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Eamon and David

Unit 3 Periodicity, Nomenclature, and organic


chemistry
3.1 Mendeleev and the Periodic Table

Johann Dobereiner- Classified elements into groups of three (triads). They had similar chemical
and physical properties.

John Newlands-organized elements in increasing atomic mass and noticed similar properties
every 8 elements (octaves)

Dmitri Mendeleev- arranged elements in order of increasing atomic mass. He arranged the
elements into groups with similar properties, and was challenged because there were missing
elements that hadn’t been discovered yet but he knew they existed and left spaces for them on
the table.

Periodicity Rules:

Groups:

- In the main element groups, elements in the same group share the same number of
valence electrons

- Elements in same groups share similar chemical and physical properties

Periods:

- Increasing atomic mass as you move across a period

- Paulo

Electron Affinity

-increases across period

-decreases down group

Ionization Energy

-increases across period

-decreases down group

Electro negativity

-increases across period


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-decreases down group

Atomic Radius

- decreases across period

- increases down group

Shielding Effect

- remains constant across period

- increases down group

Metalloids- The elements around the staircase in the period table

-Boron

-Silicon

-Germanium

-Arsenic

-Antimony

-Tellurium

-Astatine

Nonmetals- The elements to the right of the metalloids (plus hydrogen)

Metals-all the rest

ELEMENT PHASES AT ROOM TEMPERATURE!?!?>!>!>!>>!>

Names of Groups

Group 1-Alkali Metals (excluding hydrogen)

Group 2-Alkaline Earth Metals

Group 3-12- Transition Metals

Group 13-15 Poor metals

Group 16-The Oxygen Group

Group 17- Halogens (salt formers)

Group 18- Noble (inert) gases


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3.2 Periodic Trends

The two periods at the bottom of the periodic table are the Lanthanides (rare earth elements) and
the Actinides (inner transition elements)

Outer electron configuration- based on the element group, you can determine the number of
outer electrons and determine the configuration by the block which it’s in.

Two factors influence atomic radius and electro negativity are

1. Size of atoms since the bigger atoms can more easily give the outer electron
2. Number of electrons since the number the number in the outer shell determines how
well an atom attracts or gives up electrons.

Generally, Metals give up electrons and non metals take electrons based on the electro
negativity but there are many exceptions

Ionization energy- energy needed to remove an electron forming a cation (positive). (when an
atom loses an electron it gets a +1 charge)

1st, 2nd and 3rd ionization energy just refers to how many of the electrons you are removing from
the atom.

Trend between atomic radius and ionization energy:

So, if the atomic radius is small, the electron "feels" stronger pull from the positive nucleus, thus
that electron is harder to pull off.

Predicting ionic (nuclear) charge:

-Group 1: 1+

-Group 2: 2+

-Group 13: 3+

-Group 14: 4+ (but in some cases -)

-Group 15: 3-

-Group 16: 2-

-Group 17: 1-

3.3 Ionic Bonding and Nomenclature

Ionic Compound Composition- They are composed of anions and cations. Charges must balance
out to 0.
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Salt- is any metal combining with a non-metal. E.g. KF2 (potassium fluoride).

Halide salt- metal combined with a halogen

Polyatomic vs. Monatomic

-A monatomic ion has only one atom examples are chloride, Cl-, fluoride, F-, sodium Na+

-A polyatomic ion has more than one, e.g sulfate SO42-, nitrate, NO3-, mercurous, Hg22+

Latin and stock nomenclature?!?!!!?

3.4 Covalent Bonding and Nomenclature

Diatomic elements- double of the same element in a compound

Ex. H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, I2, Br2

Sometimes in covalent bonding, the octet rule will not be followed and there will be a stable
electron configuration with less than 8 electrons.

3.5 Miscellaneous Bonding Concepts

Empirical Formula- The most simplified whole number ratio of the elements in a compound

VS.

Molecular Formula- the original number of elements in a compound

Binary compound- a compound consisting of 2 different elements

Covalent Bonding- Bonding between 2 non metals and the bonding is equally shared.

VS.

Ionic Compound- is a bond between metal and non metal

Difference in electro negativity

(non polar-balance distribution of electrical charge)

0-0.3=non polar covalent bond


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0.3-1.7= polar covalent bond

1.7-4.0=ionic bond

Metallic Bonding-