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GIKPKC7 94107 Mechanical Interactions I Page 1

Introduction
30/4/98
Terms:
Momentum The tendency of an object to continue motion in a straight line.
Isolated System No other Forces acting
Conservation Unchanged
Work When a Force moves its points of application
Energy The ability to do work
Power The rate at which work is done
Elastic Keeps the original form after collision
Inelastic Changes original form after collision
Kinetic Energy Energy of a moving object
Coalesces Stick together
Retard Slow down
Impulse Change in momentum

Momentum:
 
Equation: P  m .v
 1
P = Momentum (N.s or kg.m.s )
m = Mass (kg)

v = Velocity (m.s1)

Conservation of Momentum
 Momentum before = Momentum after
   
Equation: m 1 .u1  m 2 .u 2  ...  m 1 .v 1  m 2 .v 2  ...
m1 = 1st mass (kg)
m2 = 2nd mass (kg)

u1 = 1st mass’s initial velocity (m.s1)

u 2 = 2nd mass’s initial velocity (m.s1)

v1 = 1st mass’s final velocity (m.s1)

v 2 = 2nd mass’s final velocity (m.s1)

Impulse:
 The area under a Force-Time graph equals Impulse.
  
Equation: F .t  P2  P1

F = Force (N) Impulse (N.s or kg.m.s1)
t = Time (s)

P1 = Initial momentum (m.s )
1

P2 = Final momentum (m.s )
1

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GIKPKC7 94107 Mechanical Interactions I Page 2

Energy:
Types of Energy -Kinetic (Motion) -Heat Electromagnetic
-Sound -Light
-Chemical
-Electrical
-Nuclear
-Mechanical

 The area under a Force-Displacement graph equals the work done.


Equation: W = F.s
W = Work (J or N.m or kg.m2.s-2)
F = Force (N)
s = Displacement (m)

Equation: WGPE = m.g.h


WGPE = Gravitational potential energy (J or N.m or kg.m2.s-2)
m = Mass (kg)
g = Gravity (m.s-2)
h = Vertical height (m)

Formula: WKE = ½.m.v2


WKE = Kinetic energy (J or N.m or kg.m2.s-2)
m = Mass (kg)
v = Velocity (m.s-1)

Equation: WKE + WGPE = Constant


WKE = Kinetic energy (J or N.m or kg.m2.s-2)
WGPE = Gravitational potential energy (J or N.m or kg.m2.s-2)

Power:
W
Equation: P=
t
P = Power (W or J.s1 or N.m.s1 or kg.m2.s3)
W = Work (J)
t = Time (s)

W Out
Equation: E=  100
W In
E = Efficiency of a machine (%)
WOut = Useful energy out (J)
WIn = Energy in (J)
Collisions
6/5/98
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GIKPKC7 94107 Mechanical Interactions I Page 3

Elastic Collisions:
 Objects remain the same shape, size, etc after collision
 Momentum conserved
 
 PBefore = PAfter
 Kinetic Energy conserved
 WKE Before = WKE After
 Because momentum and kinetic energy are conserved you can find the two
unknowns by using simultaneous equations.
Therefore use the equations:
   
m1. u1 + m2. u 2 = m1. v1 + m2. v 2
½.m1.u12 + ½.m2.u22 = ½.m1.v12 + ½.m2.v22

Inelastic Collisions:
 After collision objects coalesces.
 Momentum conserved
 
 PBefore = PAfter
 Kinetic energy is not conserved (WKE is lost to deform the object)
 WKE Before > WKE After
Therefore use the equation:
  
m1. u1 + m2. u 2 = (m1 + m2). v
Then to find the WKE lost use the equation:
WKE Lost = WKE Before – WKE After

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