworld could visit the human world too. he
11
otherworld thus became an inseparable part of this world and therefore it often appears in
.eltic mythology as well.
!rish myths ran" among the oldest literary pieces in Europe2 the oldest !rish literary wor"s
originated in the times of .eltic settlement in !reland. hey were transmitted orally and
represented the whole world of the .eltic people. hey represent a rich source of our todays
"nowledge about .eltic beliefs, values or their system of gods and goddesses. *hat is typical
of early !rish literature and storytelling is its 6tension between reality and fantasy7
?&
. .lose
relation to nature and natural elements as well as close relationship to the supernatural are also
typical features of ancient !rish literature. )nother thing typical of .eltic mythology is that it
did not have a written form, and all the stories were transmitted orally for the druids did not
write anything down despite their "nowledge of the ogham writing. he stories started to be
written down only after the arrival of .hristianity in the sixth and seventh centuries )0 by
literate mon"s and scribes in monasteries. )lthough the scribes made some mista"es and
sometimes, influenced by their religious beliefs, misinterpreted or changed some passages of
the stories, their wor" is invaluable for the study of .eltic mythology.
here are literally hundreds of boo"s out there on .eltic myths, !rish and Scottish legends and
lore.
T&" Art&0r+a/ L"*"/1
6he legend of @ing )rthur is our Y3ritishZ most pervasive secular myth. Aut of few facts, not
all of them certain, grew a story elaborated in impressive detail and dimension, and it is
apparent that the evolution of that story is not yet finished7
?1
.
Some wor"s of art are said to be immortal and this is certainly true of the )rthurian legend.
Many things have already been written about it since the creation of the first story concerning
the legendary @ing )rthur. !t is still popular in our times not only among scholars who
devoted their lives to the study of this part of medieval literature but it also attracts a wide
range of readership, starting with young teenage readers and ending with the 6)rthurian7
?&
'antF, Eeffrey. 0arly Irish Myths and 1agas, p. 1, 8armondsworth( <enguin 3oo"s, 1=K1.
?1
%acy Gorris E. and 'eoffrey )she. The Arthurian >and%ook. 2?1, Gew Mor"( 'arland
<ublishing, 1==?.
12
experts. o put it simply, the legend has not lost its attractiveness and still is able to "indle the
interest of scholars as well as the lay public. here are numerous literary and film adaptations
of the legend together with many computer games fostering the interest in the theme among
the youngest members of todays society. Many aspects of the legend have already been
researched yet there can still be found topics and aspects of the whole cycle that have not been
loo"ed into yet or touched only briefly. Moreover, there are still many obscurities concerning
its origins and especially the origins and historicity of @ing )rthur, the main protagonist of the
stories. he interest in the legendary mythical "ing, living with his beautiful wife 'uinevere in
.amelot, fighting together with his "nights of the Bound able against their enemies and
finally being "illed by his illegitimate son Mordred, has never faded and will be probably alive
in the third millennium as well.
he stories about )rthur and his "nights #uic"ly spread on both sides of the English .hannel
and became increasingly popular not only in the country of their origin but became popular in
other countries on the continent as well, which was true especially in /rance.
!n the latter part of the twelfth century .hrPtien de royes, a popular /rench writer, wrote
another version of the )rthurian legend in which he celebrated above all the ideas of chivalry
and courtly love, starting thus the tradition of the /rench )rthurian romances. 8e gave the
legend a new shape because he introduced the character of %ancelot together with the concept
of the 8oly 'rail that both became characteristic parts of the )rthurian cycle. )nother change
introduced by .hrPtien de royes is that @ing )rthur is no longer the main protagonist of the
legend, he is present but not directly involved in the action and remains rather in the
bac"ground of the story. 6he @ing only rarely initiates action and even more rarely
participates directly in it. Met his court remains the ideological and geographical center of the
characters world7
?:
. he focus thus shifts more on the deeds of )rthurs "nights and the #uest
for the 8oly 'rail.
%ater, the story of )rthur and other "nights, especially %ancelot and the magician Merlin was
further elaborated in the so called Oulgate cycle of the )rthurian romances and most
importantly in homas Malorys wor" $e Morte dCArthur published in the fifteenth century
and retelling the entire story of )rthur and his "nights of the Bound able. 8e based his
stories on various sources but the main source of inspiration were the /rench romances. 6he
?:
%acy D=
1&
Twhole boo" is the collection which grew up by means of successive additions of romances
often unconnected with each other7
?D
. Malory writes his own version of the )rthurian story
focusing not only on )rthur but also and even more on his "nights, <erceval, 'awain and
'alahad. he centre of Malorys attention is especially %ancelot, who is given #uite a lot of
space in the whole boo" and whose adulterous love for #ueen 'uinevere is one of the main
motifs of the whole legend. Malory also introduces the, nowadays already legendary, sword
Excalibur that was given to )rthur by the %ady of the %a"e and which 3edivere throws bac"
into the la"e after )rthurs final battle, as well as the magical scabbard, which ma"es its owner
invincible. Malorys wor" was a significant contribution to the development of the )rthurian
legend and it can be said that his text is the most widely read among people all over the world
nowadays. )lthough written in the fifteenth century his boo" is very readable for 6his Tstyle is
sufficiently near to the English of to,day7
??
. Moreover, he YMaloryZ 6tells his story directly
and often powerfully, in a vigorous and appealing style and with a strong sense of dramatic
cause and effect7
?K
.
he introduction of the printing press to 3ritain by *illiam .axton in 11?D contributed to
the spread of literacy as well as to the popularity of the )rthurian legends not only in 3ritain
but on the European continent as well. Malorys $e Morte dCArthur was printed by *illiam
.axton in 11K: and since then it has spread to various parts of the world and has become the
basic source for the study of the )rthurian legend. Such a famous wor" cannot be without its
critics who criticiFe him for 6accentuating "nighthood and military action while
deemphasiFing or misunderstanding courtly love7 and some others say that he 6has
mishandled much of the material, such as the ristan story7 9ibid.; and that he 6has added
irrelevant details, and that he has disrupted the intricately interlaced structure of the /rench7
9ibid.;. 8owever, in spite of the criticism Malorys wor" is generally considered to be 6the
pinnacle of the )rthurian literature, the masterly culmination of the medieval legend and the
?D
%oomis, Boger Sherman, :11, ed. Arthurian $iterature in the Middle Ages4 a Colla%orati"e
>istory. Axford( .larendon <ress, 1=:=.
??
Eones,*illiam %ewis, -ing Arthur in >istory and $egend, 111, .ambridge( 5niversity
<ress, 1=11.
?K
%acy 1&1
11
greatest single source of inspiration for future writers who would be drawn to @ing )rthur7
and will always be a valuable and inherent part of the whole )rthurian field of interest.
.eltic origins, heroes, and stories spring to life in T. 7. Ro))"#to/;# classic wor", Celtic
Myths and $egendsD Spanning thousands of years and across thousands of miles, these myths
and legends offer a glimpse into worlds long gone that continue to influence modern culture.
he boo" includes classical accounts of .eltic tribes in Europe that describe their lives, the
ancient gods and world of nature that they worshiped during and after their migrations to
3ritain and !reland. Bolleston also retells stories from the three ma4or cycles of !rish legend
and from the ancient *elsh corpus, interspersing these with erudite commentary that aids
comprehension of this vast ancient world and its surviving literature.
7 .eltic Myths and %egends7 by <eter 3erresford Ellis is an enchantingly told collection of the
stirring sagas of gods and goddesses, fabulous beasts, strange creatures, and such heroes as
.uchulain, /ingal, and @ing )rthur from the ancient .eltic world. !ncluded are popular myths
and legends from all six .eltic cultures of *estern Europe$!rish, Scots, Manx, *elsh,
.ornish, and 3reton. 8ere for the modern reader are the rediscovered tales of cattle raids,
tribal invasions, druids, duels, and doomed love that have been incorporated in to, and
sometimes distorted by, European mythology and even .hristian figures. /or example, there is
the story of %ugh of the %ong 8and, one of the greatest gods in the .eltic pantheon, who was
later transformed into the faerie craftsman %ugh,.hromain, and finally demoted to the lowly
%eprechaun. .eltic Myths and %egends also retells the story of the classic tragic love story of
ristan and !seult 9probably of .ornish origin$there was a real @ing Mar" and a real ristan
in .ornwall; and the original tale of @ing )rthur, a *elsh leader who fought against the
invading )nglo,Saxons. !n the hands of <eter 3erresford Ellis, the myths sung by long,dead
.eltic bards come alive to enchant the modern reader.
7&o Ar" T&" L"!r"2&a0/# o$ Ir")a/1<
)s part of !rish mythology and fol"lore, the %eprechauns are part of our faerie fol", called by
some as the 6wee fol"7. )s a cousin of the clurichaun they are "nown to inhabited !reland well
before the arrival of the .elts. Small enough for one to sit comfortable on your shoulder they
are very smartly dressed in small suites with waist coats, hats and buc"led shoes.
1:
)s mischievous and intelligent fol" they are general harmless to the general population in
!reland, although they are "nown to play the odd tric" on farmers and local population of
villages and towns.
!t is said that every %eprechaun has a pot of gold, hidden deep in the !rish countryside. o
protect the leprechauns pot of gold the !rish fairies gave them magical powers to use if ever
captured by a human or an animal. Such magic an !rish leprechaun would perform to escape
capture would be to grant three wishes or to vanish into thin airn
%eprechauns are also very "een musicians who play tin whistles, the fiddle and even the !rish
8arp and various other !rish traditional instruments. hey are "nown to have wild music
sessions at night which in !reland are "nown as .eilis with hundreds of !rish leprechauns
gathering to dance, sing and drin".
he leprechaun is fond of drin"ing <oteen, moonshine, but must not be mista"en by their !rish
cousins the cluricauns who are drun"en creatures who love to cause chaos around !reland at
night time, a headache for us humans.
*illiam 3utler Meats once said( because of their love of dancing, they 9the /ae; will
constantly need shoes. 8e goes on to tell the story of a woman who had been spirited away by
the /aeries and had been returned seven years later minus her toes. She had danced them offnnn
%eprechauns are the most well,"nown solitary fairy in !reland and !rish peoples beliefs about
them are very fascinating. hey are popular figures in the !rish fol"lores. hese two feet tall
elves are believed to be often found wearing coc"ed hats, leather aprons, silver shoes and
glasses. hey are great shoema"ers. Many !rish believe that %eprechauns usually dress in
green clothes made of costly material. his may be because they have sac"s of gold and
gardens of four,leaf clover and shamroc" so they are rich and always luc"y. hey are pipe
smo"ers who love drin"ing beer and !rish whis"ey. !t is believed that %eprechauns will drown
in a light rain, float away in a breeFy day and get buried in a snowstorm. hey are "nown for
their naughty ways. hese solitary fairies may be the ones playing tric"s on humans whom
they regard as foolish, flighty and greedy. /rom myths, these foul,mouthed %eprechauns are
self,appointed guardians of ancient treasure left by Oi"ings. %eprechauns would show the
person who could catch them the place where the treasure was hidden. 3ut they usually tric"
that person and disappear when he looses an eye on them.
1D
%iving in large grassy hills, wild areas and in the forest of )ntrim, %eprechauns are the owners
of Shamroc" and the four,leaf clover garden. !n !rish tradition, Shamroc" or three,leaf clover
represents 6the holy trinity7( one leaf for the /ather, one for the Son and one for the 8oly
Spirit. /or four,leaf clover, it is a universally accepted symbol of good luc". Ane leaf is for
8A<E2 the second is for /)!82 the third is for %AOE2 and the fourth for %5.@n
/rom .eltic legends, those who created the 1,leaf clover are 'ods of the four elements of
nature. /or earth, 'oddess 0ana is also the goddess of rivers, magic, plenty and wisdom. /or
water, %lyr is the god of sea who rules the underworld. he god of wind, G4ord, gives good
fortune to those in the sea. Sun 'od %ugh, who is the father of the great warrior, .uchulain, is
the god of fire.
here is the rainbow bridge connecting 'ods place and the earth called 3ifrost. )nd it is the
duty of 8eimdall, the Gorse god of light and dawn who has to be a guardian of 3ifrost. )t the
end of the rainbow, there is a 1,leaf clover garden where %eprechauns gold was hidden called
%uc"y .harm garden. /rom the myths, %eprechauns seemed to hate the rainbow since it will
show where the gold is. )nyway, rainbow is the other important symbol in myths.
-. MYTHOLOGY REFLECTED IN BRITISH AND AMERICAN LITERATURE
Myths, stories prevalent in a particular culture and accepted by that culture as true, fascinate
and shape our contemporary consciousness. /rom vampires to 0isney to )merican !dol, myths
about fame and fantasy and other themes that have been passed down through English
literature continue to preoccupy *estern culture to this day.
'ree" and Boman myths, though not originally published in English, still influenced English
literature. he ancient 'ree"s wrote about invisible gods they believe created and controlled
the world, such as Jeus. !n their stories, the gods were controlled by their passions, li"e
humans, and fought with each other. he Bomans based many of their deities on 'ree" gods.
'ods from both cultures symboliFed a particular idea, such as Eanus, who was the Boman god
of beginnings. Gumerous English authors reference 'ree" and Boman mythology to enhance
meaning in their wor". !n Sha"espeare+s -Bomeo and Euliet,- Euliet cries( -'allop apace, you
fiery,footed steeds, m owards <hoebus+ lodging.- <hoebus was the god of the sun, and Euliet
urges him to hurry home and bring on night so she can be with Bomeo.
1?
Stories from the 3ible have also shaped English literature. he 'enesis account of the /all of
Man and the subse#uent expulsion from the 'arden of Eden is played out in the poetry of Eohn
Milton+s -<aradise %ost- and in novels such as Eohn Steinbec"+s -East of Eden- and *illiam
'olding+s -%ord of the /lies.- he idea that Eve played the role of seducer in the garden and is
responsible for sin entering the world was prominent in medieval literature. wentieth century
feminist literary critics have used this myth fre#uently in their scholarship.
<ercy Shelley had been wor"ing on a translation of )eschylus+ <rometheus 3ound for %ord
3yron in 1K1D.
?=
hat summer, Shelley and his lover, Mary Shelley 9at the time, 1K year old
Mary 'odwin;, and others stayed with 3yron SwitFerland. )s a contest, 3yron suggested that
they each write a ghost story. Mary Shelley began writing her 'othic novel 6rankensteinE orF
The Modern )rometheus, which was declared the winner of the contest.
KC
he fact that she
overtly subtitled the novel shows that she wished to show that she was inspired by the story of
<rometheus and wanted to draw attention to the -metaphorical parallels-.
K1
!n !rish literature, writers such as Seamus 8eaney have used the 'ree" myths to
-intertextualiFe- the actions of the 3ritish 'overnment.
K2
)ndrew %ang rewrote the tale of <erseus as the anonymous -he errible 8ead- in The lue
6airy ook.
K&
!n .. S. %ewis+s retelling of .upid and <syche, Till We >a"e 6aces, the narrator is <syche+s
sister.
K1
Boberta 'ellis+s 1himmering 1plendor is a retelling of .upid and <syche.
<oets of the Benaissance began to widely write about 'ree" mythology, and -elicited as much
praise for borrowing or rewor"ing- such material as they did for truly original wor".
K:
he
poet Eohn Milton used figures from classical mythology to -further .hristianity( to teach a
?=
Mellor, )nne @. Mary Shelley( 8er %ife, 8er /iction, 8er Monsters2 <sychology <ress, p. 2&:, Betrieved 1D
0ecember 2C12
KC
)ngelo, Eoseph ).92CC?;, 6 Bobotics( ) Beference 'uide to the Gew echnology7, p. K1, %ibraries 5nlimited,
Betrieved 1D 0ecember 2C12
K1
Eoshy, S. .92CC?;, 6 !cons of 8orror and the Supernatural( )n Encyclopedia of Aur *orst Gightmares, p. &12,
'reenwood <ublishing 'roup, Betrieved 1D 0ecember 2C12
K2
Mc%eod, Eohn 92CC?;, 6 he Boutledge .ompanion to <ostcolonial Studies7, p.11:, Betrieved 1D 0ecember
2CC12
K&
Matthew 8otgart, 6he *itches Secrets7, 0ecember 21
K1
Scha"el, <eter92CC&;, 6 ill *e 8ave /aces( ) Myth Betold7, Betrieved on )ugust :, 2CCK
K:
Asborn, @evin, 3urgess, 0ana, 6 he .omplete !diots 'uide to .lassical Mythology7, p. 2?C, <enguin
1K
.hristian moral or illustrate a .hristian virtue.-
KD
Euphrosyne, 8ymen and 8ebe appear in his
$AAllegro.
K?
)lexander <ope+s wor"s, such as he Bape of the %oc" parodied the classical
wor"s, even as the income from his translations of 8omer allowed him to become -the first
English writer to earn a living solely through his literature.
&
!n Ode To A Nightingale Eohn @eats re4ects -charioted by 3acchus and his pards.- !n his poem
0ndymion, the -Song of the !ndian Maid- recounts how -3acchus and his crew- interrupted
her in her solitude. 8e titled an 1K=K narrative poem $amia.
)lfred, %ord ennyson+s Oenone is her lament that <aris deserted her for 8elen.
!n his poem, he *asteland, . S. Eliot incorporates a range of elements and inspirations from
'ree" mythology to pop music to EliFabethan history to create a -tourGdeGforce exposition of
*estern culture, from the elite to the fol" to the utterly primitive-.
The 6ortunate Isles and Their *nion is a Eacobean era mas#ue, written by 3en Eonson and
designed by !nigo Eones, which was first performed on Eanuary =, 1D2:.
!n *illiam Sha"espeare+s Mac%eth, 8ecate appears as the #ueen of witches, uni#uely placing
the )nglo,Saxon witches under a 'ree" goddess+s control. 8ymen appears as a character name
in his As Hou $ike It.

!n 6%eda and the Swan,7 Meats rewrites the 'ree" myth of Jeus and %eda to comment on fate
and historical inevitability( Jeus disguises himself as a swan to rape the unsuspecting %eda. !n
this poem, the bird is fearsome and destructive, and it possesses a divine power that violates
%eda and initiates the dire conse#uences of war and devastation depicted in the final lines.
Even though Meats clearly states that the swan is the god Jeus, he also emphasiFes the
physicality of the swan( the beating wings, the dar" webbed feet, the long nec" and bea".
Eames Eoyce, despite his difficulty getting published, became one of the most important
writers ever "nown. Much of his wor" embodied the style "nown as stream of consciousness,
which follows a certain character+s thoughts as he or she envisions them. 8is wor" also
integrated mass allusions to 'ree" and Boman mythology, .eltic mythology, and the .atholic
religion. Eames Eoyce+s obsession with mythology can be seen in many of his wor"s, including
*lysses, the acclaimed greatest novel of this century, and A )ortrait of the Artist as a Houng
Man, an autobiographical "unstlerroman. Stephen 0edalus, the main character in A )ortrait of
KD
Asgood, .harles 'rosvenor 91=CC;, 6 he .lassical Mythology of Miltons English <oems7, p.=, *illiam ..
3rown Beprint %ibrary
K?
Milton, %)llegro and !! <enseroso
1=
the Artist as a Houng Man, and a significant character in *lyssesF is the epitome of Eoyce+s
mythological passions. )lthough it is obvious of )ortrait+s adherence to the 'ree" myth of the
escape of 0aedalus and !carus, there are also other references as well.
!n )merican fiction, two forms of the )rthurian myth are commonly found( the use of the
myth for political reasons, and the use of the myth for the continuation of an aesthetic tradition
that can be traced bac" to the earliest use of the )rthurian cycle by writers in the 3ritish !sles.
his wor" traces the use of the legend from Mar" wain+s ) .onnecticut Man"ee in @ing
)rthur+s .ourt to 0onald 3arthelme+s novel he @ing. !t discusses how wain used the myth
to ta"e a stand against England, how it served cultural and aesthetic purposes in Eohn
Steinbec"+s writing, how Baymond .handler used it in complex texts with less obvious
)rthurian allusions that carried strong cultural and even political associations, how Eohn
'ardner used aspects of the myth to embellish already existing narrative structures and to
underscore philosophic debates, and how 0onald 3arthelme suggests the continuing interest of
)merican writers in the )rthurian legend today in his novels. )lso discussed is the effect of
*orld *ar !! on )merican literature and the )rthurian myth and the .amelot image
surrounding the @ennedys.
!n the 1=th century, Gathaniel 8awthorne wrote children+s versions of the 'ree" myths, which
he intended to -entirely revolutioniFe the whole system of 4uvenile literature.-
KK
8is wor",
along with the wor"s of 3ulfinch and @ingsley, have been credited with -recastYingZ 'ree"
mythology into a genteel Oictorian sub4ect-. he <ercy Eac"son and the Alympians series by
Bic" Biordan stars <ercy Eac"son the son of <oseidon. Biordan states that he created the
character of <ercy when trying to tell a story to help his son who has )080 get interested in
reading. !n the stories, <ercy+s )080 characteristics are explained as being caused by his
Alympian blood, thus Biordan was -usYingZ 'ree" mythology as it has always been used( to
explain something that is difficult to understand.-
K=

a"ing aspects from mythological stories and using them in modern fiction is not the same as
rewriting. a"ing a story from mythology and rewor"ing it is rewriting. Some writers li"e to
incorporate elements of mythology into their stories, and that is fine. hey are merely a source
of inspiration. %i"e in E. B. B. ol"ien+s The $ord of the @ings2 Middle Earth, the one ring,
even 'andalf+s appearance and some of his character have been derived from Gorse
KK
@eyser, EliFabeth %enox, 6 .hildrens %iterature7, p. 22, Male 5niversity <ress
K=
'raves Bobert, 6 he 'ree" Myths 9 .lassical 0eluxe Edition;, p.11, <enguin
:C
mythology.
8owever, they are
merely references
bac" to the myths.
Geither the story or plot line was derived from the myths, it is completely new. herefore it is
not a rewriting, but solely inspirational to the author. !t supplies nothing more than mere
bac"ground.
E. @. Bowling drew elements from )rthurian legend and .lassical mythology in her >arry
)otter series2 Argus /ilch, the 0umbledore and 8arry relationship, Miner"a Mc'onagall,
/luffy the threeGheaded dog, etc. Gevertheless, there are again, only elements. Abviously, the
series is amaFing, and completely of her own ma"ing with only the obvious points of
inspiration that she had. Every author has some point of inspiration from somewhere, often
from mythological stories. Even derived into the )rthurian %egends are aspects of .eltic
mythology2 Merlin appears in both, as does the %ady of the %a"e and even Excalibur.
*hile modern adaptations of 'reco,Boman mythology abound, movies with direct lin"s to the
.eltic tradition can be difficult to find. @ing )rthur is obviously the most well,"nown figure
of 3ritish mythology, but hell warrant a post of his own.
!n the meantime, here are a few of the lesser,"nown stories with roots in .eltic legend(
Ondine
his is a movie about an !rish fisherman 9.olin /arrell; who finds a mysterious woman in his
net. /arrells daughter believes the woman might be a sel"ie, a mythological creature said to
:1
shed her seal s"in and wal" on land as a woman. !f a man hides her s"in, he can "eep her for a
wife2 but if she ever finds it, shell escape bac" into the sea.
The Mists of Aalon
*hile ! do plan to write an )rthur,specific post, ! thin" Mists of )valon should be categoriFed
with the .elts. he tv,miniseries was admittedly a terrible bastardiFation of the boo", but the
story as it was written focused on paganism and 0ruidry in 'reat 3ritain, rather than the
fantasy and chivalry of .amelot. !t depicts the %ady of the %a"e as the matriarch of a female,
centric religion under attac" by the oppressive regime of the priests and the intolerance of the
6new7 .hristian religion.
Tristan ! Isolde
his story is often
wrapped up into
the )rthurian
legends, but it
actually predates
them N and
probably inspired
the story of
%ancelot and 'uineveres romance. he details of the story vary, but the gist is that !solde is
married to @ing Mar", but in love with ristan. !n some versions they live happily ever after2
in others, they bite it Bomeo ^ Euliet,style. 5nfortunately that means weve pretty much seen
every version of the story told before, and told better. his adaptation was pretty lousy 9which
you probably could have guessed from the fact that the trailer features an Evanescence song;,
due in large part to the overwhelming sense of tragedy that casts a pall over the entire story.
!ts incredibly dour and something of a chore to sit through. he story of ristan and !solde
:2
9and of %ancelot and 'uinevere; is an unhappy one because their love is rooted in the betrayal
of a good man they both care for2 Eames /rancos sullenness doesnt help matters.
"-Men# $irst %lass
Mou might have lost trac" of him amidst all the newbies, but one of the 6first class7 of
oaviers mutants was named 3anshee. 3anshee is capable of ultra,sonic screaming2 as the
character is !rish,
he named himself
after the
9traditionally
female; banshee
spirit from !rish
mythology, who
begins to wail if
someone is about to die.
&ellboy '
his comic boo"
movie delves
deeply into .eltic
mythology, using
as a villain <rince
Guada, who is
modeled after the
first "ing of a mythological, magical !rish race 9uatha 0e 0anann;. he movie itself explores
the idea that humanity has been immeasurably damaged by the dismissal of old beliefs and
mythologies. <rince Guada states( 6the humans have forgotten the gods, destroyed the Earth N
and for whatp <ar"ing lots N shopping malls N greed has burned a hole in their chests that can
never be filled. hey will never have enough]7 8e also gets some pretty badass fight scenes.
:&
(rac)la
he name 0racula
was ta"en from a
Bomanian title for
Olad the !mpaler
9Olad 0raculm7Olad
the 0evil7;, a local
ruler who fought
against the
Attomans. 8owever, being an !rishman it is possible that 3ram Sto"er was also influenced to
some extent by the story of the !rish vampire )bhartach, an undead ruler who dran" the blood
of his sub4ects. ) 0ruid or a .hristian saint advised the people to "ill him with a sword made
of wood, to bury him upside down with a large stone on top, and then to plant thorn trees
around the grave.
The *ion, The Witch, and the
Wardrobe
..S. %ewis, another !rishman,
was also heavily influenced by
.eltic 9along with 'ree" and
Gorse; mythology, as well as
other aspects of .eltic heritage.
8e incorporated a number of
well,"nown mythological
creatures in his Garnia stories, including hags, boggles 9or boggarts;, white stags, and
wooses 9woses;. he .elts also believed that parallel worlds lay on top of and next to each
other, and that you could pass from one to the next 9a ma4or theme in the Mists of )valon,
:1
both with the land of the /aerie and the !sle of )valon itself;, which may have inspired the
very idea of the portal to Garnia.
)re the -.old Anes- from wilight a real Gative )merican vampire legend from the luileute
tribe, or in any other !ndian tribep here are no beings li"e this in Gative )merican
mythology. Stephenie Meyer, the author of the wilight boo"s, has stated that the uni#ue
features of her .old Ane vampires 9unnaturally beautiful, cold to the touch, spar"ling in
sunlight; came from her own imagination. She did base other parts of her boo"s on actual
luileute !ndian mythology,, for example, it is true that luileute tribal tradition says they were
descended from wolves that were changed into men. 3ut the .old Anes are entirely fictional.
!n the first T+ilight film, we learn that Eacob 3lac" is a member of the Gative )merican
luileute tribe ,, in the se#uel Ne+ Moon, we find out he+s also a werewolf. Got bound by the
full moon, the 3lac"s can transform on command into oversiFed but otherwise normal,loo"ing
wolves.
!s )potam"in 9or )potamp"in; really the name of a Gative )merican vampirep
)potam"in is a real Gative )merican monster 9from the Maliseet and <assama#uoddy tribes
of Maine and Gew 3runswic",; which is probably why its name appeared on the screen when
3ella was searching for Gative )merican vampires on the !nternet. 8owever, )potam"in was
not a vampire in real Maliseet and <assama#uoddy legends. !t was a sea serpent.
)re there any other !ndian vampire legends in traditional tribal mythologyp
!t depends on how you define -vampire.- here are many humanoid monsters in Gative
)merican fol"lore that were believed to hunt and prey on humans, including some that rise
from the dead. )ny of these creatures could certainly be considered a +vampire+ in the broader
sense of the word. 8owever, there are no Gative )merican monsters that display the
distinctive characteristics of European vampires 9associated with bats, unable to withstand
sunlight, "illed by a sta"e through the heart, casting no shadow or reflection, wea"nesses to
garlic and running water, etc.; )nd more significantly, it seems to me that the most important
::
feature of a true vampire is the ability to turn a victim into another vampire by biting him or
her. here is nothing e#uivalent to that in traditional Gative )merican fol"lore.
So what are some of these authentic )merican !ndian vampire,li"e creaturesp
*indigo: *indigos are cannibal ice giants of the .hippewa and other northern )lgon#uian
!ndian tribes. 9hey are also "nown as Chenoo in the Micmac language, !i+ak+a in the
)bena"i language, and a few other names in other tribes.; !n most versions of the legend,
*indigos were once humans who had committed cannibalism or some other terrible sin,
causing their hearts to turn to ice. !n other legends, people are turned into *indigos by evil
wiFards. Either way, the monsters are then doomed to wander the wilderness devouring every
human they meet until they are "illed. ) few legends do have happier endings where the
*indigo is able to be transformed bac" into a human.
II. EDUCATIONAL PRACTICE:
1. THE OB.ECTIVE OF USING MYTHOLOGY ELEMENTS IN TEACHING
ENGLISH
Beading mythology is an easy way to motivate students in class. he students can all read or
listen to and understand the stories of the myths. hey usually en4oy them. Mythology seems
to be a natural way to involve the student. Most children of any age love to hear and read
myths, and even to write their own myths. he stories of the gods and goddesses seem to have
a particular appeal for their imaginations. hey become fascinated with the exploits of the
gods. Students especially love, of course, to read about the involvement of the gods with
mortals. .onse#uently, children love to learn about heroes. 8eroes are important to them,
.hildren have all "inds of heroes today,sports heroes, roc" heroes, movie heroes, cartoon
heroes,and for different reasons. he heroes, however, who appeal to children the most, seem
to have changed little over the years. hese heroes are super,powerful, have some "ind of
magical power, are extremely brave, and are on the side of good. hey are usually embar"ed
on a #uest, which involves fighting some "ind of enormous evil. Ane can immediately thin" of
the tremendous popularity of Superman and 1tar WarsD he heroes in these films, as in other
magical and mythical films such as Clash of the Titans and 1+ord and the 1orcerer, are
indeed such super heroes.
:D
.hildren seem to find security in watching or reading about the victory of a hero. 8owever,
they also en4oy the #uest and the great dangers that befall a hero. <erhaps this is because they
feel sure that the hero will win out in the end, that good will triumph over evil.
he ob4ectives of using mythology elements in teaching English are the understanding and the
appreciation of mythology and(
1. Students to en4oy reading the myths and to have fun with them,
2. he students will understand something of the nature of mythology. hey will understand
some of the uses of myths and the reasons myths evolved.
&. he students will practice their writing, reading, spea"ing s"ills.
1. he students will gain an understanding of the nature of heroes both modern and in the
heroic age of myth.
:. he students will read independently and will present their findings to the class.
D. he students should become aware of literary devices used in the myths. Examples of these
would be contrasts 9the birth of light from dar" night; and narrative structure 9the movement
in the creation myth from .haos or disorder to order under .ronus to disorder or war to order
again under Jeus;. he discussions centering on the literary devices can be as simple or as
complex as the students can handle.
,. ELABORATED ACTIVITIES:
a. L"##o/ P)a/#
S0%%ar
!n this lesson, students will explore the )rthurian codes of chivalry and courtly love as
portrayed in art, modern films, boo"s, and poetry. hey will examine the way in which these
ideals have influenced our modern concepts of love, friendship, and honorable behavior. he
lesson will culminate in a group,based theatrical pro4ect, in which students synthesiFe their
"nowledge and understanding of these ideals of chivalry, honor, and courtly love, to write a
script, create scenery, and act out a short thematic play.
L"ar/+/* O'j"2t+3"#
Students will(
6%earn about the legend of @ing )rthur as an ever,evolving myth, depicted through the
centuries in a variety of media and interpretations
:?
60iscuss the nature of myth2 distinguish between and compare the stories of real people and
myths that grew from those stories
6Study the central themes of )rthurian legend through a modern lens
6Examine whether the ideas of chivalry, honor, and courtly love have been internaliFed into
contemporary art and culture
60iscuss whether these ideas are relevant to today and to what extent they apply to modern life
6*rite and perform a short play incorporating these ideas
T"a2&+/* A!!roa2&
6)rts !ntegration
6hematic
T"a2&+/* M"t&o1#
60iscovery %earning
60iscussion
6Experiential %earning
6Beflection
6Besearch
A##"##%"/t T!"
,Abservation
L"##o/ S"t0!
eacher 3ac"ground
Gote to teacher( 3efore class, pre,screen video or 0O0 versions of -ing Arthur 92CC12 <',
1&; and Camelot 91=D?2 ';. %oo" for one or two scenes in @ing )rthur and .amelot that show
contrasting treatments of overall themes. /or example, themes in one movie may adhere to a
historic accounting, while the other movie may treat the same material in a romantic or
sentimental fashion.
Pr+or St01"/t :/o5)"1*"
Students may be familiar with the story of @ing )rthur, but this is not necessary.
P&#+2a) S!a2"
.lassroom
Gro0!+/*
Small 'roup !nstruction
:K
1. B"$or" #t01"/t# "/t"r t&" 2)a##, 5r+t" t&" 5or1# honor, chialry, a/1 co)rtly loe o/ t&"
'oar1. *hen the class arrives, tell them they will be learning about the @ing )rthur legend,
and exploring the ideas of honor, chivalry, and courtly love contained within that story. )s"
the class if they "now what the words on the board mean. )fter students volunteer what they
"now, you may wish to write abbreviated definitions on the board for them to read.
Chi"alry4 very polite and helpful behavior, especially by a man toward a woman2 a
code of noble and polite behavior that was expected of a medieval "night
Courtly $o"e4 an idealiFed form of love written about in medieval literature, where a
"night devotes himself to a noblewoman
>onor4 code of integrity and dignity 9usually among men;, in medieval society
,. E/*a*" #t01"/t# +/ a 1+#20##+o/ a'o0t &o5 to '"&a3" &o/"#t) a/1 $a+r) +/
$r+"/1#&+!#. o initiate a group conversation, have students read and answer the #uestions in
the first part of the +Movie 0iscussion+ wor"sheet located within the Besource .arousel, then
discuss as a class. Explain that @ing )rthur was a medieval historical figure, whose life
became a legend in subse#uent centuries. Aver time, the legend of @ing )rthur has come to be
"nown for its tales of chivalry, honor, and courtly love.
-. S&o5 t&" 2)a## t&" 'r+"$ !r"6#")"2t"1 #2"/"# $ro% t&" $+)% +ing Arth)r, 5&+2& $o20#"#
o/ t&" &+#tor a/1 !o)+t+2# o$ t&" t+%". hen, show brief pre,selected scenes from the film
Camelot, based on the 3roadway musical, which gives a more romantic perspective of the
.amelot legend. (Note4 If you cannot access either of these mo"iesF refer to AMo"ies A%out
-ing ArthurA info sheet located +ithin the @esource CarouselF +hich contains t+o lists of
mo"ies4 some more sentimentalF some more realisticD >a"e the students +atch at least one film
from each list for home+orkD Tell them to %e prepared to discuss the films in classD)
9. Ha3" #t01"/t# )oo4 at t&" $+r#t &a/1o0t a*a+/, t&"/ r"a1 a/1 a/#5"r t&" =0"#t+o/# +/
Part II. 8ave students discuss their answers as a class.
B0+)1 :/o5)"1*"
1. T")) #t01"/t# t&" 5+)) '" 1o+/* a r"#"ar2& a/1 5r+t+/* !roj"2t t&at 5+)) a))o5 t&"% to
2o/#+1"r &o5 t&" )+$" a/1 1""1# o$ t&" &+#tor+2 :+/* Art&0r "3o)3"1 +/to a )"*"/1 'a#"1
:=
o/ &o/or, 2&+3a)r, a/1 2o0rt) )o3". Beserve computer time at the computer lab and
distribute the +*ho *as @ing )rthurp+ research guide, located within the Besource .arousel,
to students. his handout provides students with a list of websites. 9Gote( !f computers are not
available, the handout also includes excerpts from the sites.; !t concludes with #uestions about
what students can infer about @ing )rthur and the chivalry ideal. 8ave students read these
#uestions, then complete the following short essay on the bac" of the paper.
,. A#4 #t01"/t# to 2o/#+1"r t&" $o))o5+/*: >Ar" &o/or, 2&+3a)r, a/1 ro%a/t+2 )o3"
%o1"r/ +1"a)# or a/2+"/t o/"#< 7&"/ 1+1 t&"#" +1"a)# #tart to $a1"<> Explain that there
are many versions of codes of honor and chivalry that have been handed down from medieval
times. 0istribute the +.ode of .hivalry+ wor"sheet located within the Besource .arousel.
Students should answer the comprehension #uestions on the handout. )s" students what they
thin" of these rules of honor. 0o any of them seem strangep *hich of these rules would still
ma"e sense in today+s worldp
-. D+#tr+'0t" t&" ?Co1"# o$ Ho/or a/1 C&+3a)r? 5or4#&""t, )o2at"1 5+t&+/ t&" R"#o0r2"
Caro0#"), to #t01"/t#. his exercise will encourage them to develop their own ideas about
forging and abiding by a code of behavior in life, and to consider what benefits and sacrifices
might stem from using such a code.
A!!)
1. T")) #t01"/t# t&at t&" 5+)) /o5 "(a%+/" t&" Art&0r+a/ +1"a)# o$ >2o0rt) )o3"> $ro%
t&" 5o%a/?# !"r#!"2t+3". lueen Eleanor of )#uitaine 9a #ueen of /rance and then of
England; and her daughter, .ountess Marie of .hampagne strongly influence the popularity of
courtly love. 0istribute the info sheet, +he Bules of .ourtly %ove+ located within the Besource
.arousel and explain to the class that the boo" The Art of Courtly $o"e was written at the
re#uest of .ountess Marie. !t is believed to describe lueen Eleanor+s court from the years
11?C to 11?1 but was probably written several years after that time.
,. Ha3" #t01"/t# 2o/#+1"r a/1 1+#20## 5& +/$)0"/t+a) 5o%"/ o$ t&at t+%" %+*&t &a3"
!ro%ot"1 t&"#" +1"a)#. *hen students are finished reading the text on the handout, you may
DC
wish to reserve time in the computer lab so they may visit some of the websites listed. hen,
using the Bules of .ourtly %ove info sheet, as" students which rules they agree with and why.
-. Ha3" #t01"/t# t&+/4 o$ "(a%!)"# o$ 2o/t"%!orar TV #&o5# or $+)%# t&at r"$)"2t
/ot+o/# o$ 2o0rt) )o3". !n these stories, does unre#uited love ma"e people happy or sadp
*hat happens when two friends love the same personp 0oes it end the friendshipp
9. T")) #t01"/t# t&" 5+)) /o5 '"*+/ 5or4 o/ t&"+r $+/a) !roj"2t $or t&+# )"##o/. 0ivide the
class into groups of four or five students each. ell the class that each group will have to
devise a dramatic scene to act out during the next class. he scene that they write can be based
on any part of the versions of the )rthurian tales they have learned, and can use any set of the
main characters from the story. !t can also be based on something they+ve read about or seen in
one of the movies from the lesson. here are some important rules that must be followed as
students create the scene(
he .amelot characters must stay true to the way they would behave (iDeDF you canAt
ha"e Arthur %e co+ardlyF ha"e !uine"ere and $ancelot dislike each otherF etcD)
he scene has to have a problem or conflict that ma"es us thin" about the ideas of
chivalry and courtly love (eDgDF $ancelot lo"ing !uine"ereF %ut +anting to %e loyal to
Arthur)
he scene has to show how the characters decide to deal with that conflict
ell students they should divide the wor" evenly. Encourage students to brainstorm and
storyboard, share their ideas as a group, and write down all their ideas, before they start
writing the scene. Bemind students that in the final presentation, each person should have at
least a small part to read, even if 4ust a narrator.
@. 7&"/ #t01"/t# &a3" 1+#20##"1 t&"+r #2"/", t&" #&o0)1 '"*+/ t&" 5r+t+/* !ro2"##. Mou
may wish to have students type out their scenes and print out copies for the whole group. *al"
around the class during the students+ writing process to support their wor", and answer any
#uestions they might have. !f students are having difficulty coming up with ideas, as" them
#uestions such as( *hat do you thin" was the most interesting part of the )rthur storyp *hich
D1
of the characters did you li"e the bestp *hat made you li"e themp 8ow would you behave if
you were in a particular character+s position in lifep
A. Ma4" #0r" t&at "a2& #t01"/t )"a3"# 2)a## 5+t& a 2o! o$ t&" #2r+!t $ro% &+# or &"r
*ro0!?# #2"/". !f a computer andmor computer printer is not available, you should ma"e copies
before the end of class. ell students at the end of class that they do not have to memoriFe
their lines, but they should try to become as familiar with them as possible.
R"$)"2t
1. 7&"/ #t01"/t# "/t"r t&" 2)a##, t")) t&"% t&" &a3" 1B %+/0t"# to )oo4 at t&"+r #2r+!t#
a/1 #!"a4 to t&" ot&"r !"o!)" +/ t&"+r *ro0! a'o0t a/ )a#t %+/0t" =0"#t+o/#.
,. Ha3" "a2& *ro0! a2t o0t t&"+r #2"/". )fter each scene is finished, invite a discussion with
the rest of the class about the scene. )s" students( *hat issue was exploredp 0id they agree
with how the characters handled their conflictsp 0id the characters behave honorably or
dishonorablyp *ould they have behaved similarly or differently toward each characterp
-. A# a 2o/2)01+/* a2t+3+t, "/2o0ra*" a *ro0! 1+#20##+o/ a'o0t 5&at &a# '""/ )"ar/"1 +/
t&" )"##o/ o3"ra)). Students should reflect on whether any of their ideas about honorable
behavior have been affected by this lesson. hen, as" each student to briefly write their
definitions of the words honor, chivalry, and courtly love.
A##"##%"/t
5se the +)ssessment Bubric+ located within the Besource .arousel to assess your student+s
wor"s.
Show students one or two pre,selected scenes from the film Monty )ython and the >oly !rail
91=?:;, a hilarious satire of @ing )rthur 9@ing of the 3ritons;, and his "nights, in #uest for
he 8oly 'rail.
0iscuss with students this satirical view of )rthurian times. )s" them( -0oes this film ma"e
us consider the ideas we have been studying in a way that the more serious films did notp-
D2
)s" students how the ideas of chivalry, honor, and courtly love hold up when seen through the
lens of modern times.
)dditional class #uestions(
)re there people in the world who still give their allegiance to a "ing or #ueenp
0o you thin" modern,day people who live in monarchies still feel the same way about
"ings and #ueens as people did in the Middle )gesp *hy or why notp
*hy were people loyal to "ings and #ueens in those daysp
0o people still honor the marriages of other people as they used top *hy or why notp
0o people thin" about their own set of values today as they did in the pastp
!s it possible people were honorable and dishonorable in the same proportions as
people of today, but we simply have no way to "now itp
%ESSAG <%)G
E).8EBS G)ME(
0)E(
Eo3AA@( *orld .lass
S)'E A/ .A5BSE( 5nit & %esson 1K Myths and $egends
.%)SS( the D
th

GA. A/ S50EGS(
!ME( :C minutes
)!MS A/ %ESSAG(
'eneral competences ( to develop and practice the productive s"ills 9spea"ing; and the
receptive s"ills 9listening, reading, writing;
Specific competences(
, to revise relevant words from the previous lesson
, to use the taught vocabulary in contexts
, to reinforce vocabulary
, to practice story telling
, to prove the capacity of understanding the story
D&
, to use correctly the Simple <ast ense
)!0SmM)EB!)%S(
, textboo"
, noteboo"
, cassette recorder and tape
, handouts
, whiteboard
D1
Go Stages of
lesson
Students and
teachers activities
Beasons for activities Material
imem
interaction
1a.
1b.
7ar%60!
:/o5)"1*"
2&"24
, T+hat are you
feeling no+I
handout
OptionJ N Ss
answer the
#uestion 1 by 1
Option8 N one of
the Ss mime a
feeling, the others
try to guess
, short test
chec"ing last
class vocabulary
, to create a pleasant
atmosphere and to relax the Ss
, to introduce some words, they
need later in the lesson
, to chec" if they "now and use
correctly the previously taught
material
, TWhat are
you feeling
no+I
handout
8andout
with the test
:
S N Ss
N Ss
1C
individual
2. L"a1 +/
A) 3o2a'0)ar
t"a2&+/*
B) )+#t"/+/* to
t&" #tor
, elicit
information about
kings
, introduces
new words and
teach the meaning
9mythF legend;
, plays the tape,
Ss listen
, to introduce the story
, to help students understand
the story better
, Ss get ac#uainted with the
story of @ing Midas
*hiteboard
8andouts
ape

1C
N Ss
1. Pra2t+2" , as"s Ss to
listen again and
arrange the
pictures from ex.
3 in the correct
order
G Ss get the story
stripes and
arrange them in
order
, to chec" Ss understanding of the
story and their capacity of arranging
the pictures in the correct order
, to chec" Ss have understood the
story

ape
3oo"
handouts
1:
<air wor"
:. Gra%%ar , and Ss tal"
, to revise the Simple <ast
D:
Stor #tr+!"# $or t&" #tor o$ :+/* M+1a#
8e touched his daughter and she turned into a golden statue. 8e cried.
Midas decided he didnt want his golden touch.
Midas found him and too" him to a friendly god.
Midas touched the trees, flowers and fruit N they turned to goldn
8e wanted everything he touched to turn to gold.
he god than"ed Midas and gave him a wish.
Midas washed away the golden touch in a river.
Midas didnt thin" carefully.
Ane morning, an old blind man was lost in Midass gardens.
*hen he touched his food, it turned to goldn
LESSON PLAN
E).8EB(
OPTIONAL COURSE: A Kourney Through the Worlds of 6antasy
GRADE: 12
th
intensive study
LEVEL: )dvanced
NO. OF CLASSES C 7EE:: 1 classmwee"
UNIT: 6E.@.Bowling,) /antasy *riters Becipe for Success7
LESSON: DHarr Pott"r E A D"3")o!+/* H"ro<F
TYPE OF LESSON: <ractising the receptive and productive s"ills
using critical thin"ing strategies
MOTIVATION: his lesson was conceived in order to provide the students with more in,
depth information on one of todays highly popular fantasy series, >arry )otter, helping students
to analyse the hero status of its protagonist in relation to the general features of this archetype.
he use of critical thin"ing strategies will allow the students to express their thoughts, opinions
and feelings on the sub4ect in a personal manner, motivating them to actively participate in the
class activities.
DD
PRELIMINARY CONDITIONS: he students will base their new ac#uisitions on the
"nowledge they have already ac#uired during this optional course on fantasy literature and on the
information ta"en from the media on the >arry )otter series. hey are also familiarised with
some of the critical thin"ing strategies to be used in this lesson.
COMPETENCES:
1. to be able to brainstorm on a given topic
2. to select and comment upon significant #uotations from a text
&. to analyse ideas in a text and then share them with a classmate
1. to express and argument their opinions
:. to feel confident about engaging in a debate on a given sub4ect
TECHNIGUES: conversation, explanation, identification, scanning, debate2
%ritical thin,ing strategies( clustering, dual entry diary, reciprocal teaching, corners
MATERIALS: wor"sheets, noteboo"s, blac"board, picture
TIME MANAGEMENT: the lesson will ta"e :C minutes.
EVALUATION: the systematic observation of the students, analysing the arguments they
bring to support their opinions, analysing the products of their activity
BIBLIOGRAPHY:
0urieF, .. 2CC&. KD@D@D Tolkien and CD1D $e+isD The 1tory of Their 6riendship, Sutton
<ublishing, 'loucestershire
Bowling, E.@. 2CC1. >arry )otter and the )hilosopherCs 1tone, 3loomsbury, %ondon
Bowling, E.@. 2CC1. >arry )otter and the Cham%er of 1ecrets, 3loomsbury, %ondon
Bowling, E.@. 2CC1. >arry )otter and the )risoner of ALka%an, 3loomsbury, %ondon
Bowling, E.@. 2CC1. >arry )otter and the !o%let of 6ire, 3loomsbury, %ondon
Bowling, E.@. 2CC1. >arry )otter and the Order of the )hoeni#, 3loomsbury, %ondon
Bowling, E.@. 2CCD. >arry )otter and the >alfGlood )rince, 3loomsbury, %ondon
Bowling, E.@. 2CCK. >arry )otter and the Deathly >allo+s, 3loomsbury, %ondon
Steele,E., Meredith,@. ,emple,.h. 1==K. *n cadru pentru deL"oltarea gMndirii critice
la di"ersele materii de studiu, %S0'..
*hited, %.). 9ed.; 2CC2. The I"ory To+er and >arry )otterD )erspecti"es on a $iterary
)henomenon, 5niversity of Missouri <ress, .olumbia and %ondon.)vailable at(
D?
http(mmboo"s.google.romboo"spidjiA:p)pw2Eyc.^printsecjfrontcover^d#j
harryqpotter^lrjrvjonepage^#j^fjfalse
sss O#ford Ad"anced $earnerCs Dictionary, 2CC:, Axford 5niversity <ress YAnlineZ.
)vailable at( http(mmwww.oup.commeltmcataloguemteachersitesmoald?mpccjglobal
sss 1parkNotes N >arry )otterD )vailable at(
http(mmgsearch.spar"notes.commsearchp#j harryqpotter^ searchbgj^template
jdefault^outputj xmltnotdtd^oej5/,K^iej5/,K^clientj defaulttfrontend
^proxystylesheetjdefaulttfrontend^sitejdefaulttcollection^xj1?^ yj2K;
THE LESSON STAGES:
I. EVOCATION 91C minutes;
1. I2"6'r"a4"r 9loc"step;
he students are told they are going to see the picture of one of the most famous fictional
characters nowadays2 they have to guess who it is. he answers may be( /rodo, Spiderman,
Superman, etc. Some students will probably guess it is 8arry <otter. he teacher shows the
picture and stic"s it on the blac"board2 underneath she writes his name( 8)BBM <AEB. he
students are as"ed to find at least three words that can be formed with the letters that form the
name( 6potter7, 6pot7, 6art7, 6try7, 6heart7, etc. )t least one student will probably discover the
word 8EBA N the theme word of the lesson.
2. C)0#t"r+/* 9individual wor";
he nucleus word, 8EBA, is written in the middle of the page, and for five minutes, each
student has to write down around it any idea that comes to mind on this topic. hen, connections
may be drawn between ideas. he students should ma"e no 4udgement about the thoughts, 4ust
put them down. *hen the time is up, the students will read their ideas, and as many as possible
will be written on the blac"board.
he students might associate the theme word with( bravery, endurance, faith, strength,
optimism, reward, fight, good vs. evil, growth, fear, intelligence, 8ercules, 8arry <otter, /rodo,
<rince .aspian, etc.
he teacher then announces that, since they started with the picture of 8arry <otter, he will be
the character they will discuss during this class.
DK
II. REALISATION OF MEANING 92C minutes;
1. D0a) E/tr D+ar 9individual wor";
he students are given a wor"sheet presenting #uotations from the 8arry <otter boo"s that
may be used to analyse the main character. hey must read the #uotations, and then, on a white
sheet of paper, they must draw a vertical line. An one side they should write the #uotations that
attracted their attention, on the other side they should put down some comments about that #uote.
)t the end, the students will share their opinions with the rest of the class.
Students should comment on the fact that some of the #uotations show 8arry <otter as a true
hero, while others show some of his wea"nesses and problems he encounters.
2. R"2+!ro2a) T"a2&+/* 9pair wor";
Gow the students are distributed a two,page wor"sheet presenting some critical considerations
on 8arry <otters hero status. )n explanation of some difficult words is also included. he
students must wor" in pairs, each member of the pair being responsible for one page of the
wor"sheet, read it and ta"e out the main ideas. hen the members of the pairs ta"e turns playing
the role of 6teacher7, summarising what was 4ust read, trying to clarify the parts that are unclear.
hey try to extract the main ideas and to express their opinion on the passages.
Students should notice that, while some of the passages present the general traits of a hero and
the way 8arry <otter fits into this pattern, others present 8arry as an anti,hero, or at least an
unli"ely hero. )gain, the ideas are then shared with the rest of the class.
III. REFLECTION 91: minutes;
1. Cor/"r# 9group wor";
he students have already reached the conclusion that 8arry <otter can be seen either as a
typical hero, fitting perfectly into the pattern of this archetype, or as an anti,hero, due to his
wea"nesses. 8is successes might be due to his good luc" or to the fact that he is protected by
powerful forces and people 9his mothers sacrifice, 0umbledore, his friends etc.;. ) #uestion
arises( I# Harr Pott"r a r"a) &"ro< his is the sub4ect of the next activity.
he teacher as"s the students to write for three minutes, presenting their opinions on the
sub4ect. hen the students who believe that 8arry is really a hero are as"ed to go to one corner of
the room. hose who believe the opposite is true should go to another corner. here may be
D=
students who undecided, or who believe that 8arry presents some characteristics of the hero
type, but these do not ma"e him a real hero2 they will occupy another corner of the room.
he students in each group share their papers with the rest of the group for five minutes. he
group will then have two select two spo"espersons to represent them in the debate that will
follow.
he teacher calls for a debate, by inviting each of the groups, in turn, to state succinctly its
position and the ma4or reasons for supporting their view. Ance the formal statement has been
presented by the spo"espersons, other members of the groups should be encouraged to
participate in the debate. he teacher may stimulate the conversation when necessary, by raising
other issues, related to those that have been presented.
he teacher explains to the participants that they should feel free to switch groups at any time,
if they have been persuaded by another groups arguments. <articipants should also ta"e notes on
their thin"ing while they listen and discuss.
*hen the time is almost up, the teacher encourages the students to reach some consensus and
then stops the discussion.
IV. EHTENSION 9: minutes2 loc"step;
he students are invited to use the ideas they have ac#uired during this activity in order to
write a position paper, setting out their individual positions and the reasons behind them 9no less
then 2CC words;.
he teacher praises the students and mar"s the best contributions. he class is dismissed.
C)0#t"r+/*:
?C

GUOTATIONS E &A--. /OTT0-
-Yhe Sorting 8atZ only put me in !ryffindorFO said >arry in a defeated "oiceF %ecause I
asked not to go in 1lytherinDO O0#actlyFO said Dum%ledoreF %eaming once moreD OWhich makes
you "ery different from Tom @iddleD It is our choicesF >arryF that sho+ +hat +e truly areF far
more than our a%ilitiesDO (The Cham%er of 1ecrets)
6ut yeh must kno+ a%out yer mom and dadFP he saidD QI meanF theyCre famousD HouCre
famous.7 98agrid, The )hilosopherCs 1tone;
6y attempting to kill youF ?oldemort himself singled out the remarka%le person +ho sits
here in front of meF and ga"e him the tools for the 3o%.7 90umbledore, The >alfGlood )rince;
l5ES
EA5BGEM
B!)%S
ESS
8E%<EBS
MEGAB
S<E.!)%
<A*EBS
'AA0
OS.
EO!%
!GGA.EG.E
u
Eo<EB!,
EG.E
'BA*8
%E)BG!G'
0EOE%A<,
MEG
3B)OEBM,
A<!M!SM,
*!S0AM
THE HERO
?1
-The +and chooses the +iLardD RST I think +e must e#pect great things from youF MrD
)otterDDDDAfter allF >eGWhoGMustGNotGeGNamed did great thingsUterri%leF yesF %ut great- 9Mr.
Allivander, The )hilosopherCs 1tone;.
-There are strange likenesses %et+een usF after allD 0"en you must ha"e noticedD oth
halfG%loodsF orphansF raised %y mugglesD )ro%a%ly the only t+o )arselmouths to come to
>og+arts since the great 1lytherin himself- 9om Marvolo Biddle a"a Ooldemort, The
Cham%er of 1ecrets;.
-]he +as not going to die kneeling at ?oldemortAs feetDDDhe +as going to die upright like
his fatherF and he +as going to die trying to defend himself e"en if no defence +as possi%leDDD-
98arry, The !o%let of 6ire;.
->is mother died in the attempt to sa"e himUand un+ittingly pro"ided him +ith a
protection I admit I had not foreseenDDDDI could not touch the %oyD- 9Ooldemort, The !o%let of
6ire;.
6We thought you kne+ +hat you +ere doingB D D D We thought Dum%ledore had told you
+hat to doF +e thought you had a real planBP 9Bon, The Deathly >allo+s;
Q V1oFC said >arryF dredging up the +ords from +hat felt like a deep +ell of despair
inside himF Vso does that mean that D D D that one of us has got to kill the other one D D D in the
endIC P (The Order of the )hoeni#)
6WellF theyCre +riting a%out you as though youCre this deludedF attentionGseeking person
+ho thinks heCs a great tragic hero or somethingFP said >ermioneF "ery fastF as though it +ould
%e less unpleasant for >arry to hear these facts WuicklyDP (The Order of the )hoeni#)
CRITICAL CONSIDERATIONS ON &A--. /OTT0-
6>eroes respond to a call to sacrifice and to gi"e their li"esD Their li"es %egin in the ordinary
+orldF +here they are summoned to ad"enture and perilous tasksD This in"ol"esF +ith the help of
a mentorF crossing a threshold into another +orld in +hich they undergo "arious trials and
encounter allies and foesD There are other elements in the 3ourneyF %ut e"entually the hero
returns to the ordinary +orld %earing something of %enefitD The 3ourney is an archetypal patternF
and there are myriad +ays in +hich a story may %e told and yet display the archetype RST
>arryCs great returning gift is that of hope N hope that seemingly implaca%le e"il +ill %e
o"ercome.7
?2
QR>arryT is not in fact strictly a hero in classical termsF %ut an ordinary %oyF mundane and
reluctant RSTD Although he has remarka%le gifts of magicF he has to rely on moral courage and
on his friends to accomplish his tasksD >e is not the selfGsufficientF indi"idualistic heroD In mythic
termsF he is "ery like the ordinary ho%%its 6rodo and 1am in VThe $ord of the @ingsCF +hose
+eakness and small stature accomplish +hat the great and po+erful cannotD RST >arryCs
testings and trials prepare him for his ultimate suffering in the last %ookF +hich leads at last to
healing and peaceDP
9.olin 0urieF, The *nauthoriLed !uide to >arry )otter, 2CC?, pp. 1DK,1D=;
S0%%o/, trD"D #0%I%o/"1 J o order to ta"e a specified action2 bid.
M0/1a/", ad3D j Belating to, characteristic of, or concerned with commonplaces2
ordinary.
R")02ta/t, ad3D j 5nwilling2 disinclined.
S")$6#0$$+2+"/t, ad3. j )ble to provide for oneself without the help of others2 independent.
Q@o+ling has %een "ery clear on the ildungsroman aspect of her seriesF ha"ing said of
>arryF QI do +ant him to gro+ upPD RST Most heroes 3ourney as part of their de"elopmentD RST
he 3ourneys each year to >og+arts RST a place of tests4 some academicF some practicalF some
moralD Many of these tests include ad"entureF dangerF choice N heady stuff that forces >arry to
gro+ or failD And failure in a uni"erse of magic is too often fatalDP 9Mary <harr, >arry )otter as
>eroGinG)rogress in The I"ory To+er and >arry )otter, 2CC2, p.:K;
H"a1, ad4. j extremely exciting.
QRST >arry is not the most focused or relentless heroF at least not until later in the %ookD
>is tendency to stray from his Wuest is not literal or physicalF %ut mental and emotionalD When
there are no clear leads and nothing to doF RST >arry tends to lose focus and driftF follo+ing his
emotionsD This happens most dangerously in !odricCs >ollo+F +hen >arry leads them into a
trapF his real reasons for going there ha"ing nothing to do +ith the Wuest and e"erything to do
+ith his grief and dou%t concerning Dum%ledoreDP

Qecause >arry +as famous %efore he e"en kne+ he +as a +iLardF much of his personality
is shaped %y his desire to li"e up to his fameD >e steers clear of special treatmentF flatteryF and
?&
praiseD >e stri"es to li"e a normal +iLardAs lifeF and to a great e#tent he doesD >e has close
friendshipsF enemiesF dilemmasF and triumphs 3ust like any other t+el"eGyearGold %oyD ut >arry
is distinct %ecause of his courage and loyaltyDP
Q>arry is not a typical or mythological heroD >e is an underdogF +ith his skinny statureF
%roken glassesF and relati"e ine#perience in the +iLard +orldD Het he li"es up to his fame %y
%ra"ely entering situations +ith the in%orn faith that someone G either himself or someone he has
%efriended G +ill get him through the situation ali"eDP
(12ar,3otesD A"aila%le at4 http4XXgsearchDsparknotesDcomXsearchIWY harryZpotter[
search%gY[templateYdefault[outputY #ml\no\dtd[oeY*T6G;[ieY*T6G;[clientY
default\frontend[pro#ystylesheetYdefault\frontend[siteYdefault\collection[#YJ9[ yY8;)
R")"/t)"##, ad3. j Steady and persistent2 unremitting.
Stra, intrD"D #tra"1 J o deviate from the correct course.
Dr+$t, nD j he direction in which something is going.
U/1"r1o*, nD j Ane at a disadvantage and expected to lose.
I/'or/, ad3D j Gatural2 possessed by a person from birth.
<icture to be presented during the Evocation stage of the lesson(
?1
9http(mmwww.filmofilia.commwp,contentmuploadsm2CC=mC&mharrytpottertDtpostert:.4pg;

?:
LESSON PLAN
TEACHER:
A<!AG)% .A5BSE( A Kourney Through the Worlds of 6antasy
'B)0E( 12
th
intensive study
%EOE%( )dvanced
GA. A/ .%)SSES m *EE@( 1 class mwee" 9optional course;
5G!( 6..S. %ewis N ) Storyteller for Garnia7
%ESSAG( DT&" Cr"at+o/ o$ a 7or)1 E Nar/+aF
M<E A/ %ESSAG( <racticing the receptive and the productive s"ills
.AM<EEG.ES( 1. to match several creation myths with the areas on the
globe these myths originate from
2. to identify the main features of a text presenting a story
of creation
&. to share ideas and opinions during a group discussion
1. to establish the differences between an actual creation
myth and a fictional one
:. to feel confident about engaging in a discussion on the
symbolism of certain elements in the texts
E.8G!l5ES( conversation, identification, discussion, matching,
explanation, discrimination, reading for specific
information
M)EB!)%S( blac"board, wor"sheets, poster
3!3%!A'B)<8M( .lute,E.,'rant,E.9eds.;1===. The 0ncyclopedia of 6antasyF
Arbit, %ondon
%ewis,..S.2CC:. The Chronicles of Narnia, 8arper.ollins
<ublishers, %ondon
sss The i%leF AuthoriLed (-ing Kames) ?ersion, 1==C,
he 'ideons !nternational
?D
sss O#ford Ad"anced $earnerCs Dictionary, 2CC:,
Axford 5niversity <ress YAnlineZ. )vailable at(
http(mmwww.oup.commeltmcataloguemteachersitesmoald?mpccjglobal
L"##o/ #ta*" Co%!. T+%+/* D"#2r+!t+o/ o$ a2t+3+t I/t"ra2t+o/
1. *arm,up 2 min. 'reetings
he teacher announces the students
they will have to solve two anagrams
and writes them on the blac"board(
BAE)G.! 9.BE)!AG;
SGE!'ES 9'EGES!S;
he fact that 6creation7 and 6genesis7
are synonyms is then pointed out.
%oc"step
!ndividual
wor"
2. %ead,in & min. he teacher reminds the students their
discussion about The MagicianCs
Nephe+, the first boo" in The
Chronicles of Narnia by ..S. %ewis in
the previous class. hey are as"ed
what the most important event ! the
story is. he answer should be( the
creation of the world of Garnia by the
lion )slan. he teacher announces that
the theme of the new lesson is the
creation or genesis of worlds.

%oc"step
&. !ntroducing
the new concept
N matching tas"
. 1
: min. he students are shown a poster
presenting various myths of creation
and some of the regions of the world
where such myths originate from. he
students try to match the items from
the first list with items from the
second, based on their general
%oc"step
??
"nowledge.
hen the teacher as"s which of these
myths reminds them of the creation of
the world of Garnia. he answer is the
Eudaic and .hristian myths of
creation, according to which the world
was created by the uttering of the
divine word. ) picture presenting the
creation of Garnia is introduced.
1. Beading
comprehension
. 2
. &
2C min. he teacher as"s where the .hristian
myth of creation could be found. he
answer is( in the 3ible, in the boo" of
!enesis.
he students are then divided into
three groups2 each of the groups has to
nominate two secretaries, who will
write down all ideas, and three
spo"espersons, who will then present
the conclusions.
he teacher announces that each of the
groups will receive different
wor"sheets. he texts on the
wor"sheets have to do with the myth
of creation. )ll texts have some of the
most difficult words explained at the
end. he students will have to read the
texts and discuss, in their groups, the
order in which items are created and
the style of the text. hey are as"ed to
write down some of the figures of
speech, phrases, even words that they
%oc"step
?K
li"e or find significant. )fterwards
each group will have to present to the
rest of the class their conclusions. he
time limit is 1: minutes. hen the
wor"sheets are handed to the groups(
group 1 N an excerpt from the boo" of
!enesis, group 2 N an excerpt from
chapter K of The MagicianCs Nephe+
and group & an excerpt from chapter =
of the same novel.
*hile the students are wor"ing, the
teacher passes from one group to
another, trying to help them where
needed or ma"ing suggestions.
'roup wor"
:. <ost,reading
,presenting the
results
. 1
1C min. *hen the 1: minutes have passed, the
teacher stops the group discussions
and as"s the spo"espersons of each
group to ta"e turns in presenting the
group findings. /irst the sources of
the texts are established 9the Garnia
text had to be split into two because of
its length;. hen the teacher suggests
they should write down the features of
both creation stories in a two,column
table on the blac"board and in the
noteboo"s. *hile the spo"espersons
present their findings, the se#uence of
events in each source is written down,
and then the "ey words and phrases.
%oc"step
D. Extension N
discussion
: min. he students and the teacher engage in
a discussion, trying to compare the
two texts 9the !enesis and the creation
?=
. :
story in the Narnian Chronicles;. he
conclusions should be that, obviously,
..S.%ewis was inspired by the biblical
myth, but that his version is much
more poetic, longer and richer in
detail.
here are other differences( there is no
creation of man in Garnia, there are,
however, some people who witness
the act of creation, which is presented
through their eyes. he symbolism of
the huge lion, )slan, is also discussed,
it being another face of Eesus.
)ll of these are punctually written
down in the table on the blac"board
and the students noteboo"s.
%oc"step
!ndividual
wor"
?. !ssuing
homewor" & min.
he homewor" will consist in a
composition in which the students will
try to construct their own story of
creation, based on the activities in this
lesson.
%oc"step
K. 0ismissing the
class 2 min.
he teacher comments on the
students performances during the
class and mar"s the best contributions.
%oc"step



7OR:SHEET 1
G"/"#+# 1:16,@ (The 4ible)
KC
J In the %eginning !od created the hea"ens and the earthD
8 No+ the earth +as formless and emptyF darkness +as o"er the surface of the deepF and the
1pirit of !od +as ho"ering o"er the +atersD
] And !od saidF O$et there %e lightFO and there +as lightD 7 !od sa+ that the light +as goodF and
>e separated the light from the darknessD : !od called the light OdayFO and the darkness he
called OnightDO And there +as e"eningF and there +as morning G the first dayD
< And !od saidF O$et there %e an e#panse %et+een the +aters to separate +ater from +aterDO 9
1o !od made the e#panse and separated the +ater under the e#panse from the +ater a%o"e itD
And it +as soD ; !od called the e#panse OskyDO And there +as e"eningF and there +as morning G
the second dayD
^ And !od saidF O$et the +ater under the sky %e gathered to one placeF and let dry ground
appearDO And it +as soD J= !od called the dry ground OlandFO and the gathered +aters he called
OseasDO And !od sa+ that it +as goodD
JJ Then !od saidF O$et the land produce "egetation4 seedG%earing plants and trees on the land
that %ear fruit +ith seed in itF according to their "arious kindsDO And it +as soD J8 The land
produced "egetation4 plants %earing seed according to their kinds and trees %earing fruit +ith
seed in it according to their kindsD And !od sa+ that it +as goodD J] And there +as e"eningF and
there +as morning G the third dayD
J7 And !od saidF O$et there %e lights in the e#panse of the sky to separate the day from the
nightF and let them ser"e as signs to mark seasons and days and yearsF J: and let them %e lights
in the e#panse of the sky to gi"e light on the earthDO And it +as soD J< !od made t+o great lights
G the greater light to go"ern the day and the lesser light to go"ern the nightD >e also made the
starsD J9 !od set them in the e#panse of the sky to gi"e light on the earthF J; to go"ern the day
and the nightF and to separate light from darknessD And !od sa+ that it +as goodD J^ And there
+as e"eningF and there +as morning G the fourth dayD
8= And !od saidF O$et the +ater teem +ith li"ing creaturesF and let %irds fly a%o"e the earth
across the e#panse of the skyDO 8J 1o !od created the great creatures of the sea and e"ery li"ing
and mo"ing thing +ith +hich the +ater teemsF according to their kindsF and e"ery +inged %ird
according to its kindD And !od sa+ that it +as goodD 88 !od %lessed them and saidF Oe fruitful
and increase in num%er and fill the +ater in the seasF and let the %irds increase on the earthDO 8]
And there +as e"eningF and there +as morning G the fifth dayD
K1
87 And !od saidF O$et the land produce li"ing creatures according to their kinds4 li"estockF
creatures that mo"e along the groundF and +ild animalsF each according to its kindDO And it +as
soD 8: !od made the +ild animals according to their kindsF the li"estock according to their
kindsF and all the creatures that mo"e along the ground according to their kindsD And !od sa+
that it +as goodD
Vo2a'0)ar(
&o3"r ,intrD"D &o3I"r"1, &o3I"rI+/*, &o3I"r#
o remain floating, suspended, or fluttering in the air( gulls ho"ering o"er the +a"esD
"(!a/#"F nD
) wide and open extent, as of surface, land, or s"y.
'"arF "Dtr 'or", 'or/" or 'or/, '"arI+/*, '"ar#
o produce2 yield( plants %earing flo+ers.
)"##"r, ad3D ) comparative of )+tt)"D
1. Smaller in amount, value, or importance, especially in a comparison between two things(
chose the lesser e"il.
,. Af a smaller siFe than other, similar forms( the lesser +haleD
t""% 5+t& #o%"o/" or #o%"t&+/*, phrasal "D
o swarm with someone or something2 to be abundant with someone or something. The
porch +as teeming +ith fliesF so +e couldnAt eat thereD The %each teemed +ith people en3oying
the sunny +eatherD
)+3"#to24, nD
0omestic animals, such as cattle or horses, raised for home use or for profit, especially on a
farm.
7OR:SHEET ,
K2
CHAPTER EIGHT: THE FIGHT AT THE LAMP6POST

In the darkness something +as happening at lastD A "oice had %egun to singD It +as "ery far
a+ay and Digory found it hard to decide from +hat direction it +as comingD 1ometimes it
seemed to come from all directions at onceD 1ometimes he almost thought it +as coming out of
the earth %eneath themD Its lo+er notes +ere deep enough to %e the "oice of the earth herselfD
There +ere no +ordsD There +as hardly e"en a tuneD ut it +asF %eyond comparisonF the most
%eautiful noise he had e"er heardD It +as so %eautiful he could hardly %ear itD The horse seemed
to like it tooE he ga"e the sort of +hinney a horse +ould gi"e ifF after years of %eing a ca%GhorseF
it found itself %ack in the old field +here it had played as a foalF and sa+ someone +hom it
remem%ered and lo"ed coming across the field to %ring it a lump of sugarS
SThen t+o +onders happened at the same momentD One +as that the "oice +as suddenly 3oined
%y other "oicesE more "oices than you could possi%ly countD They +ere in harmony +ith itF %ut
far higher up the scale4 coldF tinglingF sil"ery "oicesD The second +onder +as that the %lackness
o"erheadF all at onceF +as %laLing +ith starsD They didnAt come out gently one %y oneF as they do
on a summer e"eningD One moment there had %een nothing %ut darknessE ne#t moment a
thousandF thousand points of light leaped out G single starsF constellationsF and planetsF %righter
and %igger than any in our +orldD There +ere no cloudsD The ne+ stars and the ne+ "oices
%egan at e#actly the same timeD If you had seen and heard itF as Digory didF you +ould ha"e felt
Wuite certain that it +as the stars themsel"es +hich +ere singingF and that it +as the 6irst ?oiceF
the deep oneF +hich had made them appear and made them singS
SThe ?oice on the earth +as no+ louder and more triumphantE %ut the "oices in the skyF after
singing loudly +ith it for a timeF %egan to get fainterD And no+ something else +as happeningD
6ar a+ayF and do+n near the horiLonF the sky %egan to turn greyD A light +indF "ery freshF
%egan to stirD The skyF in that one placeF gre+ slo+ly and steadily palerD Hou could see shapes of
hills standing up dark against itD All the time the ?oice +ent on singingS
SThe eastern sky changed from +hite to pink and from pink to goldD The ?oice rose and roseF
till all the air +as shaking +ith itD And 3ust as it s+elled to the mightiest and most glorious sound
it had yet producedF the sun aroseD
Digory had ne"er seen such a sunS Hou could imagine that it laughed for 3oy as it came upD
And as its %eams shot across the land the tra"ellers could see for the first time +hat sort of place
K&
they +ere inD It +as a "alley through +hich a %roadF s+ift ri"er +ound its +ayF flo+ing east+ard
to+ards the sunD 1outh+ard there +ere mountainsF north+ard there +ere lo+er hillsD ut it +as
a "alley of mere earthF rock and +aterE there +as not a treeF not a %ushF not a %lade of grass to
%e seenD The earth +as of many colours4 they +ere freshF hot and "i"idD They made you feel
e#citedE until you sa+ the 1inger himselfF and then you forgot e"erything elseD It +as a $ionD
>ugeF shaggyF and %rightF it stood facing the risen sunD Its mouth +as +ide open in song and it
+as a%out three hundred yards a+ayD
9..S. %ewisF The MagicianCs Nephe+F 2CC:, pp.D1,D&;
Vo2a'0)ar:
t0/", nD
1. ) melody, especially a simple and easily remembered one.
,. ) song.
5&+//", nD also 5&+//, /"+*&
he characteristic sounds made by a horse
$oa), nD
he young offspring of a horse or other e#uine animal, especially one under a year old.
t+/*)+/*F ad3D
Ma"ing you feel very excited or frightened, in an en4oyable way( That song ga"e her a tingling
sensation.
$a+/t, ad3D $a+/tI"r, $a+/tI"#t
%ac"ing strength or vigor2 feeble.
K1
#t+r, "D #t+rr"1, #t+rIr+/*, #t+r#
"D intrD
o move slightly.
#5")), "D #5"))"1, #5"))"1 or #5o)I)"/, #5"))I+/*, #5"))#
"DintrD
1. o increase in force, siFe, number, or degree( Mem%ership in the clu% s+elled.
,. o grow in loudness or intensity( -The din in front s+elled to a tremendous chorus- 9Stephen
.rane;.
#5+$t, ad3D #5+$tI"r, #5+$tI"#t
Moving or capable of moving with great speed2 fast.
5+/1,

"D 5o0/1 9wound;, 5+/1I+/*, 5+/1#
"DintrD
o move in or have a curving or twisting course( a ri"er +inding through a "alley.
3+3+1, ad3D 3+3I+1I"r, 3+3I+1I"#t
<erceived as bright and distinct2 brilliant( a vivid star.
#&a**, ad3D #&a*I*+I"r, #&a*I*+I"#t
1. 8aving, covered with, or resembling long rough hair or wool.
,. 3ushy or matted( shaggy hairD
7OR:SHEET -
%&A/T0- 3I30# T&0 $O53(I36 O$ 3A-3IA

The $ion +as pacing to and fro a%out that empty land and singing his ne+ songD It +as softer
and more lilting than the song %y +hich he had called up the stars and the sunE a gentleF rippling
musicD And as he +alked and sang the "alley gre+ green +ith grassD It spread out from the $ion
K:
like a poolD It ran up the sides of the little hills like a +a"eD In a fe+ minutes it +as creeping up
the lo+er slopes of the distant mountainsF making that young +orld e"ery moment softerD The
light +ind could no+ %e heard ruffling the grassD 1oon there +ere other things %esides grassD
The higher slopes gre+ dark +ith heatherD )atches of rougher and more %ristling green
appeared S
SA little +ay offF along the ri"er %ankF +illo+s +ere gro+ingD On the other side tangles of
flo+ering currantF lilacF +ild roseF and rhododendron closed them inS
SThe $ion +as singing stillD ut no+ the song had once more changedD It +as more like +hat
+e should call a tuneF %ut it +as also far +ilderDDD
SCan you imagine a stretch of grassy land %u%%ling like +ater in a potI 6or that is really the
%est description of +hat +as happeningD In all directions it +as s+elling into humpsD They +ere
of "ery different siLesF some no %igger than moleGhillsF some as %ig as +heelG%arro+sF t+o the
siLe of cottagesD And the humps mo"ed and s+elled till they %urstF and the crum%led earth
poured out of themF and from each hump there came out an animalD The moles came out 3ust as
you might see a mole come out in 0nglandD The dogs came outF %arking the moment their heads
+ere freeF and struggling as youA"e seen them do +hen they are getting through a narro+ hole in
a hedgeD The stags +ere the Wueerest to +atchF for of course the antlers came up a long time
%efore the rest of themF so at first Digory thought they +ere treesD The frogsF +ho all came up
near the ri"erF +ent straight into it +ith a plopGplop and a loud croakingD The panthersF leopards
and things of that sortF sat do+n at once to +ash the loose earth off their hind Wuarters and then
stood up against the trees to sharpen their front cla+sD 1ho+ers of %irds came out of the treesD
utterflies flutteredD ees got to +ork on the flo+ers as if they hadnAt a second to loseS
Sut though Digory could no longer hear the $ionF he could see itD It +as so %ig and so %right
that he could not take his eyes off itS
SAnd no+F for the first timeF the $ion +as Wuite silentD >e +as going to and fro among the
animalsD And e"ery no+ and then he +ould go up to t+o of them (al+ays t+o at a time) and
touch their noses +ith hisD >e +ould touch t+o %ea"ers among all the %ea"ersF t+o leopards
among all the leopardsF one stag and one deer among all the deerF and lea"e the restD 1ome sorts
of animal he passed o"er altogetherD ut the pairs +hich he had touched instantly left their o+n
kinds and follo+ed himD At last he stood still and all the creatures +hom he had touched came
and stood in a +ide circle around himD The others +hom he had not touched %egan to +ander
KD
a+aySThe chosen %easts +ho remained +ere no+ utterly silentF all +ith their eyes fi#ed intently
upon the $ionD
S The $ion opened his mouthF %ut no sound came from itE he +as %reathing outF a longF +arm
%reathE it seemed to s+ay all the %easts as the +ind s+ays a line of treesD 6ar o"erhead from
%eyond the "eil of %lue sky +hich hid them the stars sang againE a pureF coldF difficult musicD
Then there came a s+ift flash like fire (%ut it %urnt no%ody) either from the sky or from the $ion
itselfF and e"ery drop of %lood tingled in the childrenAs %odiesF and the deepestF +ildest "oice
they had e"er heard +as saying4 ONarniaF NarniaF NarniaF a+akeD $o"eD ThinkD 1peakD e
+alking treesD e talking %eastsD e di"ine +atersDO
9..S. %ewisF The MagicianCs Nephe+F 2CC:, pp.D1,?C;
Vo2a'0)ar:
!a2", "DtrD !a2"1, !a2I+/*, !a2I"#
o wal" with long deliberate steps.
)+)t+/*, ad3D
.haracteriFed by a buoyant rhythm( an easy lilting stride.
r+!!)+/*, ad3D
Ma"ing a sound as of water running gently over a rough bottom, or the brea"ing of little
waves on the shore.
r0$$)", "DtrD r0$I$)"1, r0$I$)+/*, r0$I$)"#
o disturb the smoothness or regularity of( the +ind +as ruffling DadAs hair.
&"at&"r, nD
) plant with small purple or white flowers growing in hilly parts of 3ritain.
'r+#t)+/*, ad3D
Standing erect, stiff.
K?
ta/*)", nD
) confused, intertwined mass.
20rra/t, n.
)ny of several types of small berry( a redcurrantX%lackcurrant.
#5")), " intrDD #5"))"1, #5"))"1 or #5o)I)"/, #5"))I+/*, #5"))#
o increase in siFe or volume as a result of internal pressure2 expand.
a/t)"rF nD
Ane of a pair of branched horns on the heads of male deer.
8ind
=0art"r, nD
Ane leg of an animal+s carcass, usually including the ad4oining parts.
$)0tt"r, "DintrD $)0tIt"r"1, $)0tIt"rI+/*, $)0tIt"r#
o fly by a #uic" light flapping of the wings.
#5a, "DtrD #5a"1, #5aI+/*, #5a#
1. o cause to swing bac" and forth or to and fro.
,. o cause to incline or bend to one side.
t+/*)", "DintrD t+/I*)"1, t+/I*)+/*, t+/I*)"#
o have a pric"ling, stinging sensation, as from cold, a sharp slap, or excitement( tingled all
o"er +ith 3oy.
able to be presented during stage & of the lesson pro4ect(

MYTHS OF CREATION
Mt& Mt&o)o*+"# a/1 r"*+o/# o/ t&" *)o'"
5&"r" t&"#" %t&# 2a/ '" $o0/1
KK
1. Cr"at+o/ $ro% t&" 2o#%+2 "**. he
egg is a symbol of the totality
from which all creation comes.
a. .entral Europe, Maidu 9Gorth )merica;
,. Cr"at+o/ ' "art& 1+3"r#. here is an
animal that plunges into the water to
secure a portion of earth or the devil
becomes the diver sent by 'od to bring
earth from the bottom of the waters.
b. Gava4o, Juni 95nited States indigenous
populations;
-. Cr"at+o/ ' 5or)1 !ar"/t#. T&"
%ot&"r a/1 $at&"r ar" #%'o)#
o$ "art& a/1 #4, r"#!"2t+3").
c. .hristian, Eudaic, !slamic, )frican,
)merindian, south,central )ustralian,
almost all cultures in the world
9. Cr"at+o/ t&ro0*& "%"r*"/2". T&"
2r"at+o/ #""%# to "%"r*"
t&ro0*& +t# o5/ +//"r !o5"r
$ro% 0/1"r t&" "art&.
d. /inish, .hinese, 3uddhist, 8indu
@. Cr"at+o/ ' a #0!r"%" '"+/*. he
world comes into being because
of his wisdom, and he is able to
actualiFe the world because of his
power.
e. 3abylonian, Maori, 0igueno 9South
)merica;
Solution( 1 N d, 2 N a, & N e, 1 N b, : N c.
<icture to be introduced when presenting the "ey concept of the lesson( creation.
K=

LESSON PLAN
=C
E).8EB(
OPTIONAL COURSE: A Kourney Through the Worlds of 6antasy
GRADE: 12
th
intensive study
LEVEL: )dvanced
NO. OF CLASSES C 7EE:: 1 classmwee"
UNIT: 6E.B.B. ol"ien N he BemythologiFer7
LESSON: DMo0/t Doo% E T&" C)+%a( o$ a No3")F
TYPE OF LESSON: <ractising the receptive and productive s"ills
COMPETENCES: 1. to match new words with their definitions
2. to fill in the gaps while listening to a recording of
the text
&. to reconstruct a text by rearranging the 4umbled
paragraphs
1. to identify the real hero in a story
:. to feel confident about engaging in a discussion on a
given sub4ect
TECHNIGUES: conversation, explanation, gap,filling, matching,
reading for specific information, predicting, listening
for specific information, identification, discrimination
MATERIALS: *or"sheets, blac"board, poster, .0, .0,player
BIBLIOGRAPHY: .lute,E.,'rant,E.9eds.;1===. The 0ncyclopedia of 6antasyF
Arbit, %ondon
ol"ien,E.B.B. 2CC?. The $ord of the @ings, 8arper.ollins
<ublishers, %ondon
sss O#ford Ad"anced $earnerCs Dictionary, 2CC:,
Axford 5niversity <ress YAnlineZ. )vailable at(
A2t+3+t 1 E 7ar%60!
=1
T!" o$ +/t"ra2t+o/: )o24#t"!
T+%+/*: , %+/0t"#
D"#2r+!t+o/ o$ a2t+3+t:
'reetings.
he teacher presents the students a film poster, the title of the film being covered. he
students are as"ed to identify the characters in the picture, and the boo" and film they appear in.
hey should answer that the poster presents a scene from ol"iens The @eturn of the -ing
9/rodo and Sam 'amgee watching Mount 0oom, realiFing that they are close to the end of their
#uest;. he teacher then uncovers the title of the film and shows the students they are right.
A2t+3+t , E L"a16+/
T!" o$ +/t"ra2t+o/: )o24#t"!
T+%+/*: @ %+/0t"#
D"#2r+!t+o/ o$ a2t+3+t:
he teacher as"s the students to enumerate the titles of the three boo"s that form The $ord of
the @ings. Most students should "now that these are( The 6ello+ship of the @ing, The T+o
To+ers and The @eturn of the -ing. he students are then as"ed to name their favourite volume
and to give reasons for their choice. Some of the students will probably choose The @eturn of the
-ing, because a lot of decisive events ta"e place in that part, /rodo and Sam reach the end of
their voyage, the novel reaches its climax and we find out what the denouement is.
hen the students are as"ed what the most important part is in the last boo", and they will
probably identify it as the part where /rodo and Sam reach the .rac" of 0oom, but /rodo is
unable to destroy the ring. he teacher announces that they will read two excerpts from .hapter
hree in 3oo" Six of The $ord of the @ings, entitled Mount Doom, which presents exactly the
part they have been tal"ing about, being the climax of the novel.
A2t+3+t - 6 Pr"6t"a2&+/* 3o2a'0)ar
S!"2+$+2 2o%!"t"/2"# 6 to %at2& /"5 5or1# 5+t& t&"+r 1"$+/+t+o/#
T!" o$ +/t"ra2t+o/: !a+r 5or4
T+%+/*: 1B %+/0t"#
D"#2r+!t+o/ o$ a2t+3+t:
=2
he teacher announces that, due to the fact that the text contains a number of difficult words,
they will have to wor" with them first. *or"sheet 1 is distributed and the students try to match
each word with its suitable explanation. hey will wor" in pairs and they will have : minutes to
solve the tas".
*hen the time has passed some of the pairs will read their results, being corrected by their
classmates or by the teacher, if necessary. !f some of the words re#uire any further explanations,
other students or the teacher will provide them.
A2t+3+t 9 6 L+#t"/+/* ta#4
S!"2+$+2 2o%!"t"/2"# 6 to $+)) +/ t&" *a!# 5&+)" )+#t"/+/* to a r"2or1+/* o$ t&" t"(t
T!" o$ +/t"ra2t+o/( +/1+3+10a) 5or4
T+%+/*: 1B %+/0t"#
D"#2r+!t+o/ o$ a2t+3+t:
he teacher distributes Extract 1 from the text, which has some words missing. he students
are then allowed to read the text individually, in order to get familiarised with it.
hey may fill in some of the gaps if they find the suitable words. )fterwards, the teacher tells the
students that they will have to complete the tas", while listening to a recording of that specific
part in .hapter hree. he teacher warns the students that they are only going to listen to it once,
so they have to be very attentive.
he students listen to the audio recording and solve the tas", individually. hen some of the
students read the words, being chec"ed by the teacher. he students are then as"ed to predict
what happens next in the story2 some may even remember this from the film.

A2t+3+t @ E R"a1+/* 2o%!r"&"/#+o/
S!"2+$+2 2o%!"t"/2"# 6 to r"2o/#tr02t a t"(t ' r"arra/*+/* t&" j0%')"1 !ara*ra!&#
T!" o$ +/t"ra2t+o/( !a+r 5or4
T+%+/*: 1B %+/0t"#
D"#2r+!t+o/ o$ a2t+3+t:
he students are then told they are going to read the follow,up, but this time they will have to
rearrange the 4umbled paragraphs of the text, in order to be able to read it. hey receive Extract 2
=&
and start wor" in pairs. hey have : minute to solve the tas". *hen the time is up, some of the
pairs present the correct order. he teacher chec"s the results.
A2t+3+t A 6 Po#t6r"a1+/* E 1+#20##+o/
S!"2+$+2 2o%!"t"/2"#:6to +1"/t+$ t&" r"a) &"ro +/ a #tor
6to $"") 2o/$+1"/t a'o0t "/*a*+/* +/ a 1+#20##+o/ o/ a *+3"/
#0'j"2t
T!" o$ +/t"ra2t+o/: )o24#t"!
T+%+/*: @ %+/0t"#
D"#2r+!t+o/ o$ a2t+3+t:
he teacher as"s the students to decide who the real hero is in the scenes they have 4ust read.
he answers may be( /rodo, Sam, or even 'ollum. he students are as"ed to motivate their
choice, using even #uotations from the two excerpts. he teacher may intervene in the discussion
when needed. he students are then announced that this will be the sub4ect of their homewor" for
the next class.
A2t+3+t K 6 I##0+/* &o%"5or4 a/1 1+#%+##+/* t&" 2)a##
T!" o$ +/t"ra2t+o/( )o24#t"!
T+%+/*: - %+/0t"#
D"#2r+!t+o/ o$ a2t+3+t:
Ho%"5or4: *ho is the real hero in .hapter hree, 6Mount 0oom7p *rite a 2CC,words
essay motivating your choice.
he teacher praises the active students and mar"s the best contributions.
'reetings.

7OR:SHEET 1
1. Bor", "DtrD 'or"1 a. o reveal or disclose
=1
,. C)"a3", "DtrD 2)o3",2)o3"/
-. T&ro', intrD"D t&ro''"1
9. Br+/4, nD
@. La 'ar"F phrasal "D
A. 7rat&, nD
K. Gro!", "DintrD *ro!"1
L. 7ro0*&t, past partD "D
M. To!!)", "DintrD to!!)"1
1B. A1a%a/t, nD
b. Ald,fashioned past tense and past
participle of Twor"2 shaped by hammering
with tools
c. o split with or as if with a sharp
instrument
d. ) stone once believed to be
impenetrable in its hardness
e. o reach about uncertainly2 feel one+s
way
f.o ma"e a hole in or through something
with or as if with a drill
g. o lean over as if about to fall
h. he upper edge of a steep or vertical
slope
i. /orceful, often vindictive anger
4. o vibrate, pulsate, or sound with a
steady pronounced rhythm

T&" #o)0t+o/ +#: 1$, ,2, -j, 9&, @a, A+, K", L', M*, 1B1.
=:
EHTRACT 1

Then 1am sa+ that he +as in a long SSS or tunnel that %ored into the MountainAs
smoking coneD ut only a short +ay ahead its SSS and the +alls on either side +ere clo"en %y
a greatSSSDDF out of +hich the red glare cameF no+ leaping upF no+ dying do+n into
darknessE and all the +hile far %elo+ there +as a rumour and a trou%le as of great engines
thro%%ing andSSSDD D
The light sprang up againF and there on the %rink of the chasmF at the "ery Crack of DoomF
stood 6rodoF %lack against the glareFSSSD F erectF %ut still as if he had %een turned to stoneD
AMasterBA cried 1amD
Then 6rodo stirred and spoke +ith a clear "oiceF indeed +ith a "oice clearer and more
po+erful than 1am had e"er heard him useF and it rose a%o"e the thro% and turmoil of Mount
DoomF SSSSDin the roof and +allsD
AI ha"e comeFA he saidD Aut I do not choose no+ to do +hat I came to doD I +ill not do
thisSSSDDD The @ing is mineBA And suddenlyF as he set it on his fingerF he "anished from 1amAs
sightD 1am gaspedF %ut he had no chance to cry outF for at that moment many thingsSSSSDD D
1omething struck 1am "iolently in the %ackF his legs +ere SSSSfrom under him and he
+as flung asideF striking his head against the SSSSfloorF as a dark shape sprang o"er himD
>e lay still and for a moment all +ent %lackD
And far a+ayF as 6rodo put on the @ing and SSSSit for his o+nF e"en in 1ammath Naur
the "ery heart of hisSSSDF the )o+er in aradGd_r +as shakenF and the To+er trem%led from
its foundations to its proud and SSSDDcro+nD The Dark $ord +as suddenly a+are of himF and
his 0ye piercing all shado+s looked across the plain to the door that he had madeE and the
magnitude of his o+n SSSSD+as re"ealed to him in a %linding flashF and all the de"ices of his
enemies +ere at last laid %areD Then his +rath %laLed in SSSSDflameF %ut his fear rose like a
"ast %lack smoke to choke himD 6or he kne+ his deadly peril and the thread upon +hich his
doom no+ hungD
9E.B.B.ol"ien, The @eturn of the -ing, 2CC?, pp.=1:,=1D;

T&" 5or1# ar": ca"e, floor, fissureF la%ouringF tenseF ringingF deedF happenedF knockedF stonyF
claimedF realmF %itterF follyF consumingD
=D
EHTRACT ,
AD There +as a roar and a great confusion of noiseD 6ires leaped up and licked the roofD The
thro%%ing gre+ to a great tumultF and the Mountain shookD 1am ran to 6rodo and picked him up
and carried him out to the doorD And there upon the dark threshold of the 1ammath NaurF high
a%o"e the plains of MordorF such +onder and terror came on him that he stood still forgetting
all elseF and gaLed as one turned to stoneD
D Aut do you remem%er !andalfAs +ords4 V0"en !ollum may ha"e something yet to doIC
ut for himF 1amF I could not ha"e destroyed the @ingD The `uest +ould ha"e %een in "ainF e"en
at the %itter endD 1o let us forgi"e himB 6or the `uest is achie"edF and no+ all is o"erD I am glad
you are here +ith meD >ere at the end of all thingsF 1amDA
CD The fires %elo+ a+oke in angerF the red light %laLedF and all the ca"ern +as filled +ith a
great glare and heatD 1uddenly 1am sa+ !ollumAs long hands dra+ up+ards to his mouthE his
+hite fangs gleamedF and then snapped as they %itD 6rodo ga"e a cryF and there he +asF fallen
upon his knees at the chasmAs edgeD ut !ollumF dancing like a mad thingF held aloft the ringF a
finger still thrust +ithin its circleD It shone no+ as if "erily it +as +rought of li"ing fireD
DD A %rief "ision he had of s+irling cloudF and in the midst of it to+ers and %attlementsF tall
as hillsF founded upon a mighty mountainGthrone a%o"e immeasura%le pitsE great courts and
dungeonsF eyeless prisons sheer as cliffsF and gaping gates of steel and adamant4 and then all
passedD RDDDT
0D 1am got upD >e +as daLedF and %lood streaming from his head dripped in his eyesD >e
groped for+ardF and then he sa+ a strange and terri%le thingD !ollum on the edge of the a%yss
+as fighting like a mad thing +ith an unseen foeD To and fro he s+ayedF no+ so near the %rink
that almost he tum%led inF no+ dragging %ackF falling to the groundF risingF and falling againD
And all the +hile he hissed %ut spoke no +ordsD
6D AWellF this is the endF 1am !amgeeFA said a "oice %y his sideD And there +as 6rodoF pale and
+ornF and yet himself againE and in his eyes there +as peace no+F neither strain of +illF nor
madnessF nor any fearD >is %urden +as taken a+ayD RST
!D A)reciousF preciousF preciousBA !ollum criedD AMy )reciousB O my )reciousBA And +ith thatF
e"en as his eyes +ere lifted up to gloat on his priLeF he stepped too farF toppledF +a"ered for a
=?
moment on the %rinkF and then +ith a shriek he fellD Out of the depths came his last +ail
V)reciousBC and he +as goneD
9E.B.B. ol"ien, The @eturn of the -ing, 2CC?,pp. =1D,=1?;
T&" 2orr"2t or1"r +#: E, C, G, A, D, F, B.
<oster to be presented during the *arm up stage of the lesson(
=K
b. T&" 0#" o$ $a+r ta)"#, !o"%# a/1 !ro#" +/ t"a2&+/* E/*)+#&
/airy ales provide a wealth of possibilities for teaching English topics. Each fairy tale has its
own magical setting and is split into several scenes. *ithin each scene, there are sets of
vocabulary that you can exploit. 3elow we will loo" at a few of the better,"nown fairy tales and
highlight some of the possible areas you can concentrate on in class.
)ims(
/or the learners to hear in English what are probably familiar stories in their own
language.
o allow the children to see English in an imaginative context.
o introduce various vocabulary sets such as family, food, clothes, parts of the body]
o help the older primary school children notice language areas such as past simple,
comparatives etc
Material(
/airy tale story boo"s
*or"sheets for post,reading activities
/lashcards 9laminated photocopies of selected scenes from the stories.;
/ive hot tips when using a fairy tale in class.
1. .reate a mystical atmosphere with your body language, voice and lighting if possible.
2. 0ont over do the scary characters with the very young learners.
&. !nvolve the children as much as possible. 'et them guessing the next episode throughout the
story.
1. Mou dont need to systematically pre,teach vocabulary. )rouse their interestp MES , with the
picture on the front cover, 6*hos thisp7 6!s this the wic"ed witch or the friendly fairyp7 60oes
the princess loo" sad or happyp7 etc. Mou can go bac" over vocabulary after the story e.g. 6.an
==
you remember what this is calledp7 9pointing to the picture;
:. 0ont use it 4ust as a time filler. he children will get much more out of it if done over a series
of lessons or if it ties in with a larger topic.
1omething to remem%er a%out fairy tales is that they are fairly long stories and they donCt
al+ays ha"e the repetiti"e language that is almost essential for teaching 0nglish to young
learnersD The key here is to spend a little time simplifying the story te#t and making it into a
series of repeated patterns of languageD
.inderella
Oocabulary groups include(
o /amily 9sisters, step,mother, father, god,mother;
o .lothes 9glass slippers, dress;
o )d4ectives 9big, small, ugly, beautiful;
o elling the time 9midnight, early, late;
Sample repetitive text(
o 6She tried on the slipper but it was too big.7
o 6She tried on the slipper but it was too small.7
o 6She tried on the slipper and it was 4ust right.7
o 6She waved her magic wand and puff turned the pump"in into a carriage.7
o 6She waved her magic wand and puff turned the rags into a beautiful dress.7
<ossible language areas(
<ast simple 9tried on, waved, turned; sremember to let the children notice the difference.
Mou dont need to give them a lecture on the different uses, and forms of the past tensen
Snow *hite
Oocabulary groups include(
o )d4ectives 9shy, happy, grumpy, mean;
o %andscapes 9forest, la"es;
1CC
o 3uildings 9houses, castles, towers;
o 8ousesmfurniture 9beds, "itchens, housewor";
Sample repetitive text(
o 6Mirror, mirror on the wall who is the prettiest of them allp7
<ossible language areas(
o .omparatives and superlatives N 6Moure pretty, but Snow *hite is prettier. Shes
the prettiest of them all.7
%ittle Bed Biding 8ood
Oocabulary groups include(
o )nimals 9in the forest, wolf;
o /ood 9apples, ca"es;
o %andscape 9trees, la"es, forest;
o Senses 9hear, see, touch;
o <arts of the body 9ears, eyes, nose, hands, teeth;
Sample repetitive text(
o 6*hat big eyes you haven7
o 6hey help me to see you better.7
<ossible language areas(
o 6*hat have you got in your bas"etp7
o 6!ve got two apples.7
8ansel and 'retel
Oocabulary groups include(
o /amily 9father, step,mother;
1C1
o /ood 9sugar, ca"es, sweets;
o 8omemfurniture 9door, window, bed, oven;
o Gumbers 9crumbs on the ground;
Sample repetitive text(
o 68e dropped a crumb on the ground, and another and another.7
o 68e dropped a pebble on the ground, and another and another.7
<ost,reading activities(
1. 0raw a picture of your favorite character
2. )ct out a scene from the story
&. Be,write the end of the story 9this can be done on paper or orally;
1. Ma"e up a group or class fairy tale. 5se different characters from several fairy
tales.
:. <oint to flashcards of scenes from the story to identify characters or events.
D. 'radually uncover a flashcard from the story. he children have to say what they
see.
he traditional view of poetry as one of the most sophisticated forms of literary and linguistic
expression ma"es it by definition inaccessible to all but the most advanced language learners.
Even then, the wealth of literary allusions, historical references and cultural assumptions
typically found in the wor"s of great poets, can limit comprehension greatly for the native
spea"er 9GS; and non,native spea"er 9GGS; ali"e.
8owever, if we ta"e a broader view of the term, we find that( 6a poem is a piece of writing in
which the words are chosen for their beauty and sound and are carefully arranged, often in short
lines which rhyme7
=C
. his definition, which contains no reference to comprehension of difficult
metaphorical, cultural, or ethical allusions, and nothing about grammatical correctness, metrical
structure, sentence structure or logical se#uencing of ideas, opens the doors to pop,songs, hai"u,
pattern poems, picture poems, nursery rhymes and fol",songs, all of which can be viewed as
poetry. 3y stressing en4oyment, and presenting poetry 6through media and methods that provide
=C
.ollins .obuild English 0ictionary for )dvanced %earners. 92CC1; 'lasgow( 8arper .ollins
1C2
maximum student involvement and interest7
=1
, not only that language learning can be facilitated,
but learners at all levels can use the medium of poetry to express themselves in the target
language.
/oetry begins in delight and ends in wisdom78 9 -obert $rost
<oetry is the highest form of literary expression. !t is a wor" of perfect. !t appeals to the emotion.
!t has an aesthetic effect on human mind. <oetry is different from prose. <rose is for information
and poetry is for appreciation. !t gives details and facts in a beautiful form. !t is highly rhythmic
in character. Each and every poem is a piece of literature. Every teacher should develop a taste
for poetry. *hile teaching poems, the teacher should appeal to the emotions of the children. !n
poetry class, a child enters a different world. he child must feel that it is experiencing a new
4oy.
Bhymes in English bring the children closer to English language. Bhymes are en4oyed by the
children in lower classes. hey sing rhymes with movement, gestures and expressions.
1. Bhymes strengthen and develop the memory power of children.
2. hey develop active power of imitation and imagination.
&. Bhymes widen the "nowledge of vocabulary.
1. Bhymes lay a strong foundation for speech wor".
:. ) sense of achievement and confidence is developed in the young learners
D. Bhymes train the ears to the varieties of sounds and rhythm.
?. Bhymes are an excellent aid to correct speech.
=1
3rindley, 0. E. 91=KC;. 3rea"ing the <oetry 3arrier( owards 5nderstanding and En4oying
<oetry, p.1, <aper presented at the )nnual Meeting of the !nternational .onference on the
eaching of English, Sydney, )ustralia, 1=KC.
1C&
K. Bhymes develop the s"ills of listening and spea"ing.
1)ggestions for teaching n)rsery rhymes
1. .hildren are to be taught to feel the charm of music and rhythm.
2. Go explanation of grammatical forms.
&. Gew words should be drilled.
1. More attention on the words and phrases.
:. )void clapping or tapping the des" by the pupils.
D. <upils are trained to recite clearly and correctly.
?. <ractice in groups N one group one line.
K. <ractice in pairs.
=. he whole class is practiced.
!n this way, even the slow learners gain confidence in saying the rhymes.
DPo"tr +# t&" #!o/ta/"o0# o3"r$)o5 o$ $"")+/*# a/1 "%ot+o/# +/ tra/=0+)+tF
6<oetry should reach the heart of the reader because it emerges from the heart of the poet7.
William Words+orth
A few more s)ggestions for teaching a 2oem #
1. he message of a poem is more important than the details.
2. he main theme of the poem is to be grasped 9understood;.
&. Explanation and paraphrasing does not create any enthusiasm.
1C1
1. he teacher should present the poem orally with correct pronunciation and rhythm.
:. Students concentrate all their attention in listening if the poem is read aloud.
D. Oerbal peculiarities should be neglected.
?. Students appreciation and understanding of the poem and poets experience can be expressed
in the form of drawing.
K. Encourage pupils to do activities at the end of the class.
The /rocess of Teaching a /oem
here are & main stages in the process of teaching a poem.
hey are as follows(
1. <reparation
2. <resentation
&. 0iscussion
/re2aration#
1. he main outline of the poem is to be understood by the students by e#uipping them.
2. /amiliariFe the students with important words and expressions
&. Ensure that the ideas of the poem are reachable and comprehensible by the students.
1. his can be done by getting responses through simple #uestions by the teacher.
/resentation#
he teacher reads the poem or recites with proper pronunciation, intonation, gestures and facial
expressions. !f necessary this can be repeated by the teacher.
1C:
(isc)ssion#
he teacher need not explain every word or every line of the poem. Simple #uestions may be
as"ed to ensure their understanding of the poem. he teacher uses pictures to explain the
meaning of difficult words. he teacher can pose #uestions to the class to get meanings for
difficult words.
%oncl)sion#
1. <reparation is e#uipping the students for #uic" understanding.
2. <resentation involves reading, re,reading, elucidation of answers, "indling interest and calling
for intense concentration on the words, rhymes, rhythm, imagery etc., in the poem.
&. 0iscussion leads the pupils to a thorough "nowledge of the poem.
6<rose is words in their best order7
<rose is meant for learning a language. eaching prose means teaching reading with
comprehension. he learners are taught the s"ill of reading. he next step is to teach them
reading with comprehension. Beading with comprehension helps the learners to ac#uire new
vocabulary and content words. he power of comprehension can be promoted through reading
and listening.
eaching prose enables the students to understand the passage, to read fluently, to enrich their
vocabulary and to en4oy reading and writing. !t enables the learners to extend their "nowledge of
vocabulary and structures and to become more proficient in the four language s"ills. !t develops
the ability of spea"ing English correctly and fluently.
he main aims of using prose in teaching are literary and content. o achieve the literary and
content, the aims of teaching of prose should be intensive and extensive.
1CD
!GEGS!OE BE)0!G'(
Beading a text for accuracy is called intensive reading. !t is done with the close guidance of the
teacher. !t forces the learners to pay more attention to the text. !t involves the profound and
detailed understanding of the text. !t is primarily concerned with the developing of reading
strategies.
he reading strategies are(
1. Eudgement
2. Beasoning
&. !nterpretation and
1. )ppreciation
!ntensive reading is more an exercise in accuracy. Students do not read a text only for a specific
purpose of information. ) text is considered suitable for scanning of information, paying
attention to the writers intensions, arguments, ideas, style, etc., he students are expected to
answer all #uestions which involve their understanding of the text, grammar, vocabulary,
writing, etc.,
So, a/ +/t"/#+3" r"a1+/* %0#t '" 'a#"1 o/ t&" #tr02t0ra) #))a'0#.
1. !t must be interesting.
2. !t should be well graded.
&. Multiple numbers of colorful pictures are necessary.
1. he pictures should stimulate an interest in the lessons.
:. More opportunities for oral discussions before reading the text.
D. 0ifficult words, phrases and ideas should be clearly explained by the teacher.
?. !t must have provisions for silent reading and reading aloud.
) prose lesson is not for memoriFation of #uestions and answers but for learning a language. he
prose lesson contains structure, vocabulary, grammar, views and ideas for comprehension. he
students read prose with comprehension and write sentences about the lesson using the correct
structures and content words.
1C?
AIMS OF TEACHING PROSE:
he main aim of teaching prose is to develop the language ability of the students. !t is the
intensive study of a language. he language ability helps the learners to use English language
without any problem.
GENERAL AIMS OF TEACHING PROSE:
To ena%le the students
1. o understand the passage and grasp its meaning.
2. o read with correct pronunciation, stress, intonation, pause and articulation of voice.
&. o enable students to understand the passage by silent reading.
1. o enrich their active and passive vocabulary.
:. o express the ideas of the passage orally and in writing.
D. o en4oy reading and writing.
?. o develop their imagination.
K. o prepare the students for world citiFenship.
SPECIFIC AIMS:
he specific aims of prose change according to the sub4ect matter li"e biography, play, story and
essay
SPECIFIC AIMS OF A STORY:
1. he learners learn a few facts through the story.
2. o teach morals.
&. o mould ones character.
1. Exposure to the style of story writing.
SPECIFIC AIMS OF AN ESSAY:
1. he learners learn a few facts through the essay.
1CK
2. o ma"e students curious about the sub4ect of essay.
&. Exposure to the style of essay,writing.
1. o arrange ideas in an organiFed manner.
SPECIFIC AIMS OF A BIOGRAPHY:
1. he learners are exposed to the lives of great men.
2. o mould ones character.
&. )spiration for better things in life.
1. o inculcate in them desirable sentiments.
SPECIFIC AIMS OF A PLAY:
1. o provide opportunities for self,expression.
2. o play different roles.
&. o spea" English in the conversational style.
1. o mould ones character.
2. Co%%0/+2at+3" "("r2+#"#
.ommunicative exercises include any activities that encourage and re#uire a learner to spea"
with and listen to other learners, as well as with people in the program and community.
.ommunicative exercises have real purposes( to find information, brea" down barriers, tal"
about self, and learn about the culture. Even when a lesson is focused on developing reading or
writing s"ills, communicative activities should be integrated into the lesson.
/urthermore, research on second language ac#uisition 9S%); suggests that more learning ta"es
place when students are engaged in relevant tas"s within a dynamic learning environment rather
than in traditional teacher,led classes
=2
.
6.ommunicative7 as 6tal"ing7.
!n some of the textboo"s the term 6communicative7 refers to oral activities of different nature.
/or example, some of these activities are mere repetitions of model dialogues which are
=2
Moss ^ Boss,/eldman, 2CC&
1C=
presented as topical of particular situations 9purchasing a train tic"et and so on;. !n other case,
the term 6communication7 appears as the title for these oral activities. !n other cases,
communication refers to open dialogue activities 9guided conversation;.
6.ommunicative7 as 6application of grammar7.
)lmost all of the textboo"s showed a similar organiFation of contents, fre#uently starting each
lesson with a list of lexicon and grammar items. .ommunication thus refers to grammar in
practice, as opposed to theoretical grammar. .ommunication means to apply the grammar
contents of the chapter. his grammar is exposed and explained in a traditional way. here are
usually no explanation or rationale for the distribution and se#uence of the lexicon and grammar
contents.
6.ommunicative7 as 6interaction7.
) vast ma4ority of activities are designed to be executed verbally and in pairs. Some of the
activities here include descriptions of pictures, multiple choice,ended fixed dialogues, sharing
information activities, etc., which are designed to repeat, in pairs or groups and in a verbal way,
different words, tenses and structures. 6.ommunicative7 therefore refers to the fact that two
spea"ers are engaged in the activity rather than the particular nature of the activity.
6.ommunicative7 as 6s"ill7.
May of the textboo"s refer to the developing of 6the four communicative s"ills7 and therefore
include some specific activities for each of them, i.e. composition topics to be written, written
texts to be read and understood, audio dialogues followed by comprehension #uestionnaires and
lists of #uestions to induce discussion.
8ere are some examples of communicative exercises(
Cr"at" a #tor
,*rite words related to mythology on the board. o save time, or to avoid scaring the students
with a blac"board full of words , you may choose to 4ust write the first doFen and then add more
words while the activity is in progress.
,3egin with an example 9this will pi#ue the students+ curiosity;. 3egin telling a story,
incorporating the first word in the list, then the second, and so on. <oint to each word as you use
it. ry to ma"e your story humorous, so the students get the idea that the activity is supposed to
be fun.
11C
,)fter a few words, choose a student and as" him to continue the story by using the next word on
the blac"board. Ma"e this clear by mar"ing or pointing to the word on the blac"board. Bepeat
with another one or two students.
,Explain that students will do this activity in groups, with each person using the next word in the
list to continue the story. Explain that each person can spea" one, two, three, or more sentences,
but should only use one word from the blac"board. )lso, explain that for verbs, students can
change the form 9eg. for -run- they could say( -runs-, -running-, -ran-, etc;.
,Erase the already,used words from the board, and tell them to start a new story using the next
word. he students form groups and do the activity.
)nother example of a communicative exercise can be DT&" Hot S"atF, a spea"ing game that is
played in the following way(
,) lifetime favorite for most language teachers, this game has long been the cornerstone of most
ES% classroom spea"ing activities and games. !t is #uite easy to play yet it gets a lot of language
out of students if well thought out. *ith hot seat, a student seats with hismher bac" to the board or
to the teacher. he teacher displays a flash card with a picture from a fairy tale or from a
mythological story. Ather students describe what is on the card to enable the student guess what
it is. /or higher,level students teachers can ma"e hot seat more challenging by writing a number
of )3AA *AB0s on the board. /or example if a teacher shows the students a flash card of
.inderella, taboo words could be words li"e .inderella and stepsisters. Students cannot use these
two words to describe the picture. his forces the students to find other ways of describing the
picture without the taboo words. aboo words are most often words that can easily give away the
answer when doing this "ind of exercise.
La'")+/* a/1 D"#2r+'+/*
I S!
) student selects an item from one of the pictures and says(
v! spy with my little eye, something that... 9gives a specific clue to its identity; or v!m thin"ing
of somethingmsomeone that...
Ather members of group as" #uestions to enable them to guess the identity of the character or the
item.
*hen giving clues about characters of a story, students may describe an action or characteristic
v...something which hopped off... orv...something that had horrible fur.
111
Spot the 0ifferences
'rouping( pairs or small group
Materials( two enlarged copies of picture cards. )lter one of the copies by adding or deleting
details.
!nstructions(
Students form pairs and are each given one of the pictures. Geither partner is to see the others
picture.
he two partners describe their pictures in turn and decide on the differences between them by
as"ing and answering #uestions.
*hen they agree on a difference, it is recorded.
*hen they have identified all the differences, students compare their pictures visually and
discuss their results.
1. L+#t"/+/*, r"a1+/*, 5r+t+/* a/1 #!"a4+/* a2t+3+t+"#
Pa/1ora?# Bo( 6 A/ A/2+"/t Gr""4 Mt&
+!t was 4ust a simple box. *hat was in itp .ould it be gold, or silver, even precious stonesp
Surely 4ust ta"ing a very #uic" loo" inside couldn+t do any harm , could itp+
%et the students to listen to the text once. hey can listen to it the second time while they are
reading it if necessary, for a better understanding. Stop to clarify meanings of any words.
his narrative style text is published in a website called +Myths and %egends+ which has been
designed for use by school children. he text is presented in an easy to read chronological
format with narrative features of orientation, complication and resolution.
he characters in the story are typical of many myths, namely a powerful 'od 9Jeus;, and other
gods 9)thene, )phrodite and 8ermes; two mortals 9brothers called <rometheus and
Epimetheus; and a beautiful female character 9<andora;. he characters are recogniFable by the
reader who aids comprehension. he story itself reflects the ideas of good and evil which are
typical of many myths, legends and fairy tales and the story contains an important message or
moral, which re#uires the students to infer meaning from the text.
La/*0a*" F"at0r"#
112
he text consists largely of compound and complex sentences and incorporates descriptive
language, e.g. +the loo" of excitement on her face #uic"ly turned to one of disappointment and
then horror+.
he regular use of verbs and adverbs help to build the excitement of the story, e.g. -Epimetheous
ran into the room to see why she was crying in pain.7
Ot&"r T"(t0a) F"at0r"#
!n addition to the ext, the website contains an outline of the Arigins of <andora+s 3ox and a
Movie. hese additional features of the website provide opportunities for the students to
understand the bac"ground of the myth and how it developed, and to experience the story with a
variety of sense.

NB"$or" R"a1+/*
)ctivity 1 , !ntroduce Myths and %egends
Explain
Everyone has favorite stories from childhood and many of these are based on myths and
legends. Some are frightening and some are fascinating.
Many myths begin because people want to explain things that they do not "now or understand,
li"e illness, disease and death, love, hate and war, and natural disasters
li"e floods and earth#ua"es.
Explain that story telling is an important part of all societies and common to many cultures.
Myths are one way of telling stories and explaining things that people do not understand.
3rainstorm a list of favourite stories from childhood, e.g. Eac" and the 3eanstal", .inderella,
Sleeping 3eauty, he <ied <iper of 8amlin, Goah+s )r".
)ctivity 2 , hin", <air, Share
!n pairs discuss the reasons for why stories are told. Becord your ideas to share with
the class.
3rainstorm a list of reasons why people tal" and share stories, yarns, myths, legends and talesp
11&
e.g. , to bring people together
, to communicate history or the way things are
, to help people understand their culture
, to show people how to behave and what is expected and acceptable
, to explain how the world wor"s
, for entertainment
, to pass on "nowledge
, for fame, money and recognition
)ctivity & , %ibrary visit and myth exploration
Students explore the library and read about various myths. Students select one myth
that interests them and examine the characters, the setting and what happened in the story of the
myth. Students can ta"e notes.
3rainstorm a list of myths discovered by the students(
@ing )rthurs @nights of the roundtable
he hree Mus"ateers
he %ost .ity of )tlantis
he ooth /airy
)ctivity 1 , *hat are mythsp
*ith the whole class discuss and develop a wor"ing definition of a myth.
/or example(
) myth is a story based on tradition or legend, which has a deep symbolic meaning.
) myth +conveys a truth+ to those who tell it and hear it, rather than necessarily
recording a true event. )lthough some myths can be accounts of actual events, they
have become transformed by symbolic meaning or shifted in time or place. Myths are often used
to explain universal and local beginnings and involve supernatural beings. he great power of
the meaning of these stories, to the culture in which they developed, is a ma4or reason why they
survive as long as they do , sometimes for thousands of years.
)ctivity : , Oiew and listen to an )boriginal Myth
T&" Ra+/'o5 S"r!"/t , see Mou ube video
0iscuss
, he characters, the setting, what happens.
111
, !dentify what this myth is telling usp
, *hat do the aboriginal people attempt to explain or understand with this myth,
e.g. the shaping of the land, mountains and rivers, the origins of trees, birds and
animals and natural disasters li"e earth#ua"es and floods. 8elps to explain the
aboriginal connection to the land.
, hin", <air, Share , do you thin" +he Bainbow Serpent+ is true or notp 0iscuss
Explain that this is an example of an origin myth.
0iscuss how this myth has been passed down through the generations.
Explain the importance story telling to the aboriginal people and explain that +he Bainbow
Serpent+ may contain elements of truth, e.g perhaps there was a great earth#ua"e that people were
trying to understand.
)ctivity D , !dentify some characteristics of Mythsp
5se information the students have gathered from the library and from viewing, listening and
reading some myths to brainstorm common characteristics of myths . /or example(
, myths are semi,true , they include elements of truth
, passed from person to person
, written, drawn or verbally told , sometimes immortalised forever as a statue 9'ree"; or
a cave painting 9)boriginal;
, can be based on historic facts 9e.g. there was a great earth#ua"e that the
aboriginal people tried to explain with their Bainbow serpent myth;
, they have heroic characters
, they ta"e place in fantastic 9fantasy; settings
, they can be about the spiritual beliefs of a culture, e.g. Goah+s )r" 9.hristian;, the
Bainbow Serpent 9)boriginal;
)ctivity ? , *ebsite exploration
Explore the website about 'ree" Myths and %egends to find out more about the characters,
settings, plot and other elements of a myth.
3rainstorm with the class the names of some good and evil characters e.g.
'oodm8ero characters , <egasus, %eprechan, /airy, Elf, )rchilles,
3admEvil characters , %ochness Monster, Medusa, 3unyip, Arc, Sphyinx
'ree" characters , Jeus 9'od of the 8eavens;, <oseiden 9brother of Jeus;, 8ades, 93rother of
11:
<oseidon; 8era and 8ermes 9messenger god;
)fter Beading
)ctivity K , !nternet exploration
Enable students to access the movie and information about the origins of <andora+s 3ox via the
internet. Explore and ta"e notes.
)ctivity = , small group discussion
!n small groups, as" students to identify the main characters, setting, plot and main idea or
message behind the myth of <andora+s 3ox. 9<rovide an organiFer for this purpose;
)ctivity 1C , *hole class discussion
)s" students to share their findings from activity = with the class.
0iscuss and clarify the characters, setting and plot.
Becord student ideas on the main messagemidea or moral of the story and discuss variations and
interpretations.
Explain, he myth of <andora+s 3ox originates in )ncient 'reece between DCC and :CC3..
Explain that it+s an +origin myth+ in that it attempts to explain the beginning of something. !n this
case , the beginnings of disease, illness and death.
0isplay a timeline which includes 3. and ). and explain this to the students to aid
understanding of the age and origins of the myth.
Explain that the story of <andora+s 3ox is now entrenched in our English language
and, although the original plot of the story may no longer be widely "nown, the
message of the story remains and is still referred to today in daily conversations, for example, it
can be said that if you tal" to someone about something that is bothering them you may 4ust open
a <andora+s 3ox. !n other words , you may create more trouble that there already is.
)ctivity 11 , Model writing activity
SummariFe the myth of <andora+s 3ox using the information from the discussion in )ctivity 1C.
Becord students+ responses on a graphic organiFer with the following headings( .haracters,
Settings, <lot, My favorite part, !deamMessage
)ctivity 12 , Myth )nalysis
)s" student to analyFe a myth of their choice using the organiFer provided and following the
format modeled above.
11D
)ctivity 1& , he Story 'raph
<rovide students with a copy of he Story 'raph.
Explain and discuss the process of successful writing , using the graph or +rollercoaster+ as a
model. /or example(
, Start with action
, 3ac"fill , a #uic" who and why
, <lot 0evelopment , plot and characters slowly unfold
, 'radual 3uild 5p , good vs evil
, 8uge ension , )ction se#uence or ma4or dilemma
, )ction .limax , the moment of glorymthe winner
, .haracter wrap,up , emotional resolution, message or moral
Model the use of +he Story 'raph+ by filling in the information from the story of <andora+s 3ox.
)ctivity 11 , .reate your own Myth using +he Story 'raph+
Explain that students will use he Story 'raph, and what they have learned about Myths, to
create their own Myth.
<rovide opportunities for students to discuss their ideas with classmates.
3rainstorm some possible myths for the writing tas", e.g. 8ow dragons came to breath fire.
.onference and remind students to edit their writing
)ctivity 1D , Aral presentation.
<lan and prepare and oral presentation about the myth the student has developed 9provide an
assessment rubric prior to commencement , discuss and explain;
Students practice reading aloud their Myths with a classmate and assist each other to edit their
wor".
Students present their Myth to the class in a & minute oral presentation.
he presentation should begin with a brief overview of the characters, setting, plot and moral or
main ideammessage.
Students use their "nowledge and experience of myths to plan and prepare their own myth , in
narrative format, and present it in an oral presentation.
Do Yo0 B")+"3" +/ G&o#t#<
5pper,!ntermediate
he tape script for the listening text(
11?
'host stories have been with human"ind for thousands of years. here are written accounts from
the .hinese and 'ree"s, for example, which ma"e up some of the earliest writings of haunting.
3ut do people in our modern, well,educated civiliFation actually believe in ghostsp
!n the 5nited States, the answer seems to be -yes.- )ccording to a survey ta"en in 2CC&, more
than half of the population considers ghosts are real. he belief is in spite
of the #uestionable scientific evidence.
he poll also revealed that few people have ever seen any spiritual being, and have simply based
their beliefs on O and movies.
Many popular programs and movies have been inspired by real,life ghost stories. 8owever,
many have turned out to be false and exaggerated before 8ollywood even rewrote the story.
Athers have been manipulated by 8ollywood so much that they don+t even loo" li"e the original
tale. 3ut it doesn+t matter so much how 8ollywood has changed the ghost stories, because the
real,life ones seem much less remar"able.
Ab4ects don+t fly across the room, and people aren+t possessed by spirits.
)t best, some describe a creepy feeling, see strange spots of light on film, or see something out
of the corner of their eye. 8owever, O and movies are everywhere in today+s world, so they
often subtly affect people. hey influence society+s beliefs, the same as ghost stories did long
ago.
8ow about youp
0o you believe in ghostsp

L+#t"/ a/1 $+)) +/ t&" %+##+/* #"/t"/2"#. Co%!ar" o0r a/#5"r# 5+t& a !art/"r, a/1
t&"/ )+#t"/ o/2" %or".
0o Mou 3elieve in 'hostsp
'host stories have been with human"ind for thousands of years. here are written accounts from
the .hinese and 'ree"s, for example, a;ttttttttttttttttttttttttt.
3ut do people in our modern, well,educated civiliFation actually believe in ghostsp
!n the 5nited States, the answer seems to be -yes.- )ccording to a survey ta"en in 2CC&, more
than half of the population considers ghosts are real. he belief is in spite of the #uestionable
scientific evidence. b; tttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt
ttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt, and have
11K
simply based their beliefs on O and movies. Many popular programs and movies have been
inspired by real,life ghost stories. 8owever, many c; ttttttttttttttttttttttt
ttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt.
Athers have been manipulated by 8ollywood so much that they don+t even loo" li"e the original
tale. 3ut it doesn+t matter so much how 8ollywood has changed the ghost stories, because the
real,life ones seem much less remar"able. Ab4ects don+t fly across the room, and people aren+t
possessed by spirits. )t best, d; ttttttttttttttttttttt
ttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt.
e; tttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt
ttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt, so they often subtly affect people.
hey influence society+s beliefs, the same as ghost stories did long ago.
8ow about youp
0o you believe in ghostsp
SE< AGE
itle(
Speculate andmor discuss the contents of today+s article from its title( -0o Mou 3elieve in
'hostsp-
SE< *A
luestions( Bead as much of the article as you can in two minutes. 'uess the answers to the
#uestions below, then listen to your teacher read the article. ry to confirm your answers.
a. he earliest written stories about ghosts come from the Egyptians. m/
b. )lmost two , thirds of )mericans believe in ghosts. m/
c. O and movies affect people+s belief in ghosts. m/
d. Beal , life ghost stories are as exciting as the stories from 8ollywood. m/
e. )ccording to the article, some people get a strange feeling when a ghost is nearby. m/
SE< 8BEE
luestions( )nswer the #uestions to chec" comprehension.
a. 8ow many people in the 5S believe in ghostsp
b. *hy do people in the 5S believe in ghostsp
c. 8ow are real , life ghost stories and 8ollywood tales differentp
d. *hat does the article say about real , life ghost storiesp
11=
e. 8ow are modern ghost stories the same as stories from long agop
SE< /A5B
0iscuss ( al" about the following #uestions in pairsmgroups. Bemember to support your
answersn *rite down your answers.
a. 0id you li"e this articlep
b. 0o you believe in ghostsp 8ow about other monsters, li"e vampires or mummiesp *hy m notp
c. 8ow much do you thin" O and movies affect your opinions and beliefsp <lease explain.
d. )re there any good ghost stories from your countryp !f yes, please tell one
1. U#+/* %t&o)o* +/ t"a2&+/* *ra%%ar
!f the goals of language instruction include teaching students to use grammar accurately,
meaningfully, and appropriately, then a compelling case can be made for teaching grammar.
!nstead of viewing grammar as a static system of arbitrary rules, it should be seen as a rational,
dynamic system that is comprised of structures characteriFed by the three dimensions of form,
meaning, and use.
*hile grammar can be thought of as static "nowledge, it can also be considered a process.
%anguage teachers would not be content if their students could recite all the rules of grammar but
not be able to apply them. he goal is for students to be able to use grammar in an
unselfconscious fashion to achieve their communicative ends. )s with any s"ill, achieving this
goal ta"es practice.
eaching grammar does not mean as"ing students to repeat models in a mindless way, and it
does not mean memoriFing rules. Such activities can be boring and do not necessarily teach
grammar. his does not mean there is no place for drills, but drills should be used in a
meaningful and purposeful way.
'rammar can be introduced in a number of ways. here is a great opportunity of using
a 6real texts7 to understand and experiment with a 6real language7. .hildren have an innate
sense of interest in stories that portray heroes, personify animals and actions, ta"e place in
castles and enchanted forests. /airy tales will interest pupils and bring them into a natural
rhythm, flow and pictures#ue language of the text
=&
.
!n fairy tales two main uses of language can be distinguished( for a narrative and for a
=&
Eones ^ )llen, 1==D
12C
dialogue. ) narrative text concerns the series of events( 8ans started to pull out his finger2
little brother ran for help.
) dialogue is type of language as if it is spo"en by the characters(
6Bunn 'o to the town and tell the men there+s a hole in the di"en7
=1
. he teacher can point out the
use of the <ast Simple in narratives and the <resent Simple in dialogues.
exts with mythology elements help children to notice language areas such as past tenses,
ad4ectives, comparatives, nouns etc. eachers could use passages from the fairy tale to point out
grammatical features. /or example, to as" students to find irregular verbs, to write down all
ad4ectives or to locate the words and phrases that indicates position in place or time. exts
with continuous meanings are more authentic than the connected sentences which are often
used as examples in grammar boo"s. Storyboo"s often contain extended examples of
dialogue that use a wide variety of punctuation mar"s, in more natural context than is possible
in grammar exercise boo"s. *ord order can be taught through reading fairy tales as well.
*hen wor"ing in groups, students can as" and answer content,related #uestions and learn the
*ord order of #uestions and affirmative sentences
=:
.
Mythology ales in eaching Oocabulary
Ane of the purposes of fairy tales is to entertain, so writers and tellers choose and use
words with particular care to "eep the audience interested. Mythology tales include unusual
words, or words that have a strong phonological content, with interesting rhymes or sound that
are onomatopoetic. !n fairy tales there is used evocative vocabulary. he language of the fairy
eaching English as a foreign language through fairy tales uses memorable language such as
metaphors, alliteration, rhymes, and the spo"en language of the common people. he built,up
repetition of the words and phrases is one of the features of fairy tales that is very helpful for
language learning. he context created by the story, its predictable pattern of events and
language, pictures, all act to support the readers understanding of unfamiliar words. .hildren
will pic" up the words that they en4oy and this way stories offer space for growth in
vocabulary
=D
.
*ith the help of fairy tales specific vocabulary could be taught( different old words, beginnings
and endings 9e.g. Ance upon a time2 /ar,far away2 hey lived happily ever after...;, names of the
=1
Eones ^ )llen, 1==D
=:
Beid, 2CC2
=D
.ameron, 2CC1
121
characters and things which are connected to the characters 9e.g. fairy, witch, "ing, #ueen,
prince, princess, magic stic", throne, and etc...;, names of the setting, places 9e.g. forest,
"ingdom, far,far away land, etc.;, gems and precious metals 9e.g. silver, copper, gold, steel...;
=?
.
CONCLUSIONS:
he research aims at practical aspects of using mythology elements in English language
classrooms with the assumption that these elements provide students with a powerful basis for
both language and personality development.
%iterature plays an important role in our life. Mythology as a part of the childrens literature
could be a valuable source for teaching English as a foreign language and might be considered
one of the possible supplementary teaching materials for English language learners. !t is not only
the atmosphere of mystery, thrill and wonder which ma"es stories from mythology so uni#ue and
valuable but they can bring the whole magic world to a young reader and learner. hey can open
the old wisdom and "nowledge of human"ind which we often forget about. %iterature provides
wonderful source material for eliciting strong emotional responses from students and using it in
classroom is a fruitful way of involving the learner as a whole person.
Myths may contribute to the enrichment of a young readers "nowledge in a number of ways. hey
teach moral and values highlighting the universal norms and standards of language existence.
Stories are an ideal tool in learning language as they guide us through our whole life. So, not
only learning our mother tongue, but also other foreign languages through stories can ma"e our
effort more interesting, amusing and memorable. Students have an amaFing ability to absorb
language when activities are familiar and en4oyable to them. eaching foreign language on the
base of storytelling which are full of mythological elements is exactly the activity which is both
familiar and it is fun.
Mythology is for all of us, not 4ust for children, that is why using it in teaching adolescents is as
important as using it in teaching young children. Myths can attract students attention, because
they provide challenging topics based on their everyday interests such as love and friendship,
power, punishments. !t also provides a huge space for fantasy and creativity.
=?
3agg, 1==12 .ameron, 2CC1
122
BIBLIOGRAPHY:
)ngelo, Eoseph ). 6 Bobotics( ) Beference 'uide to the Gew echnology7, %ibraries 5nlimited,
Betrieved 1D 0ecember 2C12
3aines, Eohn -Myth and %iterature-. !n %oprieno, )ntonio. Ancient 0gyptian $iterature4 >istory
and 6orms. .ornell 5niversity <ress, 1==D.
3agg, M.3. /ol" %iterature in the /oreign %anguage .lassroom. Betrived from
http(mmeric.ed.govmEB!.*eb<ortalmcontentdeliverymservletmEB!.ServletpaccnojE0&1&1&2,
accessed )pril 1K, 2C12
3rindley, 0. E. 3rea"ing the <oetry 3arrier( owards 5nderstanding and En4oying <oetry, <aper
presented at the )nnual Meeting of the !nternational .onference on the eaching of English,
Sydney, )ustralia, 1=KC.
.larus, !ngeborg, -eltsk. M/ty4 alo"bk a Keho OKin/ 1"btO. rans. Ean 8laviw"a. <raha( Oy[ehrad
2CC1.
0avid, Bosalie, @eligion and Magic in Ancient 0gypt. <enguin,2CC2.
0unand, /ranxoise2 .hristiane Jivie,.oche 92CC:; Y2CC2Z. !ods and Men in 0gypt4 ]=== C0
to ]^: C0. ranslated by 0avid %orton. .ornell 5niversity <ress.
0undes, )lan. !ntroduction. 1acred Narrati"e4 @eadings in the Theory of Myth. Ed. )lan
0undes. 3er"eley( 5niversity of .alifornia <ress, 1=K1.
0unes, )lan. -Madness in Method <lus a <lea for <ro4ective !nversion in Myth-. Myth and
Method. Ed. %aurie <atton and *endy 0oniger. .harlottesville( 5niversity of Oirginia <ress,
1==D.
6 Euhemerism7, he .oncise Axford 0ictionary of *orld Beligions
@ir", '.S. -An 0efining Myths-. 1acred Narrati"e4 @eadings in the Theory of Myth. Ed. )lan
0undes. 3er"eley( 5niversity of .alifornia <ress, 1=K1.
/raFer, Eames. The !olden ough. Gew Mor"( Macmillan, 1=22.
'antF, Eeffrey. 0arly Irish Myths and 1agas, p. 1, 8armondsworth( <enguin 3oo"s, 1=K1.
'antF, Eeffrey. 0arly Irish Myths and 1agas, 8armondsworth( <enguin 3oo"s, 1=K1.
'eddes ^ 'rosset %td, 0ictionary of the .elts, 3roc"hampton <ress %ondon 1==?.
'ree" Mythology, Encyclopedia 3ritannica 2CC2.
12&
'reen, Miranda. -eltsk. m/ty, rans. Michal @ovQX. <raha( %idovP noviny, 1==K.
'regory, %ady. Irish Mythology, %ondon( 3ounty 3oo"s, 2CC1.
8ornung, Eri" Conceptions of !od in 0gypt4 The One and the Many. ranslated by Eohn 3aines.
.ornell 5niversity <ress, 1=K2.
!. Morris, )rchaeology )s .ultural 8istory.
Ean )ssmann, 6 he Search for 'od in )ncient Egipt7, .ornell 5niversity <ress, 2CC1
E. G. 3remmer and G. M. 8orsfall, Boman Myth and Mythography 9 5niversity of %ondon
!nstitute of .lassical Studies, 1=K?;.
Eac"son, @enneth 8urlstone , ) .eltic Miscellany, <enguin .lassics, 1=?1.
Eones, . ^ )llen, B. English 'rammar. !nveistigating and understanding the features of
language through fairy tales.<rim,Ed <ublishing, 1==D.
Eones,*illiam %ewis, -ing Arthur in >istory and $egend, .ambridge( 5niversity <ress, 1=11.
Eoshy, S. . 6 !cons of 8orror and the Supernatural( )n Encyclopedia of Aur *orst Gightmares,
'reenwood <ublishing 'roup, 2CC?. Betrieved 1D 0ecember 2C12.
%acy Gorris E. and 'eoffrey )she. The Arthurian >and%ook. Gew Mor"( 'arland
<ublishing, 1==?.
%oomis, Boger Sherman, ed. Arthurian $iterature in the Middle Ages4 a Colla%orati"e >istory.
Axford( .larendon <ress, 1=:=.
Mac .ana, <roinsias. Celtic Mythology, %ondon( 8amlyn, 1=?&.
Mac@illop, Eames. -eltsk. &3eslo"(4 )r5"odce -eltskou Mythologi(. YMyths and $egends of the
CeltsZ,rans. OQclav <elW[e". <raha( Ga"ladatelstvW %idovP noviny, 2CC=.
Mee"s and /avard,Mee"s 1==D.
Mellor, )nne @. Mary Shelley( 8er %ife, 8er /iction, 8er Monsters2 <sychology <ress,
Betrieved 1D 0ecember 2C12
Mc%eod, Eohn 6 he Boutledge .ompanion to <ostcolonial Studies7,2CC?. Betrieved 1D
0ecember 2C12
Milton, %)llegro and !! <enseroso
Moss ^ Boss,/eldman, 2CC&
Geeson, Eoin. Irsk. M/ty a $egendy,rans. !vana 0a\helovQ. 3rno( )ndo <ublishing, 1==:.
Gorth, Boman Beligion.
ABahilly . /. Early !rish 8istory and Mythology, 0ublin, 1=1D
121
Asborn, @evin, 3urgess, 0ana, 6 he .omplete !diots 'uide to .lassical Mythology7, <enguin
Asgood, .harles 'rosvenor 6 he .lassical Mythology of Miltons English <oems7, *illiam ..
3rown, 1=CC.
Beid, S.3oo" 3ridges for ES% Students. 5sing Moung )dult and .hildrens %iterature
to each ES%. 5S)( Scarecrow <ress,2CC2.
Scha"el, <eter 6 ill *e 8ave /aces( ) Myth Betold7, Betrieved on )ugust :, 2CCK
6roy7, Encyclopaedia 3ritannica, 2CC2
.<.*iseman, Bemus( ) Boman Myth, 9 .ambridge 5niversity <ress, 1==:;
obin, Oincent )rieh Theological )rinciples of 0gyptian @eligion. <. %ang,1=KD.
12: