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Introduction

30/4/98

Terms:

Momentum The tendency of an object to continue motion in a straight line.

Isolated System No other Forces acting

Conservation Unchanged

Work When a Force moves its points of application

Energy The ability to do work

Power The rate at which work is done

Elastic Keeps the original form after collision

Inelastic Changes original form after collision

Kinetic Energy Energy of a moving object

Coalesces Stick together

Retard Slow down

Impulse Change in momentum

Momentum:

Equation: P m .v

1

P = Momentum (N.s or kg.m.s )

m = Mass (kg)

v = Velocity (m.s1)

Conservation of Momentum

Momentum before = Momentum after

Equation: m 1 .u1 m 2 .u 2 ... m 1 .v 1 m 2 .v 2 ...

m1 = 1st mass (kg)

m2 = 2nd mass (kg)

u1 = 1st mass’s initial velocity (m.s1)

u 2 = 2nd mass’s initial velocity (m.s1)

v1 = 1st mass’s final velocity (m.s1)

v 2 = 2nd mass’s final velocity (m.s1)

Impulse:

The area under a Force-Time graph equals Impulse.

Equation: F .t P2 P1

F = Force (N) Impulse (N.s or kg.m.s1)

t = Time (s)

P1 = Initial momentum (m.s )

1

P2 = Final momentum (m.s )

1

GIKPKC7 94107 Mechanical Interactions I Page 2

Energy:

Types of Energy -Kinetic (Motion) -Heat Electromagnetic

-Sound -Light

-Chemical

-Electrical

-Nuclear

-Mechanical

Equation: W = F.s

W = Work (J or N.m or kg.m2.s-2)

F = Force (N)

s = Displacement (m)

WGPE = Gravitational potential energy (J or N.m or kg.m2.s-2)

m = Mass (kg)

g = Gravity (m.s-2)

h = Vertical height (m)

WKE = Kinetic energy (J or N.m or kg.m2.s-2)

m = Mass (kg)

v = Velocity (m.s-1)

WKE = Kinetic energy (J or N.m or kg.m2.s-2)

WGPE = Gravitational potential energy (J or N.m or kg.m2.s-2)

Power:

W

Equation: P=

t

P = Power (W or J.s1 or N.m.s1 or kg.m2.s3)

W = Work (J)

t = Time (s)

W Out

Equation: E= 100

W In

E = Efficiency of a machine (%)

WOut = Useful energy out (J)

WIn = Energy in (J)

Collisions

6/5/98

Luke Cole Page 2

GIKPKC7 94107 Mechanical Interactions I Page 3

Elastic Collisions:

Objects remain the same shape, size, etc after collision

Momentum conserved

PBefore = PAfter

Kinetic Energy conserved

WKE Before = WKE After

Because momentum and kinetic energy are conserved you can find the two

unknowns by using simultaneous equations.

Therefore use the equations:

m1. u1 + m2. u 2 = m1. v1 + m2. v 2

½.m1.u12 + ½.m2.u22 = ½.m1.v12 + ½.m2.v22

Inelastic Collisions:

After collision objects coalesces.

Momentum conserved

PBefore = PAfter

Kinetic energy is not conserved (WKE is lost to deform the object)

WKE Before > WKE After

Therefore use the equation:

m1. u1 + m2. u 2 = (m1 + m2). v

Then to find the WKE lost use the equation:

WKE Lost = WKE Before – WKE After

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