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The most basic paint is made up of a pigment and a binder.

Pigments
provide the color, and the binder is the glue the pigment is suspended in.
Without the binder, pigments would not remain glued to a surface. Fillers
and solvents are an optional additive to paint. Fillers add different textures
and bulk to paint. Common llers include whiting (powdered chalk),
talcum, limestone, silica and marble. Solvents are thinners that allow paint
consistency to be easily controlled. Solvents are what cause VOCs to be
emitted. Natural solvents, such as citrus thinners and natural turpentine,
still emit VOCs, but at a very low level (Steen, 2006).
Components of Paint
There are many natural binders, such as linseed oil, starch
(from ower), egg yolk tempura, and casein (a protein found in
milk). Casein binders make great paint for interior surfaces,
exterior surfaces in mild and non-humid climates, bare wood,
stone, bare drywall, wallpaper, masonry, and even previously
painted surfaces. After drying, casein paint will last indenitely
without being prone to fungal growth (Steen, 2006).
Types
Organic Paint

Outgassing is, ...that new smell in wood, furniture, carpet and that nice fresh coat of
paint on the wall. It is part of the drying and curing process of paint. (Dex Media, Inc.,
n.d.). VOCs in wall paint alone make up 9% of the pollutants in the air that cause
greenhouse gases and smog, which contribute directly to global warming. Many areas
have enforced stricter limits on wall paint. Californias South Coast Air Quality
Management District dropped the allowable amount of VOCs in wall paint to 50 g/L, and
charges fees to companies that exceed this limit. The EPA has proposed cutting the
maximum amount of VOCs allowed in half (Casa Verde Paint, 2011). Solvents, which
control the consistency of paints, outgas and evaporate VOCs as the paint drys, which
can cause many side effects, ranging from mild to fatal (Steen, 2006).
Prolonged inhalation, ingestion, or absorption of solvents (found in inorganic
manufactured paint) in large amounts can lead to drowsiness, headaches, dizziness,
feelings of intoxication, fatigue, mental confusion, increased heart rate, nausea, and
loss of coordination. High-level exposure may also cause breathing difculty,
convulsions, kidney damage, and even death. Painting in a non-enclosed space with
plenty of ventilation will help ght against the side effects of VOC emissions. Jackson
Pollock, also known as Jack the Dripper, suffered neurological disorders from working
in a VOC-lled studio from his paints. Aromatic, chlorinated, and aliphatic hydrocarbons
are easily absorbed by the skin and can cause both short-term and long-term effects on
the nervous system (Spandorfer, Curtiss, & Snyder, 2010).
Inorganic Paint
Issues