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COVERAGE

CRIMINAL LAW 2014 BAR EXAMINATIONS




I. Revised Penal Code (RPC) and related Special Laws

A. Book 1 (Articles 1-99, RPC; exclude the provisions on civil liability)

1. Fundamental principles

a) Definition of Criminal Law
(i) Mala in Se and Mala Prohibita
(ii) Construction of penal laws

b) Scope of application and characteristics of Philippine criminal law

(i) Generality : means that the criminal law of the country governs all persons within the country
regardless of their race, belief, sex, or creed.

Note: The term generality has no reference to territory. It refers to persons that may be governed by the
penal law.

Requirements of an offense committed while on a Philippine ship or airship?
1. The ship or airship must be registered with the Philippine Bureau of Customs.
2. The ship must be in the high seas or the airship must be in international space.

French rule: The French rule recognizes the jurisdiction of the flag country over crimes
committed on board the vessel except if the crime disturbs the peace
and order and security of the host country.

English rule: The English rule recognizes that the host country has jurisdiction over crimes committed
on board the vessel unless they involve the internal management of the vessel.
(ii) Territoriality : means that the penal laws of the country have force and effect only
within its territory
(iii) Prospectivity : means that acts or omissions will only be subject to a penal law if they are
committed after a penal law had already taken effect

(a) Effects of repeal/amendment of penal law

c) Constitutional limitations on the power of Congress to enact penal laws
*no expost facto law and bill of attainders

(i) Equal protection
(ii) Due process
(iii) Non-imposition of cruel and unusual punishment or excessive fines
(a) Act Prohibiting the Imposition of Death Penalty in the Philippines (R.A.
No. 9346)
(iv) Bill of attainder
(v) Ex post facto law

2. Felonies

a) Classifications of felonies
b) Elements of criminal liability

Criminal liability is incurred by any person
1. Committing a felony although the wrongful act done be different from that which he intended.
2. Performing an act which would be an offense against persons or property, were it not for the
inherent possibility of its accomplishment or on account
of the employment of inadequate or ineffectual means

Aberratio ictus or mistake in the blow:
the offender intends the injury on one person but the harm fell on another. There are three persons
present when the felony is committed: the offender, the intended victim, and the actual victim.

Ppraeter intentionem, the injury is on the
intended victim but the resulting consequence is so grave a wrong than what was intended.

Note: There must be a notable disparity between the means employed and the resulting felony.

Praeter intentionem is a mitigating circumstance particularly covered by paragraph 3 of Article 13

c) Impossible crime
Requisites
1. Act performed would be an offense against persons or property.
Note: Kidnapping is a crime against personal security and not against person or property
2. Act was done with evil intent
3. Accomplishment is inherently impossible or means employed is either inadequate or ineffectual
4. Act performed should not constitute a violation of another provision of RPC

d) Stages of execution
e) Conspiracy and proposal
f) Multiple offenders (differences, rules, effects)
(i) Recidivism: the offender at thetime of his trial for one crime shall have
been previously convicted by final judgment of another embraced in the same title of the RPC.

Note: It is important that conviction which came earlier must refer to the crime committed earlier
than the subsequent conviction.

A recidivist is entitled to the benefits of the Indeterminate Sentence Law but is disqualified from
availing credit of his preventive imprisonment.

(ii) Habituality (Reiteracion): the offender has been previously punished for an offense which
the law attaches an equal or greater penalty or for two or more crimes to which it attaches a lig;
Any person who shall commit a felony after having been convicted by final judgment before
beginning to serve such sentence or while serving such sentence shall be punished by the maximum
period prescribed by law for the new felony.

(iii) Quasi-Recidivism : Any person who shall commit a felony after having been convicted by final
judgment before beginning to serve such sentence or while serving such sentence shall be punished
by the maximum period prescribed by law for the new felony

(iv) Habitual Delinquency-the offender within the period of 10 years from the date of his release
or last conviction of the crimes of serious or less serious physical injuries, robbery, theft, estafa or
falsification, is found guilty of any of the said crimes a third time or oftener.

g) Continuing crimes
h) Complex crimes and special complex crimes
Complex crime exists when two or more crimes are committed but they constitute only one crime in the eyes of the law. Here,
there is only one criminal intent hence, only one penalty is imposed

Kinds of complex crimes
1. Compound crime when a single act constitutes two or more grave or less grave felonies.
Requisites:
a. Only a single act is performed by the offender
b. The single act produces:
i. Two or more grave felonies ii. One or more grave and one or more less grave felonies iii. Two or more less grave felonies.

2. Complex crime proper when an offense is the necessary means for committing the other.
Requisites:
a. At least two offenses are committed
b. One or some of the offenses must be necessary to commit the other
c. Both or all the offenses must be punished under the same statute

Note: The first crime must be a necessary means to commit the other.
There should only be one information charging a complex crime.
Only one penalty is imposed for complex crimes because there is only one criminal act.

3. Special complex crime known as composite crime, the component crimes constitute a single indivisible offense and are thus
penalized as one crime
***there can be a complex crime of coup dtat with rebellion and coup detat with sedition

3. Circumstances affecting criminal liability
Criteria to determine if the act is an entrapment or instigation :People v. Doria the SC held that the conduct of the
apprehending officers and the predisposition of the accused to commit the crime must be examined
a) Justifying circumstances

1. Selfdefense
Requisites of selfdefense
1. Unlawful aggression
2. Reasonable necessity of the means employed to prevent or repel it
3. Lack of sufficient provocation on the part of the person defending himself

2. Defense of relatives
1. Unlawful aggression.
2. Reasonable necessity of the means employed to prevent or repel it.
3. Relative being defended gave no provocation

3. Defense of stranger

1. Unlawful aggression.
2. Reasonable necessity of the means employed to prevent or repel it.
3. Relative being defended gave no provocation

4. Avoidance of greater evil or injury

1. Evil sought to be avoided actually exists.
2. Injury feared be greater than that done to avoid it.
3. There be no other practical and less harmful means of preventing it, and
4. There must be no contribution on the part of the accused what caused the evil to arise.

5. Fulfillment of duty or exercise of right or office

1. Accused acted in the performance of a duty or in the lawful exercise of a right or office.
2. Injury caused or offense committed be the necessary consequence of the due performance of duty or the lawful exercise
of such right or office.

6. Obedience to an order of a superior

1. An order has been issued by a superior
2. Such order must be for some lawful purpose
3. Means used by the subordinate to carry out said order is lawful

(i) Anti-Violence Against Women and Their Children Act of 2004 (R.A. No.
9262)
(a) Battered woman syndrome: refers to a scientifically defined pattern of psychological and behavioral symptoms
found in women living in battering relationships as a result of cumulative abuse. The battered woman syndrome is
characterized by the socalled cycle of violence, which has 3 phases. Tension building phase /Acute battering incident /Tranquil,
loving (or at least nonviolent) phase

b) Exempting circumstances

1. An imbecile or an insane person, unless the latter has acted during a lucid interval.
2. A child fifteen years of age or under is exempt from criminal liability under R.A. 9344
3. A person over fifteen years of age and under eighteen, unless he has acted with discernment, in which case, such child
shall be subject to appropriate proceedings in accordance with R.A. 9344.
4. Any person who, while performing a lawful act with due care, causes an injury by mere accident without fault or intention
of causing it (damnum absque injuria)
5. Any person who acts under the compulsion of an irresistible force.
Compulsion is by means of physical force / irresistible / come from a third person
6. Any person who acts under the impulse of an uncontrollable fear of an equal or greater injury.
1. Threat, which causes the fear, is of an evil greater than or at least equal to that which he is required to commit.
2. It promises an evil of such gravity and imminence that the ordinary man would have succumbed to it.
7. Any person who fails to perform an act required by law, when prevented by some lawful or insuperable cause.
1. An act is required by law to be done.
2. A person fails to perform such act.
3. Failure to perform such act was due to some lawful or insuperable cause.

(i) Juvenile Justice and Welfare Act of 2006 (R.A. No. 9344); also refer to
Child and Youth Welfare Code (P.D. 603, as amended)

(a) Definition of child in conflict with the law: child who is alleged as, accused of, or adjudged as, having committed
an offense under Philippine laws
(b) Minimum age of criminal responsibility
AGE BRACKET CRIMINAL
LIABILITY
TREATMENT
15 years old or below Exempt The child shall be subjected to an intervention program
Above 15 but below 18, who
acted without discernment
Exempt The child shall be subjected to an intervention program
Above 15 but below 18, who
acted with discernment
Not exempt Such child shall be subjected to the appropriate proceedings in accordance
with R.A. 9344

(c) Determination of age: Birth certificate / Baptismal certificate / Any other pertinent documents
Automatic Suspension in Sec. 38 of R.A. 9344: Once the child who is under 18 years of age at the time of the commission of the
offense is found guilty of the offense charged, the court shall determine and ascertain any civil liability which may have resulted
from the offense committed. However, instead of pronouncing the judgment of conviction, the court shall place the child in
conflict with the law under suspended sentence, without need of application: Provided, however, That suspension of sentence
shall still be applied even if the juvenile is already 18 years of age or more at the time of the pronouncement of his/her guilt

(d) Exemption from criminal liability
(e) Treatment of child below age of responsibility
(f) Status offenses under Sec. 57 of R.A. No. 9344
(g) Offenses not applicable to children under Sec. 58 of R.A. No. 9344

c) Mitigating circumstances

1. Incomplete justifying or exempting circumstance
2. The offender is under 18 or over 70 years old.
3. No intention to commit so grave a wrong (praeter inentionem)
*mitigating only if the victim dies
4. Sufficient threat or provocation
Provocation must be sufficient. / must originate from the offended party/ must be immediate to the act
5. Vindication of a grave offense
Grave offense done to the one committing the felony, his SADBroSA /Felony is committed in vindication of such grave offense.
6. Passion or obfuscation
That there is an act, both unlawful and sufficient to produce such a condition of mind/said act which produced the obfuscation
was not far removed from the commission of the crime by a considerable length of time, during which the perpetrator might
recover his natural equanimity.
7. Voluntary surrender/ confession of guilt
Offender had not been actually arrested/ Surrender was made to a person in authority or the latter's agent / Surrender was
voluntary
Offender voluntarily confessed his guilt/ made in open court / prior to the presentation of evidence for the prosecution
8. Physical defect
9. Illness of the offender
Illness of the offender must diminish the exercise of will power/ illness should not deprive offender the consciousness of his
acts.
10. Similar and analogous circumstances

d) Aggravating circumstances

1. Advantage taken of public position
2. Contempt or insult to public authorities
Public authority is engaged in the exercise of his functions/Such public authority is not the person against whom the crime is
committed/Offender knows him to be a public authority/His presence has not prevented the offender from committing the
crime

3. Disregard of age, sex, or dwelling of the offended party
With insult or in disregard of the respect due to the offended party on account of his: a. Rank b. Age c. Sex /it be committed in
the dwelling of the offended party, if the latter has not given sufficient provocation.
4. Abuse of confidence and obvious ungratefulness
Offended party had trusted the offender/Offender abused such trust by committing a crime against offended party/ Abuse of
confidence facilitated the commission of the crime.
The offended party had trusted the offender/ The offender abused such trust by committing a crime against the offended
party/ The act be committed with obvious ungratefulness.
5. Palace and places of commission of offense
crime be committed: In the palace of the Chief Executive; or In his presence; or Where public authorities are engaged in the
discharge of their duties; or In a place dedicated to religious worship
6. Nighttime, uninhabited place or band
7. On occasion of calamity or misfortune
8. Aid of armed men, etc.
Armed men or persons took part in the commission of the crime, directly or indirectly/Accused availed himself of their aid or
relied upon them when the crime was committed.
9. Recidivist
Offender is on trial for one crime /He was previously convicted by final judgment of another crime /Both the first and second
offenses are embraced in the same title of the RPC / Offender is convicted of the new offense
10. Reiteracion or habituality
Accused is on trial for an offense /He previously served sentence for a. Another offense to which the law attaches an equal or
greater penalty; or Two or more crimes to which it attaches a lighter penalty than that for the new offense/ He is convicted of
the new offense.
A person is a habitual delinquent if: Within a period of 10 years from the date of his release or last conviction/ Of the crimes of
falsification, robbery, estafa, theft, serious or less serious physical injuries/he is found guilty of said crimes a third time or
oftener.
HABITUAL DELINQUENCY RECIDIVISM RECIDIVISM
At least three convictions are required Two convictions are
enough
QUASIRECIDIVISM RECIDIVISM PROPER
The crimes are specified and limited to: (a)
serious physical injuries (b) less serious
physical injuries (c)robbery (d) theft, (e)
estafa or swindling and (f) falsification
The crimes are not
specified. It is enough
that they may be
embraced under the
same title of the RPC
Does not require that
the offense for which
the convict is serving
and the new felony
committed are
embraced in the same
title of the Code.
It requires that both the
first and the second
offenses must
embraced in the same
title of the Code.
There is a time limit of not more than 10
years between every conviction
There is no time limit
between the 1st
conviction and the
subsequent conviction.
Recidivism is
imprescriptible
The aggravating
circumstances of
recidivism may not be
offset by any ordinary
mitigating circumstance
present in the
commission of the
crime.
The aggravating
circumstances of
recidivism may be offset
by any ordinary
mitigating circumstance
present in the
commission of the
crime.
Habitual delinquency is a special
aggravating circumstance, hence it cannot
be offset by any mitigating circumstance.
It is a generic
aggravating
circumstance which can
be offset by an ordinary
mitigating circumstance.
If not offset, it would
only increase the
penalty prescribed by
law for the crime
committed to its
maximum period.
The circumstance must be alleged in the
information, otherwise the court cannot
acquire jurisdiction to impose the penalty.
The circumstance need
not be alleged in the
information.

Elements of quasirecidivism
Offender was already convicted by final judgment of one offense /He committed a new felony before beginning to serve such
sentence or while serving the same
11. Price, reward, or promise
There are at least two principals a. Principal by inducement b. Principal by direct participation / The price, reward, or promise
should be previous to and in consideration of the commission of the criminal act.
12. By means of inundation, fire, etc.
13. Evident premeditation
Time when offender determined to commit the crime/ Act manifestly indicating that he has clung to its determination/
Sufficient lapse of time between the determination and execution, to allow him to reflect upon the consequences of his act and
to allow his conscience to overcome the resolution of his will
14. Craft, fraud or disguise
CRAFT FRAUD DISGUISE
Involves the use of intellectual trickery and
cunning not to arouse the suspicion of the
victim
Involves the
use of direct
inducement by
insidious
words or
machinations
Involves the
use of devise
to conceal
identity

15. Superior strength or means to weaken the defense
Means were purposely sought to weaken the defense of the victim to resist the assault/ The means used must not totally
eliminate possible defense of the victim, otherwise, it will fall under treachery.
16. Treachery
At the time of the attack, victim was not in the position to defend himself /Offender consciously adopted the particular means,
method or form of attack employed by him.
17. Ignominy
18. Unlawful entry
19. Breaking wall
At the time of the attack, victim was not in the position to defend himself /Offender consciously adopted the particular means,
method or form of attack employed by him.
20. Aid of minor or by means of motor vehicle or other similar means
21. Cruelty
The injury caused be deliberately increased by causing other wrong/ The other wrong be unnecessary for the execution of the
purpose of the offender

Note: Nos.16, 910, 14, 18, 19 are generic aggravating circumstances
Nos. 3, 7, 8, 11, 12, 1517, 20, 21 are specific aggravating circumstances
No. 16 is a case of qualified aggravating circumstance
Nos. 1, 13, 17, 19 are inherent aggravating circumstances

(i) Generic
(ii) Qualifying
(a) Decree Codifying the Laws on Illegal/Unlawful Possession,
Manufacture, Dealing in, Acquisition or Disposition, of Firearms,
Ammunition or Explosives (P.D. 1866, as amended by R.A. No. 8294)
as an aggravating circumstance

1. The use of an unlicensed firearm to commit murder or homicide is an aggravating circumstance. Hence, illegal possession
or use of unlicensed firearm is no longer punished as a separate offense.
2. If the illegal possession or use of unlicensed firearm or explosives is in furtherance of, or incident to, or in connection with
the crimes of rebellion, insurrection, or subversion shall be absorbed as an element of such crimes.
3. Penalty for mere possession of an unlicensed firearm is based on whether the firearm is lowpowered or highpowered.
4. Unlicensed firearm shall include: firearms with expired license; or unauthorized use of licensed firearm in the commission
of the crime.


(b) The Comprehensive Dangerous Drugs Act of 2002 (R.A. No. 9165)
(i) As a qualifying aggravating circumstance
(ii) Immunity from prosecution and punishment, coverage
(iii) Minor offenders
(iv) Application/Non- application of RPC provisions (Sec. 98, R.A. No.
9165) provisions (Sec. 98) cf. Art. 10, RPC

e) Alternative circumstances

f) Absolutory cause

4. Persons criminally liable/Degree of participation

a) Decree Penalizing Obstruction of Apprehension and Prosecution of Criminal
Offenders (P.D. 1829)
(i) Punishable acts
(ii) Compare with Art. 20, RPC (accessories exempt from criminal liability)

5. Penalties

a) General principles
2014 Bar Examination Coverage 3 Criminal Law
(i) Act Prohibiting the Imposition of Death Penalty in the Philippines (R.A. No.
9346)
b) Purposes
c) Classification
d) Duration and Effect
e) Application
(i) Indeterminate Sentence Law (R.A. No. 4103, as amended)
(a) Application on the imposed sentence
(b) Coverage
(c) Conditions of parole
(ii) Three-fold rule
(iii) Subsidiary imprisonment

f) Execution and service
(i) Probation Law (P.D. 968, as amended)
(a) Definition of terms
(b) Purpose
(c) Grant of probation, manner and conditions
(d) Criteria of placing an offender on probation
(e) Disqualified offenders
(f) Period of probation
(g) Arrest of probationer
(h) Termination of probation; exception
(i) The Comprehensive Dangerous Drugs Act of 2002 (R.A. No. 9165)
(ii) Juvenile Justice and Welfare Act of 2006 (R.A. No. 9344); also
refer to Child and Youth Welfare Code (P.D. 603, as amended)
(a) Definition of child in conflict with the law
(b) Exemption from criminal liability
(c) Juvenile justice and welfare system

6. Modification and extinction of criminal liability

a) Prescription of crime; Prescription of Violations of Special Laws (Act. No. 3326)
b) Prescription of penalties
c) Pardon by offended party
d) Pardon by the Chief Executive
e) Amnesty

B. Book II (Articles 114-365, RPC) and specifically included Special Laws

1. Crimes Against National Security (Arts. 114-123)

Include:

a) Anti-Piracy and Anti-Highway Robbery (P.D. 532)
(i) Definition of terms
(ii) Punishable acts

2014 Bar Examination Coverage 4 Criminal Law
b) Anti-Hijacking Law (P.D. 6235)
(i) Punishable acts

c) Human Security Act of 2007 (R.A. No. 9372)
(i) Punishable acts of terrorism
(ii) Who are liable

2. Crimes Against the Fundamental Laws of the State (Articles 124-133)

Include:

a) Human Security Act of 2007 (R.A. No. 9372)
(i) Period of detention

b) Anti-Torture Act of 2009 (R.A. No. 9745)
(i) Punishable acts
(ii) Who are liable

3. Crimes Against Public Order (Articles 134-160)

Include:

a) Decree Codifying the Laws on Illegal/Unlawful Possession, Manufacture, Dealing
in, Acquisition or Disposition of Firearms, Ammunition or Explosives (P.D. 1866,
as amended by R.A. No. 8294), as further amended by the Comprehensive
Firearms and Ammunition Regulation Act (R.A. No. 10591).

b) Human Security Act of 2007 (R.A. No. 9372)
(i) Punishable acts of terrorism
(ii) Who are liable
(iii) Absorption principle in relation to complex crimes

4. Crimes Against Public Interest (Articles 161-187)

Include:

a) R.A. No. 9194 Anti-Money Laundering Act
(i) Punishable acts
(ii) Covered Transactions
(iii) Suspicious Transactions

5. Crimes Relative to Opium and Other Prohibited Drugs

a) The Comprehensive Dangerous Drugs Act of 2002 (R.A. No. 9165)
(i) Punishable acts
(ii) Who are liable
(iii) Attempt or conspiracy, effect on liability
(iv) Immunity from prosecution and punishment
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(iv) Custody and disposition of confiscated, seized and/or surrendered
dangerous drugs (Section 21, R.A. No. 9165)

b) Implementing Rules and Regulations (IRR) of R.A. No. 9165

6. Crimes Against Public Morals (Articles 200-202)

Include:

a) P.D. 1602 Anti-Gambling Act as amended by R.A. 9287 Illegal Numbers
Game which repealed Articles 195-199 of the RPC
(i) Punishable acts

b) Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act of 2003 (R.A. No. 9208)
(i) Punishable acts

7. Crimes Committed by Public Officers (Articles 203-245)

Include:

a) Anti-Graft and Corrupt Practices Act (R.A. No. 3019, as amended)
(i) Coverage
(ii) Punishable acts
(iii) Exceptions

b) Anti-Plunder Act (R.A. No. 7080, as amended)
(i) Definition of terms
(ii) Ill-gotten wealth
(iii) Plunder
(iv) Series/Combination
(v) Pattern

c) Human Security Act of 2007 (R.A. No. 9372)
(i) Failure to deliver suspect to proper judicial authority
(ii) Infidelity in the custody of detained persons
(iii) False prosecution

8. Crimes Against Persons (Articles 246-266)

Include:

a) Anti-Violence against Women and their Children Act of 2004 (R.A. No. 9262)
(i) Punishable acts

b) Anti-Child Pornography Act of 2009 (R.A. No. 9775)
(i) Definition of terms
(ii) Unlawful or punishable acts

2014 Bar Examination Coverage 6 Criminal Law
c) Anti-Hazing Law (R.A. No. 8049)
(i) Hazing
(a) Definition
(b) Allowed initiation rites
(ii) Who are liable
(iii) Punishable acts

d) Special Protection of Children Against Child Abuse, Exploitation and
Discrimination Act (R.A. No. 7610, as amended)
(i) Coverage
(ii) Child prostitution, punishable acts
(iii) Child trafficking, punishable acts

e) Juvenile Justice and Welfare Act of 2006 (R.A. No. 9344), as further amended
by the Act Strengthening the Juvenile Justice System in the Philippines (R.A.
No. 10630). Read in relation with the Child and Youth Welfare Code (P.D. 603,
as amended)
(i) Punishable acts

f) Human Security Act of 2007 (R.A. No. 9372)
(i) Punishable acts of terrorism
(ii) Who are liable

9. Crimes Against Personal Liberty and Security (Articles 267-292)

Include:

a) Anti-Wire Tapping Act (R.A. No. 4200)
(i) Punishable acts
(ii) Exceptions

b) Human Security Act of 2007 (R.A. No. 9372)
(i) Surveillance of suspects and interception and recording of
communications
(ii) Restriction on travel
(iii) Examination of bank deposits and documents
(a) Judicial Authorization
(b) Application
(iv) Unauthorized revelation of classified materials

c) Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act of 2003 (R.A. No. 9208)
(i) Punishable acts

10. Crimes Against Property (Articles 293-332)

Include:

a) Anti-Fencing Law (P.D. 1612) and its Implementing Rules and Regulations
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(i) Fencing
(a) Definition
(b) Presumption of fencing
(ii) Exception
(a) With clearance or permit to sell

b) Bouncing Checks Law (B.P. Blg. 22), plus Administrative Circular No. 12-2000
Re: Penalty for Violation of B.P. 22 and Administrative Circular No. 13-2001
Re: Clarification of Admin. Circular No. 12-2000; and P.D. No. 1689 (Increasing
the Penalty for Certain Forms of Swindling or Estafa)
(i) Punishable acts
(ii) Evidence of knowledge of insufficient funds
(iii) Preference of imposition of fine

c) Anti-Carnapping Act of 1972 (R.A. No. 6539), as amended by R.A. No.
7659
(i) Registration
(iii) Who are liable
(a) Duty of Collector of Customs
(b) Duty of importers, distributors and sellers
(c) Clearance and permit
(iv) Punishable acts

d) Human Security Act of 2007 (R.A. No. 9372)
(i) Punishable acts of terrorism

e) Anti-Arson Law (P.D. 1613)
(i) Punishable acts

11. Crimes Against Chastity (Articles 333-334, 336-346)

Include:

a) Anti-Photo and Video Voyeurism Act of 2009 (R.A. No. 9995)
(i) Punishable acts

b) Special Protection of Children Against Child Abuse, Exploitation and
Discrimination Act (R.A. No. 7610, as amended)
(i) Child prostitution and other acts of abuse
(a) Punishable acts
(b) Compare prosecution for Acts of Lasciviousness under Art. 366, RPC
and R.A. No. 7610, as amended
(ii) Obscene publications and indecent shows
(a) Punishable acts

c) Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act of 2003 (R.A. No. 9208)
(i) Punishable acts

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d) Anti-Violence Against Women and Their Children Act of 2004 (R.A. No. 9262)
(i) Punishable acts

12. Crimes Against Civil Status (Articles 347-352)

13. Crimes Against Honor (Articles 353-364)

Include:

a) Administrative Circular 08-2008 Re: Guidelines in the Observance of a
Rule of Preference in the Imposition of Penalties in Libel Cases
(i) Preference of imposition of fine

14. Criminal Negligence (Article 365)


EXCLUDE: a. Penalties for specific crimes

b. Special criminal laws not included in the above listing